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Sample records for adult equivalent loss

  1. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  2. [Hearing loss in adults].

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Adrien A; Frachet, Bruno; Van De Water, Tom R; Eter, Elias

    2009-05-20

    The management of hearing loss in adults depends of etiology and its severity. It can be as simple as treating an external otitis, removing an impacted cerumen or a more complex one such as a surgery for otosclerosis. The hearing loss is managed mainly by new advances in hearing aids technology and implantable hearing devices which include BAHA, middle ear implant and cochlear implants. The research is focused on developing new molecules for intracochlear drug therapy to treat noise induced hearing loss, drug ototoxicity as well as hearing loss related to cochlear implant insertion trauma. Antioxidant molecules, molecules against apoptosis are at this time the most promising molecules than need further investigations.

  3. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.

  4. 20 CFR 416.926 - Medical equivalence for adults and children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical equivalence for adults and children. 416.926 Section 416.926 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... § 416.926 Medical equivalence for adults and children. (a) What is medical equivalence? Your...

  5. 20 CFR 416.926 - Medical equivalence for adults and children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical equivalence for adults and children. 416.926 Section 416.926 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... § 416.926 Medical equivalence for adults and children. (a) What is medical equivalence? Your...

  6. 20 CFR 416.926 - Medical equivalence for adults and children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical equivalence for adults and children. 416.926 Section 416.926 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... § 416.926 Medical equivalence for adults and children. (a) What is medical equivalence? Your...

  7. 20 CFR 416.926 - Medical equivalence for adults and children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical equivalence for adults and children. 416.926 Section 416.926 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... § 416.926 Medical equivalence for adults and children. (a) What is medical equivalence? Your...

  8. 20 CFR 416.926 - Medical equivalence for adults and children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical equivalence for adults and children. 416.926 Section 416.926 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... § 416.926 Medical equivalence for adults and children. (a) What is medical equivalence? Your...

  9. Diagonal Mesh Equivalent (DME) for the calculation of the hysteresis losses in electrical machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergura, S.; Carpentieri, M.; Lattarulo, F.

    2014-02-01

    The Magnetic Equivalent Circuits (MECs) technique is a powerful tool for machine analysis and power losses computation. Here, use is made of the Diagonal Mesh Equivalent (DME) to solve the equivalent electrical circuit for the branch fluxes to be easily computed and related to the machine compartments of technical interest. These are represented by the air gap, stator and rotor to name a few. Hysteresis loops have been computed, along with the static power losses, for assigned stator thicknesses and compared to ones alternatively obtained by the Modified Scalar Preisach Model. This study is especially aimed at giving improved issues to those who are engaged in the design of magnetic components for electrical machines.

  10. Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Statistics and Epidemiology Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss [text version] Note: ... displays time trends in the use of hearing aids for adults (20–69 years) and older adults ( ...

  11. Loss Current Analysis of Water Tree Degradation in Polyethylene using Equivalent Circuit Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masafumi; Itoh, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Noboru

    It is well known that the degradation of XLPE cable by water tree gives rise to harmonics in the loss current. Many researches by simulation and experiment have been carried out for the purpose of the elucidation of the mechanism of the harmonics in the loss current generation. In the present study, the loss current was calculated from the equivalent circuit model composed of voltage-dependent resistance and condenser. These elements are being connected with the matrix state. As a result, we were able to obtain the good agreement between the experimental value and the calculated value by appropriately choosing the characteristics of the voltage-dependent resistance. The equivalent circuit model determined in this study can consider not only the electrical characteristic of water tree but also its shape.

  12. Superior appetite hormone profile after equivalent weight loss by gastric bypass compared to gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Bose, Mousumi; Machineni, Sriram; Oliván, Blanca; Teixeira, Julio; McGinty, James J; Bawa, Baani; Koshy, Ninan; Colarusso, Antonia; Laferrère, Blandine

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms of greater weight loss by gastric bypass (GBP) compared to gastric banding (GB) surgery. Obese weight- and age-matched subjects were studied before (T0), after a 12 kg weight loss (T1) by GBP (n = 11) or GB (n = 9), and at 1 year after surgery (T2). peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), leptin, and amylin were measured after an oral glucose challenge. At T1, glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and PYY levels increased significantly after GBP but not GB. Ghrelin levels did not change significantly after either surgery. In spite of equivalent weight loss, leptin and amylin decreased after GBP, but not after GB. At T2, weight loss was greater after GBP than GB (P = 0.003). GLP-1, PYY, and amylin levels did not significantly change from T1 to T2; leptin levels continued to decrease after GBP, but not after GB at T2. Surprisingly, ghrelin area under the curve (AUC) increased 1 year after GBP (P = 0.03). These data show that, at equivalent weight loss, favorable GLP-1 and PYY changes occur after GBP, but not GB, and could explain the difference in weight loss at 1 year. Mechanisms other than weight loss may explain changes of leptin and amylin after GBP.

  13. Superior appetite hormone profile after equivalent weight loss by gastric bypass compared to gastric banding

    PubMed Central

    Bose, M.; Machineni, S.; Oliván, B.; Teixeira, J.; McGinty, J.J.; Bawa, B.; Koshy, N.; Colarusso, A.; Laferrère, B.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms of greater weight loss by gastric bypass (GBP) compared to gastric banding (GB) surgery. Obese weight- and age-matched subjects were studied before (T0), after a 12 kg weight loss (T1) by GBP (n=11) or GB (n=9), and at 1 year after surgery (T2). PYY3-36, ghrelin, GLP-1, leptin, and amylin were measured after an oral glucose challenge. At T1, glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and PYY levels increased significantly after GBP but not GB. Ghrelin levels did not change significantly after either surgery. In spite of equivalent weight loss, leptin and amylin decreased after GBP, but not after GB. At T2, weight loss was greater after GBP than GB (p=0.003). GLP-1, PYY, and amylin levels did not significantly change from T1 to T2; leptin levels continued to decrease after GBP, but not after GB at T2. Surprisingly, ghrelin AUC increased 1 year after GBP (p=0.03). These data show that, at equivalent weight loss, favorable GLP-1 and PYY changes occur after GBP, but not GB, and could explain the difference in weight loss at 1 year. Mechanisms other than weight loss may explain changes of leptin and amylin after GBP. PMID:20057364

  14. The Personal Wellbeing Index: Psychometric Equivalence for Adults and School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomyn, Adrian J.; Tyszkiewicz, Matthew D. Fuller; Cummins, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the wealth of accumulated research evaluating subjective wellbeing (SWB) in children and adults, the validity of scores from parallel forms of SWB measures for each age group has yet to be empirically tested. This study examines the psychometric equivalence of the child and adult forms of the personal wellbeing index (PWI) using…

  15. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  16. Functional Equivalence of Sleep Loss and Time on Task Effects in Sustained Attention.

    PubMed

    Veksler, Bella Z; Gunzelmann, Glenn

    2017-03-22

    Research on sleep loss and vigilance both focus on declines in cognitive performance, but theoretical accounts have developed largely in parallel in these two areas. In addition, computational instantiations of theoretical accounts are rare. The current work uses computational modeling to explore whether the same mechanisms can account for the effects of both sleep loss and time on task on performance. A classic task used in the sleep deprivation literature, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), was extended from the typical 10-min duration to 35 min, to make the task similar in duration to traditional vigilance tasks. A computational cognitive model demonstrated that the effects of time on task in the PVT were equivalent to those observed with sleep loss. Subsequently, the same mechanisms were applied to a more traditional vigilance task-the Mackworth Clock Task-providing a good fit to existing data. This supports the hypothesis that these different types of fatigue may produce functionally equivalent declines in performance.

  17. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men. PMID:28035289

  18. Personal Sound Amplifiers for Adults with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Sara K; Reed, Nicholas S; Nieman, Carrie L; Oh, Esther S; Lin, Frank R

    2016-03-01

    Age-related hearing loss is highly prevalent and often untreated. Use of hearing aids has been associated with improvements in communication and quality of life, but such treatment is unaffordable or inaccessible for many adults. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guide for physicians who work with older adults who are experiencing hearing and communication difficulties. Specifically, we review direct-to-consumer amplification products that can be used to address hearing loss in adults. Helping adults with hearing loss navigate hearing loss treatment options ranging from being professionally fitted with hearing aids to using direct-to-consumer amplification options is important for primary care clinicians to understand given our increasing understanding of the impact of hearing loss on cognitive, social, and physical functioning.

  19. Personal Sound Amplifiers for Adults with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Sara K.; Reed, Nicholas S.; Nieman, Carrie L.; Oh, Esther S.; Lin, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss is highly prevalent and often untreated. Use of hearing aids has been associated with improvements in communication and quality of life, but such treatment is unaffordable and/or inaccessible for many adults. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guide for physicians who work with older adults who are experiencing hearing and communication difficulties. Specifically, we review direct-to-consumer amplification products that can be used to address hearing loss in adults. Helping adults with hearing loss navigate hearing loss treatment options ranging from being professionally fit with hearing aids to using direct-to-consumer amplification options is important for primary care clinicians to understand given our increasing understanding of the impact of hearing loss on cognitive, social, and physical functioning. PMID:26498713

  20. Associating ecosystem service losses with indicators of toxicity in habitat equivalency analysis.

    PubMed

    Cacela, Dave; Lipton, Joshua; Beltman, Douglas; Hansen, James; Wolotira, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Habitat equivalency analysis (HEA) was developed as a tool to scale mitigation or restoration when habitat is contaminated by hazardous substances or has been otherwise harmed by anthropogenic activities. Applying HEA involves balancing reductions in habitat quality against gains from restoration actions, and quantifying changes in habitat quality in terms of ecological services. We propose a framework for developing ecological service definitions and measures that incorporate knowledge about the impacts of chemical contaminants on biota. We describe a general model for integrating multiple lines of evidence about the toxicity of hazardous substances to allow mapping of toxicological inputs to ecological service losses. We provide an example of how this framework might be used in a HEA that quantifies ecological services provided by estuarine sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Do losses loom larger for children than adults?

    PubMed

    Luking, Katherine R; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 70) and young adults (N = 70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale, along with 2 probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio et al. (2015), which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias toward responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach, and avoidance behavior, respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups; however, children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower RTs specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward.

  2. Toward the equivalence of the HIT and HIT 25 in community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Francis, J R

    1991-06-01

    In a study by the first author wherein 102 community-residing older adults were administered the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT), data collected were analyzed regarding the equivalence of the HIT and the HIT 25. Although alpha coefficients and split-half correlations were low when single-response-per-card data were analyzed, corrected Spearman-Brown coefficients were more supportive of the use of the HIT 25 with older adults. These data suggest that although a shortened form of the HIT may be useful with aged persons, research exploring the substantive bases for creating a shortened version of the HIT is nevertheless necessary.

  3. Hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Alice

    2004-05-01

    Little attention has been paid to hearing abilities and the effects of noise on the normal adolescent and young adult population. A series of studies will be presented on the prevalence of hearing loss and reported effects of hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Adolescents and young adults from different backgrounds may tend to seek or avoid various noise environments that could be detrimental to their hearing and cause tinnitus. Attitudes and exposures to noise environments were evaluated to see if these may be correlated with their hearing losses and/or tinnitus. In addition, these adolescent and young adult subjects reported how often they used hearing protection in various noise environments. Finally, the issues of quality of life and the need for hearing conservation programs with these populations will be presented.

  4. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  5. Recessions, Job Loss, and Mortality Among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beckfield, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed how recessions and job loss jointly shape mortality risks among older US adults. Methods. We used data for 50 states from the Health and Retirement Study and selected individuals who were employed at ages 45 to 66 years during 1992 to 2011. We assessed whether job loss affects mortality risks, whether recessions moderate the effect of job loss on mortality, and whether individuals who do and do not experience job loss are differentially affected by recessions. Results. Compared with individuals not experiencing job loss, mortality risks among individuals losing their job in a recession were strongly elevated (hazard ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 2.3). Job loss during normal times or booms is not associated with mortality. For employed workers, we found a reduction in mortality risks if local labor market conditions were depressed, but this result was not consistent across different model specifications. Conclusions. Recessions increase mortality risks among older US adults who experience job loss. Health professionals and policymakers should target resources to this group during recessions. Future research should clarify which health conditions are affected by job loss during recessions and whether access to health care following job loss moderates this relation. PMID:25211731

  6. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

  7. Changed crossmodal functional connectivity in older adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Thiel, Christiane M

    2017-01-01

    Previous work compellingly demonstrates a crossmodal plastic reorganization of auditory cortex in deaf individuals, leading to increased neural responses to non-auditory sensory input. Recent data indicate that crossmodal adaptive plasticity is not restricted to severe hearing impairments, but may also occur as a result of high-frequency hearing loss in older adults and affect audiovisual processing in these subjects. We here used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the effect of hearing loss in older adults on auditory cortex response patterns as well as on functional connectivity between auditory and visual cortex during audiovisual processing. Older participants with a varying degree of high frequency hearing loss performed an auditory stimulus categorization task, in which they had to categorize frequency-modulated (FM) tones presented alone or in the context of matching or non-matching visual motion. A motion only condition served as control for a visual take-over of auditory cortex. While the individual hearing status did not affect auditory cortex responses to auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli, we observed a significant hearing loss-related increase in functional connectivity between auditory cortex and the right motion-sensitive visual area MT+ when processing matching audiovisual input. Hearing loss also modulated resting state connectivity between right area MT+ and parts of the left auditory cortex, suggesting the existence of permanent, task-independent changes in coupling between visual and auditory sensory areas with an increasing degree of hearing loss. Our data thus indicate that hearing loss impacts on functional connectivity between sensory cortices in older adults.

  8. Money, well-being, and loss aversion: does an income loss have a greater effect on well-being than an equivalent income gain?

    PubMed

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Banks, James; Clark, Andrew E; Brown, Gordon D A

    2013-12-01

    Higher income is associated with greater well-being, but do income gains and losses affect well-being differently? Loss aversion, whereby losses loom larger than gains, is typically examined in relation to decisions about anticipated outcomes. Here, using subjective-well-being data from Germany (N = 28,723) and the United Kingdom (N = 20,570), we found that losses in income have a larger effect on well-being than equivalent income gains and that this effect is not explained by diminishing marginal benefits of income to well-being. Our findings show that loss aversion applies to experienced losses, challenging suggestions that loss aversion is only an affective-forecasting error. By failing to account for loss aversion, longitudinal studies of the relationship between income and well-being may have overestimated the positive effect of income on well-being. Moreover, societal well-being might best be served by small and stable income increases, even if such stability impairs long-term income growth.

  9. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell model for aging predictions: Simulated equivalent active surface area loss and comparisons with durability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C.; Gérard, M.; Quinaud, M.; d'Arbigny, J.; Bultel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) lifetime is one of the major challenges to optimize both material properties and dynamic control of the fuel cell system. In this study, by a multiscale modeling approach, a mechanistic catalyst dissolution model is coupled to a dynamic PEMFC cell model to predict the performance loss of the PEMFC. Results are compared to two 2000-h experimental aging tests. More precisely, an original approach is introduced to estimate the loss of an equivalent active surface area during an aging test. Indeed, when the computed Electrochemical Catalyst Surface Area profile is fitted on the experimental measures from Cyclic Voltammetry, the computed performance loss of the PEMFC is underestimated. To be able to predict the performance loss measured by polarization curves during the aging test, an equivalent active surface area is obtained by a model inversion. This methodology enables to successfully find back the experimental cell voltage decay during time. The model parameters are fitted from the polarization curves so that they include the global degradation. Moreover, the model captures the aging heterogeneities along the surface of the cell observed experimentally. Finally, a second 2000-h durability test in dynamic operating conditions validates the approach.

  10. Contour Enhancement Benefits Older Adults with Simulated Central Field Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, MiYoung; Ramachandra, Chaithanya; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Mel, Bartlett W.; Peli, Eli; Tjan, Bosco S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among Americans over the age of 65. Currently, no effective treatment can reverse the central vision loss associated with most AMD. Digital image-processing techniques have been developed to improve image visibility for peripheral vision; however, both the selection and efficacy of such methods are limited. Progress has been difficult for two reasons: the exact nature of image enhancement that might benefit peripheral vision is not well understood, and efficient methods for testing such techniques have been elusive. The current study aims to develop both an effective image-enhancement technique for peripheral vision and an efficient means for validating the technique. Methods We used a novel contour detection algorithm to locate shape-defining edges in images based on natural-image statistics. We then enhanced the scene by locally boosting the luminance contrast along such contours. Using a gaze-contingent display, we simulated central visual field loss in normally-sighted young (ages 18–30) and older adults (ages 58–88). Visual search performance was measured as a function of contour enhancement strength ("Original" (unenhanced), "Medium", and "High"). For preference task, a separate group of subjects judged which image in a pair "would lead to better search performance". Results We found that while contour enhancement had no significant effect on search time and accuracy in young adults, Medium enhancement resulted in significantly shorter search time in older adults (~13% reduction relative to Original). Both age groups preferred images with Medium enhancement over Original (2 to 7 times). Furthermore, across age groups, image content types and enhancement strengths, there was a robust correlation between preference and performance. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a beneficial role of contour enhancement in peripheral vision for older adults. Our findings further suggest

  11. Options for Auditory Training for Adults with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Anne D.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing aid devices alone do not adequately compensate for sensory losses despite significant technological advances in digital technology. Overall use rates of amplification among adults with hearing loss remain low, and overall satisfaction and performance in noise can be improved. Although improved technology may partially address some listening problems, auditory training may be another alternative to improve speech recognition in noise and satisfaction with devices. The literature underlying auditory plasticity following placement of sensory devices suggests that additional auditory training may be needed for reorganization of the brain to occur. Furthermore, training may be required to acquire optimal performance from devices. Several auditory training programs that are readily accessible for adults with hearing loss, hearing aids, or cochlear implants are described. Programs that can be accessed via Web-based formats and smartphone technology are reviewed. A summary table is provided for easy access to programs with descriptions of features that allow hearing health care providers to assist clients in selecting the most appropriate auditory training program to fit their needs. PMID:27587915

  12. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  13. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  14. Cingulo-Opercular Function during Word Recognition in Noise for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Vaden, Kenneth I.; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Dubno, Judy R.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adaptive control, reflected by elevated activity in cingulo-opercular brain regions, optimizes performance in challenging tasks by monitoring outcomes and adjusting behavior. For example, cingulo-opercular function benefits trial-level word recognition in noise for normal hearing adults. Because auditory system deficits may limit the communicative benefit from adaptive control, we examined the extent to which cingulo-opercular engagement supports word recognition in noise for older adults with hearing loss (HL). Methods Participants were selected to form groups with Less HL (N = 12; PTA = 19.2 ± 4.8 dB HL) and More HL (N = 12; mean pure tone thresholds, PTA = 38.4 ± 4.5 dB HL, 0.25 to 8 kHz, both ears). A word recognition task was performed with words presented in multi-talker babble at +3 or +10 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) during a sparse acquisition fMRI experiment. The participants were middle-aged and older (ages: 64.1 ± 8.4 years) English speakers with no history of neurological or psychiatric diagnoses. Results Elevated cingulo-opercular activity occurred with increased likelihood of correct word recognition on the next trial (t(23) = 3.28, p = 0.003) and this association did not differ between hearing loss groups. During trials with word recognition errors, the More HL group exhibited higher Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in occipital and parietal regions compared to the Less HL group. Across listeners, more pronounced cingulo-opercular activity during recognition errors was associated with better overall word recognition performance. Conclusion The trial-level word recognition benefit from cingulo-opercular activity was equivalent for both hearing loss groups. When speech audibility and performance levels are similar for older adults with mild to moderate hearing loss, cingulo-opercular adaptive control contributes to word recognition in noise. PMID:26683042

  15. Association between underweight and tooth loss among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in the relationship between body mass index and oral health. Previous study showed that being underweight was significantly associated with having lower masticatory performance. This study was performed to assess the relationship between an underweight body mass index lower than 18.5 and the number of natural teeth using nationally representative data. Initially, a total of 25,534 individuals were candidates in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The analysis in this study was confined to 17,870 subjects who were 19 years or older and without missing values for outcome variables. Body mass index and number of natural teeth were evaluated. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of tooth loss in relation to body mass index. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals for chewing discomfort in individuals who were underweight, normal, overweight, obese, and extremely obese were 1.712(1.156–2.535), 1.111(0.939–1.315), 1(reference), 0.949(0.798–1.128), and 1.172(0.807–1.700), respectively, after adjustment. The association between underweight and tooth loss was proven by multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding factors. Underweight may be considered a potential risk indicator for tooth loss in Korean adults. PMID:28128349

  16. Assessing residual vestibular function in adults with congenital hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2016-12-01

    This study adopted an inner ear test battery in adults with congenital hearing loss to assess residual vestibular function. Thirty patients with non-inherited non-syndromatic congenital hearing loss were assigned to two groups based on their pure tone average (PTA). Subjects in Group A (n = 10) had PTA >90 dB, and those with PTA ≤90 dB were assigned to Group B (n = 20). All patients underwent audiometry, and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), cervical VEMP (cVEMP) and caloric tests. Percentages of abnormal PTA, and cVEMP, oVEMP, and caloric test results showed a significantly sequential decline in inner ear deficits from the cochlea to the saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals. Group A had significantly higher percentages of absent oVEMP and caloric areflexia than Group B. Via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff value of PTA was 65 dB for discriminating between present and absent oVEMP/caloric responses, with a sensitivity of 71 % and a specificity of 88 %. In conclusion, congenitally deaf patients with PTA ≥65 dB may retain less vestibular function than those with PTA <65 dB, as evidenced by higher percentages of absent oVEMP and caloric areflexia. Hence, comprehensive assessment of the residual vestibular function in congenitally deaf patients may help predict the occurrence of vertigo in the future.

  17. The Equivalence of Dissipation from Gibbs’ Entropy Production with Phase-Volume Loss in Ergodic Heat-Conducting Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Puneet Kumar; Hoover, William Graham; Hoover, Carol Griswold; Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Gibbs’ thermodynamic entropy is given by the logarithm of the phase volume, which itself responds to heat transfer to and from thermal reservoirs. We compare the thermodynamic dissipation described by (i) phase-volume loss with (ii) heat-transfer entropy production. Their equivalence is documented for computer simulations of the response of an ergodic harmonic oscillator to thermostated temperature gradients. In the simulations one or two thermostat variables control the kinetic energy or the kinetic energy and its fluctuation. All of the motion equations are time-reversible. We consider both strong and weak control variables. In every case, the time-averaged dissipative loss of phase-space volume coincides with the entropy produced by heat transfer. Linear-response theory nicely reproduces the small-gradient results obtained by computer simulation. The thermostats considered here are ergodic and provide simple dynamical models, some of them with as few as three ordinary differential equations, while remaining capable of reproducing Gibbs’ canonical phase-space distribution and are precisely consistent with irreversible thermodynamics.

  18. Effects of strength vs aerobic exercise on pain severity in adults with fibromyalgia: a randomized equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Qu, Wenchun; Townsend, Cynthia O; Judd, Jeffrey W

    2012-04-01

    Strength training and aerobic exercise have beneficial effects on pain in adults with fibromyalgia. However, the equivalence of strengthening and aerobic exercise has not been reported. The primary aim of this randomized equivalence trial involving patients with fibromyalgia admitted to an interdisciplinary pain treatment program was to test the hypothesis that strengthening (n=36) and aerobic (n=36) exercise have equivalent effects (95% confidence interval within an equivalence margin ± 8) on pain, as measured by the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Secondary aims included determining the effects of strengthening and aerobic exercise on peak Vo(2) uptake, leg strength, and pressure pain thresholds. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the mean (± standard deviation) pain severity scores for the strength and aerobic groups at study completion were 34.4 ± 11.5 and 37.6 ± 11.9, respectively. The group difference was -3.2 (95% confidence interval, -8.7 to 2.3), which was within the equivalence margin of Δ8. Significant improvements in pain severity (P<.001), peak Vo(2) (P<.001), strength (P<.001), and pain thresholds (P<.001) were observed from baseline to week 3 in the intent-to-treat analysis; however, patients in the aerobic group (mean change 2.0 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min) experienced greater gains (P<.013) in peak Vo(2) compared to the strength group (mean change 0.4 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min). Knowledge of the equivalence and physiological effects of exercise have important clinical implications that could allow practitioners to target exercise recommendations on the basis of comorbid medical conditions or patient preference for a particular type of exercise. This study found that strength and aerobic exercise had equivalent effects on reducing pain severity among patients with fibromyalgia.

  19. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  20. Behavioral Weight Loss and Physical Activity Intervention in Obese Adults with Asthma. A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Strub, Peg; Xiao, Lan; Lavori, Philip W.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Buist, A. Sonia; Haskell, William L.; Lv, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The effect of weight loss on asthma in obese adults warrants rigorous investigation. Objectives: To examine an evidence-based, practical, and comprehensive lifestyle intervention targeting modest weight loss and increased physical activity for asthma control. Methods: The trial randomized 330 obese adults with uncontrolled asthma to receive usual care enhanced with a pedometer, a weight scale, information about existing weight management services at the participating clinics, and an asthma education DVD, or with these tools plus the 12-month intervention. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was change in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores from baseline to 12 months. Participants (mean [SD] age, 47.6 [12.4] yr) were 70.6% women, 20.0% non-Hispanic black, 20.3% Hispanic/Latino, and 8.2% Asian/Pacific Islander. At baseline, they were obese (mean [SD] body mass index, 37.5 [5.9] kg/m2) and had uncontrolled asthma (Asthma Control Test score, 15.1 [3.8]). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants achieved significantly greater mean weight loss (±SE) (intervention, −4.0 ± 0.8 kg vs. control, −2.1 ± 0.8 kg; P = 0.01) and increased leisure-time activity (intervention, 418.2 ± 110.6 metabolic equivalent task–min/wk vs. control, 178.8 ± 109.1 metabolic equivalent task–min/wk; P = 0.05) at 12 months. But between-treatment mean (±SE) differences were not significant for ACQ changes (intervention, –0.3 ± 0.1 vs. control, –0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.92) from baseline (mean [SD], 1.4 [0.8]), nor for any other clinical asthma outcomes (e.g., spirometric results and asthma exacerbations). Among all participants regardless of treatment assignment, weight loss of 10% or greater was associated with a Cohen d effect of 0.76 and with 3.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.72–8.31) times the odds of achieving clinically significant reductions (i.e., ≥0.5) on ACQ as stable weight (<3% loss or gain from

  1. Evidence-based practice: management of adult sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chau, Justin K; Cho, John J W; Fritz, Dieter K

    2012-10-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a complex disease state influenced by genetics, age, noise, and many other factors. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding the causes of sensorineural hearing loss and reviews the more challenging clinical presentations of sensorineural hearing loss. We have reviewed the latest medical literature in an attempt to provide an evidence-based strategy for the assessment and management of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, rapidly progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and asymmetric/unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

  2. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  3. Screening, prevention and management of osteoporosis and bone loss in adult and pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    McClune, B L; Polgreen, L E; Burmeister, L A; Blaes, A H; Mulrooney, D A; Burns, L J; Majhail, N S

    2011-01-01

    Long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and subsequent osteoporosis. There is a lack of clear guidelines for the screening, prevention and treatment of bone loss after HCT. We reviewed the prevailing literature and provide guidelines developed by our center for the screening and management of this complication. Bone loss occurs predominantly within the first 6-12 months after autologous and allogeneic HCT. Recovery first occurs in the lumbar spine and is followed by a slower recovery of BMD in the femoral neck. BMD may not return to baseline levels in patients with continuing exposure to corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. All HCT recipients should be advised general interventions to reduce fracture risk including adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. We recommend screening all adult allogeneic and autologous HCT recipients with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 1 year after transplantation. Patients at high risk for bone loss (for example, patients receiving ≥ 5 mg of prednisone equivalent daily for > 3 months) can be screened earlier (for example, 3-6 months after HCT). Where indicated, bisphosphonates or other anti-resorptive agents (for example, calcitonin) can be used for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis in adult HCT recipients. Pediatric HCT recipients should be referred to a pediatric endocrinologist for evaluation and treatment of bone loss. There remain several areas of uncertainty that need further research in adult and pediatric HCT recipients, such as the optimal timing and frequency of screening for loss of bone mineral density, relationship of bone loss with risk of fractures, selection of appropriate patients for pharmacologic therapy, and optimal dosing schedule and duration of therapy with anti-resorptive agents.

  4. Relationship between Diagnostic Criteria, Depressive Equivalents and Diagnosis of Depression among Older Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, L.; Martin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Depression is more common among persons with an intellectual disability (ID) than the general population, and may be expected to increase with age just as in the general population. However, little is known about depression among older adults with ID. The literature has questioned the use of standard diagnostic criteria for depression…

  5. Dichotic listening in adults with sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Roeser, R J; Johns, D F; Price, L L

    1976-01-01

    Digits and consonant-vowel (CV) nonsense syllables were presented dichotically to 36 normal-hearing subjects and 36 subjects with bilaterally symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. The normal-hearing subjects performed significantly better in the recall of both digits and CV nonsense syllables, and recall decreased significantly as the degree of hearing loss increased. The expected right ear advantage was observed for the normal-hearing subjects on both tests. As a group, the hearing-loss subjects showed no significant ear preference, and ear preference did not vary significantly with the degree of hearing loss. However, individual hearing-loss subjects showed marked ear asymmetry for the dichotic digits. For both dichotic tests, individual ear preference increased as the degree of hearing loss increased. Significant but low correlations were observed between better ear speech discrimination scores for the hearing-loss subjects and the preferred ear for dichotic CV nonsense syllables.

  6. Keeping Older Adults with Vision Loss Safe: Chronic Conditions and Comorbidities that Influence Functional Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddering, Anne T.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans aged 60 and older. The loss of central vision from AMD can decrease visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, color discrimination, and the ability to adapt to changes in lighting conditions. Older adults with vision loss often have other chronic,…

  7. The Greatest Generation Meets Its Greatest Challenge: Vision Loss and Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Coleen

    2005-01-01

    Having lived through the Great Depression and World War II, older adults now face the challenge of vision loss in record numbers. Depression is closely associated with functional loss and social isolation in late-life vision loss. The principles of assisting those who are aging will also benefit those who are aging with a visual impairment. They…

  8. Transitions and Loss: Illuminating Parameters of Young Adults' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita; Scanlon, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Different disciplinary groups are increasingly questioning current conceptualisations of young adults' educational, social and personal lives after compulsory schooling. New perspectives are being advanced on the life trajectories of choice and complexity now experienced by school leavers. A consistent theme is the changed nature of young adults'…

  9. Transient Hearing Loss in Adults Associated with Zika Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Vinhaes, Eriko S; Santos, Luciane A; Dias, Lislane; Andrade, Nilvano A; Bezerra, Victor H; de Carvalho, Anderson T; de Moraes, Laise; Henriques, Daniele F; Azar, Sasha R; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ko, Albert I; Andrade, Bruno B; Siqueira, Isadora C; Khouri, Ricardo; Boaventura, Viviane S

    2016-12-07

    In 2015, during the outbreak of ZIKAV in Brazil, we identified three cases of acute hearing loss after exanthematous illness. Serology yielded finding compatible with ZIKAV as the cause of a confirmed (1patient) and a probable (2 patients) flavivirus infection, indicating an association between ZIKAV infection and transient hearing loss.

  10. Measurement equivalence of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth between black and white adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison M; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the equivalence or comparability of the measurement properties of seven selected items measuring posttraumatic growth among self-identified Black (n = 270) and White (n = 707) adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina, using data from the Baseline Survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group Study. Internal consistency reliability was equally good for both groups (Cronbach's alphas = .79), as were correlations between individual scale items and their respective overall scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of a congeneric measurement model of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth showed adequate measures of fit for both groups. The results showed only small variation in magnitude of factor loadings and measurement errors between the two samples. Tests of measurement invariance showed mixed results, but overall indicated that factor loading, error variance, and factor variance were similar between the two samples. These seven selected items can be useful for future large-scale surveys of posttraumatic growth.

  11. Hearing Loss, Control, and Demographic Factors Influencing Hearing Aid Use among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garstecki, Dean C.; Erler, Susan F.

    1998-01-01

    Older adults (N=131) with hearing loss completed measures of hearing, hearing handicap, psychological control, depression, and ego strength. Older adults who accepted advice from hearing professionals to acquire and use hearing aids differed from those not accepting such advice on measures of hearing sensitivity, psychological control, and…

  12. Identification of Hearing Loss in Children and Young Adults Using Measures of Transient Otoacoustic Emission Reproducibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glattke, Theodore J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Measures of transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) reproducibility were obtained for 506 ears of 260 children and young adults. Findings suggest that TEOAEs provide useful information in routine clinical practice and may be employed to screen for the presence of hearing loss in children and young adults. (DB)

  13. Gender, Pre-loss Marital Dependence, and Older Adults Adjustment to Widowhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    I examine how pre-loss emotional and instrumental dependence on one's spouse affects older adults psychological adjustment to widowhood. Analyses are based on 297 persons from the Changing Lives of Older Couples CLOC study, a prospective study of widowhood among adults aged 65 and older. Women who were most emotionally dependent on their spouses…

  14. Masking Release in Children and Adults with Hearing Loss When Using Amplification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Marc; McCreery, Ryan; Kopun, Judy; Lewis, Dawna; Alexander, Joshua; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared masking release for adults and children with normal hearing and hearing loss. For the participants with hearing loss, masking release using simulated hearing aid amplification with 2 different compression speeds (slow, fast) was compared. Method: Sentence recognition in unmodulated noise was compared with recognition…

  15. Communicating about Loss: Experiences of Older Australian Adults with Cerebral Palsy and Complex Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark, Leigha; Balandin, Susan; Clemson, Lindy

    2011-01-01

    Loss and grief is a universal human experience, yet little is known about how older adults with a lifelong disability, such as cerebral palsy, and complex communication needs (CCN) experience loss and manage the grieving process. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Australian participants with cerebral palsy and CCN to determine the types…

  16. The Impact of Hearing Loss on Quality of Life in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dayna S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wiley, Terry L.; Nondahl, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigate the impact of hearing loss on quality of life in a large population of older adults. Design and Methods: Data are from the 5-year follow-up Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, a population-based longitudinal study of age-related hearing impairment conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. Participants (N = 2,688) were 53-97…

  17. Tooth loss patterns in older adults with special needs: a Minnesota cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer J

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to detail tooth loss patterns in older adults with special needs. A total of 491 elderly subjects with special needs were retrospectively selected and followed during 10/1999-12/2006. Medical, dental, cognitive, and functional assessments were abstracted from dental records and used to predict risk of tooth loss. Tooth loss events were recorded for subjects during follow-up. Chi-squared tests were used to study the association between tooth loss and the selected risk factors. Logistic, poisson, and negative binomial regressions were developed to study tooth loss patterns. Overall, 27% of the subjects lost at least one tooth during follow-up. Fourteen subjects had tooth loss events per 100 person-years. Tooth loss pattern did not differ significantly among different special-needs subgroups (i.e. community-dwelling vs. long-term care, physically disabled vs. functionally independent). Special-needs subjects with three or more active dental conditions at arrival had more than twice the risk of losing teeth than those without any existing conditions. After adjusting other factors, the number of carious teeth or retained roots at arrival was a significant predictor of tooth loss for older adults with special needs (P=0.001). These findings indicate that appropriately managing active caries and associated conditions is important to prevent tooth loss for older adults with special needs. PMID:21449213

  18. Low loss factor Co{sub 2}Z ferrite composites with equivalent permittivity and permeability for ultra-high frequency applications

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhijuan; Chang, Hong; Sokolov, Alexander S.; Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie Harris, Vincent G.; Wang, Xian

    2014-08-11

    Ferrite composites of nominal composition Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2+x}Ir{sub x}Fe{sub 24−2x}O{sub 41} were studied in order to achieve low magnetic and dielectric losses and equivalent permittivity and permeability over a frequency range of 0.3–1 GHz. Crystallographic structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, which revealed a Z-type phase accompanied by increasing amounts of Y-type phase as the iridium amount was increased. The measured microwave dielectric and magnetic properties showed that the loss tan δ{sub ε} and loss tan δ{sub μ} decreased by 80% and 90% at 0.8 GHz with the addition of iridium of x = 0.12 and 0.15, respectively. An effective medium approximation was adopted to analyze the composite ferrites having mixed phase structures. Moreover, adding Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} enabled equivalent values of real permittivity and real permeability over the studied frequency range. The resultant data give rise to low loss factors, i.e., tan δ{sub ε}/ε′ = 0.008 and tan δ{sub μ}/μ′ = 0.037 at 0.8 GHz, while characteristic impedance was the same as that of free space.

  19. Training changes processing of speech cues in older adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Samira; White-Schwoch, Travis; Choi, Hee Jae; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Aging results in a loss of sensory function, and the effects of hearing impairment can be especially devastating due to reduced communication ability. Older adults with hearing loss report that speech, especially in noisy backgrounds, is uncomfortably loud yet unclear. Hearing loss results in an unbalanced neural representation of speech: the slowly-varying envelope is enhanced, dominating representation in the auditory pathway and perceptual salience at the cost of the rapidly-varying fine structure. We hypothesized that older adults with hearing loss can be trained to compensate for these changes in central auditory processing through directed attention to behaviorally-relevant speech sounds. To that end, we evaluated the effects of auditory-cognitive training in older adults (ages 55–79) with normal hearing and hearing loss. After training, the auditory training group with hearing loss experienced a reduction in the neural representation of the speech envelope presented in noise, approaching levels observed in normal hearing older adults. No changes were noted in the control group. Importantly, changes in speech processing were accompanied by improvements in speech perception. Thus, central processing deficits associated with hearing loss may be partially remediated with training, resulting in real-life benefits for everyday communication. PMID:24348347

  20. Weight loss in obese adults 65 years and older: A review of the controversy

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Debra L.; Ward, Aimee L.; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in older adults is ubiquitous in many developed countries and is related to various negative health outcomes, making it an important public health target for intervention. However, treatment approaches for obesity in older adults remain controversial due to concerns surrounding the difficulty of behavior change with advancing age, exacerbating the age-related loss of skeletal muscle and bone, and the feasibility of long-term weight maintenance and related health consequences. This review serves to systematically examine the evidence regarding weight loss interventions with a focus on obese (body mass index 30 kg/m2 and above) older adults (aged 65 years and older) and some proposed mechanisms associated with exercise and caloric restriction (lifestyle intervention). Our findings indicate that healthy weight loss in this age group can be achieved through lifestyle interventions of up to a one-year period. Most interventions reviewed reported a loss of lean body mass and bone mineral density with weight loss. Paradoxically muscle quality and physical function improved. Inflammatory molecules and metabolic markers also improved, although the independent and additive effects of exercise and weight loss on these pathways are poorly understood. Using our review inclusion criteria, only one small pilot study investigating long-term weight maintenance and associated health implications was found in the literature. Future research on lifestyle interventions for obese older adults should address the loss of bone and lean body mass, inflammatory mechanisms, and include sufficient follow up to assess long-term weight maintenance and health outcomes. PMID:23403042

  1. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.

  2. Does Diet-Induced Weight Loss Lead to Bone Loss in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zibellini, Jessica; Seimon, Radhika V; Lee, Crystal M Y; Gibson, Alice A; Hsu, Michelle S H; Shapses, Sue A; Nguyen, Tuan V; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Diet-induced weight loss has been suggested to be harmful to bone health. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (using a random-effects model) to quantify the effect of diet-induced weight loss on bone. We included 41 publications involving overweight or obese but otherwise healthy adults who followed a dietary weight-loss intervention. The primary outcomes examined were changes from baseline in total hip, lumbar spine, and total body bone mineral density (BMD), as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary outcomes were markers of bone turnover. Diet-induced weight loss was associated with significant decreases of 0.010 to 0.015 g/cm(2) in total hip BMD for interventions of 6, 12, or 24 (but not 3) months' duration (95% confidence intervals [CIs], -0.014 to -0.005, -0.021 to -0.008, and -0.024 to -0.000 g/cm(2), at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively). There was, however, no statistically significant effect of diet-induced weight loss on lumbar spine or whole-body BMD for interventions of 3 to 24 months' duration, except for a significant decrease in total body BMD (-0.011 g/cm(2); 95% CI, -0.018 to -0.003 g/cm(2)) after 6 months. Although no statistically significant changes occurred in serum concentrations of N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), interventions of 2 or 3 months in duration (but not of 6, 12, or 24 months' duration) induced significant increases in serum concentrations of osteocalcin (0.26 nmol/L; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.39 nmol/L), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (4.72 nmol/L; 95% CI, 2.12 to 7.30 nmol/L) or N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) (3.70 nmol/L; 95% CI, 0.90 to 6.50 nmol/L bone collagen equivalents [BCEs]), indicating an early effect of diet-induced weight loss to promote bone breakdown. These data show that in overweight and obese individuals, a single diet-induced weight-loss intervention induces a small decrease in total hip BMD, but not lumbar spine

  3. Anticipation of monetary gain but not loss in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Gibbs, Sasha E B; Khanna, Kabir; Nielsen, Lisbeth; Carstensen, Laura L; Knutson, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Although global declines in structure have been documented in the aging human brain, little is known about the functional integrity of the striatum and prefrontal cortex in older adults during incentive processing. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether younger and older adults differed in both self-reported and neural responsiveness to anticipated monetary gains and losses. The present study provides evidence for intact striatal and insular activation during gain anticipation with age, but shows a relative reduction in activation during loss anticipation. These findings suggest that there is an asymmetry in the processing of gains and losses in older adults that may have implications for decision-making. PMID:17468751

  4. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  5. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  6. The Role of Organizations in Reaching Older Adults about Vision Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Vision impairment affects approximately 17% of Americans age 45 and older. Yet, 94% of adults with self-reported vision loss did not receive any type of vision rehabilitation services to help them retain independence. These findings underscore the need for promoting awareness about what can be done when vision fails. A national dissemination…

  7. Promoting a Message on Vision Loss to Diverse Groups of Adults: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…

  8. Communication, Academic, and Social Skills of Young Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Durieux-Smith, Andree; Olds, Janet; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Duquette, Cheryll; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on data collected as part of a larger research study designed to investigate factors that facilitate the integration of children with hearing loss into mainstream environments. Aspects of communicative, academic, and social functioning for 43 adolescents and young adults were examined using questionnaires. In addition,…

  9. Role Salience and Anticipated Work-Family Relations among Young Adults with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova; Michael, Rinat

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of hearing status on role salience and anticipated work-family relations among 101 unmarried young adults aged 20-33 years: 35 with hearing loss (19 hard of hearing and 16 deaf) and 66 hearing. Participants completed the Life Role Salience scale, anticipated conflictual relations scale, anticipated facilitory…

  10. Weight Loss in Adults with Down Syndrome and with Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Metseagharun, T.; Haque, S.

    2004-01-01

    An association between weight loss and Alzheimer's disease has been established in the general population but little information is available regarding this association in people with intellectual disabilities. A 4-year longitudinal study of adults with Down syndrome with and without Alzheimer's disease was undertaken. Age-associated weight loss…

  11. Evaluation of an Approach to Weight Loss in Adults with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Richard R.; Saunders, Muriel D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Smith, Bryan K.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Guilford, Brianne; Rondon, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    Of 79 overweight adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities who participated in a weight loss intervention, 73 completed the 6-month diet phase. The emphasis in the intervention was consumption of high volume, low calorie foods and beverages, including meal-replacement shakes. Lower calorie frozen entrees were recommended to control…

  12. Effects of Aging and Adult-Onset Hearing Loss on Cortical Auditory Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common feature in human aging. It has been argued that dysfunctions in central processing are important contributing factors to hearing loss during older age. Aging also has well documented consequences for neural structure and function, but it is not clear how these effects interact with those that arise as a consequence of hearing loss. This paper reviews the effects of aging and adult-onset hearing loss in the structure and function of cortical auditory regions. The evidence reviewed suggests that aging and hearing loss result in atrophy of cortical auditory regions and stronger engagement of networks involved in the detection of salient events, adaptive control and re-allocation of attention. These cortical mechanisms are engaged during listening in effortful conditions in normal hearing individuals. Therefore, as a consequence of aging and hearing loss, all listening becomes effortful and cognitive load is constantly high, reducing the amount of available cognitive resources. This constant effortful listening and reduced cognitive spare capacity could be what accelerates cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. PMID:27242405

  13. Acute-onset unilateral psychogenic hearing loss in adults: report of six cases and diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Kanzaki, Sho; Kataoka, Chinatsu; Tazoe, Mami; Takei, Yasuhiko; Nagai, Keiichi; Kohno, Naoyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    We encountered 6 rare cases of acute-onset unilateral psychogenic hearing loss in adults. All were women in their 20s and 30s. Three cases had severe hearing impairment characterized by hearing loss at every frequency; 2 cases had profound hearing impairment, and 1 case had low-frequency hearing impairment. Of the 6 cases, 3 had a history of hearing loss, and 1 had a history of psychogenic visual disturbance. All 6 cases were initially diagnosed as having idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss; all subsequently received steroid therapy. Three cases were not diagnosed as being psychogenic in origin until otoacoustic emissions and auditory brain responses were performed. Although the presence of distinctive clinical features (age, gender, and past history) is important for suspecting psychogenic hearing loss, objective audiological tests such as otoacoustic emissions are essential for diagnosing some cases. Compared to the existing reports of similar cases, our cases had a poorer prognosis (only 2 cases were cured).

  14. Cdk2 loss accelerates precursor differentiation and remyelination in the adult central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Caillava, Céline; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Jablonska, Beata; Deboux, Cyrille; Spigoni, Giulia; Gallo, Vittorio; Malgrange, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    The specific functions of intrinsic regulators of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) division are poorly understood. Type 2 cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk2) controls cell cycle progression of OPCs, but whether it acts during myelination and repair of demyelinating lesions remains unexplored. Here, we took advantage of a viable Cdk2−/− mutant mouse to investigate the function of this cell cycle regulator in OPC proliferation and differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. During central nervous system (CNS) development, Cdk2 loss does not affect OPC cell cycle, oligodendrocyte cell numbers, or myelination. However, in response to CNS demyelination, it clearly alters adult OPC renewal, cell cycle exit, and differentiation. Importantly, Cdk2 loss accelerates CNS remyelination of demyelinated axons. Thus, Cdk2 is dispensable for myelination but is important for adult OPC renewal, and could be one of the underlying mechanisms that drive adult progenitors to differentiate and thus regenerate myelin. PMID:21502361

  15. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2') following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation.

  16. Vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in healthy adults: limitation of the extrinsic dual-isotope dilution technique to measure matrix effect.

    PubMed

    Van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; West, Clive E; van Breemen, Richard B; Zhu, Dongwei; Siebelink, Els; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M; van Lieshout, Machteld; Russel, Frans G M; Schaafsma, Gertjan; Naber, Ton H J

    2009-06-01

    Data on the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (microg) of beta-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral-faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted in twenty-four healthy adults. Each subject followed two diets for 3 weeks each: a diet containing vegetables low in beta-carotene with supplemental beta-carotene in salad dressing oil ('oil diet') and a diet containing vegetables and fruits high in beta-carotene ('mixed diet'). During all 6 weeks, each subject daily consumed a mean of 55 (sd 0.5) microg [13C10]beta-carotene and 55 (sd 0.5) microg [13C10]retinyl palmitate in oil capsules. The vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene was calculated as the dose-corrected ratio of [13C5]retinol to [13C10]retinol in serum and from apparent absorption by oral-faecal balance. Isotopic data quantified a vitamin A equivalency of [13C10]beta-carotene in oil of 3.4 microg (95 % CI 2.8, 3.9), thus the bio-efficacy of the beta-carotene in oil was 28 % in the presence of both diets. However, data from oral-faecal balance estimated vitamin A equivalency as 6:1 microg (95 % CI 4, 7) for beta-carotene in the 'oil diet'. beta-Carotene in the 'oil diet' had 2.9-fold higher vitamin A equivalency than beta-carotene in the 'mixed diet'. In conclusion, this extrinsic labelling technique cannot measure effects of mixed vegetables and fruits matrices, but can measure precisely the vitamin A equivalency of the beta-carotene in oil capsules.

  17. Evaluation of an approach to weight loss in adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard R; Saunders, Muriel D; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Guilford, Brianne; Rondon, Mary F

    2011-04-01

    Of 79 overweight adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities who participated in a weight loss intervention, 73 completed the 6-month diet phase. The emphasis in the intervention was consumption of high volume, low calorie foods and beverages, including meal-replacement shakes. Lower calorie frozen entrees were recommended to control portion size. A walking activity was encouraged. Participants attended monthly meetings in which a small amount of cash was exchanged for self-recorded intake and exercise records completed on picture-based forms. Average weight loss was 13.2 pounds (6.3%) of baseline weight at 6 months, with weight loss shown by 64 of the 73 individuals enrolled. Those completing a 6-month follow-up phase showed weight loss of 9.4% of baseline. Increased choice and control are discussed as possible contributors to individual success.

  18. Mental health and dual sensory loss in older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Heine, Chyrisse; Browning, Colette J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health is a core component of quality of life in old age. Dual Sensory Loss (DSL; combined vision and hearing loss) is prevalent in older adults and has been correlated with decreased levels of well-being. This systematic review aimed to critically review and summarize the evidence from studies that examined the mental health of older adults with DSL. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) statement, specific databases were searched and eight articles were selected for final review. Seven studies investigated the association between DSL and depression or depressive symptoms, whilst one study explored the relationship between DSL and quality of life. No studies investigated the impact of DSL on anxiety. Overall, results of this review suggested that there is a significant relationship between DSL and decreased mental health with those with DSL either displaying depressive symptoms or being at risk for developing depression. Future research should focus on comparative studies of older people with and without sensory loss, as well as targeted studies of older people with dual sensory loss, that incorporate well-defined and valid measures of sensory loss and mental health. PMID:24860496

  19. Effect of Speaker Age on Speech Recognition and Perceived Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Wilding, Phillipa J.; Rickard, Natalie A.; O'Beirne, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults exhibit difficulty understanding speech that has been experimentally degraded. Age-related changes to the speech mechanism lead to natural degradations in signal quality. We tested the hypothesis that older adults with hearing loss would exhibit declines in speech recognition when listening to the speech of older adults,…

  20. Loss of Health Insurance Among Non-elderly Adults in Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Major policy efforts to expand health coverage to the uninsured are under consideration. Drop-out among children in Medicaid — due to annual renewal requirements — is well-documented, but the recent extent of this problem among non-elderly adults is unknown. OBJECTIVE To estimate the loss of health insurance over time among adults in Medicaid and identify risk factors for drop-out. DESIGN Survival analysis of Medicaid enrollment, using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression. Data are from the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2000–2004. The sample consists of non-elderly adults (n = 4,992) and children (n = 8,559) in Medicaid. Insurance status after 12 months was measured for all individuals enrolled in Medicaid at the survey’s outset. A survival analysis of disenrollment was then conducted for newly enrolled individuals. RESULTS Nationwide, 2 million adults leave Medicaid and become uninsured annually. Disenrollment was significantly higher among adults than children (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.65–1.86). Respectively, 20%, 43%, and 55% of adults disenrolled within 6, 12, and 23 months of initial enrollment. Lost eligibility explained a small portion of disenrollment. Six months after disenrolling, 17% had reenrolled in Medicaid, 34% had other insurance, and 49% were uninsured. Men, younger adults, and Hispanics were more likely to drop out; those in Medicaid managed care or with disabilities were less likely. Overall health status and diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and depression, had no effect on drop-out. CONCLUSIONS Drop-out from Medicaid is a major problem among adults — even among those with chronic diseases — and contributes to the presence of millions of uninsured Americans. Policy efforts to expand health coverage must address poor Medicaid retention. Clinicians should be aware of this issue when caring for non-elderly adults in Medicaid. PMID:18810555

  1. Functional equivalence of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell reading tests and NART norms in the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim M; Luszcz, Mary A; Piguet, Olivier; Christensen, Helen; Bennett, Hayley; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the functional equivalence of two measures of irregular word pronunciation--National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell--which are popular instruments used to assess verbal neurocognitive functioning and to estimate premorbid IQ. We report norms for the NART in a pooled sample from 3 Australian population-based studies of adults aged 65-103 years. Norms were stratified by sex and age left school in 5-year age groups. The NART and the Schonell had a strong linear relation, allowing for the imputation of NART scores based on Schonell performance within 1 study. Neither measure was sensitive to the effects of sex after adjusting for the effects of age and education. Early school leavers performed worse on both measures. Data pooling enables greater precision and improved generalizability of NART norms than do methods that use single older adult samples.

  2. Association of skin color, race/ethnicity, and hearing loss among adults in the USA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Maas, Paige; Chien, Wade; Carey, John P; Ferrucci, Luigi; Thorpe, Roland

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies of hearing loss in adults have demonstrated that the odds of hearing loss are substantially lower in black than in white individuals. The basis of this association is unknown. We hypothesized that skin pigmentation as a marker of melanocytic functioning mediates this observed association and that skin pigmentation is associated with hearing loss independent of race/ethnicity. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,258 adults (20-59 years) in the 2003-2004 cycle of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey who had assessment of Fitzpatrick skin type and pure-tone audiometric testing. Audiometric thresholds in the worse hearing ear were used to calculate speech- (0.5-4 kHz) and high-frequency (3-8 kHz) pure-tone averages (PTA). Regression models were stratified by Fitzpatrick skin type or race/ethnicity to examine the association of each factor with hearing loss independent of the other. Models were adjusted for potential confounders (demographic, medical, and noise exposure covariates). Among all participants, race/ethnicity was associated with hearing thresholds (black participants with the best hearing followed by Hispanics and then white individuals), but these associations were not significant in analyses stratified by skin color. In contrast, in race-stratified analyses, darker-skinned Hispanics had better hearing than lighter-skinned Hispanics by an average of -2.5 dB hearing level (HL; 95% CI, -4.8 to -0.2) and -3.1 dB HL (95% CI, -5.3 to -0.8) for speech and high-frequency PTA, respectively. Associations between skin color and hearing loss were not significant in white and black participants. Our results demonstrate that skin pigmentation is independently associated with hearing loss in Hispanics and suggest that skin pigmentation as a marker of melanocytic functioning may mediate the strong association observed between race/ethnicity and hearing loss.

  3. Outcome of Vibrant Soundbridge Middle Ear Implant in Cantonese-Speaking Mixed Hearing Loss Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Tsang, Willis Sung Shan; Wong, Terence Ka Cheong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the aided benefits, speech recognition in quiet and in noise, change in hearing and subjective report of satisfaction on mixed hearing loss adults implanted with Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant. Methods Eight Cantonese speaking adult patients with mixed hearing loss were enrolled in a single-subject, repeated measures prospective study design. Audiometric testing, including air and bone conduction and word recognition under sound-field were conducted before surgery. Device activation was arranged 8 weeks after operation. Audiometric testing was taken to evaluate the change in hearing. Patients were asked to wear the device and come back for fine tuning as needed. Outcome measurements were undertaken at 3 and 6 months after device activation. The outcome measures included sound-field thresholds, Cantonese Hearing in Noise Test (CHINT), Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA). Results The application of the VSB improved the aided thresholds and improved speech intelligibility in quiet and noise without significant changes in hearing thresholds. Conclusion VSB is considered as a safe, effective and reliable auditory rehabilitation option for Cantonese speaking adults with mixed hearing loss. PMID:22701155

  4. Pupil size varies with word listening and response selection difficulty in older adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Vaden, Kenneth I; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Listening to speech in noise can be exhausting, especially for older adults with impaired hearing. Pupil dilation is thought to track the difficulty associated with listening to speech at various intelligibility levels for young and middle-aged adults. This study examined changes in the pupil response with acoustic and lexical manipulations of difficulty in older adults with hearing loss. Participants identified words at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) among options that could include a similar-sounding lexical competitor. Growth Curve Analyses revealed that the pupil response was affected by an SNR × Lexical competition interaction, such that it was larger and more delayed and sustained in the harder SNR condition, particularly in the presence of lexical competition. Pupillometry detected these effects for correct trials and across reaction times, suggesting it provides additional evidence of task difficulty than behavioral measures alone.

  5. Applying a technology‐based system for weight loss in adults with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lang, W.; Barone Gibbs, B.; Davis, K. K.; Burke, L. E.; Kovacs, S. J.; Portzer, L. A.; Jakicic, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this study was to compare an in‐person, group‐based behavioral weight loss intervention to technology‐based interventions in adults with obesity. Methods Adults (N = 39; body mass index: 39.5 ± 2.8 kg m−2; age: 39.9 ± 11.5 years) participated in a 6‐month program with randomization to one of three intervention groups: standard behavioral weight loss, a technology‐based system combined with a monthly intervention telephone call (TECH) or an enhanced technology‐based system combined with a monthly intervention telephone call (EN‐TECH). All groups were prescribed an energy‐restricted diet and physical activity. Assessments occurred at 0, 3 and 6 months. Separate mixed‐effects models using unstructured dependence structure were fit to the outcomes. Results Weight loss (least square means ± standard error) at 6 months was −6.57 ± 1.65 kg in standard behavioral weight loss, −5.18 ± 1.72 kg in TECH and −6.25 ± 1.95 kg in EN‐TECH (p‐value for time effect ≤ 0.0001). A similar pattern was observed for change in body mass index, waist circumference and percent body fat. There was a decrease in total energy intake (p = 0.0005) and percent dietary fat intake (p = 0.0172), and physical activity increased (p = 0.0003). Conclusions Findings provide initial information on the use of technology‐based interventions that include wearable devices combined with brief monthly telephone calls for weight loss in adults with obesity. PMID:27812375

  6. Vitamin A equivalence of spirulina beta-carotene in Chinese adults assessed by stable isotope dilution and reference techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Spirulina is a high-protein food supplement that contains carotenoids. Objective: The study aimed at determining the vitamin A equivalence of spirulina beta-carotene in humans. Design: Spirulina was grown in a 23 atom% 2H2O cultural solution. Spirulina beta-carotene showed the highest ab...

  7. Tweeting it off: characteristics of adults who tweet about a weight loss attempt

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry; Schneider, Kristin L; Evans, Martinus; Waring, Molly E; Appelhans, Brad; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Thind, Herpreet; Ziedonis, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe adults who use Twitter during a weight loss attempt and to compare the positive and negative social influences they experience from their offline friends, online friends, and family members. Materials and methods Participants (N=100, 80% female, mean age=37.65, SD=8.42) were recruited from Twitter. They completed a brief survey about their experiences discussing their weight loss attempt with their online and offline friends and provided responses to open-ended questions on the benefits and drawbacks of discussing weight on Twitter, Facebook, and weight-specific social networks. Results Participants rated their connections on Twitter and weight loss-specific social networks to be significantly greater sources of positive social influence for their weight loss (F(3)=3.47; p<0.001) and significantly lesser sources of negative social influence (F(3)=40.39 and F(3)=33.68 (both p<0.001)) than their offline friends, family, and Facebook friends. Greater positive social influence from Twitter and Facebook friends was associated with greater weight loss in participants’ most recent weight loss attempt (r=0.30, r=0.32; p<0.01). The most commonly reported benefits of tweeting about weight loss include social support, information, and accountability. The most common drawbacks reported are that interactions were too brief and lacked personal connection. Discussion People who discuss their weight loss on Twitter report more social support and less negativity from their Twitter friends than their Facebook friends and in-person relationships. Conclusions Online social networks should be explored as a tool for connecting patients who lack weight loss social support from their in-person relationships. PMID:24928175

  8. Leptin and Hunger Levels in Young Healthy Adults After One Night of Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, and blood pressure/heart rate and whether a 2-hour mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (4 consecutive nights followed by a night of sleep loss and 2 recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (1400–1600) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-hour blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (pre-deprivation) and sixth day (post-deprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of “comfort” food and obesity. PMID:20545838

  9. Leptin and hunger levels in young healthy adults after one night of sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emmanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O; Chrousos, George P

    2010-12-01

    Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol and blood pressure/heart rate, and whether a 2-h mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (four consecutive nights followed by one night of sleep loss and two recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (14:00-16:00 hours) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-h blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (predeprivation) and sixth day (postdeprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin, or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes, which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of 'comfort' food and obesity.

  10. Frequent Self-Weighing and Visual Feedback for Weight Loss in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Levitsky, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has suggested that self-weighing may be beneficial for weight control in adults, but few studies have independently assessed the contribution of this behavior to weight loss. This study experimentally tested daily self-weighing and visual feedback (the Caloric Titration Method (CTM)) as a weight loss and weight loss maintenance intervention over 2 years. 162 overweight individuals were randomized to the CTM intervention or delayed treatment control group. In year 1, weight change was compared between groups, and in year 2, the control group started using the CTM while the intervention group continued using the CTM for maintenance. A significant difference in weight loss over the first year (CTM n = 70; 2.6 ± 5.9 kg versus control n = 65; 0.5 ± 4.4 kg, p = 0.019) was qualified by a group × gender × time interaction (p = 0.002) such that men lost more weight using the CTM. In year 2, the CTM group maintained their weight and the control group lost an amount similar to the intervention group in year 1. Daily self-weighing and visual feedback facilitated a minimal amount of weight loss and maintenance of this loss. Future research investigating characteristics of those who benefit from this type of self-directed intervention is warranted. PMID:26064677

  11. Of Mice and Men-Warning: Intact Versus Castrated Adult Male Mice as Xenograft Hosts Are Equivalent to Hypogonadal Versus Abiraterone Treated Aging Human Males, Respectively

    PubMed Central

    Sedelaar, J.P. Michiel; Dalrymple, Susan S.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immune deficient male mice bearing human prostate cancer xenografts are used to evaluate therapeutic response to novel androgen ablation approaches and the results compared to surgical castration based upon assumption that testosterone microenvironment in intact and castrated adult male mice mimics eugonadal and castrated aging adult human males. METHODS To test these assumptions, serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were determined longitudinally in groups (n > 20) of intact versus castrated adult male nude, NOG, and immune competent C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS In adult male mice, TT and FT varies by 30- to 100-fold within the same animal providing a microenvironment that is only equivalent to hypogonadal, not eugonadal, adult human males (TT is 1.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml [5.8 ± 4.1 nM] in nude and 2.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml [8.7 ± 4.4 nM] in NOG mice versus >4.2 ng/ml [14.7 nM] in eugonadal humans). This was confirmed based upon enhanced growth of androgen dependent human prostate cancer xenografts inoculated into mice supplemented with exogenous testosterone to elevate and chronically maintain serum TT at a level (5 ng/ml [18 nM]) equivalent to a 50-year-old eugonadal human male. In castrated mice, TT and FT range from 2 to 20 pg/ml (7–70 pM) and <0.8 pg/ml (<2.6 pM), respectively, which is equivalent to castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with abiraterone. This was confirmed based upon the inability of another CYP17A1 inhibitor, ketoconazole, to inhibit the growth of CRPC xenografts in castrated mice. CONCLUSIONS Adult male mice supplemented with testosterone mimic eugonadal human males, while unsupplemented animals mimic standard androgen ablation and castrated animals mimic abiraterone treated patients. These studies confirm what is claimed in Robert Burns’ poem “To a Mouse” that “The best laid schemes of mice and men/often go awry. PMID:23775398

  12. Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 prolongs the life span of adult human keratinocytes, enhances skin equivalent development, and facilitates lentiviral transduction.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Rodijk-Olthuis, Diana; Jansen, Patrick A M; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; van Erp, Piet E; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2012-09-01

    The use of tissue-engineered human skin equivalents (HSE) for fundamental research and industrial application requires the expansion of keratinocytes from a limited number of skin biopsies donated by adult healthy volunteers or patients. A pharmacological inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinases, Y-27632, was recently reported to immortalize neonatal human foreskin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the potential use of Y-27632 to expand human adult keratinocytes and evaluated its effects on HSE development and in vitro gene delivery assays. Y-27632 was found to significantly increase the life span of human adult keratinocytes (up to five to eight passages). The epidermal morphology of HSEs generated from high-passage, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes resembled the native epidermis and was improved by supplementing Y-27632 during the submerged phase of HSE development. In addition, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes responded normally to inflammatory stimuli, and could be used to generate HSEs with a psoriatic phenotype, upon stimulation with relevant cytokines. Furthermore, Y-27632 significantly enhanced both lentiviral transduction efficiency of primary adult keratinocytes and epidermal morphology of HSEs generated thereof. Our study indicates that Y-27632 is a potentially powerful tool that is used for a variety of applications of adult human keratinocytes.

  13. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    PubMed

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  14. The effects of a hearing education program on recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices in young adults.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Sofie, Degeest; Bart, Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Excessive recreational noise exposure in young adults might result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. Inducing behavioral change in young adults is one of the aims of a hearing conservation program (HCP). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a hearing education program after 6 months in young adults in relation to knowledge regarding their individual hearing status. The results of a questionnaire regarding the weekly equivalent recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, and hearing loss and hearing protector devices (HPDs) were compared between both sessions. Seventy-eight young adults completed the questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposure, youth attitude to noise scale (YANS), and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL). Their hearing status was evaluated based on admittance measures, audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The main analysis consisted of a mixed model analysis of variance with dependent variables of either the noise exposure or the scores on (subscales of) YANS and BAHPHL. The independent variables were hearing status and session one versus session two. There was a significant decrease in recreational noise exposure and several (sub) scales of YANS and BAHPHL between both the sessions. This behavioral change resulted in a more frequent use of HPDs in 12% of the participants. However, the behavioral change was not completely related to the knowledge of young adults' individual hearing status. To prevent hearing damage in young people, investing in HCPs is necessary, apart from regulating sound levels and its compliance at various leisure-time activities. Also, the long-term effect of HCPs and their most cost-efficient repetition rates should be further investigated.

  15. Prevalence of hearing loss and ear morbidity among adolescents and young adults in rural southern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Jane; Pillion, Joseph P; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Wu, Lee S-F; Prasad, Rakesh; Karna, Sureswor L; Shrestha, Sharada R; West, Keith P

    2010-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3646 persons, 15 to 23 years of age, in the southern plains District of Sarlahi, Nepal, to assess the prevalence and severity of hearing loss and middle-ear dysfunction, and adverse effects of hearing loss on social integration. Between 2006 and 2008, subjects were enumerated and underwent otoscopic, tympanometric, and audiometric evaluations at central sites in villages. Hearing loss was diagnosed in subjects who failed a hearing screening and exhibited an average air conduction threshold value greater than or equal to 30 dBHL in the worse ear. Clinically, 32.8% of subjects exhibited a dull or retracted tympanic membrane, and 18% had abnormal tympanometry. Nearly 12% failed the hearing screening test, among whom more than half, or 6.1% overall, had hearing loss. Hearing-impaired subjects were six- to eight-fold (ORs, with 95% CIs excluding 1.0) more likely to report problems in hearing usual sounds or communicating with other people. Among young adults living in southern Nepal, hearing loss is common, and associated with social disability.

  16. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  17. Evaluating the Establishment and Maintenance of Visual-Visual and Gustatory-Visual Equivalence Relations in Adults With Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Dixon, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    Four adults with developmental disabilities were taught to make conditional discriminations between either pictures and their corresponding printed English and Spanish words, or tastes and their corresponding printed English and Spanish words. Participants required more training trials to master the visual-visual conditional discriminations than…

  18. Functional results after Bonebridge implantation in adults and children with conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Rahne, Torsten; Seiwerth, Ingmar; Götze, Gerrit; Heider, Cornelia; Radetzki, Florian; Herzog, Michael; Plontke, Stefan K

    2015-11-01

    In patients with conductive hearing loss caused by middle ear disorders or atresia of the ear canal, a Bonebridge implantation can improve hearing by providing vibratory input to the temporal bone. The expected results are improved puretone thresholds and speech recognition. In the European Union, approval of the Bonebridge implantation was recently extended to children. We evaluated the functional outcome of a Bonebridge implantation for eight adults and three children. We found significant improvement in the puretone thresholds, with improvement in the air-bone gap. Speech recognition after surgery was significantly higher than in the best-aided situation before surgery. The Bonebridge significantly improved speech recognition in noisy environments and sound localization. In situations relevant to daily life, hearing deficits were nearly completely restored with the Bonebridge implantation in both adults and children.

  19. Loss of Weight in Obese Older Adults: A Biomarker of Impending Expansion of Multimorbidity?

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Elisa; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Zoli, Marco; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether weight loss in older adults may be a marker of impending burden of multimorbidity regardless of initial weight, testing the hypotheses that obesity but not overweight in elderly adults is associated with greater number of diseases than normal weight and that obese older adults who lose weight over time have the greatest burden of multimorbidity. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study (Invecchiare in Chianti Study). SETTING Community. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 60 and older at baseline followed for an average of 4 years (N = 1,025). MEASUREMENTS Multimorbidity was measured as number of diagnosed diseases. Baseline body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (<25.0 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Loss of weight was defined as decrease over time in BMI of at least 0.15 kg/m2 per year. Age, sex, and education were covariates. RESULTS Baseline obesity was cross-sectionally associated with high multimorbidity and greater longitudinal increase of multimorbidity than normal weight (P = .005) and overweight (P < .001). Moreover, obese participants who lost weight over follow-up had a significantly greater increase in multimorbidity than other participants, including obese participants who maintained or gained weight over time (P = .005). In nonobese participants, changes in weight had no effect on changes in multimorbidity over time. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that one specific disease did not drive the association and that competing mortality did not bias the association. CONCLUSION Loss of weight in obese older persons is a strong biomarker of impending expansion of multimorbidity. Older obese individuals who lose weight should receive thoughtful medical attention. PMID:26311068

  20. Task-related vigilance during speech recognition in noise for older adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Vaden, Kenneth I.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Cute, Stephanie L.; Humes, Larry E.; Dubno, Judy R.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Study Context Vigilance refers to the ability to sustain and adapt attentional focus in response to changing task demands. For older adults with hearing loss, vigilant listening may be particularly effortful and variable across individuals. This study examined the extent to which neural responses to sudden, unexpected changes in task structure (e.g., from rest to speech recognition epochs) were related to pupillometry measures of listening effort. Methods Individual differences in the task-evoked pupil response during word recognition were used to predict functional MRI estimates of neural responses to salient transitions between quiet rest, noisy rest, and word recognition in unintelligible, fluctuating background noise. Participants included 29 older adults (M = 70.2 years old) with hearing loss (pure tone average across all frequencies = 36.1 dB HL, SD = 6.7). Results Individuals with a greater average pupil response exhibited a more vigilant pattern of responding on a standardized continuous performance test (response time variability across varying inter-stimulus intervals r(27) = .38, p = .04). Across participants there was widespread neural engagement of attention and sensory-related cortices in response to transitions between blocks of rest and word recognition conditions. Individuals who exhibited larger task-evoked pupil dilation also showed even greater activity in the right primary auditory cortex in response to changes in task structure. Conclusion Pupillometric estimates of speech recognition effort predicted variation in activity within cortical regions that were responsive to salient changes in the environment for older adults with hearing loss. The current study suggests that maintaining vigilant attention may come at the cost of increased listening effort. PMID:26683041

  1. New neurons in the adult brain: The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a matter of debate. In the case of the hippocampus, integration of new cells in to the existing neuronal circuitry may be involved in memory processes and the regulation of emotionality. In recent years, various studies have examined how the production of new cells and their development into neurons is affected by sleep and sleep loss. While disruption of sleep for a period shorter than one day appears to have little effect on the basal rate of cell proliferation, prolonged restriction or disruption of sleep may have cumulative effects leading to a major decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation, cell survival and neurogenesis. Importantly, while short sleep deprivation may not affect the basal rate of cell proliferation, one study in rats shows that even mild sleep restriction may interfere with the increase in neurogenesis that normally occurs with hippocampus-dependent learning. Since sleep deprivation also disturbs memory formation, these data suggest that promoting survival, maturation and integration of new cells may be an unexplored mechanism by which sleep supports learning and memory processes. Most methods of sleep deprivation that have been employed affect both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Available data favor the hypothesis that decreases in cell proliferation are related to a reduction in REM sleep, whereas decreases in the number of cells that subsequently develop into adult neurons may be related to reductions in both NREM and REM sleep. The mechanisms by which sleep loss affects different aspects of adult neurogenesis are unknown. It has been proposed that adverse effects of sleep disruption may be mediated by stress and

  2. Physiological assessment of speech and voice production of adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Higgins, M B; Carney, A E; Schulte, L

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the impact of hearing loss on phonatory, velopharyngeal, and articulatory functioning using a comprehensive physiological approach. Electroglottograph (EGG), nasal/oral air flow, and intraoral air pressure signals were recorded simultaneously from adults with impaired and normal hearing as they produced syllables and words of varying physiological difficulty. The individuals with moderate-to-profound hearing loss had good to excellent oral communication skills. Intraoral pressure, nasal air flow, durations of lip, velum, and vocal fold articulations, estimated subglottal pressure, mean phonatory air flow, fundamental frequency, and EGG abduction quotient were compared between the two subject groups. Data from the subjects with hearing loss also were compared across aided and unaided conditions to investigate the influence of auditory feedback on speech motor control. The speakers with hearing loss had significantly higher intraoral pressures, subglottal pressures, laryngeal resistances, and fundamental frequencies than those with normal hearing. There was notable between-subject variability. All of the individuals with profound hearing loss had at least one speech/voice physiology measure that fell outside of the normal range, and most of the subjects demonstrated unique clusters of abnormal behaviors. Abnormal behaviors were more evident in the phonatory than articulatory or velopharyngeal systems and were generally consistent with vocal fold hyperconstriction. There was evidence from individual data that vocal fold posturing influenced articulatory timing. The results did not support the idea that the speech production skills of adults with moderate-to-profound hearing loss who are good oral communicators deteriorate when there are increased motoric demands on the velopharyngeal and phonatory mechanism. Although no significant differences were found between the aided and unaided conditions, 7 of 10 subjects showed

  3. Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort.

    PubMed

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome.

  4. Loss of DNA mismatch repair imparts a selective advantage in planarian adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hollenbach, Jessica P; Resch, Alissa M; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Graveley, Brenton R; Heinen, Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) leads to an increased risk of early-onset colorectal and other types of cancer and is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Loss of MMR function results in a mutator phenotype that likely underlies its role in tumorigenesis. However, loss of MMR also results in the elimination of a DNA damage-induced checkpoint/apoptosis activation barrier that may allow damaged cells to grow unchecked. A fundamental question is whether loss of MMR provides pre-cancerous stem cells an immediate selective advantage in addition to establishing a mutator phenotype. To test this hypothesis in an in vivo system, we utilized the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea which contains a significant population of identifiable adult stem cells. We identified a planarian homolog of human MSH2, a MMR gene which is mutated in 38% of LS cases. The planarian Smed-msh2 is expressed in stem cells and some progeny. We depleted Smed-msh2 mRNA levels by RNA-interference and found a striking survival advantage in these animals treated with a cytotoxic DNA alkylating agent compared to control animals. We demonstrated that this tolerance to DNA damage is due to the survival of mitotically active, MMR-deficient stem cells. Our results suggest that loss of MMR provides an in vivo survival advantage to the stem cell population in the presence of DNA damage that may have implications for tumorigenesis.

  5. The effects of a hearing education program on recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Hannah; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Sofie, Degeest; Bart, Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Excessive recreational noise exposure in young adults might result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. Inducing behavioral change in young adults is one of the aims of a hearing conservation program (HCP). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a hearing education program after 6 months in young adults in relation to knowledge regarding their individual hearing status. The results of a questionnaire regarding the weekly equivalent recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, and hearing loss and hearing protector devices (HPDs) were compared between both sessions. Seventy-eight young adults completed the questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposure, youth attitude to noise scale (YANS), and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL). Their hearing status was evaluated based on admittance measures, audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The main analysis consisted of a mixed model analysis of variance with dependent variables of either the noise exposure or the scores on (subscales of) YANS and BAHPHL. The independent variables were hearing status and session one versus session two. There was a significant decrease in recreational noise exposure and several (sub) scales of YANS and BAHPHL between both the sessions. This behavioral change resulted in a more frequent use of HPDs in 12% of the participants. However, the behavioral change was not completely related to the knowledge of young adults’ individual hearing status. To prevent hearing damage in young people, investing in HCPs is necessary, apart from regulating sound levels and its compliance at various leisure-time activities. Also, the long-term effect of HCPs and their most cost-efficient repetition rates should be further investigated. PMID:26356367

  6. Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.; Goel, Namni

    2015-01-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for increased hunger and caloric intake, late-night eating, attenuated fat loss when dieting, and for weight gain and obesity. It is unknown whether altered energy-balance responses to sleep loss are stable (phenotypic) over time, and the extent to which individuals differ in vulnerability to such responses. Healthy adults experienced two laboratory exposures to sleep restriction separated by 60–2132 days. Caloric intake, meal timing and weight were objectively measured. Although there were substantial phenotypic differences among participants in weight gain, increased caloric intake, and late-night eating and fat intake, responses within participants showed stability across sleep restriction exposures. Weight change was consistent in both normal-weight and overweight adults. Weight change and increased caloric intake were more stable in men whereas late-night eating was consistent in both genders. This is the first evidence of phenotypic differential vulnerability and trait-like stability of energy balance responses to repeated sleep restriction, underscoring the need for biomarkers and countermeasures to predict and mitigate this vulnerability. PMID:26446681

  7. Hearing loss in older adults affects neural systems supporting speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Troiani, Vanessa; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2011-08-31

    Hearing loss is one of the most common complaints in adults over the age of 60 and a major contributor to difficulties in speech comprehension. To examine the effects of hearing ability on the neural processes supporting spoken language processing in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor brain activity while older adults with age-normal hearing listened to sentences that varied in their linguistic demands. Individual differences in hearing ability predicted the degree of language-driven neural recruitment during auditory sentence comprehension in bilateral superior temporal gyri (including primary auditory cortex), thalamus, and brainstem. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship of hearing ability to cortical structural integrity using voxel-based morphometry, demonstrating a significant linear relationship between hearing ability and gray matter volume in primary auditory cortex. Together, these results suggest that even moderate declines in peripheral auditory acuity lead to a systematic downregulation of neural activity during the processing of higher-level aspects of speech, and may also contribute to loss of gray matter volume in primary auditory cortex. More generally, these findings support a resource-allocation framework in which individual differences in sensory ability help define the degree to which brain regions are recruited in service of a particular task.

  8. Factors Associated with Tooth Loss in Older Adults in Rural Colorado.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Scarbro, Sharon; Bryant, Lucinda L; Puma, Jini

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that are associated with tooth loss in older adults living in the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado, which is a rural and large geographical area (roughly the size of Connecticut) that has a large population age 60 years or older. Data used in this manuscript were collected as a part of the SLV Community Health Survey. The analyzed sample included 308 adults over the age of 65 years who completed the survey. Basic descriptive statistics and a series of step-wise binary logistic regression analyses were conducted; the dependent variable was the number of permanent teeth removed because of tooth decay or gum disease. Fifty-two percent of the participants were male, Hispanic participants made up 40 % of the sample and 76 % of the participants had at least a high school education. Tooth loss was significantly associated with older age (OR = 1.09; p = 0.02), lower income (OR = 0.01; p = 0.00), less than high school education (OR = 0.32; p = 0.01), being Hispanic (OR = 2.15; p = 0.05), self-reported fair-poor health status (OR 2.94; p = 0.02), consumption of one or more than one sweet beverage per day (OR = 4.52; p = 0.00), no dental insurance (OR = 4.70; p = 0.01) and length of time since last dental visit (OR = 0.21; p = 0.01). The findings of the present study suggest possible causes for tooth loss in rural adults and underscore the need for in-depth research to study the overall oral health of rural older adults living in SLV.

  9. Loss of heterozygosity and SOSTDC1 in adult and pediatric renal tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Deletions within the short arm of chromosome 7 are observed in approximately 25% of adult and 10% of Wilms pediatric renal tumors. Within Wilms tumors, the region of interest has been delineated to a 2-Mb minimal region that includes ten known genes. Two of these ten candidate genes, SOSTDC1 and MEOX2, are particularly relevant to tumor development and maintenance. This finding, coupled with evidence that SOSTDC1 is frequently downregulated in adult renal cancer and regulates both Wingless-Int (Wnt)- and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced signaling, points to a role for SOSTDC1 as a potential tumor suppressor. Methods To investigate this hypothesis, we interrogated the Oncomine database to examine the SOSTDC1 levels in adult renal clear cell tumors and pediatric Wilms tumors. We then performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and sequencing analyses of SOSTDC1 in 25 pediatric and 36 adult renal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining of patient samples was utilized to examine the impact of SOSTDC1 genetic aberrations on SOSTDC1 protein levels and signaling. Results Within the Oncomine database, we found that SOSTDC1 levels were reduced in adult renal clear cell tumors and pediatric Wilms tumors. Through SNP and sequencing analyses of 25 Wilms tumors, we identified four with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 7p and three that affected SOSTDC1. Of 36 adult renal cancers, we found five with LOH at 7p, two of which affected SOSTDC1. Immunohistochemical analysis of SOSTDC1 protein levels within these tumors did not reveal a relationship between these instances of SOSTDC1 LOH and SOSTDC1 protein levels. Moreover, we could not discern any impact of these genetic alterations on Wnt signaling as measured by altered beta-catenin levels or localization. Conclusions This study shows that genetic aberrations near SOSTDC1 are not uncommon in renal cancer, and occur in adult as well as pediatric renal tumors. These observations of SOSTDC1 LOH, however, did not

  10. Internalized weight stigma and its ideological correlates among weight loss treatment seeking adults.

    PubMed

    Carels, R A; Young, K M; Wott, C B; Harper, J; Gumble, A; Hobbs, M Wagner; Clayton, A M

    2009-01-01

    There are significant economic and psychological costs associated with the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. This pervasive anti-fat bias has been strongly internalized among the overweight/obese. While the etiology of weight stigma is complex, research suggests that it is often greater among individuals who embrace certain etiological views of obesity or ideological views of the world. This investigation examined 1) the level of internalized weight stigma among overweight/obese treatment seeking adults, and 2) the association between internalized weight stigma and perceived weight controllability and ideological beliefs about the world ('just world beliefs', Protestant work ethic). Forty-six overweight or obese adults (BMI >or=27 kg/m2) participating in an 18- week behavioral weight loss program completed implicit (Implicit Associations Test) and explicit (Obese Person's Trait Survey) measures of weight stigma. Participants also completed two measures of ideological beliefs about the world ("Just World Beliefs", Protestant Ethic Scale) and one measure of beliefs about weight controllability (Beliefs about Obese Persons). Significant implicit and explicit weight bias was observed. Greater weight stigma was consistently associated with greater endorsement of just world beliefs, Protestant ethic beliefs and beliefs about weight controllability. Results suggest that the overweight/obese treatment seeking adults have internalized the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. Internalized weight stigma may be greater among those holding specific etiological and ideological beliefs about weight and the world.

  11. Assessment of the risk factors for hearing loss in adult Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    Background: A reduction in hearing sensitivity is common in adults and was previously considered to be normal as age increases. However, other health variables may play a role in the sensory changes. This prospective, comparative, hospital-based study assessed the risk factors (RFs) associated with sensorineural hearing losses (SNHL) in adult patients in a specialized tertiary hospital clinic in South-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinical diagnosis of hearing impairment (bilateral SNHL) were the test subjects and age and sex-matched comparable group without SNHL were the Controls. Using a structured questionnaire, variables assessed included current and past medical history, family and social history, use of medications including ototoxic drugs, and prolonged medications. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients participated in the study comprising of 76 test subjects with SNHL (including 14 with suspected ARHL) and 51 controls. 59.8% of the participants were males. Univariate analysis revealed statistically-significant differences in family history, alcohol consumption, smoking, exposure to noise, previous ear discharge, previous head injury, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, ototoxic drugs usage, prolonged medication and obesity between the two categories of subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed family history, smoking, noise exposure, head injury, hypertension had significantly increased odds of developing SNHL. Conclusion: It was concluded that the RFs for SNHL in adult Nigerians were multifactorial while some of the RFs may be amenable to primary prevention. Legislation and public health education could facilitate reduction of SNHL in our community. PMID:24249950

  12. Hip joint contact loads in older adults during recovery from forward loss of balance by stepping.

    PubMed

    Graham, David F; Modenese, Luca; Trewartha, Grant; Carty, Christopher P; Constantinou, Maria; Lloyd, David G; Barrett, Rod S

    2016-09-06

    Hip joint contact loads during activities of daily living are not generally considered high enough to cause acute bone or joint injury. However there is some evidence that hip joint loads may be higher in stumble recovery from loss of balance. A common laboratory method used to evaluate balance recovery performance involves suddenly releasing participants from various static forward lean magnitudes (perturbation intensities). Prior studies have shown that when released from the same perturbation intensity, some older adults are able to recover with a single step, whereas others require multiple steps. The main purpose of this study was to use a musculoskeletal model to determine the effect of three balance perturbation intensities and the use of single versus multiple recovery steps on hip joint contact loads during recovery from forward loss of balance in community dwelling older adults (n=76). We also evaluated the association of peak hip contact loads with perturbation intensity, step length and trunk flexion angle at foot contact at each participant׳s maximum recoverable lean angle (MRLA). Peak hip joint contact loads were computed using muscle force estimates obtained using Static Optimisation and increased as lean magnitude was increased and were on average 32% higher for Single Steppers compared to Multiple Steppers. At the MRLA, peak hip contact loads ranged from 4.3 to 12.7 body weights and multiple linear stepwise regression further revealed that initial lean angle, step length and trunk angle at foot contact together explained 27% of the total variance in hip joint contact load. Overall findings indicated that older adults experience peak hip joint contact loads during maximal balance recovery by stepping that in some cases exceeded loads reported to cause mechanical failure of cadaver femurs. While step length and trunk flexion angle are strong predictors of step recovery performance they are at best moderate predictors of peak hip joint loading.

  13. Weight-loss interventions for overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a mixed methods systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lesley; Ryan, Cormac; Ells, Louisa Jane; Hamilton, Sharon; Atkinson, Greg; Cooper, Kay; Johnson, Mark I.; Kirwan, John P.; Martin, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Review question/objective The objective of this mixed methods review is to develop an aggregated synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data on weight-loss interventions for overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain in an attempt to derive conclusions and recommendations useful for clinical practice and policy decision making. The objective of the quantitative component of this review is to quantify the effectiveness of weight-loss interventions on weight, pain and physical and/or psychosocial function in overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The objectives of the qualitative component of this review are to explore the perceptions and experiences of overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain of the link between their weight and pain, and the effectiveness and appropriateness of weight-loss interventions and sustainability of weight-loss efforts. PMID:27532463

  14. No Association Between Time of Onset of Hearing Loss (Childhood Versus Adulthood) and Self-Reported Hearing Handicap in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tambs, Kristian; Engdahl, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap in adults. Methods This is a population-based cohort study of 2,024 adults (mean = 48 years) with hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5–4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL) who completed a hearing handicap questionnaire. In childhood, the same persons (N = 2,024) underwent audiometry in a school investigation (at ages 7, 10, and 13 years), in which 129 were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5–4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL), whereas 1,895 had normal hearing thresholds. Results Hearing handicap was measured in adulthood as the sum-score of various speech perception and social impairment items (15 items). The sum-score increased with adult hearing threshold level (p < .001). After adjustment for adult hearing threshold level, hearing aid use, adult age, sex, and socioeconomic status, there was no significant difference in hearing handicap sum-score between the group with childhood-onset hearing loss (n = 129) and the group with adult-onset hearing loss (n = 1,895; p = .882). Conclusion Self-reported hearing handicap in adults increased with hearing threshold level. After adjustment for adult hearing threshold level, this cohort study revealed no significant association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap. PMID:26649831

  15. Cost considerations for the use of low-air-loss bed therapy in adult intensive care.

    PubMed

    Hibbert, C L; Edbrooke, D L; Corcoran, M; Bright, N N; Kingsley, J N

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the costs of low-air-loss bed therapy in the adult intensive care unit (ICU). A retrospective cost analysis was performed on 269 consecutive patients, 63 of whom had received low-air-loss bed therapy. Patients' APACHE II scores, length of stay (LOS), average daily TISS and ICU outcomes were also collected. Patients' APACHE II and LOS were further studied using odds ratios to test for an association between these factors and likelihood of receiving bed therapy. A prospective 10-week study to identify the amount of nursing time spent repositioning patients was also performed. The results of this study found the bed therapy to represent approximately 3% of the total average cost of care per patient. Patients requiring the bed therapy had higher APACHE II scores on admission, higher average daily TISS points and a longer length of ICU stay. Study of the odds ratios would suggest that the likelihood of patients receiving low-air-loss bed therapy increases if their APACHE II score on admission is between 11 and 20 and they stay > 4.5 days in the ICU. The results of the prospective study found the daily cost of repositioning patients to be 172.80 Pounds per patient.

  16. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  17. Association between tooth loss and cognitive decline: A 13-year longitudinal study of Chinese older adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Xu, Hanzhang; Pan, Wei; Wu, Bei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between the number of teeth remaining and cognitive decline among Chinese older adults over a 13-year period. Design A large national longitudinal survey of Chinese older adults Setting The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) (1998–2011). Participants A total of 8,153 eligible participants aged 60+ interviewed in up to six waves. Measurements Cognitive function and teeth number were measured at each interview. Cognitive function was measured by the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). Number of natural teeth was self-reported. Individuals with severe cognitive impairment were excluded. Covariates included demographic characteristics, adult socioeconomic status characteristics, childhood socioeconomic status, health conditions, and health behaviors. Linear mixed models were applied in the analysis. Results The mean teeth number at baseline was 17.5(SD = 0.1), and the mean of baseline cognitive function was 27.3(SD = 0.0). Cognitive function declined over time (β = -0.19, P < .001) after controlling covariates. But, regardless of time, more teeth were associated with better cognitive function (β = 0.01, P < .001). The interaction of teeth number and time was significant (β = 0.01, P < .001), suggesting that the participants who had more teeth showed a slower pace of cognitive decline over time than those with fewer teeth after controlling for other covariates. Conclusion This study showed that tooth loss was associated with cognitive decline among Chinese older adults. Further studies are needed to examine the linkages between cognitive decline and oral health status using clinical examination data. PMID:28158261

  18. Effects of Maintained Weight Loss on Sleep Dynamics and Neck Morphology in Severely Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Teri L.; Ballard, Robert D.; Weil, Kathleen M.; Shepard, Trudy Y.; Scherzinger, Ann L.; Stamm, Elizabeth R.; Sharp, Teresa A.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of the study were to determine if moderate weight loss in severely obese adults resulted in 1) reduction in apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), 2) improved pharyngeal patency, 3) reduced total body oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) during sleep, and 4) improved sleep quality. The main outcome was the change in AHI from before to after weight loss. Fourteen severely obese (BMI>40 kg/m2) patients (3 males, 11 females) completed a highly controlled weight reduction program which included 3 months of weight loss and 3 months of weight maintenance. At baseline and post-weight loss, patients underwent pulmonary function testing, polysomnography, and MRI to assess neck morphology. Weight decreased from 134±6.6 kg to 118±6.1 kg (mean ± SEM; F=113.763, p<0.0001). There was a significant reduction in the AHI between baseline and post-weight loss (SUBJECT, F=11.11, p=0.007). Moreover, patients with worse sleep disordered breathing (SDB) at baseline had the greatest improvements in AHI (GROUP, F=9.00, p=0.005). Reductions in VO2 (285±12 to 234±16 ml/min; F=24.85, p<0.0001) and VCO2 (231±9 to 186±12 ml/min; F=27.74, p<0.0001) were also observed, and pulmonary function testing showed improvements in spirometry parameters. Sleep studies revealed improved minimum SaO2 (83.4±61.9% to 89.1±1.2%; F=7.59, p=0.016), and mean SaO2 (90.4±1.1% to 93.8±1.0%; F=6.89, p=0.022), and a significant increase in the number of arousals (8.1±1.4 at baseline, to 17.1±3.0 after weight loss; F=18.13, p=0.001). In severely obese patients, even moderate weight loss (~10%) boasts substantial benefit in terms of the severity of SDB and sleep dynamics. PMID:18948968

  19. Teaching Manual Signs to Adults With Mental Retardation Using Matching-to-Sample Procedures and Stimulus Equivalence

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Nassim Chamel; Goyos, Celso; Saunders, Muriel; Saunders, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to teach manual signs through an automated matching-to-sample procedure and to test for the emergence of new conditional relations and imitative behaviors. Seven adults with mild to severe mental retardation participated. Four were also hearing impaired. Relations between manual signs (set A) and pictures (set B) were initially taught, followed by the training of corresponding printed words (set C) and pictures (set B). Further presentations of conditional discriminations tested for the emergence of AC, followed by tests for the emergence of imitative signing behavior (D) in the presence of either pictures (B) or printed words (C). Each stimulus set was comprised of 9 elements. The stimuli were still pictures, printed words, and dynamic presentations of manual signs. A pretest was conducted to determine which signs the participants could make pre-experimentally. Teaching was arranged in a multiple baseline design across 3 groups of 3 words each. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether participants would emit manual signs in expressive signs tests as a result of observation (video modeling) during match-to-sample training in the absence of explicit training. Five of the 7 subjects passed tests of emergence and emitted at least 50% of the signs. Two were hearing impaired with signing experience, and 3 were not hearing impaired and had no signing experience. Thus, observation of video recorded manual signs in a matching-to-sample training procedure was effective at establishing some signs by adults with mental retardation. PMID:22477400

  20. Predictors of Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Monique T.; Verhoeven, Adrie J. M.; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Boessen, Ruud; Pellis, Linette P.; van t Spijker, Adriaan; Timman, Reinier; Ozcan, Behiye; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Methods 192 patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI>27 kg/m2 from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Erasmus Medical Center underwent an 8-week very low calorie diet. Baseline demographic, psychological and physiological parameters were measured and the C-index was calculated of the model with the largest explained variance of relative weight loss using backward linear regression analysis. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques. Results Weight loss after the diet was 7.8±4.6 kg (95%CI 7.2–8.5; p<0.001) and was independently associated with the baseline variables fasting glucose (B = -0.33 (95%CI -0.49, -0.18), p = 0.001), anxiety (HADS; B = -0.22 (95%CI -0.34, -0.11), p = 0.001), numb feeling in extremities (B = 1.86 (95%CI 0.85, 2.87), p = 0.002), insulin dose (B = 0.01 (95%CI 0.00, 0.02), p = 0.014) and waist-to-hip ratio (B = 6.79 (95%CI 2.10, 11.78), p = 0.003). This model explained 25% of the variance in weight loss. The C-index of this model to predict successful (≥5%) weight loss was 0.74 (95%CI 0.67–0.82), with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89–0.97) and specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.16–0.42). When only the obese T2D patients (BMI≥30 kg/m2; n = 181) were considered, age also contributed to the model (B = 0.06 (95%CI 0.02, 0.11), p = 0.008), whereas waist-to-hip ratio did not. Conclusions Diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with T2D was predicted by five baseline parameters, which were predominantly diabetes related. However, failure seems difficult to predict. We propose to test this prediction model in future prospective diet intervention studies in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27494531

  1. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested.

  2. Young adults' strategies for managing social support during weight-loss attempts.

    PubMed

    Faw, Meara H

    2014-02-01

    Obesity and being overweight often result in serious health problems. Despite growing awareness of the dangers associated with being overweight, many individuals struggle to lose weight. Investigators have identified social support as a key element in weight-loss attempts. Unfortunately, little has been done to investigate how people solicit social support from members of their pre-existing social network without a structured intervention. To address this limitation, I conducted in-depth interviews with 25 participants. Through grounded theory analysis of these interviews, I developed a typology of support management strategies used by overweight young adults when attempting to lose weight. I outline these strategies, their perceived success, and implications for future research in this article.

  3. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  4. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness.

  5. Tooth loss and dental caries in community-dwelling older adults in northern Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Ue, Frances V.; Borrell, Luisa N.; De La Cruz, Leydis D.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Bodnar, Stephanie; Marshall, Stephen; Lamster, Ira B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tooth loss and dental caries by sociodemographic characteristics from community-based oral health examinations conducted by dentists in northern Manhattan. Background The ElderSmile programme of the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine serves older adults with varying functional capacities across settings. This report is focused on relatively mobile, socially engaged participants who live in the impoverished communities of Harlem and Washington Heights/Inwood in northern Manhattan, New York City. Materials and Methods Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health and health care information were provided by community-dwelling ElderSmile participants aged 65 years and older who took part in community-based oral health education and completed a screening questionnaire. Oral health examinations were conducted by trained dentists in partnering prevention centres among ElderSmile participants who agreed to be clinically screened (90.8%). Results The dental caries experience of ElderSmile participants varied significantly by sociodemographic predictors and smoking history. After adjustment in a multivariable logistic regression model, older age, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and a history of current or former smoking were important predictors of edentulism. Conclusion Provision of oral health screenings in community-based settings may result in opportunities to intervene before oral disease is severe, leading to improved oral health for older adults. PMID:21718349

  6. Quality of life and auditory performance in adults with asymmetric hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Vannson, Nicolas; James, Christopher; Fraysse, Bernard; Strelnikov, Kuzma; Barone, Pascal; Deguine, Olivier; Marx, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between binaural hearing deficits and quality of life. The study included 49 adults with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL), and 11 adult normal-hearing listeners (NHL) served as controls. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) were assessed with the French Matrix Test. Quality of life was evaluated with the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) and the Glasgow Health Status Inventory. Speech recognition in noise was significantly poorer for AHL subjects [-0.12 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in dichotic (with speech presented to the poorer ear and noise to the better ear), -1.72 dB in diotic and -6.84 dB in reverse-dichotic conditions] compared to NHL (-4.98 dB in diotic and -9.58 dB in dichotic conditions). Scores for quality-of-life questionnaires were significantly below norms. Significant correlations were found between the SRT for the dichotic condition and the SSQ total score (r = -0.38, p = 0.01), and pure-tone average thresholds for both groups.

  7. Sensorineural hearing loss: a complication of acute otitis media in adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo Hyun; Park, Sung Joon; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Min-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    We aim to evaluate the incidence and clinical manifestations of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adult patients with acute otitis media (AOM). Seventy-five patients (age > 18 years; 83 ears) diagnosed with AOM between January 2008 and March 2011 at our clinic were enroled and retrospectively reviewed. We detected audiometrically confirmed SNHL during the course of AOM in eight patients. The clinical course, treatment, and audiometric final outcome of each case were reviewed. SNHL was associated with AOM in 8 out of 83 ears (9.3%). The mean age of patients was 57.5 years, and the mean follow-up period was 21.1 months (range 0.6-46.3 months). The most common symptom was tinnitus. Mean bone conduction hearing threshold was 39.5 dB in pure tone audiometry. All patients showed high-frequency HL, and three showed pan-frequency HL. All patients were treated with oral antibiotics at the initial visit. Seven ears were treated with a combination of oral steroids. Myringotomy was also performed. Seven of eight patients showed improvement; however, 8 kHz thresholds were not improved. This suggested that the inflammation spread through the round window. The mean duration of recovery was 18.6 days. SNHL associated with AOM in adult patients occurs during the early phases of the disease course. High-frequency hearing was commonly affected and was well treated with oral antibiotics, myringotomy, and steroid therapy. Audiometry can be helpful for treating adult patients with AOM. Active treatment, including myringotomy, should be performed during the early phase, if SNHL is suspected.

  8. Prevalence of Impaired Memory in Hospitalized Adults and Associations with In-Hospital Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Calev, Hila; Spampinato, Lisa M; Press, Valerie G; Meltzer, David O; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective inpatient teaching requires intact patient memory, but studies suggest hospitalized adults may have memory deficits. Sleep loss among inpatients could contribute to memory impairment. Objective To assess memory in older hospitalized adults, and to test the association between sleep quantity, sleep quality and memory, in order to identify a possible contributor to memory deficits in these patients. Design Prospective cohort study Setting General medicine and hematology/oncology inpatient wards Patients 59 hospitalized adults at least 50 years of age with no diagnosed sleep disorder. Measurements Immediate memory and memory after a 24-hour delay were assessed using a word recall and word recognition task from the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT). A vignette-based memory task was piloted as an alternative test more closely resembling discharge instructions. Sleep duration and efficiency overnight in the hospital were measured using actigraphy. Results Mean immediate recall was 3.8 words out of 15 (SD=2.1). Forty-nine percent of subjects had poor memory, defined as immediate recall score of 3 or lower. Median immediate recognition was 11 words out of 15 (IQR=9, 13). Median delayed recall score was 1 word and median delayed recognition was 10 words (IQR= 8–12). In-hospital sleep duration and efficiency were not significantly associated with memory. The medical vignette score was correlated with immediate recall (r=0.49, p<0.01) Conclusions About half of inpatients studied had poor memory while in the hospital, signaling that hospitalization might not be an ideal teachable moment. In-hospital sleep was not associated with memory scores. PMID:25872763

  9. Investigation of the long-term effects of unilateral hearing loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Colletti, V; Fiorino, F G; Carner, M; Rizzi, R

    1988-05-01

    The recent audiological literature has put forward the hypothesis that children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) show delays in educational achievement and academic progress and some behavioural difficulties. This motivated us to investigate the long-term effects of monaural auditory deprivation in a group of adults who had suffered from UHL since childhood. A group of subjects, ranging in age from 30 to 55 years, suffering from sensorineural UHL since early childhood, has been examined for psychosocial and psychoacoustical effects and statistically compared with a control group matched for age and sex. We prepared a questionnaire directed to provide some objective and subjective indices of psychosocial disability and handicap. Some questions were directed towards specific aspects of auditory function; others assessed the degree of education and the type of working performed. The results of the investigation confirmed the superiority of binaural v. monaural hearing. This was clearly demonstrated in psycho-acoustical performance in sound localisation, speech recognition in noise, together with the appreciation of music. On the other hand, the parameters concerned with educational, social and employment achievement did not support the existence of any significant difference between binaurally and monaurally hearing subjects. The data obtained in the present study thus do not support the existence of non-auditory, long-term effects of monaural hearing loss.

  10. Functional organization of motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys is altered by sensory loss in infancy.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Jain, Neeraj; Collins, Christine E; Lyon, David C; Kaas, Jon H

    2010-02-16

    When somatosensory cortex (S1) is deprived of some of its inputs after section of ascending afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, it reorganizes to overrepresent the surviving inputs. As somatosensory cortex provides guiding sensory information to motor cortex, such sensory loss and representational reorganization could affect the development of the motor map in primary motor cortex (M1), especially if the sensory loss occurs early in development. To address this possibility, the dorsal columns of the spinal cord were sectioned between cervical levels (C3-5) 3-12 days after birth in five macaque monkeys. After 3-5 years of maturation (young adults), we determined how movements were represented in M1 contralateral to the lesion by using microelectrodes to electrically stimulate sites in M1 to evoke movements. Although the details of the motor maps in these five monkeys varied, the forelimb motor maps were abnormal. The representations of digit movements were reduced and abnormally arranged. Current levels for evoking movements from the forelimb region of M1 were in the normal range, but the lowest mean stimulation thresholds were for wrist or elbow instead of digit movements. Incomplete lesions and bilateral lesions produced fewer abnormalities. The results suggest that the development of normal motor cortex maps in M1 depends on sensory feedback from somatosensory maps.

  11. Eating behavior traits and sleep as determinants of weight loss in overweight and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Filiatrault, M-L; Chaput, J-P; Drapeau, V; Tremblay, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between eating behavior traits and weight loss according to sleep quality and duration in adults enrolled in common weight-loss interventions. Methods: Participants included overweight and obese men and women (n=150) (mean±s.d. age, 38.8±8.6 years; mean±s.d. body mass index (BMI), 33.3±3.5 kg m−2) who were subjected to a dietary intervention over a period of 12–16 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, eating behavior traits (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire), sleep quality (total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score) and sleep duration (hours per night, self-reported from the PSQI) were assessed at both baseline and post intervention. Linear regression analysis was used to quantify the relationships between eating behavior traits and changes in anthropometric markers for all subjects and by sleep categories (short sleep: <7 h per night vs recommended sleep: ⩾7 h per night; poor sleep quality: ⩾5 PSQI score vs good sleep quality: <5 PSQI score). We adjusted for age, sex and baseline BMI in analyses. Results: Baseline eating behavior traits were modest predictors of weight-loss success, but they were all significantly associated with their changes over the weight-loss intervention (P<0.01). The diet intervention induced significant changes in eating behavior traits and even more for those having a non-favorable eating behavior profile at baseline. We observed that changes in flexible control and strategic dieting behavior were constantly negatively associated with changes in body weight and fat mass (P<0.05) for recommended duration sleepers. The change in situational susceptibility to disinhibition was positively associated with the change in fat mass and body weight for those having healthy sleeping habits (P<0.05). For poor quality sleepers, the change in avoidance of fattening foods was negatively associated with changes in adiposity (P<0.05). Conclusion: Eating behavior traits and sleep may act

  12. Loss of AND-34/BCAR3 expression in mice results in rupture of the adult lens

    PubMed Central

    Near, Richard I.; Smith, Richard S.; Toselli, Paul A.; Freddo, Thomas F.; Bloom, Alexander B.; Vanden Borre, Pierre; Seldin, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose AND-34/BCAR3 (Breast Cancer Anti-Estrogen Resistance 3) associates with the focal adhesion adaptor protein, p130CAS/BCAR1. Expression of AND-34 regulates epithelial cell growth pattern, motility, and growth factor dependence. We sought to establish the effects of the loss of AND-34 expression in a mammalian organism. Methods AND-34−/− mice were generated by homologous recombination. Histopathology, in situ hybridization, and western blotting were performed on murine tissues. Results Western analyses confirmed total loss of expression in AND-34−/− splenic lymphocytes. Mice lacking AND-34 are fertile and have normal longevity. While AND-34 is widely expressed in wild type mice, histologic analysis of multiple organs in AND-34−/− mice is unremarkable and analyses of lymphocyte development show no overt changes. A small percentage of AND-34−/− mice show distinctive small white eye lesions resulting from the migration of ruptured cortical lens tissue into the anterior chamber. Following initial vacuolization and liquefaction of the lens cortex first observed at postnatal day three, posterior lens rupture occurs in all AND-34−/− mice, beginning as early as three weeks and seen in all mice at three months. Western blot analysis and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of AND-34 RNA and protein in lens epithelial cells, particularly at the lens equator. Prior data link AND-34 expression to the activation of Akt signaling. While Akt Ser 473 phosphorylation was readily detectable in AND-34+/+ lens epithelial cells, it was markedly reduced in the AND-34−/− lens epithelium. Basal levels of p130Cas phosphorylation were higher in AND-34+/+ than in AND-34−/− lens epithelium. Conclusions These results demonstrate the loss of AND-34 dysregulates focal adhesion complex signaling in lens epithelial cells and suggest that AND-34-mediated signaling is required for maintenance of the structural integrity of the adult ocular lens. PMID:19365570

  13. Effect of weight loss on the rate of muscle protein synthesis during fasted and fed conditions in obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Dennis T; Smith, Gordon I; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2012-09-01

    Although weight loss ameliorates many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, there has been reluctance to prescribe weight loss in obese, older individuals because of the fear that it will cause debilitating loss of muscle mass and impair physical function. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for the weight loss-induced changes in muscle mass, we measured the rate of muscle protein synthesis (by using stable isotope labeled tracer methodology) during basal, postabsorptive conditions and during mixed meal ingestion in eight obese, older adults: (i) before weight loss therapy, (ii) ~3 months after starting the weight loss intervention (i.e., during the active weight loss phase), when subjects had lost ~7% of their initial body weight, and (iii) after they had lost ~10% of their body weight and maintained this new body weight for ~6 months (~12 months after starting the weight loss intervention). The basal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was not affected by weight loss. Mixed meal ingestion stimulated the rate of muscle protein synthesis, and the anabolic response (i.e., increase in the protein synthesis rate above basal values) was greater (P < 0.05) during negative energy balance and active weight loss at 3 months (0.033 ± 0.012%·per hour, mean ± s.e.m.) than during weight maintenance before and at 12 months of weight loss therapy (0.003 ± 0.003 and 0.008 ± 0.012%·per hour, respectively). We conclude that during dietary calorie restriction and weight loss in older adults, the rate of muscle protein synthesis is not impaired. Thus, the loss of muscle mass must be mediated predominately by adverse effects of dietary calorie restriction on muscle proteolysis.

  14. The influence of hearing-aid compression on forward-masked thresholds for adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Marc A; McCreery, Ryan W; Jesteadt, Walt

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes forward-masked thresholds for adults with hearing loss. Previous research has demonstrated that the loss of cochlear compression contributes to deficits in this measure of temporal resolution. Cochlear compression can be mimicked with fast-acting compression where the normal dynamic range is mapped to the impaired dynamic range. To test the hypothesis that fast-acting compression will most-closely approximate the normal ability to perceive forward-masked pure-tones, forward-masked thresholds were measured for two groups of adults (normal hearing, hearing loss). Adults with normal hearing were tested without amplification. Adults with hearing loss were tested with three different compression speeds and two different prescriptive procedures using a hearing-aid simulator. The two prescriptive procedures differed in the extent to which the normal dynamic range was mapped onto the impaired dynamic range. When using a faster compression speed with the prescriptive procedure that best restored the lost dynamic range, forward-masked thresholds for the listeners with hearing loss approximated those observed for the listeners with normal hearing.

  15. Validation of airway resistance models for predicting pressure loss through anatomically realistic conducting airway replicas of adults and children.

    PubMed

    Borojeni, Azadeh A T; Noga, Michelle L; Martin, Andrew R; Finlay, Warren H

    2015-07-16

    This work describes in vitro measurement of the total pressure loss at varying flow rate through anatomically realistic conducting airway replicas of 10 children, 4 to 8 years old, and 5 adults. Experimental results were compared with analytical predictions made using published airway resistance models. For the adult replicas, the model proposed by van Ertbruggen et al. (2005. J. Appl. Physiol. 98, 970-980) most accurately predicted central conducting airway resistance for inspiratory flow rates ranging from 15 to 90 L/min. Models proposed by Pedley et al. (1970. J. Respir. Physiol. 9, 371-386) and by Katz et al. (2011. J. Biomech. 44, 1137-1143) also provided reasonable estimates, but with a tendency to over predict measured pressure loss for both models. For child replicas, the Pedley and Katz models both provided good estimation of measured pressure loss at flow rates representative of resting tidal breathing, but under predicted measured values at high inspiratory flow rate (60 L/min). The van Ertbruggen model, developed based on flow simulations performed in an adult airway model, tended to under predict measured pressure loss through the child replicas across the range of flow rates studied (2 to 60 L/min). These results are intended to provide guidance for selection of analytical pressure loss models for use in predicting airway resistance and ventilation distribution in adults and children.

  16. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    PubMed

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to <30% of total energy intake may facilitate weight loss by reducing total energy intake. Although there may be advantages to modifying protein and carbohydrate intake, the optimal doses of these macronutritents for weight loss have not been determined. Significant health benefits can be recognized with participation in a minimum of 150 min (2.5 h) of moderate intensity exercise per week, and overweight and obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for

  17. Loss of executive function after dialysis initiation in adults with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Vittinghoff, Eric; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Tam, Karman; Seliger, Stephen L; Sozio, Stephen; Fischer, Michael; Chen, Jing; Lustigova, Eva; Strauss, Louise; Deo, Rajat; Go, Alan S; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-04-01

    The association of dialysis initiation with changes in cognitive function among patients with advanced chronic kidney disease is poorly described. To better define this, we enrolled participants with advanced chronic kidney disease from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort in a prospective study of cognitive function. Eligible participants had a glomerular filtration rate of 20 ml/min/1.73m(2) or less, or dialysis initiation within the past two years. We evaluated cognitive function by a validated telephone battery at regular intervals over two years and analyzed test scores as z scores. Of 212 participants, 123 did not transition to dialysis during follow-up, 37 transitioned to dialysis after baseline, and 52 transitioned to dialysis prior to baseline. In adjusted analyses, the transition to dialysis was associated with a significant loss of executive function, but no significant changes in global cognition or memory. The estimated net difference in cognitive z scores at two years for participants who transitioned to dialysis during follow-up compared to participants who did not transition to dialysis was -0.01 (95% confidence interval -0.13, 0.11) for global cognition, -0.24 (-0.51, 0.03) for memory, and -0.33 (-0.60, -0.07) for executive function. Thus, among adults with advanced chronic kidney disease, dialysis initiation was associated with loss of executive function with no change in other aspects of cognition. Larger studies are needed to evaluate cognition during dialysis initiation.

  18. Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p = 0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

  19. Response of olfactory axons to loss of synaptic targets in the adult mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ardiles, Yona; de la Puente, Rafael; Toledo, Rafael; Isgor, Ceylan; Guthrie, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Glomerular convergence has been proposed to rely on interactions between like olfactory axons, however topographic targeting is influenced by guidance molecules encountered in the olfactory bulb. Disruption of these cues during development misdirects sensory axons, however little is known about the role of bulb-derived signals in later life, as new axons arise during turnover of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) population. To evaluate the contribution of bulb neurons in maintaining topographic projections in adults, we ablated them with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in P2-IRES-tauLacZ mice and examined how sensory axons responded to loss of their postsynaptic partners. NMDA lesion eliminated bulb neurons without damage to sensory axons or olfactory ensheathing glia. P2 axons contained within glomeruli at the time of lesion maintained convergence at these locations; there was no evidence of compensatory growth into the remnant tissue. Delayed apoptosis of OSNs in the target-deprived epithelium led to declines in P2 neuron number as well as the gradual atrophy, and in some cases complete loss, of P2 glomeruli in lesioned bulbs by three weeks. Increased cell proliferation in the epithelium partially restored the OSN population, and by eight weeks, new P2 axons distributed within diverse locations in the bulb remnant and within the anterior olfactory nucleus. Prior studies have suggested that initial development of olfactory topography does not rely on synapse formation with target neurons, however the present data demonstrate that continued maintenance of the sensory map requires the presence of sufficient numbers and/or types of available bulbar synaptic targets. PMID:17674970

  20. Quantitative trait locus on chromosome 1q influences bone loss in young Mexican American adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Kammerer, Candace M.; Bruder, Jan M.; Cole, Shelley A.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Almasy, Laura; MacCluer, Jean W.; Blangero, John; Bauer, Richard L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Bone loss occurs as early as the third decade and its cumulative effect throughout adulthood may impact risk for osteoporosis in later life, however the genes and environmental factors influencing early bone loss are largely unknown. We investigated the role of genes in the change in bone mineral density (BMD) in participants of the San Antonio Family Osteoporosis Study. Materials and Methods BMD change in 327 Mexican Americans (ages 25–45 years) from 32 extended pedigrees was calculated from DXA measurements at baseline and follow-up (3.5 to 8.9 years later). Family-based likelihood methods were used to estimate heritability (h2) and perform autosome-wide linkage analysis for BMD change of the proximal femur and forearm, and estimate heritability for BMD change of lumbar spine. Results BMD change was significantly heritable for total hip, ultradistal radius and 33% radius (h2 = 0.34, 0.34, 0.27, respectively, p < 0.03 for all), modestly heritable for femoral neck (h2 = 0.22, p = 0.06) and not heritable for spine BMD. Covariates associated with BMD change included age, sex, baseline BMD, menopause, body mass index, and interim BMI change, and accounted for 6% to 24% of phenotype variation. A significant quantitative trait locus (LOD = 3.6) for femoral neck BMD change was observed on chromosome 1q23. Conclusions We observed that change in BMD in young adults is heritable, and performed one of the first linkage studies for BMD change. Linkage to chromosome 1q23 suggests this region may harbor one or more genes involved in regulating early BMD change of the femoral neck. PMID:19067020

  1. Expectancy, Self-Efficacy, and Placebo Effect of a Sham Supplement for Weight Loss in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults with metabolic syndrome. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement, (2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo, or (3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy.

  2. Adult Conditional Knockout of PGC-1α Leads to Loss of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haisong; Zhang, Shuran; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar; Xu, Jinchong; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Pirooznia, Shelia; Andrabi, Shaida A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have implicated a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator protein-1α (PGC-1α) in PD and in animal or cellular models of PD. The role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons is not clear. Here we find that there are four different PGC-1α isoforms expressed in SH-SY5Y cells, and these four isoforms are expressed across subregions of mouse brain. Adult conditional PGC-1α knock-out mice show a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons that is accompanied by a reduction of dopamine in the striatum. In human PD postmortem tissue from the SNpc, there is a reduction of PGC-1α isoforms and mitochondria markers. Our findings suggest that all four isoforms of PGC-1α are required for the proper expression of mitochondrial proteins in SNpc DA neurons and that PGC-1α is essential for SNpc DA neuronal survival, possibly through the maintenance of mitochondrial function. PMID:27622213

  3. Factors that influence the use of assistance technologies by older adults who have a hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Southall, Kenneth; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Leroux, Tony

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and better understand the factors that influence the use of assistance technologies by older adults who have a hearing loss. We were interested in adopting a methodological approach that would provide an in-depth account of individual experiences related to the use of these technologies. A qualitative research design was therefore selected. Audio-recorded interviews were conducted with ten individuals who were 65 years of age or older and were current successful assistance technology users. Thematic analysis was used to draw meaning from the interview transcripts. The results suggest that successful use of these assistance technologies involves the recognition of hearing difficulties, an awareness that technological solutions exist, consultation for and acquisition of devices, and adapting to device use and modified behaviour. These four landmarks seem to be crucial stages when people either move toward successful assistance technology use or are discouraged from assistance technology use. Based on these results, a representative model of assistance technology awareness, acquisition and utilization is proposed.

  4. Latent Mean and Covariance Differences with Measurement Equivalence in College Students with Developmental Difficulties versus the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III/Wechsler Memory Scale-III Normative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Gregg, Noel; Bandalos, Deborah; Davis, Mark; Coleman, Chris; Holdnack, James A.; Weiss, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    Intelligence tests are usually part of the assessment battery for the diagnosis of adults with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Professionals must ensure that inferences drawn from such test scores are equivalent across populations with and without disabilities. Examination of measurement equivalence…

  5. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults' hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ² test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.

  6. Weight loss and physical activity for disease prevention in obese older adults: an important role for lifestyle management.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Willy Marcos; Stoutenberg, Mark; Florez, Hermes

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss in older adults has been a controversial topic for more than a decade. An obesity paradox has been previously described and the issue of weight status on health outcomes remains a highly debated topic. However, there is little doubt that physical activity (PA) has a myriad of benefits in older adults, especially in obese individuals who are inactive and have a poor cardiometabolic profile. In this review, we offer a critical view to clarify misunderstandings regarding the obesity paradox, particularly as it relates to obese older adults. We also review the evidence on PA and lifestyle interventions for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness, which can prevent disease and provide benefits to obese older adults, independent of weight changes.

  7. Estimated tooth loss based on number of present teeth in Japanese adults using national surveys of dental disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Koichi; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Fukai, Kakuhiro; Takiguchi, Toru; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Oral health instruction for adults should take into account the potential effect of tooth loss, as this has been suggested to predict further tooth loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether further tooth loss could be predicted from the number of present teeth (PT). We employed the same method as in our previous study, this time using two national surveys of dental disease, which were deemed to represent a generational cohort. Percentiles were estimated using the cumulative frequency distribution of PT from the two surveys. The first was a survey of 704 participants aged 50-59 years conducted in 2005, and the second was a survey of 747 participants aged 56-65 years conducted in 2011. The 1st to 100th percentiles of the number of PT were calculated for both age groups. Using these percentiles and a generational cohort analysis based on the two surveys, the number of teeth lost per year could be calculated. The distribution of number of teeth lost generated a convex curve. Peak tooth loss occurred at around 12-14 PT, with 0.54 teeth being lost per year. The percentage of teeth lost (per number of PT) increased as number of PT decreased. The results confirmed that tooth loss promotes further tooth loss. These data should be made available for use in adult oral health education.

  8. Associations Between Adult and Childhood Secondhand Smoke Exposures with Fecundity and Fetal Loss Among Women who Visited a Cancer Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Peppone, Luke J.; Piazza, Kenneth M.; Mahoney, Martin C.; Morrow, Gary R.; Mustian, Karen; Palesh, Oxana G.; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND A large percentage of the population continues to be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). Although studies have consistently linked active smoking to various pregnancy outcomes, results from the few studies examining SHS exposure and pregnancy difficulties have been inconsistent. METHODS Approximately 4,800 women who presented to Roswell Park Cancer Institute between 1982 and 1998 and reported being pregnant at least once were queried about their childhood and adult exposures to SHS using a standardized questionnaire. Women were asked to report on selected prenatal pregnancy outcomes (fetal loss and difficulty becoming pregnant). RESULTS Approximately 11.3% of women reported difficulty becoming pregnant, while 32% reported a fetal loss or 12.4% reported multiple fetal losses. Forty percent reported any prenatal pregnancy difficulty (fetal loss and/or difficulty becoming pregnant). SHS exposures from their parents were associated with difficulty becoming pregnant (OR=1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48) and lasting > 1 year (OR=1.34, 95%CI 1.12–1.60). Exposure to SHS in both at home during childhood and at the time of survey completion was also associated with fetal loss (OR=1.39, 95%CI 1.17–1.66) and multiple fetal losses (OR=1.62, 95%CI 1.25–2.11). Increasing current daily hours of SHS exposure as an adult was related to the occurrence of both multiple fetal loss and reduced fecundity (ptrend<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Reports of exposures to SHS during childhood and as an adult were associated with increased odds for prenatal pregnancy difficulties. These findings underscore the public health perspective that all persons, especially women in their reproductive years, should be fully protected from tobacco smoke. PMID:19039010

  9. Auditory Perceptual Learning in Adults with and without Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Karawani, Hanin; Bitan, Tali; Attias, Joseph; Banai, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : Speech recognition in adverse listening conditions becomes more difficult as we age, particularly for individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL). Whether these difficulties can be eased with training remains debated, because it is not clear whether the outcomes are sufficiently general to be of use outside of the training context. The aim of the current study was to compare training-induced learning and generalization between normal-hearing older adults and those with ARHL. Methods : Fifty-six listeners (60–72 y/o), 35 participants with ARHL, and 21 normal hearing adults participated in the study. The study design was a cross over design with three groups (immediate-training, delayed-training, and no-training group). Trained participants received 13 sessions of home-based auditory training over the course of 4 weeks. Three adverse listening conditions were targeted: (1) Speech-in-noise, (2) time compressed speech, and (3) competing speakers, and the outcomes of training were compared between normal and ARHL groups. Pre- and post-test sessions were completed by all participants. Outcome measures included tests on all of the trained conditions as well as on a series of untrained conditions designed to assess the transfer of learning to other speech and non-speech conditions. Results : Significant improvements on all trained conditions were observed in both ARHL and normal-hearing groups over the course of training. Normal hearing participants learned more than participants with ARHL in the speech-in-noise condition, but showed similar patterns of learning in the other conditions. Greater pre- to post-test changes were observed in trained than in untrained listeners on all trained conditions. In addition, the ability of trained listeners from the ARHL group to discriminate minimally different pseudowords in noise also improved with training. Conclusions : ARHL did not preclude auditory perceptual learning but there was little generalization to

  10. Experiences of hearing loss and views towards interventions to promote uptake of rehabilitation support among UK adults

    PubMed Central

    Rolfe, Crystal; Gardner, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Effective hearing loss rehabilitation support options are available. Yet, people often experience delays in receiving rehabilitation support. This study aimed to document support-seeking experiences among a sample of UK adults with hearing loss, and views towards potential strategies to increase rehabilitation support uptake. People with hearing loss were interviewed about their experiences of seeking support, and responses to hypothetical intervention strategies, including public awareness campaigns, a training programme for health professionals, and a national hearing screening programme. Design: Semi-structured qualitative interview design with thematic analysis. Study sample: Twenty-two people with hearing loss, aged 66–88. Results: Three themes, representing barriers to receiving rehabilitation support and potential areas for intervention, were identified: making the journey from realization to readiness, combatting social stigma, and accessing appropriate services. Barriers to receiving support mostly focused on appraisal of hearing loss symptoms. Interventions enabling symptom appraisal, such as routine screening, or demonstrating how to raise the topic effectively with a loved one, were welcomed. Conclusions: Interventions to facilitate realization of hearing loss should be prioritized. Raising awareness of the symptoms and prevalence of hearing loss may help people to identify hearing problems and reduce stigma, in turn increasing hearing loss acceptance. PMID:27379464

  11. Effects of Weight Loss on Foot Structure and Function in Obese Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinsup; Kane, Reagan; Tango, Dana N.; Vander Veur, Stephanie S.; Furmato, James; Komaroff, Eugene; Foster, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of weight reduction on foot structure, gait, and dynamic plantar loading in obese adults. Design In a 3-month randomized-controlled trial, participants were randomized to receive either a weight loss intervention based on portion-controlled meals or a delayed-treatment control. Participants 41 adults (32 F, 9 M) with a mean + SD age of 56.2 + 4.7 years and a BMI of 35.9 + 4.2 kg/m2. Measurements Arch Height Index (AHI), Malleolar Valgus Index (MVI), spatial and temporal gait parameters, plantar peak pressure (PP) and weight were measured at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Results The intervention group experienced significantly greater weight loss than did the control group (5.9 ± 4.0 kg versus 1.9 ± 3.2 kg, p = 0.001) after 3 months. There were no differences between the groups in anatomical foot structure or gait. However, the treatment group showed a significantly reduced PP than the control group beneath the lateral arch and the metatarsals 4 (all P values < .05) at 3 months. The change in PP correlated significantly with the change in weight at the metatarsal 2 (r=0.57, p=0.0219), metatarsal 3 (r=0.56, p=0.0064) and the medial arch (r=0.26, p<0.0001) at 6 months. Conclusion This was the first RCT designed to assess the effects of weight loss on foot structure, gait, and plantar loading in obese adults. Even a modest weight loss significantly reduced the dynamic plantar loading in obese adults. However, weight loss appeared to have no effects on foot structure and gait. PMID:25245307

  12. Risk indicators for future clinical attachment loss in adult periodontitis. Patient variables.

    PubMed

    Grbic, J T; Lamster, I B; Celenti, R S; Fine, J B

    1991-05-01

    We studied patient-derived variables to identify individuals at risk for future clinical attachment loss (CAL). Seventy-five patients with chronic adult periodontitis were followed for 6 months and clinical and epidemiological parameters collected at baseline were related to CAL. Clinical parameters were obtained from 6 sites per tooth and whole-mouth averages were calculated. Epidemiologic parameters were obtained by questionnaire and interview. After the baseline examination, patients were treated with root planing and scaling. Thirty-one patients (41.3%) demonstrated greater than or equal to 1 site with CAL of greater than or equal to 2.5 mm, while 16 patients (21.3%) demonstrated CAL at greater than or equal to 2 sites. Epidemiological factors such as gender, health status, marital status, education, and occupation were not associated with CAL. In contrast, baseline mean attachment level, age, baseline mean probing depth, baseline mean recession, percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing, and the number of missing teeth were related to CAL. Using logistic modelling, we found that baseline attachment level was the primary risk indicator for post-treatment CAL. Nineteen percent of the patients with baseline attachment levels less than 4.0 mm, 50% of the patients with 4.0 to 4.9 mm, and 85% (P less than .005) of the patients with greater than or equal to 5.0 mm exhibited CAL. The age of the patient was also a major risk indicator for CAL, and was independent of baseline attachment levels. Eighty-nine percent of the 60 to 69 year old patients demonstrated CAL, compared to only 35% of patients between the ages of 30 and 59 (P less than or equal to .005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults’ hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ2 test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes. PMID:26356365

  14. Depression and experience of vision loss in group of adults in rehabilitation setting: mixed-methods pilot study.

    PubMed

    Senra, Hugo; Vieira, Cristina R; Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Leal, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding the relationship between the experience of vision loss and depression. Therefore, the current pilot study aimed to explore whether significant differences existed in levels of depression between adults with different vision loss experiences. A group of adults aged between 20 and 65 yr old with irreversible vision loss in a rehabilitation setting was interviewed. Semistructured interviews were conducted in order to explore patients' experience of vision loss. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depressive levels; 39.5% (n = 15) of patients met CES-D criteria for depression. In addition, higher levels of depression (p < 0.05) were identified in patients whose interviews revealed greater self-awareness of impairment, inadequate social support, and longer rehabilitation stay. Current findings draw attention to variables such as self-awareness of impairment and perceived social support and suggest that depression following vision loss may be related to patients' emotional experiences of impairment and adjustment processes.

  15. Auditory function and hearing loss in children and adults with Williams syndrome: cochlear impairment in individuals with otherwise normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Marler, Jeffrey A; Sitcovsky, Jessica L; Mervis, Carolyn B; Kistler, Doris J; Wightman, Frederic L

    2010-05-15

    Hearing loss is common in school-age individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and extensive in adults. Prior studies with relatively small sample sizes suggest that hearing loss in WS has an early onset and may be progressive, yet the auditory phenotype and the scope of the hearing loss have not been adequately characterized. We used standard audiometric tools: Otoscopy, tympanometry, air-conduction (bone conduction when available) behavioral testing, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to measure hearing sensitivity and outer hair cell function. We tested 81 individuals with WS aged 5.33-59.50 years. Sixty-three percent of the school-age and 92% of the adult participants had mild to moderately-severe hearing loss. The hearing loss in at least 50% was sensorineural. DPOAE testing corroborated behavioral results. Strikingly, 12 of 14 participants with hearing within normal limits bilaterally had 4,000-Hz DPOAE input/output (DPOAE IO) functions indicative of outer hair cell damage and impaired cochlear compression. Our results indicate that hearing loss is very common in WS. Furthermore, individuals with WS who have "normal" hearing as defined by behavioral thresholds may actually have sub-clinical impairments or undetected cochlear pathology. Our findings suggest outer hair cell dysfunction in otherwise normal hearing individuals. The DPOAE IO in this same group revealed growth functions typically seen in groups with noise-induced damage. Given this pattern of findings, individuals with WS may be at increased risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Recommendations regarding audiological testing for individuals with WS and accommodations for these individuals in both academic and nonacademic settings are provided.

  16. Activity/participation Limitation and Weight Loss Among Overweight and Obese US Adults: 1999 to 2002 NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Bish, Connie L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Maynard, L. Michele; Serdula, Mary K.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and association of activity/participation limitation with trying to lose weight and weight loss practices (eating fewer calories, physical activity, or both) among overweight and obese adults in the United States. Research Methods and Procedures Eligible adults were 20 years of age or older with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 (n = 5608) who responded to standard physical functioning questions included in the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a continuous survey of the civilian non-institutionalized US population. Results Obese (BMI ≥ 30) men with vs. without activity/participation limitations were more likely to try to lose weight (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.05–2.41). This was not the case for overweight women and men (BMI 25–29.9), or obese women. Among adults trying to lose weight, reducing calorie consumption was common (63%–73%, men, 67%–76%, women). Overweight women with vs without activity/participation limitations had significantly reduced likelihood of attaining recommended physical activity (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.36–0.89). Obese adults were more likely to try to lose weight if they attributed their limitation to body weight (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.11–2.88) or diabetes (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.01–3.43) compared to other causes. Overweight and obese adults who attributed activity/participation limitations to mental health, musculoskeletal, or cardiovascular problems were equally likely to attempt weight loss when respondents with each condition were compared to respondents without the condition. Discussion These results verify the importance of adequate subjective health assessment when developing individual weight loss plans, and may help guide weight management professionals in the development and delivery of more personalized care. PMID:18092069

  17. Loss of HtrA2/Omi activity in non-neuronal tissues of adult mice causes premature aging.

    PubMed

    Kang, S; Louboutin, J-P; Datta, P; Landel, C P; Martinez, D; Zervos, A S; Strayer, D S; Fernandes-Alnemri, T; Alnemri, E S

    2013-02-01

    mnd2 mice die prematurely as a result of neurodegeneration 30-40 days after birth due to loss of the enzymatic activity of the mitochondrial quality control protease HtrA2/Omi. Here, we show that transgenic expression of human HtrA2/Omi in the central nervous system of mnd2 mice rescues them from neurodegeneration and prevents their premature death. Interestingly, adult transgenic mnd2 mice develop accelerated aging phenotypes, such as premature weight loss, hair loss, reduced fertility, curvature of the spine, heart enlargement, increased autophagy, and death by 12-17 months of age. These mice also have elevated levels of clonally expanded mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in their tissues. Our results provide direct genetic evidence linking mitochondrial protein quality control to mtDNA deletions and aging in mammals.

  18. Equivalence-Equivalence: Matching Stimuli with Same Discriminative Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that after being trained on A-B and A-C match-to-sample tasks, adults match not only same-class B and C stimuli (equivalence) but also BC compounds with same-class elements and with different-class elements (BC-BC). The assumption was that the BC-BC performances are based on matching equivalence and nonequivalence…

  19. Effectiveness of alternative listening devices to conventional hearing aids for adults with hearing loss: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Alex B; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is a major public health concern, affecting over 11 million people in the UK. While hearing aids are the most common clinical intervention for hearing loss, the majority of people that would benefit from using hearing aids do not take them up. Recent technological advances have led to a rapid increase of alternative listening devices to conventional hearing aids. These include hearing aids that can be customised using a smartphone, smartphone-based ‘hearing aid’ apps, personal sound amplification products and wireless hearing products. However, no systematic review has been published evaluating whether alternative listening devices are an effective management strategy for people with hearing loss. Methods and analysis The objective of this systematic review is to assess whether alternative listening devices are an effective intervention for adults with hearing loss. Methods are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 checklist. Retrospective or prospective studies, randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, and before-after comparison studies will be eligible for inclusion. We will include studies with adult participants (≥18 years) with a mild or moderate hearing loss. The intervention should be an alternative listening device to a conventional hearing aid (comparison). Studies will be restricted to outcomes associated with the consequences of hearing loss. We will search relevant databases to identify published, completed but unpublished and ongoing trials. The overall quality of included evidence will be evaluated using the GRADE system, and meta-analysis performed if appropriate. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. The findings will be reported at national and international conferences, primarily audiology, and ear, nose and throat, and in a peer-reviewed journal using the PRISMA guidelines. Review

  20. Oral health disparity in older adults: dental decay and tooth loss.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Paula K; Kaufman, Laura B; Karpas, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Progress has been made in reducing dental caries and edentulism in older adults, but disparities continue to exist related to race, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, and sex. Lack of training in treating medically complex patients, economic factors including absence of coverage for oral health services in Medicare and as a required service for adults in Medicaid, and attitudinal issues on the part of patients, caregivers, and providers contribute to barriers to care for older adults. In addition to the impact of oral health on overall health, oral health impacts quality of life and social and employment opportunities.

  1. Knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about hearing loss and hearing protection among racial/ethnically diverse young adults.

    PubMed

    Crandell, Carl; Mills, Terry L; Gauthier, Ricardo

    2004-02-01

    Over 11 million individuals exhibit some degree of permanent noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Despite such data, there remains a paucity of empirical evidence on the knowledge of noise exposure and hearing protection devices (HPDs) for young adults, particularly those of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. This lack of research is unfortunate, as prior research suggests that the incidence of NIHL can be reduced through educational programs, such as hearing conservation programs (HCPs). Moreover, research also indicates that such educational programs are more beneficial when developed for specific age and/or ethnic/racial groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the knowledge base of 200 college-aged young adults aged 18-29, concerning the auditory mechanism, NIHL, and the use of HPDs. The second aim of this study was to identify race and ethnicity differences or similarities in knowledge of these areas among African-American and caucasian young adults. Overall, in many instances, a majority of the young adults in our study demonstrated a high degree of knowledge concerning factors associated with exposure to excessive noise and the risk of hearing loss. Yet, the results also revealed significant racial/ethnic differences in knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about the use of HPDs. Recent estimates suggest that more than 11 million individuals in the United States exhibit some degree of NIHL. Moreover, 40 million individuals work in environments that contain potentially harmful noise levels, and over 50 million Americans routinely use firearms--a common cause of noise-induced hearing impairment. A specific hallmark manifestation of NIHL is a permanent decrease in hearing sensitivity from 3,000-6,000 Hz, with a characteristic notch at 4,000 Hz. Additional effects of exposure to high noise levels include physiological changes in heart rate and blood pressure, decrease in work productivity, and an interference with communication that results

  2. Estimation of protein requirement for maintenance in adult parrots (Amazona spp.) by determining inevitable N losses in excreta.

    PubMed

    Westfahl, C; Wolf, P; Kamphues, J

    2008-06-01

    Especially in older pet birds, an unnecessary overconsumption of protein--presumably occurring in human custody--should be avoided in view of a potential decrease in the excretory organs' (liver, kidney) efficiency. Inevitable nitrogen (N)-losses enable the estimation of protein requirement for maintenance, because these losses have at least to be replaced to maintain N equilibrium. To determine the inevitable N losses in excreta of adult amazons (Amazona spp.), a frugivor-granivorous avian species from South America, adult amazons (n = 8) were fed a synthetic nearly N-free diet (in dry matter; DM: 37.8% starch, 26.6% sugar, 11.0% fat) for 9 days. Throughout the trial, feed and water intake were recorded, the amounts of excreta were measured and analysed for DM and ash content, N (Dumas analysis) and uric acid (enzymatic-photometric analysis) content. Effects of the N-free diet on body weight (BW) and protein-related blood parameters were quantified and compared with data collected during a previous 4-day period in which a commercial seed mixture was offered to the birds. After feeding an almost N-free diet for 9 days, under the conditions of a DM intake (20.1 g DM/bird/day) as in seeds and digestibility of organic matter comparable with those when fed seeds (82% and 76% respectively), it was possible to quantify the inevitable N losses via excrements to be 87.2 mg/bird/day or 172.5 mg/kg BW(0.75)/day. Assuming a utilization coefficient of 0.57 this leads to an estimated protein need of approximately 1.9 g/kg BW(0.75)/day (this value does not consider further N losses via feathers and desquamated cells; with the prerequisite that there is a balanced amino acid pattern).

  3. Long-term asymmetric hearing affects cochlear implantation outcomes differently in adults with pre- and postlingual hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Dowell, Richard C; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears.

  4. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  5. Effect of a Stepped-Care Intervention Approach on Weight Loss in Adults: The Step-Up Study Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Lang, Wei; Davis, Kelli K.; Polzien, Kristen; Rickman, Amy D.; Erickson, Karen; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Finkelstein, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Given the obesity epidemic, effective but resource efficient weight loss treatments are needed. Stepped treatment approaches customize interventions based on milestone completion and can be more effective while costing less to administer than conventional treatment paradigms. Objective We hypothesized that compared to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention (SBWI), a stepped-care weight loss intervention (STEP) would result in greater weight loss. Design Randomized trial with participants enrolled between May 2008 and February 2010. Data collection was completed by September 2011. Setting 2 universities affiliated with academic medical centers. Participants Participants were 363 overweight and obese adults (BMI: 25 to <40 kg/m2; age: 18–55 years; 33% non-white, 83% female) who were randomized to SBWI or STEP interventions. Interventions All participants were placed on a low calorie diet, prescribed increases in physical activity and had group counseling sessions ranging from weekly to monthly during an 18-month time period. SBWI participants were assigned to a fixed program. Among STEP participants, counseling frequency, type, and weight loss strategies could be modified every 3 months in response to observed weight loss as it related to weight loss goals. Main Outcome Measure Mean change in weight over 18 months. Additional outcomes include resting heart rate and blood pressure, waist girth, body composition, fitness, physical activity, dietary intake, and costs. Results Of the 363 participants randomized, 260 participants (71.6%) provided a measure of mean change in weight over 18 months. The 18 month intervention resulted in weight decreasing from 93.1 kg (95% CI: 91.0, 95.2) to 85.6 kg (95% CI: 83.4, 88.0) (p<0.01) in SBWI and from 92.7 kg (95% CI: 90.8, 94.6) to 86.4 kg (95% CI: 84.5, 88.4) in STEP (p<0.01). Percent weight change from baseline to 18 months was −8.1% (95% CI: −9.4, −6.9) in SBWI (p<0.01) and −6.9% (95% CI: −8.0, −5

  6. The effect of a traditional dance training program on the physical fitness of adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tsimaras, Vasileios K; Kyriazis, Dimitrios A; Christoulas, Kosmas I; Fotiadou, Eleni G; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Angelopoulou, Nikoletta A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a traditional dance training program on aerobic capacity and muscle strength of adults with hearing loss. Twenty-three adults with hearing loss were separated into 2 groups. Thirteen subjects (6 men, 7 women, mean age, 25.7 +/- 3.9 years) constituted the intervention group, whereas 10 subjects (5 men, 5 women, mean age, 26.4 +/- 5.9 years) formed the control group. Pretraining and posttraining treadmill tests were performed to determine heart rate (HR peak), peak minute ventilation (VE peak), peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak, absolute and relative), and time to exhaustion (min). Peak torque of hamstring and quadriceps muscles at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 180 degrees /s, and 300 degrees /s was also measured. The intervention group followed a 12-week traditional dance training program, whereas the control group received no training during this period. Repeated measures of multiple analyses of variance were used to test mean differences between the values of both groups. A paired t-test was used to compare the values within each group prior and after program participation. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. Following the 12-week training program, significant improvements in peak physiological parameters were seen for the intervention group for peak minute ventilation, peak oxygen consumption (both absolute and relative), time to exhaustion, and peak torque values between the 2 measurements (initial and final). No significant improvements in peak physiological parameters and peak torque were noticed in the control group. In conclusion, adults with hearing loss can improve their physical fitness levels with the application of a systematic and well-designed traditional dance training program.

  7. Gains and Losses in Creative Personality as Perceived by Adults across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Yeung, Dannii Y.; Sue-Chan, Christina; Chan, Kara; Hui, Desmond C. K.; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used a life span model to study the subjective perception of creative personality (CP) in emerging, young, middle-aged, and older Hong Kong Chinese adults. We also asked participants to estimate the approximate age by which people develop and lose CP across adulthood. We expected an interesting interplay between internalized age…

  8. Therapy to Improve Pitch in Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subtelny, Joanne; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A voice training program to improve pitch register was developed for profoundly hearing-impaired young adults. Ten students of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf completed the program; results showed a significant reduction in pitch level, as well as improvement in pitch control and word intelligibility. (Author/JDD)

  9. The Effect of Hearing Loss on the Perception of Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susie; von Hapsburg, Deborah; Hay, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitates language learning in infants with normal hearing, compared to adult-directed speech (ADS). It is well established that infants with normal hearing prefer to listen to IDS over ADS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infants with hearing impairment (HI), like their NH peers, show a…

  10. The Impact of Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages on Young Adults' Sexual Decision Making: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Janssen, Erick; Matson, Margaret; Finn, Peter R; Heiman, Julia R

    2017-02-01

    Messages that frame a target behavior in terms of its benefits (gain frame) or costs (loss frame) have been widely and successfully used for health promotion and risk reduction. However, the impact of framed messages on decisions to have sex and sexual risk, as well as moderators of these effects, has remained largely unexplored. We used a computerized laboratory task to test the effects of framed messages about condom use on young adults' sexual decision making. Participants (N = 127) listened to both gain- and loss-framed messages and rated their intentions to have sex with partners who posed a high and low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The effects of message frame, partner risk, participant gender, ability to adopt the messages, and message presentation order on intentions to have sex were examined. Intentions to have sex with high-risk partners significantly decreased after the loss-framed message, but not after the gain-framed message, and intentions to have sex increased for participants who received the gain-framed message first. Yet, participants found it easier to adopt the gain-framed message. Results suggest that loss-framed messages may be particularly effective in reducing intentions to have sex with partners who might pose a higher risk for STIs, and that message presentation order may alter the relative effectiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages on sexual decision making. Future studies should examine the precise conditions under which gain- and loss-framed messages can promote healthy sexual behaviors and reduce sexual risk behaviors.

  11. The impact of hearing loss on language performance in older adults with different stages of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Lodeiro-Fernández, Leire; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana; Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Rodríguez-Villamil, José Luis; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The possible relationship between audiometric hearing thresholds and cognitive performance on language tests was analyzed in a cross-sectional cohort of older adults aged ≥65 years (N=98) with different degrees of cognitive impairment. Materials and methods Participants were distributed into two groups according to Reisberg’s Global Deterioration Scale (GDS): a normal/predementia group (GDS scores 1–3) and a moderate/moderately severe dementia group (GDS scores 4 and 5). Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and receptive and production-based language function (Verbal Fluency Test, Boston Naming Test, and Token Test) were assessed. Results Results showed that the dementia group achieved significantly lower scores than the predementia group in all language tests. A moderate negative correlation between hearing loss and verbal comprehension (r=−0.298; P<0.003) was observed in the predementia group (r=−0.363; P<0.007). However, no significant relationship between hearing loss and verbal fluency and naming scores was observed, regardless of cognitive impairment. Conclusion In the predementia group, reduced hearing level partially explains comprehension performance but not language production. In the dementia group, hearing loss cannot be considered as an explanatory factor of poor receptive and production-based language performance. These results are suggestive of cognitive rather than simply auditory problems to explain the language impairment in the elderly. PMID:25914528

  12. Comparable Attenuation of Sympathetic Nervous System Activity in Obese Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Treatment Naïve Type 2 Diabetes following Equivalent Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Straznicky, Nora E; Grima, Mariee T; Sari, Carolina I; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Phillips, Sarah E; Eikelis, Nina; Mariani, Justin A; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hering, Dagmara; Dixon, John B; Lambert, Gavin W

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 15), impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n = 24), and newly-diagnosed T2D (n = 15) consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate) for 4-months. The three groups were matched for baseline age (56 ± 1 years), body mass index (BMI, 32.9 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)), and gender. Clinical measurements included whole-body norepinephrine kinetics, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography), spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Weight loss averaged -7.5 ± 0.8, -8.1 ± 0.5, and -8.0 ± 0.9% of body weight in NGT, IGT, and T2D groups, respectively. T2D subjects had significantly greater reductions in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC0-120) compared to NGT and IGT (group effect, P <0.001). Insulinogenic index decreased in IGT and NGT groups and increased in T2D (group × time, P = 0.04). The magnitude of reduction in MSNA (-7 ± 3, -8 ± 4, -15 ± 4 burst/100 hb, respectively) and whole-body norepinephrine spillover rate (-28 ± 8, -18 ± 6, and -25 ± 7%, respectively), time effect both P <0.001, did not differ between groups. After adjustment for age and change in body weight, Δ insulin AUC0-120 was independently associated with reduction in arterial norepinephrine concentration, whilst Δ LDL-cholesterol and improvement in BRS were independently associated with decrease in MSNA. Conclusions: Equivalent weight loss through hypocaloric diet is accompanied by similar sympathoinhibition in matched obese subjects with different

  13. Comparable Attenuation of Sympathetic Nervous System Activity in Obese Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Treatment Naïve Type 2 Diabetes following Equivalent Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Straznicky, Nora E.; Grima, Mariee T.; Sari, Carolina I.; Lambert, Elisabeth A.; Phillips, Sarah E.; Eikelis, Nina; Mariani, Justin A.; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hering, Dagmara; Dixon, John B.; Lambert, Gavin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 15), impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n = 24), and newly-diagnosed T2D (n = 15) consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate) for 4-months. The three groups were matched for baseline age (56 ± 1 years), body mass index (BMI, 32.9 ± 0.7 kg/m2), and gender. Clinical measurements included whole-body norepinephrine kinetics, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography), spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Weight loss averaged −7.5 ± 0.8, −8.1 ± 0.5, and −8.0 ± 0.9% of body weight in NGT, IGT, and T2D groups, respectively. T2D subjects had significantly greater reductions in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC0−120) compared to NGT and IGT (group effect, P <0.001). Insulinogenic index decreased in IGT and NGT groups and increased in T2D (group × time, P = 0.04). The magnitude of reduction in MSNA (−7 ± 3, −8 ± 4, −15 ± 4 burst/100 hb, respectively) and whole-body norepinephrine spillover rate (−28 ± 8, −18 ± 6, and −25 ± 7%, respectively), time effect both P <0.001, did not differ between groups. After adjustment for age and change in body weight, Δ insulin AUC0−120 was independently associated with reduction in arterial norepinephrine concentration, whilst Δ LDL-cholesterol and improvement in BRS were independently associated with decrease in MSNA. Conclusions: Equivalent weight loss through hypocaloric diet is accompanied by similar sympathoinhibition in matched obese subjects

  14. Making Physical Activity Accessible to Older Adults with Memory Loss: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McCurry, Susan M.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Teri, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), memory loss may prevent successful engagement in exercise, a key factor in preventing additional disability. The Resources and Activities for Life Long Independence (RALLI) program uses behavioral principles to make exercise more accessible for these individuals. Exercises are broken…

  15. Difficulties Accepting the Loss of a Spouse: A Precursor for Intensified Grieving among Widowed Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason M.; Futterman, Andrew; Thompson, Larry W.; Moran, Christine; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has identified three distinct factors that make up the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-Present (TRIG-Present) scale, which tap into grief-related thoughts, emotional response, and nonacceptance regarding a loss. In the present study, the authors sought to identify which of these core grief experiences in the early aftermath of…

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6 mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (−.40 ± .06 and −.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600. PMID:24490058

  17. Clinical and socio-behavioral correlates of tooth loss: a study of older adults in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Irene A; Åstrøm, Anne N; Strand, Gunhild V; Masalu, Joyce R

    2006-01-01

    Background Focusing 50 year olds and above, this study assessed the frequency, extent and correlates of tooth loss due to various reasons. Frequency and correlates of posterior occluding support was also investigated. Method A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Pwani region and in Dar es Salaam in 2004/2005. One thousand and thirty-one subjects, mean age 62.9 years participated in a clinical examination and completed interviews. Results The prevalence of tooth loss due to any reason was 83.5 %, due to caries 63.4% and due to other reasons than caries, 32.5%. A total of 74.9% had reduced number of posterior occluding units. Compared to subjects having less than 5 teeth lost due to caries, those with 5 or more lost teeth were more likely to be females, having decayed teeth, confirming dental attendance and to be among the least poor residents. Compared to subjects who had lost less than 5 teeth due to reasons other than caries, those who had lost 5 or more teeth were more likely to be of higher age, having mobile teeth, being males, being very poor and to disconfirm dental attendance when having problems. Predictors of prevalence of tooth loss (1 or more lost tooth) due to various reasons and reduced number of occluding units followed similar patterns of relationships. Conclusion The results are consistent with prevalence and extent of tooth loss due to caries and due to reasons other than caries being differently related to disease- and socio- behavioral risk indicators. Caries was the principle cause of tooth loss and molar teeth were the teeth most commonly lost. PMID:16536880

  18. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Radiation Dose-Equivalent Radiography, Multidetector Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Fractures of Adult Cadaveric Wrists

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Reidelbach, Carolin; Krauß, Tobias; Lampert, Florian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Fiebich, Martin; Goerke, Sebastian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiography, to radiography equivalent dose multidetector computed tomography (RED-MDCT) and to radiography equivalent dose cone beam computed tomography (RED-CBCT) for wrist fractures. Methods As study subjects we obtained 10 cadaveric human hands from body donors. Distal radius, distal ulna and carpal bones (n = 100) were artificially fractured in random order in a controlled experimental setting. We performed radiation dose equivalent radiography (settings as in standard clinical care), RED-MDCT in a 320 row MDCT with single shot mode and RED-CBCT in a device dedicated to musculoskeletal imaging. Three raters independently evaluated the resulting images for fractures and the level of confidence for each finding. Gold standard was evaluated by consensus reading of a high-dose MDCT. Results Pooled sensitivity was higher in RED-MDCT with 0.89 and RED-MDCT with 0.81 compared to radiography with 0.54 (P = < .004). No significant differences were detected concerning the modalities’ specificities (with values between P = .98). Raters' confidence was higher in RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT compared to radiography (P < .001). Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT for wrist fractures proved to be similar and in some parts even higher compared to radiography. Readers are more confident in their reporting with the cross sectional modalities. Dose equivalent cross sectional computed tomography of the wrist could replace plain radiography for fracture diagnosis in the long run. PMID:27788215

  19. Bringing the Adult Learning Experience of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance into Focus: A Narrative Analysis with Implications for Educators and Clinicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stametz, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the many social, medical, and political viewpoints on obesity, little is known of the weight loss maintenance experience and the impact on learning processes and outcomes among adults. The purpose of this study was two-fold: a) to explore the experience and meaning-making processes of individuals who have maintained a weight loss and…

  20. Injury signals cooperate with Nf1 loss to relieve the tumor-suppressive environment of adult peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sara; Napoli, Ilaria; White, Ian J; Parrinello, Simona; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Suter, Ueli; Parada, Luis F; Lloyd, Alison C

    2013-10-17

    Schwann cells are highly plastic cells that dedifferentiate to a progenitor-like state following injury. However, deregulation of this plasticity, may be involved in the formation of neurofibromas, mixed-cell tumors of Schwann cell (SC) origin that arise upon loss of NF1. Here, we show that adult myelinating SCs (mSCs) are refractory to Nf1 loss. However, in the context of injury, Nf1-deficient cells display opposing behaviors along the wounded nerve; distal to the injury, Nf1(-/-) mSCs redifferentiate normally, whereas at the wound site Nf1(-/-) mSCs give rise to neurofibromas in both Nf1(+/+) and Nf1(+/-) backgrounds. Tracing experiments showed that distinct cell types within the tumor derive from Nf1-deficient SCs. This model of neurofibroma formation demonstrates that neurofibromas can originate from adult SCs and that the nerve environment can switch from tumor suppressive to tumor promoting at a site of injury. These findings have implications for both the characterization and treatment of neurofibromas.

  1. Association between Tooth Loss and Cognitive Function among 3063 Chinese Older Adults: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jianfeng; Wu, Bei; Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Yu, Lirong; Zheng, Li; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral health has been found to be associated with cognitive function in basic research and epidemiology studies. Most of these studies had no comprehensive clinical diagnosis on cognitive function. This study firstly reported the association between tooth loss and cognitive function among Chinese older population. Methods The study included 3,063 community dwelling older adults aged 60 or above from the Shanghai Aging Study. Number of teeth missing was obtained from self-reporting questionnaire and confirmed by trained interviewers. Participants were diagnosed as “dementia”, “mild cognitive impairment (MCI)”, or “cognitive normal” by neurologists using DSM-IV and Petersen criteria. Multivariate logistic regression model was applied to examine the association between number of teeth missing and cognitive function. Results The study participants had an average of 10.2 teeth lost. Individuals with dementia lost 18.7 teeth on average, much higher than those with MCI (11.8) and cognitive normal (9.3) (p<0.001). After adjusted for sex, age, education year, living alone, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, anxiety, depression, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and APOE-ε4, tooth loss of >16 were significantly associated with dementia with an OR of 1.56 (95%CI 1.12-2.18). Conclusion Having over 16 missing teeth was associated with severe cognitive impairment among Chinese older adults. Poor oral health might be considered as a related factor of neurodegenerative symptom among older Chinese population. PMID:25803052

  2. Identifying Early Onset of Hearing Loss in Young Adults With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Using High Frequency Audiometry.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, S S; Jaya, V; Moses, Anand; Muraleedharan, A

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder caused by hyperglycemia which leads to dysfunction of various organs. Hearing acuity is equally hindered by this disorder. Among individuals with DM audiological characteristics of DM type 1 are of great concern in the literature. This study aims at establishing high frequency audiometry (HFA) as a useful tool in identifying early onset of hearing loss in individuals with DM type 2. 20 non-diabetic participants and 20 individuals with DM type 2 in the age range of 20-40 years were considered for the study. Subjects in both groups underwent otoscopic examination, PTA at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 kHz and HFA at 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14 and 16 kHz. Results revealed statistically significant difference in thresholds of both PTA and HFA at all frequencies across the group, but the mean threshold difference between the diabetic and non-diabetic group was marked in HFA than in PTA. In the diabetic subjects the thresholds of PTA was within 25 dBHL at all frequencies when compared to the thresholds of HFA. Individuals with DM type 2 showed bilateral symmetrical mild hearing loss in HFA and the hearing loss increased with ascending test frequencies from 9,000 to 16,000 Hz. Mild hearing loss in HFA is an indicator for early onset of hearing loss in DM type 2. Hence this present study emphasis the clinical utility of HFA in young adults with DM type 2.

  3. Long-term adrenalectomy causes loss of dentate gyrus and pyramidal neurons in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sapolsky, R M; Stein-Behrens, B A; Armanini, M P

    1991-11-01

    A growing literature suggests that the hippocampus can be damaged by glucocorticoids, the adrenal steroids secreted during stress. Thus, considerable interest was generated by recent reports that prolonged elimination of glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy (ADX) damages hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons. To date, this phenomenon has only been observed in rats of peripubertal age or younger; moreover, reports differ considerably as to the magnitude of the damage induced. Therefore, we examined this issue in rats ADXd at 5 months of age. Three months later, there was a significant 26% loss of dentate neurons in a subset of rats. In agreement with these previous reports, this subset had attenuated weight gain and electrolyte imbalances, suggestive of complete removal of the adrenals and accessory adrenal tissue. As a novel observation, we also observed significant (19%) loss of CA4 pyramidal neurons. Thus, both severe under- or overexposure to glucocorticoids can be deleterious to a number of hippocampal neuron types.

  4. Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Maggi, Stefania; Marengoni, Alessandra; Martini, Alessandro; Memo, Maurizio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Quaranta, Nicola; Stella, Roberto; Lin, Frank R

    2014-12-01

    The association between hearing impairment, the diagnosis of dementia, and the role of sensory therapy has been proposed for some time, but further research is needed. Current understanding of this association requires the commitment of those experts who can integrate experience and research from several fields to be able to understand the link from hearing to dementia. A workshop whose panelists included experts from many areas, ranging from ear, nose and throat (ENT) to dementia's specialists, was promoted and organized by the Giovanni Lorenzini Medical Science Foundation (Milan, Italy; Houston, TX, USA) to increase the awareness of the relationship between hearing loss and dementia, and included questions and comments following a presentation from the clinical researcher, Frank Lin, who has been evaluating the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline since 2009.

  5. Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults2

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-01-01

    Background Rodent studies show that oligofructose promotes weight loss, stimulates satiety hormone secretion, reduces energy intake, and improves lipid profiles. Objective Our objective was to examine the effects of oligofructose supplementation on body weight and satiety hormone concentrations in overweight and obese adults. Design This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-eight otherwise healthy adults with a body mass index (in kg/m2) > 25 were randomly assigned to receive 21 g oligo-fructose/d or a placebo (maltodextrin) for 12 wk. Body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); meal tolerance tests, including satiety hormone response; food intake; and subjective appetite ratings were determined. Results There was a reduction in body weight of 1.03 ±0.43 kg with oligofructose supplementation, whereas the control group experienced an increase in body weight of 0.45 ± 0.31 kg over 12 wk (P = 0.01). A lower area under the curve (AUC) for ghrelin (P = 0.004) and a higher AUC for peptide YY (PYY) with oligofructose (P = 0.03) coincided with a reduction in self-reported caloric intake (P ≤ 0.05). Glucose decreased in the oligofructose group and increased in the control group between initial and final tests (P ≤ 0.05). Insulin concentrations mirrored this pattern (P ≤ 0.05). Oligofructose supplementation did not affect plasma active glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion. According to a visual analog scale designed to assess side effects, oligofructose was well tolerated. Conclusions Independent of other lifestyle changes, oligofructose supplementation has the potential to promote weight loss and improve glucose regulation in overweight adults. Suppressed ghrelin and enhanced PYY may contribute in part to the reduction in energy intake. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00522353. PMID:19386741

  6. Weight loss in obese older adults increases serum sclerostin and impairs hip geometry but both are prevented by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Sadler, Corinn; Napoli, Nicola; Shah, Krupa; Chode, Suresh; Sinacore, David R; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T

    2012-05-01

    We reported that weight loss induces bone loss which is prevented by exercise training; however, the mechanism for this observation remains unclear. Sclerostin, an inhibitor of bone formation, has been found to increase in states of unloading and may mediate the changes in bone metabolism associated with weight loss and exercise. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of lifestyle intervention in obese older adults on sclerostin levels, and on hip geometry parameters. A total of 107 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) older (≥65 years) adults were randomly assigned to control, diet, exercise, and combined diet-exercise for 1 year. Sclerostin levels were measured by ELISA at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, while hip geometry parameters were obtained from bone mineral density (BMD) images done by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using hip structure analysis at baseline and 12 months. Both the diet and diet-exercise groups had significant decreases in body weight (-9.6% and -9.4%, respectively), whereas weight was stable in the exercise and control groups. Sclerostin levels increased significantly and progressively in the diet group (6.6% ± 1.7% and 10.5% ± 1.9% at 6 and 12 months, respectively, all p < 0.05), whereas they were unchanged in the other groups; in particular, they were stable in the diet-exercise group (0.7% ± 1.6% and 0.4% ± 1.7% at 6 and 12 months, respectively, all p = 0.05). Hip geometry parameters showed significant decreases in cross-sectional area, cortical thickness, and BMD; and increases in buckling ratio at the narrow neck, intertrochanter, and femoral shaft. These negative changes on bone geometry were not observed in the diet-exercise group. Significant correlations between changes in sclerostin and changes in certain hip geometry parameters were also observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the increase in sclerostin levels with weight loss that was prevented by exercise may partly

  7. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats.

  8. Greater loss of object than spatial mnemonic discrimination in aged adults.

    PubMed

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Ho, Huy D; Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Chun, Amanda; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies across species have established that the aging process adversely affects certain memory-related brain regions earlier than others. Behavioral tasks targeted at the function of vulnerable regions can provide noninvasive methods for assessing the integrity of particular components of memory throughout the lifespan. The present study modified a previous task designed to separately but concurrently test detailed memory for object identity and spatial location. Memory for objects or items is thought to rely on perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortices, among the first targets of Alzheimer's related neurodegeneration. In line with prior work, we split an aged adult sample into "impaired" and "unimpaired" groups on the basis of a standardized word-learning task. The "impaired" group showed widespread difficulty with memory discrimination, whereas the "unimpaired" group showed difficulty with object, but not spatial memory discrimination. These findings support the hypothesized greater age-related impacts on memory for objects or items in older adults, perhaps even with healthy aging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Salivary habituation to food stimuli in successful weight loss maintainers, obese and normal-weight adults

    PubMed Central

    Bond, DS; Raynor, HA; McCaffery, JM; Wing, RR

    2017-01-01

    Objective Research shows that slower habituation of salivary responses to food stimuli is related to greater energy intake and that obese (Ob) individuals habituate slower than those of normal weight (NW). No study has examined habituation rates in weight loss maintainers (WLMs) who have reduced from obese to normal weight, relative to those who are Ob or NW. Design Salivation to two baseline water trials and 10 lemon-flavored lollipop trials were studied in 14 WLMs, 15 Ob and 18 NW individuals comparable in age, gender and ethnicity. Linear mixed models were used to compare WLMs with Ob and NW groups. Results Salivation in the WLM and NW groups decreased significantly (for both P <0.005) across trials, indicative of habituation. Salivary responses in the Ob group did not habituate (P=0.46). When compared with Ob group, WLMs showed a quicker reduction in salivation (P<0.05). WLM and NW groups did not differ in habituation rate (P=0.49). Conclusions WLMs have habituation rates that are comparable to NW individuals without previous history of obesity, and show quicker habituation than those who are currently obese. These results suggest that physiological responses to food may ‘normalize’ with successful weight loss maintenance. PMID:20010900

  10. Audiologic Management of Older Adults With Hearing Loss and Compromised Cognitive/Psychoacoustic Auditory Processing Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kricos, Patricia B.

    2006-01-01

    The number and proportion of older adults in the United States population is increasing, and more clinical audiologists will be called upon to deliver hearing care to the approximately 35% to 50% of them who experience hearing difficulties. In recent years, the characteristics and sources of receptive communication difficulties in older individuals have been investigated by hearing scientists, cognitive psychologists, and audiologists. It is becoming increasingly apparent that cognitive compromises and psychoacoustic auditory processing disorders associated with aging may contribute to communication difficulties in this population. This paper presents an overview of best practices, based on our current knowledge base, for clinical management of older individuals with limitations in cognitive or psychoacoustic auditory processing capabilities, or both, that accompany aging. PMID:16528428

  11. Predictors of loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment for adult patients in the Oromia region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Megerso, Abebe; Garoma, Sileshi; Eticha, Tolosa; Workineh, Tilaye; Daba, Shallo; Tarekegn, Mihretu; Habtamu, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It is known that antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome related causes. Patient’s lost to follow-up (LTFU) in this treatment poses a paramount problem to the public and health care services. Information on predictors of loss to follow-up is scarce in this study area and similar settings. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying correlates of loss to follow-up in ART among adult patients in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. Methods A case–control study was conducted between February 2015 and April 2015 using medical records. The stratified sampling technique was used to select health facilities. The number of patient records to be included in the study was proportionally allocated to each stratum based on their patient proportion in the regional data. Specific health facilities from which to include the records were randomly selected from a list of the health facilities per stratum. All adult patient records registered as LTFU (416) in the selected health facilities during the 12-month period prior to the data collection date, and 832 patients with good adherence to ART were included. Data were double-entered into Epi Info 7 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to report the results. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed using open code computer software. Results Age 15–24 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 19.82 95% CI: 6.80, 57.73); day laborers (AOR, 5.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23, 8.89), rural residents (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.89), World Health Organization clinical stage IV (AOR, 2.29; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.62), baseline CD4 <350 cells/mL (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.13), suboptimal adherence to ART (AOR, 7.42; 95% CI: 1.87, 29.41), were factors which increased the risk of loss to follow-up in ART. Conclusion Multiple risk factors, both socioeconomic and clinical, were associated with loss to follow-up. Attention is required to

  12. Patterns of loss of enterotoxigenicity by Escherichia coli isolated from adults with diarrhea: suggestive evidence for an interrelationship with serotype.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D J; Evans, D G; DuPont, H L; Orskov, F; Orskov, I

    1977-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates obtained in Mexico from adult subjects with diarrhea and from healthy controls were examined for the production of heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) after serial passage in the laboratory. Isolates were found to be either stable for the production of ST and LT or unstable with respect to ST, LT, or both. Unilateral loss of either ST or LT production allowed classification of E. coli isolates into four groups according to stability/instability of enterotoxin production. Fewer serotypes, with more representative isolates, were in group I (stable) than in group IV (completely unstable). Isolates from Dacca, Bangladesh, could be similarly classified into stability groups. There is an apparent relationship between serotype, stability of enterotoxin production, particularly LT, and isolation from diarrhea cases as opposed to isolation from healthy controls. PMID:328392

  13. A mixed methods approach to improving recruitment and engagement of emerging adults in behavioural weight loss programs

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, K. M.; Lanoye, A.; Tate, D. F.; Robichaud, E.; Caccavale, L. J.; Wing, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Emerging adults ages 18–25 are at high risk for obesity, but are markedly underrepresented in behavioural weight loss (BWL) programs and experience lower engagement and retention relative to older adults. Purpose To utilize a mixed methods approach to inform future efforts to effectively recruit and engage this high‐risk population in BWL programs. Methods We used a convergent parallel design in which quantitative and qualitative data were given equal priority. Study 1 (N = 137, age = 21.8 + 2.2, BMI = 30.1 + 4.7) was a quantitative survey, conducted online to reduce known barriers and minimize bias. Study 2 (N = 7 groups, age = 22.3 + 2.2, BMI = 31.5 + 4.6) was a qualitative study, consisting of in person focus groups to gain greater depth and identify contextual factors unable to be captured in Study 1. Results Weight loss was of interest, but weight itself was not a central motivation; an emphasis on overall lifestyle, self‐improvement and fitness emerged as driving factors. Key barriers were time, motivation and money. Recruitment processes should be primarily online with messages tailored specifically to motivations and preferences of this age group. Preferences for a program were reduced intensity and brief, hybrid format with some in‐person contact, individual level coaching, experiential learning and peer support. Key methods of promoting engagement and retention were autonomy and choice, money and creating an optimal default. Conclusions An individually tailored lifestyle intervention that addresses a spectrum of health behaviours, promotes autonomy and emphasizes activity and fitness may facilitate recruitment and engagement in this population better than traditional BWL protocols. PMID:28090339

  14. Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Social and Mobile Weight Loss Trial for Young Adults (project SMART)

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, K; Marshall, SJ; Davila, EP; Kolodziejczyk, JK; Fowler, J; Calfas, KJ; Huang, J; Rock, CL; Griswold, W; Gupta, A; Merchant, G; Norman, GJ; Raab, F; Donohue, M; Fogg, BJ; Robinson, TN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the theoretical rationale, intervention design, and clinical trial of a two-year weight control intervention for young adults deployed via social and mobile media. Methods A total of 404 overweight or obese college students from three Southern California universities (Mage = 22(±4) years; MBMI=29(±2.8); 70% female) were randomized to participate in the intervention or to receive an informational web-based weight loss program. The intervention is based on behavioral theory and integrates intervention elements across multiple touch points, including Facebook, SMS, smartphone applications, blogs, and e-mail. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weight weekly, post their health behaviors on Facebook, and e-mail their weight loss questions/concerns to a health coach. The intervention is adaptive because new theory-driven and iteratively tailored intervention elements are developed and released over the course of the two-year intervention in response to patterns of use and user feedback. Measures of body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SED), diet, weight management practices, smoking, alcohol, sleep, body image, self-esteem, and depression occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Currently, all participants have been recruited, and all are in the final year of the trial. Conclusion Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies for PA, SED, and dietary intake can be embedded in an intervention using social and mobile technologies to promote healthy weight-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:24215774

  15. Individual differences in brainstem and basal ganglia structure predict postural control and balance loss in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; Chalavi, Sima; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Leunissen, Inge; Levin, Oron; Nieuwboer, Alice; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-02-01

    It remains unclear which specific brain regions are the most critical for human postural control and balance, and whether they mediate the effect of age. Here, associations between postural performance and corticosubcortical brain regions were examined in young and older adults using multiple structural imaging and linear mixed models. Results showed that of the regions involved in posture, the brainstem was the strongest predictor of postural control and balance: lower brainstem volume predicted larger center of pressure deviation and higher odds of balance loss. Analyses of white and gray matter in the brainstem showed that the pedunculopontine nucleus area appeared to be critical for postural control in both young and older adults. In addition, the brainstem mediated the effect of age on postural control, underscoring the brainstem's fundamental role in aging. Conversely, lower basal ganglia volume predicted better postural performance, suggesting an association between greater neural resources in the basal ganglia and greater movement vigor, resulting in exaggerated postural adjustments. Finally, results showed that practice, shorter height and heavier weight (i.e., higher body mass index), higher total physical activity, and larger ankle active (but not passive) range of motion were predictive of more stable posture, irrespective of age.

  16. Mobile phone intervention and weight loss among overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangchao; Kong, Xiaomu; Cao, Jie; Chen, Shufeng; Li, Changwei; Huang, Jianfeng; Gu, Dongfeng; Kelly, Tanika N

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the association of mobile phone intervention with net change in weight-related measures among overweight and obese adults. We searched electronic databases and conducted a bibliography review to identify articles published between the inception date of each database and March 27, 2014. Fourteen trials (including 1,337 participants in total) that met the eligibility criteria were included. Two investigators independently abstracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across trials using random-effects models. Compared with the control group, mobile phone intervention was associated with significant changes in body weight and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of -1.44 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.12, -0.76) and -0.24 units (95% CI: -0.40, -0.08), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the associations were consistent across study-duration and intervention-type subgroups. For example, net body weight changes were -0.92 kg (95% CI: -1.58, -0.25) and -1.85 kg (95% CI: -2.99, -0.71) in trials of shorter (<6 months) and longer (≥6 months) duration, respectively. These findings provide evidence that mobile phone intervention may be a useful tool for promoting weight loss among overweight and obese adults.

  17. Loss to follow-up of adults in public HIV care systems in Mozambique: Identifying obstacles to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Micek, Mark A; Gimbel-Sherr, Kenneth; Baptista, Alberto João; Matediana, Eduardo; Montoya, Pablo; Pfeiffer, James; Melo, Armando; Gimbel-Sherr, Sarah; Johnson, Wendy; Gloyd, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) has expanded dramatically in resource-limited settings. Evaluating loss to follow-up from HIV testing through post-ART care can help identify obstacles to care. Methods Routine data was analyzed for adults receiving services in two public HIV care systems in central Mozambique. The proportion of people passing through the following steps was determined: (1) HIV testing, (2) enrollment at an ART clinic, (3) CD4 testing, (4) starting ART if eligible, and (5) adhering to ART. Results During the 12-month study period (2004–2005), an estimated 23,430 adults were tested for HIV, and 7,005 (29.9%) were HIV-positive. Only 3,956 (56.5%) of those HIV-positive enrolled at an ART clinic ≤30 days after testing. CD4 testing was obtained in 77.1% ≤30 days of enrollment. Of 1,506 eligible for ART, 471 (31.3%) started ART ≤90 days after CD4 testing. Of 382 with ≥180 days of potential follow-up time on ART, 317 (83.0%) had pharmacy-based adherence rates ≥90%. Discussion Substantial drop-offs were observed for each step between HIV testing and treatment, but were highest for referral from HIV testing to treatment sites and for starting ART. Interventions are needed to improve follow-up and ensure that people benefit from available HIV services. PMID:19550350

  18. Contributions of Mouse and Human Hematopoietic Cells to Remodeling of the Adult Auditory Nerve After Neuron Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hainan; Nishimoto, Eishi; Xing, Yazhi; Brown, LaShardai N; Noble, Kenyaria V; Barth, Jeremy L; LaRue, Amanda C; Ando, Kiyoshi; Schulte, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    The peripheral auditory nerve (AN) carries sound information from sensory hair cells to the brain. The present study investigated the contribution of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cellular diversity in the AN following the destruction of neuron cell bodies, also known as spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Exposure of the adult mouse cochlea to ouabain selectively killed type I SGNs and disrupted the blood-labyrinth barrier. This procedure also resulted in the upregulation of genes associated with hematopoietic cell homing and differentiation, and provided an environment conducive to the tissue engraftment of circulating stem/progenitor cells into the AN. Experiments were performed using both a mouse-mouse bone marrow transplantation model and a severely immune-incompetent mouse model transplanted with human CD34+ cord blood cells. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of recipient mice demonstrated that ouabain injury promoted an increase in the number of both HSC-derived macrophages and HSC-derived nonmacrophages in the AN. Although rare, a few HSC-derived cells in the injured AN exhibited glial-like qualities. These results suggest that human hematopoietic cells participate in remodeling of the AN after neuron cell body loss and that hematopoietic cells can be an important resource for promoting AN repair/regeneration in the adult inner ear. PMID:27600399

  19. Sirolimus and tacrolimus rather than cyclosporine A cause bone loss in healthy adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Mercedes; Montero, Mercedes; Guede, David; Caeiro, Jose-Ramón; Martín-Fernández, Marta; Díaz-Curiel, Manuel; de la Piedra, Concepción

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (FK-506), and rapamycin (RAPA) on bone mass, femoral microstructure, femoral biomechanical properties, and bone remodeling in healthy adult male rats. Forty-eight 5-month-old male Wistar rats were used. CsA (2 mg/kg/day), FK-506 (3 mg/kg/day), RAPA (1.25 mg/kg/day), or water (0.5 ml/rat/day, control group) were administered orally for 3 months. After sacrifice, mean values of immunosuppressants in blood were: CsA (670.4 ng/ml), FK-506 (19.2 ng/ml), and RAPA (4.8 ng/ml). Levels of biochemical parameters were normal in all groups. Femoral BMD was decreased in FK-506 and RAPA groups and lumbar BMD in FK-506 group. Trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) decreased only in FK-506 group. RAPA and CsA affected femoral cortical structure, but FK-506 did not. FK-506 produced an increase in bone remodeling, and CsA a decrease. FK-506 group showed a decrease in biomechanical parameters relative to all groups. RAPA group showed a decrease in ultimate stress vs control group, and CsA group presented an increase in biomechanical parameters versus control group. We found that administration of both RAPA and FK-506 as monotherapy for healthy rats produced osteopenia. CsA treatment only produces slight damages in the cortical zone of the femur.

  20. The effects of mindfulness training on weight-loss and health-related behaviours in adults with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruffault, Alexis; Czernichow, Sébastien; Hagger, Martin S; Ferrand, Margot; Erichot, Nelly; Carette, Claire; Boujut, Emilie; Flahault, Cécile

    2016-09-19

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive quantitative synthesis of the effects of mindfulness training interventions on weight-loss and health behaviours in adults with overweight and obesity using meta-analytic techniques. Studies included in the analysis (k=12) were randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of any form of mindfulness training on weight loss, impulsive eating, binge eating, or physical activity participation in adults with overweight and obesity. Random effects meta-analysis revealed that mindfulness training had no significant effect on weight loss, but an overall negative effect on impulsive eating (d=-1.13) and binge eating (d=-.90), and a positive effect on physical activity levels (d=.42). Meta-regression analysis showed that methodological features of included studies accounted for 100% of statistical heterogeneity of the effects of mindfulness training on weight loss (R(2)=1,00). Among methodological features, the only significant predictor of weight loss was follow-up distance from post-intervention (β=1.18; p<.05), suggesting that the longer follow-up distances were associated with greater weight loss. Results suggest that mindfulness training has short-term benefits on health-related behaviours. Future studies should explore the effectiveness of mindfulness training on long-term post-intervention weight loss in adults with overweight and obesity.

  1. Sleep, obesity, and weight loss in adults: is there a rationale for providing sleep interventions in the treatment of obesity?

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Janelle W; Smith, Michael T

    2014-04-01

    Rates of obesity and sleep disturbances are substantial in adults. A number of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies have found that insufficient sleep and possibly longer sleep are associated with obesity and related eating patterns. Methodological discrepancies and limitations in the literature create ambiguity about the nature and potential mechanisms underlying these relationships. Insomnia and circadian patterns in eating and sleeping have also been examined in relation to weight. Although these studies are not as extensive as those examining sleep duration, the extant literature suggests possible associations between obesity and both insomnia (particularly when combined with short sleep duration) and circadian eating behaviours. However, research has only just begun to examine the benefits of combining sleep interventions with obesity treatment. The goal of the current review is to summarize research examining behavioural sleep patterns and disorders in relation to obesity, to discuss methodological considerations, and to provide an overview of studies examining whether addressing sleep disturbances can augment weight loss treatment effects. We conclude that future studies are needed that take into account sleep duration, sleep disorder co-morbidity, and chronobiology to explore the impact of sleep interventions on weight loss.

  2. Mania and Behavioral Equivalents: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita B.; Cooper, Christopher L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has failed to address the possibility of behavioral equivalents in people with ID and mania. The relationship between a measure of mania and possible behavioral equivalents was assessed in 693 adults, most with severe or profound ID, living in a large residential setting. The mania subscale of the DASH-II proved to be a…

  3. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial – Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)

    PubMed Central

    Batch, Bryan C.; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. Purpose To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to; 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. Methods A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18–35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. Conclusions If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. PMID:24462568

  4. Alendronate Once Weekly for the Prevention and Treatment of Bone Loss in Canadian Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients (CFOS Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Alexandra; Kennedy, Courtney C.; Freitag, Andreas; Ioannidis, George; O’Neill, John; Webber, Colin; Pui, Margaret; Berthiaume, Yves; Rabin, Harvey R.; Paterson, Nigel; Jeanneret, Alphonse; Matouk, Elias; Villeneuve, Josee; Nixon, Madeline; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at risk for early bone loss, and demonstrate increased risks for vertebral fractures and kyphosis. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of therapy with oral alendronate (FOSAMAX; Merck; Whitehouse Station, NJ) in adults with CF and low bone mass. Methods Participants received placebo or alendronate, 70 mg once weekly, for 12 months. All participants received 800 IV of vitamin D and 1,000 mg of calcium daily. Adults with confirmed CF with a bone mineral density (BMD) T score of < − 1.0 were eligible for inclusion. Participants who had undergone organ transplantation or had other reported contraindications were excluded from the study. The primary outcome measure was the mean (± SD) percentage change in lumbar spine BMD after 12 months. Secondary measures included the percentage change in total hip BMD, the number of new vertebral fractures (grade 1 or 2), and changes in quality of life. Results A total of56 participants were enrolled in the study (mean age, 29.1 ± 8.78 years; 61%male). The absolute percentage changes in lumbar spine and total hip BMDs at follow-up were significantly higher in the alendronate therapy group (5.20 ± 3.67% and 2.14 ± 3.32%, respectively) than those in the control group (− 0.08 ± 3.93% and − 1.3 ± 2.70%, respectively; p < 0.001). At follow-up, two participants (both in the control group) had a new vertebral fracture (not significant), and there were no differences in quality of life or the number of adverse events (including serious and GI-related events). Conclusion Alendronate therapy was well tolerated and produced a significantly greater increase in BMD over 12 months compared with placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00157690 PMID:18641106

  5. Hearing Instruments for Unilateral Severe-to-Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sandra Nelson; Lucas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the nature and quality of the evidence for the use of hearing instruments in adults with a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Design: The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and DARE databases were searched with no restrictions on language. The search included articles from the start of each database until February 11, 2015. Studies were included that (a) assessed the impact of any form of hearing instrument, including devices that reroute signals between the ears or restore aspects of hearing to a deaf ear, in adults with a sensorineural severe to profound loss in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear; (b) compared different devices or compared a device with placebo or the unaided condition; (c) measured outcomes in terms of speech perception, spatial listening, or quality of life; (d) were prospective controlled or observational studies. Studies that met prospectively defined criteria were subjected to random effects meta-analyses. Results: Twenty-seven studies reported in 30 articles were included. The evidence was graded as low-to-moderate quality having been obtained primarily from observational before-after comparisons. The meta-analysis identified statistically significant benefits to speech perception in noise for devices that rerouted the speech signals of interest from the worse ear to the better ear using either air or bone conduction (mean benefit, 2.5 dB). However, these devices also degraded speech understanding significantly and to a similar extent (mean deficit, 3.1 dB) when noise was rerouted to the better ear. Data on the effects of cochlear implantation on speech perception could not be pooled as the prospectively defined criteria for meta-analysis were not met. Inconsistency in the assessment of outcomes relating to sound localization also precluded the synthesis of evidence across studies. Evidence for

  6. Is a "loss of balance" a control error signal anomaly? Evidence for three-sigma failure detection in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Alaa A; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2004-06-01

    Given that a physical definition for a loss of balance (LOB) is lacking, the hypothesis was tested that a LOB is actually a loss of effective control, as evidenced by a control error signal anomaly (CEA). A model-reference adaptive controller and failure-detection algorithm were used to represent central nervous system decision-making based on input and output signals obtained during a challenging whole-body planar balancing task. Control error was defined as the residual generated when the actual system output is compared with the predicted output of the simple first-order polynomial system model. A CEA was hypothesized to occur when the model-generated control error signal exceeded three standard deviations (3sigma) beyond the mean calculated across a 2-s trailing window. The primary hypothesis tested was that a CEA is indeed observable in 20 healthy young adults (ten women) performing the following experiment. Seated subjects were asked to balance a high-backed chair for as long as possible over its rear legs. Each subject performed ten trials. The ground reaction force under the dominant foot, which constituted the sole input to the system, was measured using a two-axis load cell. Angular acceleration of the chair represented the one degree-of-freedom system output. The results showed that the 3sigma algorithm detected a CEA in 94% of 197 trials. A secondary hypothesis was supported in that a CEA was followed in 93% of the trials by an observable compensatory response, occurring at least 100 ms later, and an average of 479 ms, later. Longer reaction times were associated with low velocities at CEA, and vice versa. It is noteworthy that this method of detecting CEA does not rely on an external positional or angular reference, or knowledge of the location of the system's center of mass.

  7. Evaluation of the immunological and hematological effects of chronic exposure of adult Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arena, S.R.; Segre, M.; French, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems; however, limited data is available on their effects on the immune system of wild species. Previous work by our lab found that 4 and 6-week old white-footed mice (Perornyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. The present study examines various immunological parameters of 22-week old white footed mice born from dams chronically exposed to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites. Females were fed diets containing either Aroclor 1254 in corn oil or corn off only, for 3 months, then bred; pups were maintained on the same diets as their mothers. At 22 weeks of age, 31 of the young Peromyscus were analyzed. Body and organ weights were taken and immune function was evaluated by assessing blood profiles, cellularity of thymus and spleen, antibody response to the antigen DNP-KLH, and the in vitro proliferative response to the T-cell mitogen Conconavalin A (Con A). Liver weights and liver to body weight ratios in the treated mice were significantly higher compared to controls, while the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower. In addition, the number of thymocytes in the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher degree of proliferation to Con A. Taken together, these results and those obtained from our previous study, indicate that monitoring of vulnerable immunological parameters in white-footed mice may be a useful indicator of exposure.

  8. Lifestyle weight-loss intervention outcomes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Franz, Marion J; Boucher, Jackie L; Rutten-Ramos, Stephanie; VanWormer, Jeffrey J

    2015-09-01

    The majority of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, and weight loss is a recommended treatment strategy. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to answer the following primary question: In overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, what are the outcomes on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from lifestyle weight-loss interventions resulting in weight losses greater than or less than 5% at 12 months? Secondary questions are: What are the lipid (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) outcomes from lifestyle weight-loss interventions resulting in weight losses greater than or less than 5% at 12 months? And, what are the weight and metabolic outcomes from differing amounts of macronutrients in weight-loss interventions? Inclusion criteria included randomized clinical trial implementing weight-loss interventions in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, minimum 12-month study duration, a 70% completion rate, and an HbA1c value reported at 12 months. Eleven trials (eight compared two weight-loss interventions and three compared a weight-loss intervention group with a usual care/control group) with 6,754 participants met study criteria. At 12 months, 17 study groups (8 categories of weight-loss intervention) reported weight loss <5% of initial weight (-3.2 kg [95% CI: -5.9, -0.6]). A meta-analysis of the weight-loss interventions reported nonsignificant beneficial effects on HbA1c, lipids, or blood pressure. Two study groups reported a weight loss of ≥5%: a Mediterranean-style diet implemented in newly diagnosed adults with type 2 diabetes and an intensive lifestyle intervention implemented in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. Both included regular physical activity and frequent contact with health professionals and reported significant beneficial effects on HbA1c, lipids, and blood pressure. Five

  9. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max - energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7 ± 5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in

  10. Inactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in myelinating glial cells results in significant loss of adult spiral ganglion neurons accompanied by age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Furusho, M; D'Sa, C; Kuwada, S; Conti, L; Morest, D K; Bansal, R

    2009-11-15

    Hearing loss has been attributed to many factors, including degeneration of sensory neurons in the auditory pathway and demyelination along the cochlear nerve. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which signal through four receptors (Fgfrs), are produced by auditory neurons and play a key role in embryonic development of the cochlea and in neuroprotection against sound-induced injury. However, the role of FGF signaling in the maintenance of normal auditory function in adult and aging mice remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the contribution of glial cells, which myelinate the cochlear nerves, is poorly understood. To address these questions, we generated transgenic mice in which Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 were specifically inactivated in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes but not in neurons. Adult mutant mice exhibited late onset of hearing impairment, which progressed markedly with age. The hearing impairment was accompanied by significant loss of myelinated spiral ganglion neurons. The pathology extended into the cochlear nucleus, without apparent loss of myelin or of the deletion-bearing glial cells themselves. This suggests that perturbation of FGF receptor-mediated glial function leads to the attenuation of glial support of neurons, leading to their loss and impairment of auditory functions. Thus, FGF/FGF receptor signaling provides a potentially novel mechanism of maintaining reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia in adult and aging animals. Dysfunction of glial cells and FGF receptor signaling may therefore be implicated in neurodegenerative hearing loss associated with normal aging.

  11. Self-Help for Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jebb, Susan A.; Fletcher, Ben R.; Aveyard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the components and effectiveness of self-help weight-loss interventions and their applicability to less-advantaged populations. We searched (November 2013) for randomized controlled trials comparing self-help interventions with each other or with minimal controls in overweight and obese adults, with 6 months or longer follow-up. We calculated mean difference between intervention and control for 6- and 12-month weight change. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria (9632 participants; 39 intervention arms). Intervention participants lost significantly more weight than controls at 6 months (mean difference −1.85 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.86, −0.83; 7 studies). No significant effect was detected at 12 months but results were sensitive to the inclusion of 1 study at high risk of bias. Interactive programs appeared more effective than standard ones at 6 months (mean difference −0.94 kg; 95% CI = −1.50, −0.38). Evidence is insufficient to reach conclusions on effectiveness in socioeconomically disadvantaged people, but suggests self-help interventions may be less effective in this group. PMID:25602873

  12. Effect of short-term weight loss on the metabolic syndrome and conduit vascular endothelial function in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Bard, Robert L; Glazewski, Lynn; Kehrer, Christine; Bodary, Peter F; Eitzman, Daniel L; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2004-04-15

    Impaired vascular endothelial function may be an important mechanism linking obesity to increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether short-term weight loss improves conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in overweight adults. Forty-three otherwise healthy overweight patients with a body mass index > or =27 kg/m(2) completed an open-label 3-month trial consisting of a calorie-restricted diet and 120 mg of orlistat taken 3 times daily with meals. Endothelial function and parameters of the metabolic syndrome were measured before and after intervention. Subjects lost 6.6 +/- 3.4% of their body weight. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein concentration, fasting insulin, and leptin decreased significantly (all p <0.009), and C-reactive protein decreased (p = 0.22). Conduit vascular function did not change as assessed by flow-mediated dilation (3.86 +/- 3.54 vs 3.74 +/- 3.78%, p = 0.86) and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (17.18 +/- 5.89 vs 18.87 +/- 7.11%, p = 0.13) of the brachial artery. A moderate degree of weight reduction over 3 months improved the metabolic syndrome profile but not the vascular dysfunction associated with uncomplicated obesity.

  13. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  14. Is the pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine equivalent after lumbar epidural administration through a needle or a catheter in male and female adults?

    PubMed

    Faura, Ana; Modamio, Pilar; Blanco, Domingo; Segarra, Ignacio; Lastra, Cecilia F; Izquierdo, Elisenda; Casasín, Tomás; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2015-03-01

    We assessed possible pharmacokinetic modifications due to different epidural injection techniques using either a needle or a catheter. Adult patients (n=23) undergoing lower abdominal or lower extremity surgery were randomly assigned a single bupivacaine epidural injection anesthesia (0.5%, 15 mL, 0.3 mL/s) through needle or catheter device. Plasma bupivacaine concentration was quantified using a validated HPLC method and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. CMAX and TMAX were similar in both groups: 952 ± 346 ng/mL, 0.65 ± 0.5 1h in the needle group; 810 ± 307 ng/mL, 0.43 ± 0.29 h in the catheter group respectively. Plasma AUC₀→∞ was also similar in both groups: 3868 ± 1687 ngh/mL for needle versus 4096 ± 1748 ngh/mL using catheter. The catheter group showed slower disposition than the needle group: t₁/₂=3.9 ± 2.3 h, MRT=6.0 ± 3.1 h versus 2.7 ± 1.03 h and 4.5 ± 1.2 h with needle administration respectively though it did not reach statistical significance, Cl/F and V/F were also similar. Lastly, female patients showed significant longer t1/2 after administration through catheter (5.7 ± 2.0 h) than needle (2.7 ± 0.6 h) group (P=0.0279). The device type does not affect the pharmacokinetics which is similar in both groups although sex-based differences might exist.

  15. Paired comparisons of nonlinear frequency compression, extended bandwidth, and restricted bandwidth hearing-aid processing for children and adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Marc A.; McCreery, Ryan; Kopun, Judy; Hoover, Brenda; Alexander, Joshua; Lewis, Dawna; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preference for speech and music processed with nonlinear frequency compression and two controls (restricted and extended bandwidth hearing-aid processing) was examined in adults and children with hearing loss. Purpose Determine if stimulus type (music, sentences), age (children, adults) and degree of hearing loss influence listener preference for nonlinear frequency compression, restricted bandwidth and extended bandwidth. Research Design Within-subject, quasi-experimental study. Using a round-robin procedure, participants listened to amplified stimuli that were 1) frequency-lowered using nonlinear frequency compression, 2) low-pass filtered at 5 kHz to simulate the restricted bandwidth of conventional hearing aid processing, or 3) low-pass filtered at 11 kHz to simulate extended bandwidth amplification. The examiner and participants were blinded to the type of processing. Using a two-alternative forced-choice task, participants selected the preferred music or sentence passage. Study Sample Sixteen children (8–16 years) and 16 adults (19–65 years) with mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Intervention All subjects listened to speech and music processed using a hearing-aid simulator fit to the Desired Sensation Level algorithm v.5.0a (Scollie et al, 2005). Results Children and adults did not differ in their preferences. For speech, participants preferred extended bandwidth to both nonlinear frequency compression and restricted bandwidth. Participants also preferred nonlinear frequency compression to restricted bandwidth. Preference was not related to degree of hearing loss. For music, listeners did not show a preference. However, participants with greater hearing loss preferred nonlinear frequency compression to restricted bandwidth more than participants with less hearing loss. Conversely, participants with greater hearing loss were less likely to prefer extended bandwidth to restricted bandwidth. Conclusion Both age groups preferred access to

  16. Using a technology-based intervention to promote weight loss in sedentary overweight or obese adults: a randomized controlled trial study design

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Vaughn W; McClain, Amanda C; Shuger, Sara; Sui, Xuemei; Hardin, James W; Hand, Gregory A; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The SenseWear™ Armband is an activity monitor developed to improve lifestyle self-monitoring. Currently, few studies assess electronic self-monitoring and weight loss with a lifestyle intervention program. To our knowledge, only one study has used the SenseWear Armband in combination with a lifestyle intervention to improve weight loss, and no studies have evaluated whether a self-monitoring intervention based solely on the armband can promote weight loss. Consequently, the aims of the study were to assess weight loss from electronic self-monitoring, to compare these values to the lifestyle intervention and standard care groups, and to compare weight loss with lifestyle intervention with and without the armband. Patients and methods: We recruited 197 sedentary overweight or obese adults (age, 46.8 ± 10.8 years; BMI, 33.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2) to participate in the 9-month study. Participants were randomized into one of four weight loss groups: 1) the standard care group received a self-directed weight loss program, complete with an evidence-based weight loss manual (standard care, n = 50); 2) a 14-week group-based behavioral weight loss program followed by weekly, biweekly, and monthly telephone counseling calls (GWL, n = 49); 3) the use of the armband to help improve lifestyle self-monitoring (SWA alone, n = 49); or (4) the group-based behavioral weight loss program and follow-up telephone counseling calls plus the armband (GWL + SWA, n = 49). All participants received the evidence-based weight loss manual at baseline. All measures were performed at baseline and months 4 and 9. The primary outcomes were weight loss and waist circumference reduction. Results: This study is a well-designed randomized controlled study powered to detect a 0.5-kg weight loss and 0.6-cm waist circumference reduction in overweight and obese sedentary adults. Conclusion: Innovative technologies are providing lifestyle self-monitoring and weight loss tools. Utilizing these technologies

  17. Global integration of the hot-state brain network of appetite predicts short term weight loss in older adult

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, Brielle M.; Laurienti, Paul J.; Simpson, Sean L.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Lyday, Robert G.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health crisis in North America. While lifestyle interventions for weight loss (WL) remain popular, the rate of success is highly variable. Clearly, self-regulation of eating behavior is a challenge and patterns of activity across the brain may be an important determinant of success. The current study prospectively examined whether integration across the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A) predicts WL after 6-months of treatment in older adults. Our metric for network integration was global efficiency (GE). The present work is a sub-study (n = 56) of an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving WL. Imaging involved a baseline food-cue visualization functional MRI (fMRI) scan following an overnight fast. Using graph theory to build functional brain networks, we demonstrated that regions of the HBN-A (insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), superior temporal pole (STP), amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus) were highly integrated as evidenced by the results of a principal component analysis (PCA). After accounting for known correlates of WL (baseline weight, age, sex, and self-regulatory efficacy) and treatment condition, which together contributed 36.9% of the variance in WL, greater GE in the HBN-A was associated with an additional 19% of the variance. The ACC of the HBN-A was the primary driver of this effect, accounting for 14.5% of the variance in WL when entered in a stepwise regression following the covariates, p = 0.0001. The HBN-A is comprised of limbic regions important in the processing of emotions and visceral sensations and the ACC is key for translating such processing into behavioral consequences. The improved integration of these regions may enhance awareness of body and emotional states leading to more successful self-regulation and to greater WL. This is the first study among older adults to prospectively demonstrate that, following an overnight fast, GE of the HBN-A during a food visualization task is predictive of

  18. Global integration of the hot-state brain network of appetite predicts short term weight loss in older adult.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Brielle M; Laurienti, Paul J; Simpson, Sean L; Burdette, Jonathan H; Lyday, Robert G; Rejeski, W Jack

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health crisis in North America. While lifestyle interventions for weight loss (WL) remain popular, the rate of success is highly variable. Clearly, self-regulation of eating behavior is a challenge and patterns of activity across the brain may be an important determinant of success. The current study prospectively examined whether integration across the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A) predicts WL after 6-months of treatment in older adults. Our metric for network integration was global efficiency (GE). The present work is a sub-study (n = 56) of an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving WL. Imaging involved a baseline food-cue visualization functional MRI (fMRI) scan following an overnight fast. Using graph theory to build functional brain networks, we demonstrated that regions of the HBN-A (insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), superior temporal pole (STP), amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus) were highly integrated as evidenced by the results of a principal component analysis (PCA). After accounting for known correlates of WL (baseline weight, age, sex, and self-regulatory efficacy) and treatment condition, which together contributed 36.9% of the variance in WL, greater GE in the HBN-A was associated with an additional 19% of the variance. The ACC of the HBN-A was the primary driver of this effect, accounting for 14.5% of the variance in WL when entered in a stepwise regression following the covariates, p = 0.0001. The HBN-A is comprised of limbic regions important in the processing of emotions and visceral sensations and the ACC is key for translating such processing into behavioral consequences. The improved integration of these regions may enhance awareness of body and emotional states leading to more successful self-regulation and to greater WL. This is the first study among older adults to prospectively demonstrate that, following an overnight fast, GE of the HBN-A during a food visualization task is predictive of

  19. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  20. Sensorimotor experience influences recovery of forelimb abilities but not tissue loss after focal cortical compression in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Xerri, Christian

    2011-02-16

    Sensorimotor activity has been shown to play a key role in functional outcome after extensive brain damage. This study was aimed at assessing the influence of sensorimotor experience through subject-environment interactions on the time course of both lesion and gliosis volumes as well as on the recovery of forelimb sensorimotor abilities following focal cortical injury. The lesion consisted of a cortical compression targeting the forepaw representational area within the primary somatosensory cortex of adult rats. After the cortical lesion, rats were randomly subjected to various postlesion conditions: unilateral C5-C6 dorsal root transection depriving the contralateral cortex from forepaw somatosensory inputs, standard housing or an enriched environment promoting sensorimotor experience and social interactions. Behavioral tests were used to assess forelimb placement during locomotion, forelimb-use asymmetry, and forepaw tactile sensitivity. For each group, the time course of tissue loss was described and the gliosis volume over the first postoperative month was evaluated using an unbiased stereological method. Consistent with previous studies, recovery of behavioral abilities was found to depend on post-injury experience. Indeed, increased sensorimotor activity initiated early in an enriched environment induced a rapid and more complete behavioral recovery compared with standard housing. In contrast, severe deprivation of peripheral sensory inputs led to a delayed and only partial sensorimotor recovery. The dorsal rhizotomy was found to increase the perilesional gliosis in comparison to standard or enriched environments. These findings provide further evidence that early sensory experience has a beneficial influence on the onset and time course of functional recovery after focal brain injury.

  1. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE UPDATE: PFRP EQUIVALENCY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will:

    Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee
    Review the PEC's current membership of 10
    Discuss how a typical application is evaluated
    Note where information can be found
    List present deliberations/applications and describe t...

  2. [More consideration to dietary protein in the nutrition of chronically ill adults with tendency to weight loss].

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, H P; Romijn, J A

    1999-04-24

    Weight loss is an independent risk factor for mortality in chronically ill weight-losing patients. Hunger strikers and chronically ill patients die after a weight loss of about 40%; weight loss is strongly correlated with loss of lean body mass. Lean body mass is determined by protein synthesis and protein breakdown. Increased supply of amino acids diminishes loss of lean body mass. It is advisable to increase the protein content of the diet of chronically ill weight-losing patients to the level that maximally stimulates protein synthesis, i.e. 1.5 g protein/kg/day.

  3. Active microwave water equivalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyne, H. S.; Ellerbruch, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of water equivalence using an active FM-CW microwave system were conducted over the past three years at various sites in Colorado, Wyoming, and California. The measurement method is described. Measurements of water equivalence and stratigraphy are compared with ground truth. A comparison of microwave, federal sampler, and snow pillow measurements at three sites in Colorado is described.

  4. PROLONGED PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH REPETITION LOW FORCE TASK INDUCES BONE ADAPTATION IN YOUNG ADULT RATS, BUT LOSS IN MATURE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14–18 mo of age) and 14 young adult (2.5–6.5 mo of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  5. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    PubMed

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  6. By land or by stream? contribution of constrained dispersal by adult caddisflies to diversity loss from urban headwaters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adult stage of streams insects is responsible for important life-cycle processes such as dispersal and reproduction, yet interactions of adult stream insects with terrestrial landscapes are rarely studied. This trend is especially problematic in urbanized landscapes where th...

  7. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil’s baseline assessment. RESULTS: Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. CONCLUSION: We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. PMID:28226026

  8. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  9. Prevalence of Loss of All Teeth (Edentulism) and Associated Factors in Older Adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa †

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Hewlett, Sandra; Yawson, Alfred E.; Moynihan, Paula; Preet, Raman; Wu, Fan; Guo, Godfrey; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Snodgrass, James J.; Chatterji, Somnath; Engelstad, Mark E.; Kowal, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Little information exists about the loss of all one’s teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO’s) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367), Ghana (N = 4724), India (N = 7150), Mexico (N = 2315), Russian Federation (N = 3938) and South Africa (N = 3840). Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%–21.7%) than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%–9.0%). In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education), chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma), health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption) and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion) were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention. PMID:25361046

  10. The adaptation dynamics of chronic functional impairment: what we can learn from older adults with vision loss.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P; Boerner, Kathrin

    2011-03-01

    This study used vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration to learn about adaptation processes related to chronic functional impairment, focusing on Horowitz and Reinhardt's (1998) concept of Adaptation to Age-related Vision Loss (AVL) as the outcome. We hypothesized that impacts of visual acuity on AVL are mediated by perceived functional vision losses and functional abilities, and tested for "adaptive" weakening of this impact with ongoing loss. Longitudinal data covering a one-year interval from samples with age-related macular degeneration gathered in New York (N = 361) and Heidelberg (Germany, N = 90) were used. We analyzed the hypothesized causal structure by modeling latent change scores, and checked if those with low, medium, and high levels of vision loss at baseline differ in the relations between one-year change scores. Results confirmed that impacts of vision loss on AVL are mediated by decline in functional ability. However, under the most severe levels of vision loss at baseline, functional decline showed only a minor impact on AVL change not explained by a lack of further decline in vision. Findings confirm the effectiveness of adaptation in terms of reduced reactivity to functional losses across increasing level of chronic impairment. Thus, adaptation, weakening the impact of chronic functional impairment on psychological outcomes over time with disease progression, deserves consideration in the study of psychological consequences of chronic physical health conditions in old age.

  11. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  12. Equivalent Dynamic Models.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-02-16

    Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.

  13. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of

  14. Effects of breakfast eating and eating frequency on body mass index and weight loss outcomes in adults enrolled in an obesity treatment program.

    PubMed

    Megson, Maureen; Wing, Rena; Leahey, Tricia M

    2017-01-21

    This study examined the effects of breakfast eating and eating frequency on objectively assessed BMI and weight loss outcomes among adults enrolled in obesity treatment. Participants completed measures of breakfast eating and eating frequency before and after treatment and had their height and weight measured. Baseline breakfast eating and eating frequency were not associated with baseline BMI (p = .34, p = .45, respectively) and did not predict weight loss during treatment (p = .36, p = .58, respectively). From pre- to post-treatment, there was no significant change in eating frequency (p = .27) and changes in eating frequency had no impact on weight loss (r = -.08, p = .23). However, increases in breakfast eating during treatment were associated with significantly better weight loss outcomes (r = .26, p < .001). Among participants who increased breakfast eating, those who had either no change or a decrease in daily eating frequency were more likely to achieve a 5% weight loss compared to those who had an increase in daily eating frequency (p = .04). These results suggest that increasing breakfast eating, while simultaneously reducing or keeping eating frequency constant, may improve outcomes in obesity treatment. Experimental studies are needed to further elucidate these effects.

  15. Loss of the calcium channel β4 subunit impairs parallel fibre volley and Purkinje cell firing in cerebellum of adult ataxic mice.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Bruno; Benedetti, Ariane; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2016-06-01

    The auxiliary voltage-gated calcium channel subunit β4 supports targeting of calcium channels to the cell membrane, modulates ionic currents and promotes synaptic release in the central nervous system. β4 is abundant in cerebellum and its loss causes ataxia. However, the type of calcium channels and cerebellar functions affected by the loss of β4 are currently unknown. We therefore studied the structure and function of Purkinje cells in acute cerebellar slices of the β4 (-/-) ataxic (lethargic) mouse, finding that loss of β4 affected Purkinje cell input, morphology and pacemaker activity. In adult lethargic cerebellum evoked postsynaptic currents from parallel fibres were depressed, while paired-pulse facilitation and spontaneous synaptic currents were unaffected. Because climbing fibre input was spared, the parallel fibre/climbing fibre input ratio was reduced. The dendritic arbor of adult lethargic Purkinje cells displayed fewer and shorter dendrites, but a normal spine density. Accordingly, the width of the molecular and granular layers was reduced. These defects recapitulate the impaired cerebellar maturation observed upon Cav 2.1 ataxic mutations. However, unlike Cav 2.1 mutations, lethargic Purkinje cells also displayed a striking decrease in pacemaker firing frequency, without loss of firing regularity. All these deficiencies appear in late development, indicating the importance of β4 for the normal differentiation and function of mature Purkinje cells networks. The observed reduction of the parallel fibre input, the altered parallel fibre/climbing fibre ratio and the reduced Purkinje cell output can contribute to the severe motor impairment caused by the loss of the calcium channel β4 subunit in lethargic mice.

  16. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g.,…

  17. A systematic review of the effectiveness of smartphone applications that encourage dietary self-regulatory strategies for weight loss in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Semper, H M; Povey, R; Clark-Carter, D

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to systematically review the evidence to explore whether smartphone applications that use self-regulatory strategies are beneficial for weight loss in overweight and obese adults over the age of 18 years. Sixteen electronic databases were searched for articles published up to April 2015 including MEDLINE, OVID, Ingenta, PSYCARTICLES and PSYCINFO, CINAHL, Sportdiscus, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, JSTOR, EBSCO, Proquest, Wiley and Google Scholar. Twenty nine eligible studies were retrieved of which six studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies that recruited participants under the age of 18 years, adults with a chronic condition or did not report weight loss outcomes were excluded. Study findings were combined using a narrative synthesis. Overall, evidence suggests that smartphone applications may be a useful tool for self-regulating diet for weight loss as participants in the smartphone application group in all studies lost at least some bodyweight. However, when compared to other self-monitoring methods, there was no significant difference in the amount of weight lost. Findings should be interpreted with caution based on the design of the studies and the comparator groups used. Future research needs to be more methodologically rigorous and incorporate measures of whether eating habits become healthier in addition to measuring weight and BMI.

  18. Postnatal Loss of Hap1 Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Causes Adult Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jianxing; Yan, Sen; Li, Shi-Hua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious mental disorder that affects a person’s mood, thoughts, behavior, physical health, and life in general. Despite our continuous efforts to understand the disease, the etiology of depressive behavior remains perplexing. Recently, aberrant early life or postnatal neurogenesis has been linked to adult depressive behavior; however, genetic evidence for this is still lacking. Here we genetically depleted the expression of huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1) in mice at various ages or in selective brain regions. Depletion of Hap1 in the early postnatal period, but not later life, led to a depressive-like phenotype when the mice reached adulthood. Deletion of Hap1 in adult mice rendered the mice more susceptible to stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Furthermore, early Hap1 depletion impaired postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and reduced the level of c-kit, a protein expressed in neuroproliferative zones of the rodent brain and that is stabilized by Hap1. Importantly, stereotaxically injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) that directs the expression of c-kit in the hippocampus promoted postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and ameliorated the depressive-like phenotype in conditional Hap1 KO mice, indicating a link between postnatal-born hippocampal neurons and adult depression. Our results demonstrate critical roles for Hap1 and c-kit in postnatal neurogenesis and adult depressive behavior, and also suggest that genetic variations affecting postnatal neurogenesis may lead to adult depression. PMID:25875952

  19. Comparison of conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma for photons using a male adult voxel simulator in sitting and standing posture with geometry of irradiation antero-posterior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, D. C.; Cavalcante, F. R.; Carvalho, A. B.; Hunt, J.

    2014-02-01

    The dose conversion coefficient (DCC) is important to quantify and assess effective doses associated with medical, professional and public exposures. The calculation of DCCs using anthropomorphic simulators and radiation transport codes is justified since in-vivo measurement of effective dose is extremely difficult and not practical for occupational dosimetry. DCCs have been published by the ICRP using simulators in a standing posture, which is not always applicable to all exposure scenarios, providing an inaccurate dose estimation. The aim of this work was to calculate DCCs for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (H/Kair) using the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code and the VOXTISS8 adult male voxel simulator in sitting and standing postures. In both postures, the simulator was irradiated by a plane source of monoenergetic photons in antero-posterior (AP) geometry. The photon energy ranged from 15 keV to 2 MeV. The DCCs for both postures were compared and the DCCs for the standing simulator were higher. For certain organs, the difference of DCCs were more significant, as in gonads (48% higher), bladder (16% higher) and colon (11% higher). As these organs are positioned in the abdominal region, the posture of the anthropomorphic simulator modifies the form in which the radiation is transported and how the energy is deposited. It was also noted that the average percentage difference of conversion coefficients was 33% for the bone marrow, 11% for the skin, 13% for the bone surface and 31% for the muscle. For other organs, the percentage difference of the DCCs for both postures was not relevant (less than 5%) due to no anatomical changes in the organs of the head, chest and upper abdomen. We can conclude that is important to obtain DCCs using different postures from those present in the scientific literature.

  20. Negative Affect Prior to and Following Overeating-Only, Loss of Control Eating-Only, and Binge Eating Episodes in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kelly C.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to examine the trajectory of five types of negative affect (global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, sadness) prior to and following three types of eating episodes (overeating in the absence of loss of control [OE-only], loss of control eating in the absence of overeating [LOC-only], and binge eating) among obese adults using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method Fifty obese adults (84% female) completed a two-week EMA protocol during which they were asked to record all eating episodes and rate each episode on continua of overeating and loss of control. Momentary measures of global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, and sadness were assessed using an abbreviated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Trajectories for each of the five types of negative affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of OE-only, LOC-only, and binge eating. Results Consistent with previous findings, global negative affect and Guilt increased prior to and decreased following binge eating episodes (all ps<.05). Guilt also decreased following OE-only episodes (p<.05). Discussion These results are consistent with the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating may function to regulate global negative affect, and more specifically, guilt among obese adults. These data suggest that the relationship between negative affect and binge eating may not be unique to individuals with clinical eating disorders and indicate that targeting negative affect may be an effective strategy for the treatment of binge eating in the context of obesity. PMID:25808854

  1. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  2. Hearing Loss and Quality of Life (QOL) among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and Uninfected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Duong, N; Torre, P; Springer, G; Cox, C; Plankey, MW

    2017-01-01

    Objective Research has established that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes hearing loss. Studies have yet to evaluate the impact on quality of life (QOL). This project evaluates the effect of hearing loss on QOL by HIV status. Methods The study participants were from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS). A total of 248 men and 127 women participated. Pure-tone air conduction thresholds were collected for each ear at frequencies from 250 through 8000 Hz. Pure-tone averages (PTAs) for each ear were calculated as the mean of air conduction thresholds in low frequencies (i.e., 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (i.e., 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz). QOL data were gathered with the Short Form 36 Health Survey and Medical Outcome Study (MOS)-HIV instrument in the MACS and WIHS, respectively. A median regression analysis was performed to test the association of PTAs with QOL by HIV status. Results There was no significant association between hearing loss and QOL scores at low and high pure tone averages in HIV positive and negative individuals. HIV status, HIV biomarkers and treatment did not change the lack of association of low and high pure tone averages with poorer QOL. Conclusion Although we did not find a statistically significant association of hearing loss with QOL by HIV status, testing for hearing loss with aging and recommending treatment may offset any presumed later life decline in QOL. PMID:28217403

  3. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  4. Memory Loss, Dementia, and Stroke: Implications for Rehabilitation of Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Older adults with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are not immune to the other diseases of aging. Although AMD is the leading cause of low vision in older Americans, stroke is the leading cause of disability, and dementias affect another 2.5 million older Americans. Each condition alone can significantly impair a person's ability to…

  5. Impact of Weight Loss on Ankle-Brachial Index and Inter-Artery Blood Pressures in Overweight and Obese Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Bahnson, Judy; Knowler, William C.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Beavers, Daniel; Johnson, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Design and Methods The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education (DSE) in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Annual ankle and brachial blood pressures over four years were used compute ankle-brachial indices (ABIs) and to assess inter-artery blood pressure differences in 5018 participants. Results ILI, compared to DSE, produced 7.8% (Year 1) to 3.6% (Year 4) greater weight losses. These did not affect prevalence of low (<0.90) ABI (3.60% in DSE versus 3.14% in ILI; p=0.20) or elevated (>1.40) ABI (7.52% in DSE versus 7.59% in ILI: p=0.90), but produced smaller mean (SE) maximum inter-artery systolic blood pressure differences among ankle sites [19.7 (0.2) mmHg for ILI versus 20.6 (0.2) mmHg for DSE (p<0.001)] and between arms [5.8 (0.1) mmHg for ILI versus 6.1 (0.1) mmHg for DSE (p=0.01)]. Conclusions Four years of intensive behavioral weight loss intervention did not significantly alter prevalence of abnormal ABI, however it did reduce differences in systolic blood pressures among arterial sites. PMID:24174392

  6. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Eveline S; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E; Yeo, Gene W; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-02-19

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43(Q331K) and TDP-43(M337V)), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43-dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43(Q331K), but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43(Q331K) enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage.

  7. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  8. Illustrating the (in)visible: understanding the impact of loss in adults living with secondary lymphedema after cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roanne; Hamilton, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Life with a disability is often riddled with paradoxes, one of which is being visibly marked, while personal experiences, losses, and challenges remain hidden. Our article draws attention to this paradox among people who live with secondary lymphedema after cancer (SLC). SLC is a relatively unfamiliar chronic condition within medical and lay discourses of cancer, which proves challenging for the many cancer survivors who are in search of information and understanding. Thirteen men and women with SLC were recruited from two research sites (Fredericton, NB, and Ottawa, ON, Canada) to participate in semi-structured interviews about the physical and psychosocial aspects of SLC. Using a methodology of interpretive description, our analysis of participant interviews reveals the complex ways in which men and women felt both visible and invisible within various contexts. We discuss three majors themes: (in)visibility and appearance related to material losses; (in)visibility and action connected to visible losses in function, as well as invisible struggles to care for oneself; and the loss of present and future well-being, as SLC renders some limitations visible while potentially obscuring a hopeful future indefinitely. Our research indicates that timely diagnosis of SLC would be an immediate first step in recognizing the physical and emotional dimensions of the condition. To accomplish this, increased awareness is needed. To enhance quality of life for those living with SLC, the development of new resources and psychosocial supports is also required.

  9. Early consumption of blueberry diet protects against sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss in adult female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of blueberry consumption in early development on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats later in life. Weanling female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder from PND 21 to PND34 (short-term group), or PND21 to PND81 (chro...

  10. Feeding Blueberry Diets in Early Life Prevent Senescence of Osteoblasts and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Adult Female Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  11. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity and hair cell ablation in the adult gerbil: A simple model to study hair cell loss and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Leila; Rivolta, Marcelo N.

    2015-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, has been widely employed as a model for studies of the inner ear. In spite of its established use for auditory research, no robust protocols to induce ototoxic hair cell damage have been developed for this species. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of an aminoglycoside-induced model of hair cell loss, using kanamycin potentiated by the loop diuretic furosemide. Interestingly, we show that the gerbil is relatively insensitive to gentamicin compared to kanamycin, and that bumetanide is ineffective in potentiating the ototoxicity of the drug. We also examine the pathology of the spiral ganglion after chronic, long-term hair cell damage. Remarkably, there is little or no neuronal loss following the ototoxic insult, even at 8 months post-damage. This is similar to the situation often seen in the human, where functioning neurons can persist even decades after hair cell loss, contrasting with the rapid, secondary degeneration found in rats, mice and other small mammals. We propose that the combination of these factors makes the gerbil a good model for ototoxic damage by induced hair cell loss. PMID:25783988

  12. Paid Support Workers for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities; Their Current Knowledge of Hearing Loss and Future Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShea, Lynzee; Fulton, John; Hayes, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities are more likely to have hearing loss than the general population. For those unable to self-advocate, the responsibility of detection and management falls to their caregivers. Methods: This is the first cycle of a project using action research methodology to improve services. Twenty care workers…

  13. The prevalence of osteoporosis and the rate of bone loss in Korean adults: the Chungju metabolic disease cohort (CMC) study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y; Jo, K; Ha, H-S; Yim, H-W; Yoon, K-H; Lee, W-C; Son, H-Y; Baek, K H; Kang, M-I

    2017-04-01

    Because the rate of bone loss is an important risk factor for fracture, we studied longitudinal changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Although the BMD of the hip decreased over time, spine BMD remained largely stable or increased. Therefore, spine BMD may not be appropriate for assessing BMD change.

  14. Tailored weight loss intervention in obese adults within primary care practice: rationale, design, and methods of Choose to Lose.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sheri J; Risica, Patricia M; Gans, Kim M; Marcus, Bess H; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-07-01

    Although there are efficacious weight loss interventions that can improve health and delay onset of diabetes and hypertension, these interventions have not been translated into clinical practice. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a tailored lifestyle intervention in primary care patients. Patients were recruited by their primary care physicians and eligible participants were randomized to an enhanced intervention or standard intervention. All participants met with a lifestyle counselor to set calorie and physical activity goals and to discuss behavioral strategies at baseline, 6 and 12 months. During the first year, enhanced intervention participants receive monthly counseling phone calls to assist in attaining and maintaining their goals. Enhanced intervention participants also receive weekly mailings consisting of tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos focusing on weight loss, physical activity promotion and healthy eating. The second year focuses on maintenance with enhanced intervention participants receiving tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos regularly throughout the year. Standard intervention participants receive five informational handouts on weight loss across the two years. This enhanced intervention that consists of multiple modalities of print, telephone, and video with limited face-to-face counseling holds promise for being effective for encouraging weight loss, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, and also for being cost effective and generalizable for wide clinical use. This study will fill an important gap in our knowledge regarding the translation and dissemination of research from efficacy studies to best practices in clinical settings.

  15. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the PEC in 1985 to make recommendations to EPA and State managers on the equivalency of unproven sewage sludge disinfection technologies/processes to either a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or a Process to Further...

  16. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  17. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  18. Long term maintenance of weight loss with non-surgical interventions in obese adults: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, S U; Knittle, K; Avenell, A; Araújo-Soares, V

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review and describe currently available approaches to supporting maintenance of weight loss in obese adults and to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study selection Studies were identified through to January 2014. Randomised trials of interventions to maintain weight loss provided to initially obese adults (aged ≥18) after weight loss of ≥5% body weight with long term (≥12 months) follow-up of weight change (main outcome) were included. Study appraisal and synthesis Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate; study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of interventions on weight loss maintenance with the inverse variance method and a random effects model. Results are presented as mean differences in weight change, with 95% confidence intervals. Results 45 trials involving 7788 individuals were included. Behavioural interventions focusing on both food intake and physical activity resulted in an average difference of −1.56 kg (95% confidence interval −2.27 to −0.86 kg; 25 comparisons, 2949 participants) in weight regain compared with controls at 12 months. Orlistat combined with behavioural interventions resulted in a −1.80 kg (−2.54 to −1.06; eight comparisons, 1738 participants) difference compared with placebo at 12 months. All orlistat studies reported higher frequencies of adverse gastrointestinal events in the experimental compared with placebo control groups. A dose-response relation for orlistat treatment was found, with 120 mg doses three times a day leading to greater weight loss maintenance (−2.34 kg, −3.03 to −1.65) compared with 60 mg and 30 mg three times a day (−0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval −1.92 to 0.52), P=0.02. Conclusions Behavioural

  19. Neuroblast proliferation on the surface of the adult rat striatal wall after focal ependymal loss by intracerebroventricular injection of neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Gómez-Roldán, María; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Capilla-González, Vivian; Cifuentes, Manuel; Pérez, Juan; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro

    2008-04-01

    The subventricular zone of the striatal wall of adult rodents is an active neurogenic region for life. Cubic multiciliated ependyma separates the subventricular zone from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is involved in the control of adult neurogenesis. By injecting neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens into the right lateral ventricle of the rat, we provoked a partial detachment of the ependyma in the striatal wall. The contralateral ventricle was never affected and was used as the experimental control. Neuraminidase caused widening of the intercellular spaces among some ependymal cells and their subsequent detachment and disintegration in the CSF. Partial ependymal denudation was followed by infiltration of the CSF with macrophages and neutrophils from the local choroid plexus, which ependymal cells never detached after neuraminidase administration. Inflammation extended toward the periventricular parenchyma. The ependymal cells that did not detach and remained in the ventricle wall never proliferated. The lost ependyma was never recovered, and ependymal cells never behaved as neural stem cells. Instead, a scar formed by overlapping astrocytic processes sealed those regions devoid of ependyma. Some ependymal cells at the border of the denudated areas lost contact with the ventricle and became located under the glial layer. Concomitantly with scar formation, some subependymal cells protruded toward the ventricle through the ependymal breaks, proliferated, and formed clusters of rounded ventricular cells that expressed the phenotype of neuroblasts. Ventricular clusters of neuroblasts remained in the ventricle up to 90 days after injection. In the subventricular zone, adult neurogenesis persisted.

  20. Prefrontal cortex-mediated executive function as assessed by Stroop task performance associates with weight loss among overweight and obese adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Deng, Zhang-Yan; Huang, Qin; Zhang, Wei-Xia; Qi, Chang-Zhu; Huang, Jia-Ai

    2017-03-15

    People with cognitive deficits or executive dysfunction are often overweight or obese. Several human neuroimaging studies have found that executive function (EF) predicts food intake and weight gain; however, fewer studies have investigated the relationship between EF and weight loss. The Stroop task is a classic measure of EF that is used in many neuroimaging studies. In the present work, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data were collected during performance of the Stroop task from a sample of overweight or obese adolescents and young adults (n=31) who participated in a summer fitness and weight loss camp. We assessed the Stroop effect by interference in the reaction time (RT) to visual challenges, and by alterations in levels of oxygenated hemoglobin, as detected by fNIRS. In line with previous studies, we found that the Stroop effect was successfully induced by different visual task conditions among obese/overweight individuals. Moreover, our results reveal that better Stroop task performance is correlated with greater weight loss over a4-weekfitness intervention. Indeed, behavioral data demonstrated that reduced RT interference predicted a greater percentage of weight loss. Moreover, overweight/obese individuals with a greater hemodynamic response in the left ventrolateral and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex due to the Stroop effect lost more weight during the short-term fitness intervention than participants with lower levels of activation of these neural regions. Overall, our results support a role for prefrontal cortex-mediated EF in influencing food intake and weight loss outcomes in a population of a previously unstudied age.

  1. Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposures and Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Miller, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although cadmium and lead are known risk factors for hearing loss in animal models, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted on their associations with hearing ability in the general population. Objectives: We investigated the associations between blood cadmium and lead exposure and hearing loss in the U.S. general population while controlling for noise and other major risk factors contributing to hearing loss. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,698 U.S. adults 20–69 years of age who had been randomly assigned to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 Audiometry Examination Component. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA > 25 dB in either ear. Results: The weighted geometric means of blood cadmium and lead were 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39. 0.42] µg/L and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.60) µg/dL, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors and exposure to occupational and nonoccupational noise, the highest (vs. lowest) quintiles of cadmium and lead were associated with 13.8% (95% CI: 4.6%, 23.8%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 7.4%, 31.1%) increases in PTA, respectively (p-trends < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-level exposure to cadmium and lead found in the general U.S. population may be important risk factors for hearing loss. The findings support efforts to reduce environmental cadmium and lead exposures. PMID:22851306

  2. Tailored weight loss intervention in obese adults within primary care practice: Rationale, design, and methods of Choose to Lose

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Sheri J.; Risica, Patricia M.; Gans, Kim M.; Marcus, Bess H.; Eaton, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are efficacious weight loss interventions that can improve health and delay onset of diabetes and hypertension, these interventions have not been translated into clinical practice. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a tailored lifestyle intervention in primary care patients. Patients were recruited by their primary care physicians and eligible participants were randomized to an enhanced intervention or augmented usual care. All participants met with a lifestyle counselor to set calorie and physical activity goals and to discuss behavioral strategies at baseline, 6 and 12 months. During the first year, enhanced intervention participants receive monthly counseling phone calls to assist in attaining and maintaining their goals. Enhanced intervention participants also receive weekly mailings consisting of tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos focusing on weight loss, physical activity promotion and healthy eating. The second year focuses on maintenance with enhanced intervention participants receiving tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos regularly throughout the year. Augmented usual care participants receive five informational handouts on weight loss across the two years. This enhanced intervention that consists of multiple modalities of print, telephone, and video with limited face-to-face counseling holds promise for being effective for encouraging weight loss, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, and also for being cost effective and generalizable for wide clinical use. This study will fill an important gap in our knowledge regarding the translation and dissemination of research from efficacy studies to best practices in clinical settings. PMID:24937016

  3. Persistent loss of hippocampal neurogenesis and increased cell death following adolescent, but not adult, chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret A; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T; Spear, Linda P

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescence is a common age to initiate alcohol consumption, the long-term consequences of exposure to alcohol at this time of considerable brain maturation are largely unknown. In studies utilizing rodents, behavioral evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that the hippocampus may be persistently affected by repeated ethanol exposure during adolescence, but not by comparable alcohol exposure in adulthood. The purpose of this series of experiments was to explore a potential mechanism of hippocampal dysfunction in adults exposed to ethanol during adolescence. Given that disruption in adult neurogenesis has been reported to impair performance on tasks thought to be hippocampally related, we used immunohistochemistry to assess levels of doublecortin (DCX), an endogenous marker of immature neurons, in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus 3-4 weeks after adolescent (postnatal day, PD28-48) or adult (PD70-90) intermittent ethanol exposure to 4 g/kg ethanol administered intragastrically. We also investigated another neurogenic niche, the subventricular zone (SVZ), to determine if the effects of ethanol exposure were region specific. Levels of cell proliferation and cell death were also examined in the DG via assessing Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity, respectively. Significantly less DCX was observed in the DG of adolescent (but not adult) ethanol-exposed animals about 4 weeks after exposure when these animals were compared to control age-mates. The effects of adolescent ethanol on DCX immunoreactivity were specific to the hippocampus, with no significant exposure effects emerging in the SVZ. In both the DG and the SVZ there was a significant age-related decline in neurogenesis as indexed by DCX. The persistent effect of adolescent ethanol exposure on reduced DCX in the DG appears to be related to significant increases in cell death, with significantly more cleaved caspase-3-positive immunoreactivity observed in the adolescent ethanol group

  4. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  5. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  6. The effect of (L-)carnitine on weight loss in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Pooyandjoo, M; Nouhi, M; Shab-Bidar, S; Djafarian, K; Olyaeemanesh, A

    2016-10-01

    This study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, which have examined the effect of the carnitine on adult weight loss. Relevant studies were identified by systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant marker studies. Nine studies (total n = 911) of adequate methodological quality were included in the review. Trials with mean difference (MD) of 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled using random effect model. Results from meta-analysis of eligible trials revealed that subjects who received carnitine lost significantly more weight (MD: -1.33 kg; 95% CI: -2.09 to -0.57) and showed a decrease in body mass index (MD: -0.47 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI: -0.88 to -0.05) compared with the control group. The results of meta-regression analysis of duration of consumption revealed that the magnitude of weight loss resulted by carnitine supplementation significantly decreased over time (p = 0.002). We conclude that receiving the carnitine resulted in weight loss. Using multiple-treatments meta-analysis of the drugs and non-pharmacotherapy options seem to be insightful areas for research. © 2016 World Obesity.

  7. Obtaining an equivalent beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    In modeling a complex structure the researcher was faced with a component that would have logical appeal if it were modeled as a beam. The structure was a mast of a robot controlled gantry crane. The structure up to this point already had a large number of degrees of freedom, so the idea of conserving grid points by modeling the mast as a beam was attractive. The researcher decided to make a separate problem of of the mast and model it in three dimensions with plates, then extract the equivalent beam properties by setting up the loading to simulate beam-like deformation and constraints. The results could then be used to represent the mast as a beam in the full model. A comparison was made of properties derived from models of different constraints versus manual calculations. The researcher shows that the three-dimensional model is ineffective in trying to conform to the requirements of an equivalent beam representation. If a full 3-D plate model were used in the complete representation of the crane structure, good results would be obtained. Since the attempt is to economize on the size of the model, a better way to achieve the same results is to use substructuring and condense the mast to equivalent end boundary and intermediate mass points.

  8. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  9. Cat-scratch disease in adult hospitalized for prolonged-Fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Guiyedi, Vincent; Haddad, Hanna; Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Gire, Fabien; Ongali, Brice; Lore, Philippes; Gameiro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old patient with a Cat-scratch disease presenting three months continuous alteration of the general condition, including prolonged-fever, anorexia, asthenia, weight loss associated with adenitis and multiple thoracic-abdominal adenopathies, leukocytosis with neutrophil polynuclear predominance, and increased of C-reactive protein. The serologies of toxoplasmosis, infectious mononucleosis, human immunodeficiency virus, Brucellosis, Bartonellosis and the tuberculosis research by tuberculin reaction test and Ziehl acid-alcohol resistant bacilli direct examination were negatives. The cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus serologies were positives only for immunoglobulin-G. The Bartonella henselae diagnosis was made with the analysis of histopathological specimens. The clinical and biological symptoms regressed following eight weeks of azithromycin's treatment. According to this observation, the cat-scratch disease should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients presenting prolonged-fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss. The azithromycin would be an alternative therapeutic issue for this pathology in case of confirmed efficacy by studies in a large patient population.

  10. Skipping breakfast and less exercise are risk factors for bone loss in young Japanese adults: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Keiji; Yoshida, Munehito; Ishimoto, Yuyu; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2014-07-01

    Although bone loss contributes to osteoporosis (OP) in the elderly, little is known about changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults that lead to bone loss. Here, we evaluated the rate of bone change and risk factors for bone loss in young men and women using data from a 3-year prospective study of Japanese medical students. The study included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck (FN). After 3 years, the BMD of the participants was again measured at the same sites. In all, 458 students (95.4 %; 298 men and 160 women; age range, 18-29 years; mean age, 20.2 years) completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean L2-L4 BMD value at baseline increased significantly within 3 years. This tendency was also observed for the FN in men but not in women. The annual changes at L2-L4 were 1.78 % in men and 0.97 % in women per year; those for FN were 1.08 % in men and 0.08 % in women per year. However, 20.3 % and 38.5 % of the total freshmen lost BMD in the lumbar spine and FN, respectively. After adjustment for age and body mass index, logistic regression analysis revealed that bone loss in men at L2-L4 at the baseline was affected by skipping breakfast. In contrast, exercise (>2 h/week) increased lumbar spine BMD in both genders. These findings indicate that breakfast and exercise are important for maintaining BMD in young men and women.

  11. Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY): A randomized, controlled trial of behavioral weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Svetkey, LP; Batch, BC; Lin, P-H; Intille, SS; Corsino, L; Tyson, CC; Bosworth, HB; Grambow, SC; Voils, C; Loria, C; Gallis, JA; Schwager, J; Bennett, GB

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect on weight of two Mobile technology-based (mHealth) behavioral weight loss interventions in young adults. Methods Randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial in 18–35 year olds with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (overweight/obese), with participants randomized to 24 months of mHealth intervention delivered by interactive smartphone application on a cell phone (CP); personal coaching enhanced by smartphone self-monitoring (PC); or Control. Results The 365 randomized participants had mean baseline BMI of 35 kg/m2. Final weight was measured in 86% of participants. CP was not superior to Control at any measurement point. PC participants lost significantly more weight than Controls at 6 months (net effect −1.92 kg [CI −3.17, −0.67], p=0.003), but not at 12 and 24 months. Conclusions Despite high intervention engagement and study retention, the inclusion of behavioral principles and tools in both interventions, and weight loss in all treatment groups, CP did not lead to weight loss and PC did not lead to sustained weight loss relative to control. Although mHealth solutions offer broad dissemination and scalability, the CITY results sound a cautionary note concerning intervention delivery by mobile applications. Effective intervention may require the efficiency of mobile technology, the social support and human interaction of personal coaching, and an adaptive approach to intervention design. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01092364. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01092364?term=Cell+phone+intervention+for+you&rank=3 PMID:26530929

  12. Effect of a dairy and calcium rich diet on weight loss and appetite during energy restriction in overweight and obese adults: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kim Wagner; Eller, Lindsay K.; Parnell, Jill A.; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Edwards, Alun L.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives A diet rich in dairy and calcium (Ca) has been variably associated with improvements in body composition and decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if a dietary pattern high in dairy and Ca improves weight loss and subjective appetite to a greater extent than a low dairy/Ca diet during energy restriction in overweight and obese adults with metabolic syndrome. Subjects/Methods 49 participants were randomized to one of two treatment groups: CONTROL [low dairy, ~700 mg/day Ca, −500 kcal/d] or DAIRY/CA [high dairy, ~1400 mg/day Ca, −500 kcal/d] for 12wk. Body composition, subjective ratings of appetite, food intake, plasma satiety hormones, glycemic response and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Results CONTROL (−2.2±0.5 kg) and DAIRY/CA (−3.3±0.6 kg) had similar weight loss. Based on self-reported energy intake, the percent of expected weight loss achieved was higher with DAIRY/CA (82.1±19.4%) than CONTROL (32.2±7.7%)(P=0.03). Subjects in the DAIRY/CA group reported feeling more satisfied (P=0.01) and had lower dietary fat intake (P=0.02) over 12wk compared to CONTROL. Compared to CONTROL, DAIRY/CA had higher plasma levels of peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, P=0.01) during the meal tolerance test at wk12. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was reduced at 30 min with DAIRY/CA compared to CONTROL (P=0.04). Conclusions In conclusion, a dairy and Ca rich diet was not associated with greater weight loss than control. Modest increases in plasma PYY concentrations with increased dairy/Ca intake, however, may contribute to enhanced sensations of satisfaction and reduced dietary fat intake during energy restriction. Registered Trial: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00564551). PMID:23462943

  13. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Eveline S.; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C.; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B.; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A.; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M.; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E.; Yeo, Gene W.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43Q331K and TDP-43M337V), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43–dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43Q331K, but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43Q331K enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage. PMID:23382207

  14. Perseveration Augments the Effects of Cognitive Restraint on ad libitum Food Intake in Adults Seeking Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Alexis L.; Gluck, Marci E.; Votruba, Suzanne B.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Differences in executive function have been associated with eating behaviors. Our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predicted ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. METHODS This cross-sectional study involved 78 obese, otherwise healthy, individuals (40 female /38 male; age 36±10y; BMI 37.8±7.2 kg/m2) enrolled in weight loss studies, but prior to any intervention. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task to evaluate decision making, the Stroop Word Color Task to assess attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) to measure perseverative errors, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) to measure disinhibition and cognitive restraint. Ad libitum energy intake over 3-days was then collected using a validated vending paradigm. RESULTS Only results from the WCST and the TFEQ correlated with mean daily energy intake. When expressed as a percentage of an individual's calculated weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN; [mean daily energy consumed/WMEN]*100), intake correlated positively with number of perseverative errors (r = 0.24, p = 0.03) and negatively with cognitive restraint (r2 = −0.51, p<0.0001). In a regression model of %WMEN (r2 = 0.59, p<0.0001) including age, sex, race, disinhibition, restraint, and perseverative error T-score, an interaction between perseveration and restraint was observed (p = 0.05). Greater numbers of perseverative errors intensified the effect of restraint such that subjects with both high restraint and high perseveration, per manual-defined cut-offs, ate the least (median (IQR) = 70 (62, 94) % WMEN), while those with low restraint and high perseveration ate the most (130 (102, 153) %WMEN). Subjects with low perseveration and high versus low restraint ate a median of 84 (70, 86) and 112 (98, 133) %WMEN, respectively. CONCLUSION In obese subjects seeking weight loss, the effects of perseveration on food intake are conditional on the level of dietary restraint, and

  15. Comments on TNT Equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.W.

    1994-07-01

    The term ``TNT Equivalence`` is used throughout the explosives and related industries to compare the effects of the output of a given explosive to that of TNT. This is done for technical design reasons in scaling calculation such as for the prediction of blast waves, craters, and structural response, and is also used as a basis for government regulations controlling the shipping, handling and storage of explosive materials, as well as for the siting and design of explosive facilities. TNT equivalence is determined experimentally by several different types of tests, the most common of which include: plate dent, ballistic mortar, trauzl, sand crush, and air blast. All of these tests do not necessarily measure the same output property of the sample explosive. As examples of this, some tests depend simply upon the CJ pressure, some depend upon the PV work in the CJ zone and in the Taylor wave behind the CJ plane, some are functions of the total work which includes that from secondary combustion in the air mixing region of the fireball and are acutely effected by the shape of the pressure-time profile of the wave. Some of the tests incorporate systematic errors which are not readily apparent, and which have a profound effect upon skewing the resultant data. Further, some of the tests produce different TNT Equivalents for the same explosive which are a function of the conditions at which the test is run. This paper describes the various tests used, discusses the results of each test and makes detailed commentary on what the test is actually measuring, how the results may be interpreted, and if and how these results can be predicted by first principals based calculations. Extensive data bases are referred to throughout the paper and used in examples for each point in the commentaries.

  16. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g., wrist, corn). For pairs of both types, event-related cortical potentials were recorded during and immediately after the presentation of the second word. The obtained waveforms differentiated these two types of pairs. For the unrelated pairs, the waveforms were significantly more negative about 400 ms after the second word was presented, thus replicating the “N400” phenomenon of the cognitive neuroscience literature. In addition, there was a strong positive-tending wave form difference post-stimulus presentation (peaked at about 500 ms) that also differentiated the unrelated from related stimulus pairs. In Experiment 2, the procedures were extended to study arbitrary stimulus–stimulus relations established via matching-to-sample training. Participants were experimentally naïve adults. Sample stimuli (Set A) were trigrams, and comparison stimuli (Sets B, C, D, E, and F) were nonrepresentative forms. Behavioral tests evaluated potentially emergent equivalence relations (i.e., BD, DF, CE, etc.). All participants exhibited classes consistent with the arbitrary matching training. They were also exposed also to an event-related potential procedure like that used in Experiment 1. Some received the ERP procedure before equivalence tests and some after. Only those participants who received ERP procedures after equivalence tests exhibited robust N400 differentiation initially. The positivity observed in Experiment 1 was absent for all participants. These results support speculations that equivalence tests may provide contextual support for the formation of equivalence classes including those that emerge gradually during testing

  17. Sources of variation in loss rates of color bands applied to adult roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) in the western North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Gochfeld, M.

    1994-01-01

    A model-based analysis was done to test several hypotheses concerning the rates of loss of butt-ended color bands placed on adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) in the western North Atlantic. These birds were captured and color banded from 1987-1991 at four colony sites, and recaptured from 1989-1992 as part of a study of the population dynamics of this species. Two types of color bands, Darvic and celluloid, were used, but only one band type was used for each individual bird. Each bird was given three color bands. The estimated probability that a bird with all color bands present during one breeding season still had all color bands during the next breeding season was 0.87. The analysis provided no evidence that colony site, cohort, calendar year of banding, age of color band, or whether or not the bands were heat-sealed closed, were important sources of variation in band-retention probabilities.

  18. Meal-based enhancement of protein quality and quantity during weight loss in obese older adults with mobility limitations: rationale and design for the MEASUR-UP trial.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelley R; Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E; Pieper, Carl F; Bales, Connie W

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity, and Strength: Understanding the Response - Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 g of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume ~30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity.

  19. Decreased lower limb muscle recruitment contributes to the inability of older adults to recover with a single step following a forward loss of balance.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Neil J; Barrett, Rod S; Lichtwark, Glen; Mills, Peter M; Carty, Christopher P

    2013-10-01

    In response to a balance disturbance, older individuals often require multiple steps to prevent a fall. Reliance on multiple steps to recover balance is predictive of a future fall, so studies should determine the mechanisms underlying differences between older adults who can and cannot recover balance with a single step. This study compared neural activation parameters of the major leg muscles during balance recovery from a sudden forward loss of balance in older individuals capable of recovering with a single step and those who required multiple steps to regain balance. Eighty-one healthy, community dwelling adults aged 70±3 participated. Loss of balance was induced by releasing participants from a static forward lean. Participants performed four trials at three initial lean magnitudes and were subsequently classified as single or multiple steppers. Although step length was shorter in multiple compared to single steppers (F=9.64; p=0.02), no significant differences were found between groups in EMG onset time in the step limb muscles (F=0.033-0.769; p=0.478-0.967). However, peak EMG normalised to values obtained during maximal voluntary contraction was significantly higher in single steppers in 6 of the 7 stepping limb muscles (F=1.054-4.167; p=0.045-0.024). These data suggest that compared to multiple steppers, single steppers recruit a larger proportion of the available motor unit pool during balance recovery. Thus, modulation of EMG amplitude plays a larger role in balance recovery than EMG timing in this context.

  20. MEAL-BASED ENHANCEMENT OF PROTEIN QUALITY AND QUANTITY DURING WEIGHT LOSS IN OBESE OLDER ADULTS WITH MOBILITY LIMITATIONS: RATIONALE AND DESIGN FOR THE MEASUR-UP TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Shelley R.; Starr, Kathryn N. Porter; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E.; Pieper, Carl F.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity and Strength: Understanding the Response --Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 grams of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume −30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity. PMID:25461495

  1. Phylogenetic analysis with multiple markers indicates repeated loss of the adult medusa stage in Campanulariidae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Boero, Ferdinando; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2006-03-01

    The Campanulariidae is a group of leptomedusan hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) that exhibit a diverse array of life cycles ranging from species with a free medusa stage to those with a reduced or absent medusa stage. Perhaps the best-known member of the taxon is Obelia which is often used as a textbook model of hydrozoan life history. However, Obelia medusae have several unique features leading to a hypothesis that Obelia arose, in a saltational fashion, from an ancestor that lacked a medusa, possibly representing an example of a rare evolutionary reversal. To address the evolution of adult sexual stages in Campanulariidae, a molecular phylogenetic approach was employed using two nuclear (18S rDNA and calmodulin) and two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. Prior to the main analysis, we conducted a preliminary analysis of leptomedusan taxa which suggests that Campanulariidae as presently considered needs to be redefined. Campanulariid analyses are consistent with morphological understanding in that three major clades are recovered. However, several recognized genera are not monophyletic calling into question some "diagnostic" features. Furthermore, ancestral states were reconstructed using parsimony, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate possible evolutionary transitions in life-history stages. The results indicate that life-cycle transitions have occurred multiple times, and that Obelia might be derived from an ancestor with Clytia-like features.

  2. Loss of endothelial-ARNT in adult mice contributes to dampened circulating proangiogenic cells and delayed wound healing.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Tao, Jiayi; Gomer, Alla; Ramirez-Bergeron, Diana L

    2014-12-01

    The recruitment and homing of circulating bone marrow-derived cells include endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that are critical to neovascularization and tissue regeneration of various vascular pathologies. We report here that conditional inactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor's (HIF) transcriptional activity in the endothelium of adult mice (Arnt(ΔiEC) mice) results in a disturbance of infiltrating cells, a hallmark of neoangiogenesis, during the early phases of wound healing. Cutaneous biopsy punches show distinct migration of CD31(+) cells into wounds of control mice by 36 hours. However, a significant decline in numbers of infiltrating cells with immature vascular markers, as well as decreased transcript levels of genes associated with their expression and recruitment, were identified in wounds of Arnt(ΔiEC) mice. Matrigel plug assays further confirmed neoangiogenic deficiencies alongside a reduction in numbers of proangiogenic progenitor cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-treated Arnt(ΔiEC) mice. In addition to HIF's autocrine requirements in endothelial cells, our data implicate that extrinsic microenvironmental cues provided by endothelial HIF are pivotal for early migration of proangiogenic cells, including those involved in wound healing.

  3. The effect of hearing loss and hearing aids on the use of information and communication technologies by community-living older adults.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Chris; Pichora-Fuller, Margaret Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Innovations in information and communication technologies are changing society, but only 1 in 15 Canadian seniors used a computer at the turn of the millennium (Statistics Canada, 2000). Furthermore, about 1 in 5 Canadian seniors has difficulty hearing, seeing, or communicating. The primary goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between hearing impairment and the use of information and communication technologies by older adults. A questionnaire about use of technologies was administered to 135 older adults and hearing was measured using audiometry. Hearing was found to be related to the extent of use of communication technologies, especially newer and more specialized technologies. Those with hearing loss who did not use a hearing aid did not use other technologies as much as peers with good hearing or hearing-aid users. Overall, the extent of and ability to use information and communication technologies was greater for the study sample than in previous findings for a national sample; however, the patterns of usage of various technologies and the factors influencing use were similar in the two samples. Recommendations are made for future research, health education programs, and universal design.

  4. Loss of extracellular superoxide dismutase leads to acute lung damage in the presence of ambient air: a potential mechanism underlying adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Lob, Heinrich E; Landmesser, Ulf; Guzik, Tomasz J; Martin, W David; Ozumi, Kiyoski; Wall, Susan M; Wilson, David Scott; Murthy, Niren; Gravanis, Michael; Fukai, Tohru; Harrison, David G

    2008-10-01

    The extracellular superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) is highly expressed in both blood vessels and lungs. In different models of pulmonary injury, SOD3 is reduced; however, it is unclear whether this contributes to lung injury. To study the role of acute SOD3 reduction in lung injury, the SOD3 gene was deleted in adult mice by using the Cre-Lox technology. Acute reduction of SOD3 led to a fivefold increase in lung superoxide, marked inflammatory cell infiltration, a threefold increase in the arterial-alveolar gradient, respiratory acidosis, histological changes similar to those observed in adult respiratory distress syndrome, and 85% mortality. Treatment with the SOD mimetic MnTBAP and intranasal administration of SOD-containing polyketal microparticles reduced mortality, prevented the histological alterations, and reduced lung superoxide levels. To understand how mice with the SOD3 embryonic deletion survived without lung injury, gene array analysis was performed. These data demonstrated the up-regulation of 37 genes and down-regulation of nine genes, including those involved in cell signaling, inflammation, and gene transcription in SOD3-/- mice compared with either mice with acute SOD3 reduction or wild-type controls. These studies show that SOD3 is essential for survival in the presence of ambient oxygen and that acute loss of this enzyme can lead to severe lung damage. Strategies either to prevent SOD3 inactivation or to augment its levels might prove useful in the treatment of acute lung injury.

  5. Local unitary equivalence of quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yang, Min; Zhao, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The correspondence between local unitary equivalence of bipartite quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence is thoroughly investigated and strengthened. It is proved that local unitary equivalence can be studied through simultaneous similarity under projective orthogonal transformations, and four parametrization independent algorithms are proposed to judge when two density matrices on ℂd1 ⊗ ℂd2 are locally unitary equivalent in connection with trace identities, Kronecker pencils, Albert determinants and Smith normal forms.

  6. Loss of thyroid hormone receptor β is associated with increased progenitor proliferation and NeuroD positive cell number in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Richa; Ghosh, Himanish; Nordstrom, Kristina; Vennstrom, Björn; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2011-01-07

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is modulated by perturbations in thyroid hormone status; however the role of specific thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in this process is not completely understood. We show here that loss of the TRβ gene results in a significant increase in the proliferation of adult hippocampal progenitors, without any change in immature neuron number or in the neuronal and glial differentiation of progenitors. Using the mitotic marker 5'-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) or the endogenous cell cycle marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), we find a significant increase in the number of BrdU- and PCNA-immunopositive cells within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus subfield in TRβ-/- mice. Further, we find that TRβ-/- mice exhibit a significant increase in the numbers of NeuroD-positive cells within the SGZ, suggesting that the increased numbers of proliferating progenitors translate into enhanced numbers of neuroblasts. Interestingly, the number of BrdU-positive cells that persist 4 weeks post-BrdU injection is unaltered in TRβ-/- mice, indicating that the enhanced proliferation does not result in increased hippocampal neurogenesis. This is also supported by the evidence of no change in the numbers of cells expressing markers of immature neurons such as doublecortin or polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule. Furthermore, no change is observed in the neuronal or glial differentiation of BrdU-positive cells in the TRβ-/- mice. Taken together, our results provide novel evidence for a role of TRβ in modulating hippocampal progenitor cell division, and implicate this receptor in the effects of thyroid hormone on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  7. Inactivation of Vhl in Osteochondral Progenitor Cells Causes High Bone Mass Phenotype and Protects Against Age-Related Bone Loss in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Tujun; Xie, Yangli; Huang, Junlan; Luo, Fengtao; Yi, Lingxian; He, Qifen; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that disruption of von Hippel–Lindau gene (Vhl) coincides with activation of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα) signaling in bone cells and plays an important role in bone development, homeostasis, and regeneration. It is known that activation of HIF1α signaling in mature osteoblasts is central to the coupling between angiogenesis and bone formation. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the coupling between skeletal angiogenesis and osteogenesis during bone remodeling are only partially elucidated. To evaluate the role of Vhl in bone homeostasis and the coupling between vascular physiology and bone, we generated mice lacking Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells (referred to as Vhl cKO mice) at postnatal and adult stages in a tamoxifen-inducible manner and changes in skeletal morphology were assessed by micro–computed tomography (µCT), histology, and bone histomorphometry. We found that mice with inactivation of Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells at the postnatal stage largely phenocopied that of mice lacking Vhl in mature osteoblasts, developing striking and progressive accumulation of cancellous bone with increased microvascular density and bone formation. These were accompanied with a significant increase in osteoblast proliferation, upregulation of differentiation marker Runx2 and osteocalcin, and elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. In addition, we found that Vhl deletion in osteochondral progenitor cells in adult bone protects mice from aging-induced bone loss. Our data suggest that the VHL-mediated signaling in osteochondral progenitor cells plays a critical role in bone remodeling at postnatal/adult stages through coupling osteogenesis and angiogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:23999831

  8. Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation on Balance Control and Sensory Organization in Adult Patients with Profound Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Grosjean, Rémy; Gauchard, Gérome C

    2015-01-01

    Many studies were interested in the consequence of vestibular dysfunction related to cochlear implantation on balance control. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of unilateral cochlear implantation on the modalities of balance control and sensorimotor strategies. Posturographic and vestibular evaluations were performed in 10 patients (55 ± 20 years) with profound hearing loss who were candidates to undergo unilateral multichannel cochlear implantation. The evaluation was carried out shortly before and one year after surgery. Posturographic tests were also performed in 10 age-matched healthy participants (63 ± 16 years). Vestibular compensation was observed within one year. In addition, postural performances of the patients increased within one year after cochlear implantation, especially in the more complex situations, in which sensory information is either unavailable or conflicting. Before surgery, postural performances were higher in the control group compared to the patients' group. One year after cochlear implantation, postural control was close to normalize. The improvement of postural performance could be explained by a mechanism of vestibular compensation. In addition, the recovery of auditory information which is the consequence of cochlear implantation could lead to an extended exploration of the environment possibly favoring the development of new balance strategies.

  9. Caffeine protects against memory loss induced by high and non-anxiolytic dose of cannabidiol in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Nazario, Luiza Reali; Antonioli, Régis; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2015-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) has been investigated in a wide spectrum of clinical approaches due to its psychopharmacological properties. CBD has low affinity for cannabinoid neuroreceptors and agonistic properties to 5-HT receptors. An interaction between cannabinoid and purinergic receptor systems has been proposed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate CBD properties on memory behavioral and locomotor parameters and the effects of pre-treatment of adenosine receptor blockers on CBD impacts on memory using adult zebrafish. CBD (0.1, 0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg) was tested in the avoidance inhibitory paradigm and anxiety task. We analyzed the effect of a long-term caffeine pre-treatment (~20mg/L - four months). Also, acute block of adenosine receptors was performed in co-administration with CBD exposure in the memory assessment. CBD promoted an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in the anxiety task; in the memory assessment, CBD in the dose of 5mg/Kg promoted the strongest effects without interfering with social and aggressive behavior. Caffeine treatment was able to prevent CBD (5mg/kg) effects on memory when CBD was given after the training session. CBD effects on memory were partially prevented by co-treatment with a specific A2A adenosine receptor antagonist when given prior to or after the training session, while CBD effects after the training session were fully prevented by adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. These results indicated that zebrafish have responses to CBD anxiolytic properties that are comparable to other animal models, and high doses changed memory retention in a way dependent on adenosine.

  10. Relationship between daily affect and overeating-only, loss of control eating-only, and binge eating episodes in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kelly C.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The two objectives of the current study were: (1) to identify daily patterns of negative affect (NA) in obese individuals; and (2) to determine whether daily affect patterns were related to overeating without loss of control (OE-only), loss of control eating without overeating (LOC-only), and binge eating (BE) episodes. Fifty obese (BMI=40.3±08.5) adults (84.0% female) completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they completed assessments of NA and indicated whether their eating episodes were characterized by OE and/or LOC. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to identify daily trajectories of NA. GEE analysis was used to determine whether daily affect trajectories were differentially related to the frequency of OE-only, LOC-only, and BE episodes. The LGMM analyses identified nine unique trajectories of NA. Significantly higher frequencies of OE-only and BE episodes occurred on days characterized by high or increasing levels of NA. There were no significant differences between classes for the frequency of LOC-only episodes. These data suggest that NA may act as an antecedent to OE-only and BE episodes and that targeting “problematic affect days” may reduce the occurrence of OE-only and BE episodes among obese individuals. PMID:24200217

  11. The role of the fatosphere in fat adults' responses to obesity stigma: a model of empowerment without a focus on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dickins, Marissa; Thomas, Samantha L; King, Bri; Lewis, Sophie; Holland, Kate

    2011-12-01

    Obese adults face pervasive and repeated weight-based stigma. Few researchers have explored how obese individuals proactively respond to stigma outside of a dominant weight-loss framework. Using a grounded theory approach, we explored the experiences of 44 bloggers within the Fatosphere--an online fat-acceptance community. We investigated participants' pathways into the Fatosphere, how they responded to and interacted with stigma, and how they described the impact of fat acceptance on their health and well-being. The concepts and support associated with the fat-acceptance movement helped participants shift from reactive strategies in responding to stigma (conforming to dominant discourses through weight loss) to proactive responses to resist stigma (reframing "fat" and self-acceptance). Participants perceived that blogging within the Fatosphere led them to feel more empowered. Participants also described the benefits of belonging to a supportive community, and improvements in their health and well-being. The Fatosphere provides an alternative pathway for obese individuals to counter and cope with weight-based stigma.

  12. Efficacy of Standard Versus Enhanced Features in a Web-Based Commercial Weight-Loss Program for Obese Adults, Part 2: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Philip J; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Commercial Web-based weight-loss programs are becoming more popular and increasingly refined through the addition of enhanced features, yet few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have independently and rigorously evaluated the efficacy of these commercial programs or additional features. Objective To determine whether overweight and obese adults randomized to an online weight-loss program with additional support features (enhanced) experienced a greater reduction in body mass index (BMI) and increased usage of program features after 12 and 24 weeks compared to those randomized to a standard online version (basic). Methods An assessor-blinded RCT comparing 301 adults (male: n=125, 41.5%; mean age: 41.9 years, SD 10.2; mean BMI: 32.2 kg/m2, SD 3.9) who were recruited and enrolled offline, and randomly allocated to basic or enhanced versions of a commercially available Web-based weight-loss program for 24 weeks. Results Retention at 24 weeks was greater in the enhanced group versus the basic group (basic 68.5%, enhanced 81.0%; P=.01). In the intention-to-treat analysis of covariance with imputation using last observation carried forward, after 24 weeks both intervention groups had reductions in key outcomes with no difference between groups: BMI (basic mean –1.1 kg/m2, SD 1.5; enhanced mean –1.3 kg/m2, SD 2.0; P=.29), weight (basic mean –3.3 kg, SD 4.7; enhanced mean –4.0 kg, SD 6.2; P=.27), waist circumference (basic mean –3.1 cm, SD 4.6; enhanced mean –4.0 cm, SD 6.2; P=.15), and waist-to-height ratio (basic mean –0.02, SD 0.03; enhanced mean –0.02, SD 0.04, P=.21). The enhanced group logged in more often at both 12 and 24 weeks, respectively (enhanced 12-week mean 34.1, SD 28.1 and 24-week mean 43.1, SD 34.0 vs basic 12-week mean 24.6, SD 25.5 and 24-week mean 31.8, SD 33.9; P=.002). Conclusions The addition of personalized e-feedback in the enhanced program provided limited additional benefits compared to a standard commercial Web

  13. A 12-Week Commercial Web-Based Weight-Loss Program for Overweight and Obese Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Basic Versus Enhanced Features

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Penelope; Fletcher, Kate; Martin, Julia; Aguiar, Elroy J; Lucas, Ashlee; Neve, Melinda J; Callister, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Background The development and use of Web-based programs for weight loss is increasing rapidly, yet they have rarely been evaluated using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Interestingly, most people who attempt weight loss use commercially available programs, yet it is very uncommon for commercial programs to be evaluated independently or rigorously. Objective To compare the efficacy of a standard commercial Web-based weight-loss program (basic) versus an enhanced version of this Web program that provided additional personalized e-feedback and contact from the provider (enhanced) versus a wait-list control group (control) on weight outcomes in overweight and obese adults. Methods This purely Web-based trial using a closed online user group was an assessor-blinded RCT with participants randomly allocated to the basic or enhanced 12-week Web-based program, based on social cognitive theory, or the control, with body mass index (BMI) as the primary outcome. Results We enrolled 309 adults (129/309, 41.8% male, BMI mean 32.3, SD 4 kg/m2) with 84.1% (260/309) retention at 12 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that both intervention groups reduced their BMI compared with the controls (basic: –0.72, SD 1.1 kg/m2, enhanced: –1.0, SD 1.4, control: 0.15, SD 0.82; P < .001) and lost significant weight (basic: –2.1, SD 3.3 kg, enhanced: –3.0, SD 4.1, control: 0.4, SD 2.3; P < .001) with changes in waist circumference (basic: –2.0, SD 3.5 cm, enhanced: –3.2, SD 4.7, control: 0.5, SD 3.0; P < .001) and waist-to-height ratio (basic: –0.01, SD 0.02, enhanced: –0.02, SD 0.03, control: 0.0, SD 0.02; P < .001), but no differences were observed between the basic and enhanced groups. The addition of personalized e-feedback and contact provided limited additional benefits compared with the basic program. Conclusions A commercial Web-based weight-loss program can be efficacious across a range of weight-related outcomes and lifestyle behaviors and achieve

  14. Mechanisms of adaptation from a multiple to a single step recovery strategy following repeated exposure to forward loss of balance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Carty, Christopher P; Cronin, Neil J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Mills, Peter M; Barrett, Rod S

    2012-01-01

    When released from an initial, static, forward lean angle and instructed to recover with a single step, some older adults are able to meet the task requirements, whereas others either stumble or fall. The purpose of the present study was to use the concept of margin of stability (MoS) to investigate balance recovery responses in the anterior-posterior direction exhibited by older single steppers, multiple steppers and those that are able to adapt from multiple to single steps following exposure to repeated forward loss of balance. One hundred and fifty-one healthy, community dwelling, older adults, aged 65-80 years, participated in the study. Participants performed four trials of the balance recovery task from each of three initial lean angles. Balance recovery responses in the anterior-posterior direction were quantified at three events; cable release (CR), toe-off (TO) and foot contact (FC), for trials performed at the intermediate lean angle. MoS was computed as the anterior-posterior distance between the forward boundary of the Base of Support (BoS) and the vertical projection of the velocity adjusted centre of mass position (XCoM). Approximately one-third of participants adapted from a multiple to a single step recovery strategy following repeated exposure to the task. MoS at FC for the single and multiple step trials in the adaptation group were intermediate between the exclusively single step group and the exclusively multiple step group, with the single step trials having a significant, 3.7 times higher MoS at FC than the multiple step trials. Consistent with differences between single and multiple steppers, adaptation from multiple to single steps was attributed to an increased BoS at FC, a reduced XCoM at FC and an increased rate of BoS displacement from TO to FC. Adaptations occurred within a single test session and suggest older adults that are close to the threshold of successful recovery can rapidly improve dynamic stability following repeated

  15. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed.

  16. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  17. Monetary Losses Do Not Loom Large in Later Life: Age Differences in the Framing Effect

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the framing effect indicate that individuals are risk averse for decisions framed as gains but risk seeking for decisions framed as losses. However, findings regarding age-related changes in susceptibility to framing are mixed. Recent work demonstrating age-related decreases in reactivity to anticipated monetary losses, but not gains, suggests that older and younger adults might show equivalent risk aversion for gains but discrepant risk seeking for losses. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a monetary gambling task in which they chose between sure options and risky gambles (the expected outcomes of which were equated). Although both groups demonstrated risk aversion in the gain frame, only younger adults showed risk seeking in the loss frame. PMID:19497929

  18. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SOURCE DURING WEIGHT LOSS ON BODY COMPOSITION, CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ABDOMINALLY OBESE, OLDER ADULTS: A PILOT FEEDING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BEAVERS, K.M.; GORDON, M.M.; EASTER, L.; BEAVERS, D.P.; HAIRSTON, K.G.; NICKLAS, B.J.; VITOLINS, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Design Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. Participants 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. Intervention A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Measurements Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. Results A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1

  19. Contribution of oligosaccharide and polysaccharide digestion, and excreta losses of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids, to dietary metabolisable energy values in broiler chickens and adult cockerels.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Gomez, J; Chagneau, A M

    1995-09-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted, using both adult cockerels from a layer strain and 3-week-old broiler chickens. In the first experiment, one of the 2 diets investigated was composed mainly of maize and soyabean meals, the other one containing the latter ingredients diluted with 475 g/kg mature pea seeds. For these 2 diets, the apparent metabolisable energy values corrected to 0 nitrogen retention (AMEn) were derived, together with the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, amino acids, total lipids, starch, individual oligosaccharides, and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Excretions of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were also determined. 2. In the first experiment, the mean apparent digestibilities of starch, lipids, total amino acids, NSP, sucrose and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides in adult cockerels were 0.946, 0.785, 0.835, 0.045, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. In broiler chickens, they were 0.938, 0.675, 0.830, -0.016, 0.988 and 0.867, respectively. The bird type effects were significant (P < 0.05) for the digestibilities of starch, lipids, NSP (for the maize-soyabean meal diet, only) and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides. Broiler chickens excreted a mean of 11.032 g organic acids/kg diet against 4.190 in adult cockerels (P < 0.001). These digestibility measurements enabled the contribution made by each dietary component to the AMEn value of the diets to be calculated. AMEn values were lower in broiler chickens than in adult cockerels, with on average 0.8 MJ/kg dry matter difference resulting from bird type. This difference was accounted for by differences between bird types in energy supplied by lipids (34.0%), starch (7.5%), alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (8.7%), NSP (14.2%), and in energy losses from lactic acid excretion (16.4% of the difference in AMEn between bird types). 3. In the second experiment 2 diets were studied, consisting of a basal and the basal diluted with 30 g/kg lactose (a fermentable sugar in chickens) and 12 g/kg of a water

  20. Physeal bar equivalent.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Hamlet A; Shaughnessy, William J; Stans, Anthony A

    2016-09-29

    Premature partial physeal arrest without the formation of an osseous bar - physeal bar equivalent (PBE) - is uncommon. Four children with a PBE had an infection near the distal femoral physis before the age of 11 months. Some growth was achieved after resection of the PBE in each case. Of two cases diagnosed and treated early, one required only contralateral physeal arrests to achieve limb-length equality at maturity. The other, currently 8 years and 4 months old, has a 1.1-cm limb-length discrepancy 6 years after PBE resection and will require observation until maturity. Of two cases diagnosed and treated late, one required ipsilateral femoral lengthening and contralateral femoral shortening and physeal arrests to treat the limb-length discrepancy and angular deformity. The other, currently 7 years and 1 month old, has a 4.8-cm discrepancy and will need future surgical limb-length equalization. Early recognition and treatment of PBE is required to avoid severe limb-length inequality and angular deformity.

  1. Biomonitoring Equivalents for molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Hays, Sean M; Macey, Kristin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Lu, Ming; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L

    2016-06-01

    Molybdenum is an essential trace element for mammalian, plant, and other animal systems. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has established an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to assure sufficient molybdenum intakes for human populations; however excessive exposures can cause toxicity. As a result, several agencies have established exposure guidance values to protect against molybdenum toxicity, including a Reference Dose (RfD), Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Biomonitoring for molybdenum in blood or urine in the general population is being conducted by the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Using pharmacokinetic data from controlled human dosing studies, Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) were calculated for molybdenum in plasma, whole blood, and urine associated with exposure guidance values set to protect against both nutritional deficits and toxicity. The BEEAR values in plasma, whole blood and urine are 0.5, 0.45 and 22 μg/L, respectively. The BEs associated with toxicity range from 0.9 to 31 μg/L in plasma, 0.8-28 μg/L in whole blood and 200-7500 μg/L in urine. These values can be used to interpret molybdenum biomonitoring data from a nutritional and toxicity perspective.

  2. A randomized trial comparing two approaches to weight loss: Differences in weight loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Oehlhof, Marissa W; Hinman, Nova; LeRoy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Ashrafioun, Lee; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Darby, Lynn A; Gumble, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study compared treatment outcomes for a new weight loss program that emphasized reducing unhealthy relationships with food, body image dissatisfaction, and internalized weight bias (New Perspectives) to a weight loss program that emphasizes environmental modification and habit formation and disruption (Transforming Your Life). Fifty-nine overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to either a 12-week New Perspectives or Transforming Your Life intervention. Despite equivalent outcomes at the end of treatment, the Transforming Your Life participants were significantly more effective at maintaining their weight loss than New Perspectives participants during the 6-month no-treatment follow-up period. PMID:23349402

  3. Calorimetric measurement and modelling of the equivalent series of capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, B.; Gosse, J. P.; Ferrieux, J. P.

    1999-12-01

    The equivalent series resistance of polypropylene capacitors has been determined under rated voltage, in the range 1 kHz 1 MHz, between 220 K and 370 K by a calorimetric technique. The original feature of this determination of capacitor losses lies in the use of the isothermal calorimetry and in the measurement of an electrical power and not of a temperature increase. The frequency dependence of the equivalent series resistance, at various temperatures, enables to separate the losses in the conducting material from those in the dielectric and to get their respective variations as a function of frequency and temperature. These variations of the equivalent series resistance with frequency at a given temperature have been reproduced by using an equivalent circuit composed of resistors, inductors and capacitors. This model has been verified for non-sinusoidal waveforms such as those met with in a filtering circuit and is used to evaluate by simulation the losses of the capacitor.

  4. An Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in Obese Adult Inpatients Engaged in a 1-Month-Weight-Loss Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a compulsive need for and use of a specific substance leading to a habit, tolerance, and psychophysiological symptoms. Excessive food consumption is similar to that of substance addiction. Some individuals who have trouble losing weight display addictive eating symptoms. To investigate food addiction in a sample of obese adults referred to hospital for a 1-month-weight-loss treatment. The Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS-16) was used as a screening tool in 88 obese inpatients. The construct validity of the YFAS-16 was assessed by testing its correlations with measures of binge eating (Binge Eating Scale), impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), and emotional dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). 34.1% of our sample was diagnosed with YFAS food addiction. Such diagnosis was also supported by strong associations between FA and psychological and behavioral features, typically descriptive of classic addiction. Patients who endorsed the YFAS-16 criteria for food addiction (FA) had significantly higher binge eating levels, greater emotional dysregulation, and nonacceptance of negative feelings; they lacked goal-oriented behavior, had little impulse control, had difficulty in emotion recognition, and attentional impulsivity; and they were unable to concentrate and lacked inhibitory control behavior, unlike participants who did not meet the FA criteria. Further research is needed to support the reliability of the YFAS-16. This measure has the potential to be applied in epidemiological research, estimating the prevalence of FA within the Italian population and to assess new treatments' efficacy for obese patients with food addiction symptoms seeking weight-loss treatments.

  5. Association of diabetes with tooth loss in Hispanic/Latino adults: findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Greenblatt, Ariel P; Salazar, Christian R; Northridge, Mary E; Kaplan, Robert C; Taylor, George W; Finlayson, Tracy L; Qi, Qibin; Badner, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between diabetes mellitus and missing teeth in Hispanic/Latino adults from diverse heritage groups who reside in the USA. Research design and methods The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) is a multicenter, population-based study of 18–74 years old who underwent a physical and oral examination (n=15 945). Glycemic status was categorized as diabetes, impaired, or normal, based on medication use, and American Diabetes Association criteria for fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). HbA1c<7% indicated good glycemic control, and HbA1c>7% indicated uncontrolled diabetes. We estimated ORs and 95% CIs for missing >9 teeth and being edentulous (missing all natural teeth), after adjustment for age, income, education, Hispanic background, study site/center, nativity, last dental visit, health insurance, diet quality, cigarette smoking, obesity, periodontitis, and C reactive protein. Results Persons with uncontrolled diabetes had a significant increased likelihood of missing >9 teeth and being edentulous as compared with persons with normal glycemic status (adjusted OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.55 and adjusted OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.46, respectively). The association appeared to be stronger at younger ages (18–44 years old; p for interaction <0.0001). However, we found no associations of either impaired glycemia or controlled diabetes with tooth loss in adjusted models. Conclusions Dentists should be aware of their Hispanic patients' diabetes status and whether or not they are well controlled, because these may affect tooth loss and impair oral function, which can lead to poor nutrition and complications of diabetes. PMID:27239319

  6. Biomonitoring Equivalents for selenium.

    PubMed

    Hays, Sean M; Macey, Kristin; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L

    2014-10-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient for human health with a narrow range between essentiality and toxicity. Selenium is incorporated into several proteins that perform important functions in the body. With insufficient selenium intake, the most notable effect is Keshan disease, an endemic cardiomyopathy in children. Conversely, excessive selenium intake can result in selenosis, manifested as brittle nails and hair and gastro-intestinal disorders. As such, guidance values have been established to protect against both insufficient and excessive selenium exposures. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have been established as standard reference values for nutritional adequacy in North America. To protect against selenosis resulting from exposure to excessive amounts of selenium, several government and non-governmental agencies have established a range of guidance values. Exposure to selenium is primarily through the diet, but monitoring selenium intake is difficult. Biomonitoring is a useful means of assessing and monitoring selenium status for both insufficient and excessive exposures. However, to be able to interpret selenium biomonitoring data, levels associated with both DRIs and toxicity guidance values are required. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) were developed for selenium in whole blood, plasma and urine. The BEs associated with assuring adequate selenium intake (Estimated Average Requirements - EAR) are 100, 80 and 10μg/L in whole blood, plasma and urine, respectively. The BEs associated with protection against selenosis range from 400 to 480μg/L in whole blood, 180-230μg/L in plasma, and 90-110μg/L in urine. These BE values can be used by both regulatory agencies and public health officials to interpret selenium biomonitoring data in a health risk context.

  7. Lower dipeptidyl peptidase-4 following exercise training plus weight loss is related to increased insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malin, Steven K; Huang, Hazel; Mulya, Anny; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a circulating glycoprotein that impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the effect of exercise on plasma DPP-4 in adults with metabolic syndrome is unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of exercise on DPP-4 and its role in explaining exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity. Fourteen obese adults (67.9±1.2 years, BMI: 34.2±1.1kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) underwent a 12-week supervised exercise intervention (60min/day for 5 days/week at ∼85% HRmax). Plasma DPP-4 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40mU/m(2)/min) and estimated by HOMA-IR. Visceral fat (computerized tomography), 2-h glucose levels (75g oral glucose tolerance), and basal fat oxidation as well as aerobic fitness (indirect calorimetry) were also determined before and after exercise. The intervention reduced visceral fat, lowered blood pressure, glucose and lipids, and increased aerobic fitness (P<0.05). Exercise improved clamp-derived insulin sensitivity by 75% (P<0.001) and decreased HOMA-IR by 15% (P<0.05). Training decreased plasma DPP-4 by 10% (421.8±30.1 vs. 378.3±32.5ng/ml; P<0.04), and the decrease in DPP-4 was associated with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (r=-0.59; P<0.04), HOMA-IR (r=0.59; P<0.04) and fat oxidation (r=-0.54; P<0.05). Increased fat oxidation also correlated with lower 2-h glucose levels (r=-0.64; P<0.02). Exercise training reduces plasma DPP-4, which may be linked to elevated insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. Maintaining low plasma DPP-4 concentrations is a potential mechanism whereby exercise plus weight loss prevents/delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Exercise training in obese older adults prevents increase in bone turnover and attenuates decrease in hip bone mineral density induced by weight loss despite decline in bone-active hormones.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Parimi, Nehu; Chode, Suresh; Sinacore, David R; Hilton, Tiffany N; Napoli, Nicola; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss therapy to improve health in obese older adults is controversial because it causes further bone loss. Therefore, it is recommended that weight loss therapy should include an intervention such as exercise training (ET) to minimize bone loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and ET on bone metabolism in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in obese older adults. One-hundred-seven older (age >65 years) obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30  kg/m(2) ) adults were randomly assigned to a control group, diet group, exercise group, and diet-exercise group for 1 year. Body weight decreased in the diet (-9.6%) and diet-exercise (-9.4%) groups, not in the exercise (-1%) and control (-0.2%) groups (between-group p  <  0.001). However, despite comparable weight loss, bone loss at the total hip was relatively less in the diet-exercise group (-1.1%) than in the diet group (-2.6%), whereas BMD increased in the exercise group (1.5%) (between-group p  <  0.001). Serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and osteocalcin concentrations increased in the diet group (31% and 24%, respectively), whereas they decreased in the exercise group (-13% and -15%, respectively) (between-group p  <  0.001). In contrast, similar to the control group, serum CTX and osteocalcin concentrations did not change in the diet-exercise group. Serum procollagen propeptide concentrations decreased in the exercise group (-15%) compared with the diet group (9%) (p  =  0.04). Serum leptin and estradiol concentrations decreased in the diet (-25% and -15%, respectively) and diet-exercise (-38% and -13%, respectively) groups, not in the exercise and control groups (between-group p  =  0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that changes in lean body mass (β  =  0.33), serum osteocalcin (β  = -0.24), and one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength (β  =  0.23) were independent predictors of changes in hip BMD (all p  <

  9. Adverse adolescent relationship histories and young adult health: Cumulative effects of loneliness, low parental support, relationship instability, intimate partner violence and loss

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Emma K.; Chyu, Laura; Hoyt, Lindsay; Doane, Leah D.; Boisjoly, Johanne; Duncan, Greg; Chase-Lansdale, Lindsay; McDade, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations between adverse interpersonal relationship histories experienced during adolescence and health in young adulthood in a large, nationally representative sample. Methods Using data from Waves I, II and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, multiple adverse relationship experiences are examined, including high loneliness, low perceived parental support, frequent transitions in romantic relationships (relationship instability), exposure to intimate partner violence, and loss by death of important relationship figures. These histories are assessed, both individually and in a relationship risk index, as predictors of self-reported general health and depressive symptoms at Wave III (ages 18 to 27), controlling for baseline (Wave I) health and for demographic and health behavior covariates. Results Net of baseline health and covariates, each type of relationship risk (experienced between Wave I and Wave III) was related to either depression or general health at Wave III, with the strongest effects seen for exposure to intimate partner violence. In addition, a cumulative relationship risk index examining the extent to which youth experienced high levels of multiple relationship risk factors revealed that each additional adverse relationship experience increased the odds of reporting poor mental and general health at Wave III, with increases occurring in an additive manner. Conclusions Multiple types of adverse relationship experiences predicted increases in poor general health and depressive symptoms from adolescence to early adulthood. Consistent with a cumulative risk hypothesis, the more types of adverse relationship experiences a youth experienced, the worse their young adult health outcomes. PMID:21856520

  10. Challenging Behaviors Should Not Be Considered Depressive Equivalents in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities. II. A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita B.; Cooper, Christopher L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has proposed behavioral equivalents for depression, but evidence for behavioral equivalents has been contradictory. The relationship between a measure of depression and several proposed behavioral equivalents of depression was assessed in 693 adults living in a large residential setting. Most were adults with severe or profound…

  11. Dungeness Crab Dredging Entrainment Studies in the Lower Columbia River, 2002 – 2004: Loss Projections, Salinity Model, and Scenario Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Dungeness crab studies conducted in 2002 for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) constituted a major step forward in quantifying crab entrainment through statistical projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) and loss to the fishery (LF) from proposed construction and maintenance dredging in the Columbia River navigation channel (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). These studies also examined the influence of bottom salinity on crab abundance and entrainment rates. Additional sampling was conducted in 2004 to tighten loss projections, further develop the crab salinity model, and apply the model to assess correlations of entrainment rates and projected losses with seasonal salinity changes.

  12. Estimating equivalence with quantile regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence testing and corresponding confidence interval estimates are used to provide more enlightened statistical statements about parameter estimates by relating them to intervals of effect sizes deemed to be of scientific or practical importance rather than just to an effect size of zero. Equivalence tests and confidence interval estimates are based on a null hypothesis that a parameter estimate is either outside (inequivalence hypothesis) or inside (equivalence hypothesis) an equivalence region, depending on the question of interest and assignment of risk. The former approach, often referred to as bioequivalence testing, is often used in regulatory settings because it reverses the burden of proof compared to a standard test of significance, following a precautionary principle for environmental protection. Unfortunately, many applications of equivalence testing focus on establishing average equivalence by estimating differences in means of distributions that do not have homogeneous variances. I discuss how to compare equivalence across quantiles of distributions using confidence intervals on quantile regression estimates that detect differences in heterogeneous distributions missed by focusing on means. I used one-tailed confidence intervals based on inequivalence hypotheses in a two-group treatment-control design for estimating bioequivalence of arsenic concentrations in soils at an old ammunition testing site and bioequivalence of vegetation biomass at a reclaimed mining site. Two-tailed confidence intervals based both on inequivalence and equivalence hypotheses were used to examine quantile equivalence for negligible trends over time for a continuous exponential model of amphibian abundance. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common ones: Hearing aids are electronic instruments you wear in or behind your ear. ... information.) Cochlear (COKE-lee-ur) implants are small electronic devices surgically implanted in the inner ear that ...

  14. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  15. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  16. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  17. A phenome-wide association study of a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 loss-of-function variant in 90 000 Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Millwood, Iona Y; Bennett, Derrick A; Walters, Robin G; Clarke, Robert; Waterworth, Dawn; Johnson, Toby; Chen, Yiping; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Hacker, Alex; Yeo, Astrid; Parish, Sarah; Hill, Michael R; Chissoe, Stephanie; Peto, Richard; Cardon, Lon; Collins, Rory; Li, Liming; Chen, Zhengming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been implicated in development of atherosclerosis; however, recent randomized trials of Lp-PLA2 inhibition reported no beneficial effects on vascular diseases. In East Asians, a loss-of-function variant in the PLA2G7 gene can be used to assess the effects of genetically determined lower Lp-PLA2. Methods: PLA2G7 V279F (rs76863441) was genotyped in 91 428 individuals randomly selected from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 M participants recruited in 2004–08 from 10 regions of China, with 7 years’ follow-up. Linear regression was used to assess effects of V279F on baseline traits. Logistic regression was conducted for a range of vascular and non-vascular diseases, including 41 ICD-10 coded disease categories. Results: PLA2G7 V279F frequency was 5% overall (range 3–7% by region), and 9691 (11%) participants had at least one loss-of-function variant. V279F was not associated with baseline blood pressure, adiposity, blood glucose or lung function. V279F was not associated with major vascular events [7141 events; odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 per F variant, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-1.06] or other vascular outcomes, including major coronary events (922 events; 0.96, 0.79-1.18) and stroke (5967 events; 1.00, 0.92-1.09). Individuals with V279F had lower risks of diabetes (7031 events; 0.91, 0.84-0.98) and asthma (182 events; 0.53, 0.28-0.98), but there was no association after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusions: Lifelong lower Lp-PLA2 activity was not associated with major risks of vascular or non-vascular diseases in Chinese adults. Using functional genetic variants in large-scale prospective studies with linkage to a range of health outcomes is a valuable approach to inform drug development and repositioning. PMID:27301456

  18. Progressive loss of glutamic acid decarboxylase, parvalbumin, and calbindin D28K immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adult rat with experimental hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Y; Chakrabortty, S; Drake, J M; Hattori, T

    1997-02-01

    The authors investigated functional neuronal changes in experimental hydrocephalus using immunohistochemical techniques for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and two neuronal calcium-binding proteins: parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin D28K (CaBP). Hydrocephalus was induced in 16 adult Wistar rats by intracisternal injection of a kaolin solution, which was confirmed microscopically via atlantooccipital dural puncture. Four control rats received the same volume of sterile saline. Immunohistochemical staining for GAD, PV, and CaBP, and Nissl staining were performed at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after the injection. Hydrocephalus occurred in 90% of kaolin-injected animals with various degrees of ventricular dilation. In the cerebral cortex, GAD-, PV-, and CaBP-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons initially lost their stained processes together with a concomitant loss of homogeneous neuropil staining, followed by the reduction of their total number. With progressive ventricular dilation, GAD- and PV-IR axon terminals on the cortical pyramidal cells disappeared, whereas the number of CaBP-IR pyramidal cells decreased, and ultimately in the most severe cases of hydrocephalus, GAD, PV, and CaBP immunoreactivity were almost entirely diminished. In the hippocampus, GAD-, PV-, and CaBP-IR interneurons demonstrated a reduction of their processes and terminals surrounding the pyramidal cells, with secondary reduction of CaBP-IR pyramidal and granular cells. On the other hand, Nissl staining revealed almost no morphological changes induced by ischemia or neuronal degeneration even in the most severe cases of hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus results in the progressive functional impairment of GAD-, PV-, and CaBP-IR neuronal systems in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, often before there is evidence of morphological injury. The initial injury of cortical and hippocampal interneurons suggests that the functional deafferentation from intrinsic projection fibers may be the initial neuronal event

  19. Adult AMPA GLUA1 receptor subunit loss in 5-HT neurons results in a specific anxiety-phenotype with evidence for dysregulation of 5-HT neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tillmann; Vogt, Miriam A; Gartside, Sarah E; Berger, Stefan M; Lujan, Rafael; Lau, Thorsten; Herrmann, Elke; Sprengel, Rolf; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Both the glutamatergic and serotonergic (5-HT) systems are implicated in the modulation of mood and anxiety. Descending cortical glutamatergic neurons regulate 5-HT neuronal activity in the midbrain raphe nuclei through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To analyze the functional role of GLUA1-containing AMPA receptors in serotonergic neurons, we used the Cre-ERT2/loxP-system for the conditional inactivation of the GLUA1-encoding Gria1 gene selectively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. These Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice exhibited a distinct anxiety phenotype but showed no alterations in locomotion, depression-like behavior, or learning and memory. Increased anxiety-related behavior was associated with significant decreases in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) expression and activity, and subsequent reductions in tissue levels of 5-HT, its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine in the raphe nuclei. However, TPH2 expression and activity as well as monoamine levels were unchanged in the projection areas of 5-HT neurons. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings of 5-HT neurons revealed that, while α1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation was unchanged, excitatory responses to AMPA were enhanced and the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory response to 5-HT was attenuated in Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice. Our data show that a loss of GLUA1 protein in 5-HT neurons enhances AMPA receptor function and leads to multiple local molecular and neurochemical changes in the raphe nuclei that dysregulate 5-HT neuronal activity and induce anxiety-like behavior.

  20. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.].

  1. Morita equivalence of noncommutative supertori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil; Nakajima, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we study the extension of Morita equivalence of noncommutative tori to the supersymmetric case. The structure of the symmetry group yielding Morita equivalence appears to be intact but its parameter field becomes supersymmetrized having both body and soul parts. Our result is mainly in the two dimensional case in which noncommutative supertori have been constructed recently: The group SO(2,2,VZ0), where VZ0 denotes Grassmann even number whose body part belongs to Z, yields Morita equivalent noncommutative supertori in two dimensions.

  2. Morita equivalence of noncommutative supertori

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil; Nakajima, Hiroaki

    2010-06-15

    In this paper we study the extension of Morita equivalence of noncommutative tori to the supersymmetric case. The structure of the symmetry group yielding Morita equivalence appears to be intact but its parameter field becomes supersymmetrized having both body and soul parts. Our result is mainly in the two dimensional case in which noncommutative supertori have been constructed recently: The group SO(2,2,V{sub Z}{sup 0}), where V{sub Z}{sup 0} denotes Grassmann even number whose body part belongs to Z, yields Morita equivalent noncommutative supertori in two dimensions.

  3. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  4. A randomised controlled trial to prevent hospital readmissions and loss of functional ability in high risk older adults: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    at baseline within 72 hours of hospital admission, 4 weeks following hospital discharge, 12 weeks following hospital discharge, and 24 weeks following hospital discharge. Outcome assessors are blinded to group allocation. Primary outcomes are emergency hospital readmissions and health service use, functional status, psychosocial well-being and cost effectiveness. Discussion The acute hospital sector comprises the largest component of health care system expenditure in developed countries, and older adults are the most frequent consumers. There are few trials to demonstrate effective models of transitional care to prevent emergency readmissions, loss of functional ability and independence in this population following an acute hospital admission. This study aims to address that gap and provide information for future health service planning which meets client needs and lowers the use of acute care services. Trial Registration No Australian & New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000202369 PMID:21861920

  5. Measuring the psychosocial consequences of hearing loss in a working adult population: focus on validity and reliability of the Italian translation of the Hearing Handicap Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Monzani, D; Genovese, E; Palma, S; Rovatti, V; Borgonzoni, M; Martini, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary Despite increasing demand for questionnaires for assessing hearing handicap and the effectiveness of some tools across different languages, empirical studies to evaluate the reliability and the validity of translations of original English questionnaires into an Italian version have not been reported in the literature, thus making comparisons of Italian experimental and clinical data across cultures and countries impossible. This study tested the global assumption that the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA), that is one of the most widely used instruments in English-speaking countries, can be adapted to the Italian language maintaining the reliability and clinical validity of the original version. The English version of this 25-item, self-assessment questionnaire was developed by Newman et al. in 1990 and special emphasis was placed on emotional reaction and social limitations perceived by hearing-impaired subjects and scored separately. This tool was translated into the Italian language by a forward and backward technique, as established by the IQOLA (International Quality of Life Assessment) project. Overall, 94 subjects, aged 18-65 years, with acquired hearing impairment and 104 individuals with no hearing problems, well-matched for socio-demographic variables, were enrolled in the study in a case-control design. Reliability of the Italian version of HHIA was tested by measuring internal consistency and test-retest reproducibility. Validity was assessed by using construct, convergent and discriminant methods. A Cronbach’s alpha coefficient near 0.90 confirmed a more than acceptable internal consistency and a highly statistically significant Spearman’s correlation coefficient (< 0.005) between scores of the two administrations at an interval of one month documented an excellent stability of the questionnaire over time. Construct validity was demonstrated by a correlation between the severity of hearing loss and the score of questionnaire (< 0

  6. Comparison of conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma using a sitting and standing female adult voxel simulators exposure to photons in antero-posterior irradiation geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, F. R.; Galeano, D. C.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.; Hunt, J.

    2014-02-01

    Due to the difficulty in implementing invasive techniques for calculations of dose for some exposure scenarios, computational simulators have been created to represent as realistically as possible the structures of the human body and through radiation transport simulations to obtain conversion coefficients (CCs) to estimate dose. In most published papers simulators are implemented in the standing posture and this may not describe a real scenario of exposure. In this work we developed exposure scenarios in the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code using a female simulator in standing and sitting postures. The simulator was irradiated in the antero-posterior (AP) geometry by a plane source of monoenergetic photons with energy from 10 keV to 2 MeV. The conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (HT/Kair) were calculated for both scenarios and compared. The results show that the percentage difference of CCs for the organs of the head and thorax was not significant (less than 5%) since the anatomic position of the organs is the same in both postures. The percentage difference is more significant to the ovaries (71% for photon energy of 20 keV), to the bladder (39% at 60 keV) and to the uterus (37% at 100 keV) due to different processes of radiation interactions in the legs of the simulator when its posture is changed. For organs and tissues that are distributed throughout the entire body, such as bone (21% at 100 keV) and muscle (30% at 80 keV) the percentage difference of CCs reflects a reduction of interaction of photons with the legs of the simulator. Therefore, the calculation of conversion coefficients using simulators in the sitting posture is relevant for a more accurate dose estimation in real exposures to radiation.

  7. Transforming Your Life: An Environmental Modification Approach to Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Young, Kathleen M.; Koball, Afton; Gumble, Amanda; Darby, Lynn A.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Wott, Carissa B.; Hinman, Nova

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compared a traditional behavioral weight loss program with a weight loss intervention emphasizing environmental modification and habit formation and disruption. Fifty-four overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to either a 14-week LEARN or TYL intervention. Forty-two participants completed the six-month follow-up assessment. Treatment outcomes between LEARN and TYL participants were equivalent. During the six-month no-treatment follow-up period, participants evidenced a 3.3 lb (SD = 9.2) weight gain. The TYL intervention appears to represent an attractive option for individuals seeking an alternative to the traditional behavioral approach to weight loss. PMID:20929947

  8. SU-E-T-353: Verification of Water Equivalent Thickness (WET) and Water Equivalent Spreadness (WES) of Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Demez, N; Lee, T; Keppel, Cynthia

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To verify calculated water equivalent thickness (WET) and water equivalent spreadness (WES) in various tissue equivalent media for proton therapy Methods: Water equivalent thicknesses (WET) of tissue equivalent materials have been calculated using the Bragg-Kleeman rule. Lateral spreadness and fluence reduction of proton beams both in those media were calculated using proton loss model (PLM) algorithm. In addition, we calculated lateral spreadness ratios with respect to that in water at the same WET depth and so the WES was defined. The WETs of those media for different proton beam energies were measured using MLIC (Multi-Layered Ionization Chamber). Also, fluence and field sizes in those materials of various thicknesses were measured with ionization chambers and films Results: Calculated WETs are in agreement with measured WETs within 0.5%. We found that water equivalent spreadness (WES) is constant and the fluence and field size measurements verify that fluence can be estimated using the concept of WES. Conclusions: Calculation of WET based on the Bragg-Kleeman rule as well as the constant WES of proton beams for tissue equivalent phantoms can be used to predict fluence and field sizes at the depths of interest both in tissue equivalent media accurately for clinically available protonenergies.

  9. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  10. Equivalent Linear Logistic Test Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Verstralen, Huub H. F. M.; Verhelst, Norma D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Linear Logistic Test Model (LLTM) and demonstrates that there are many equivalent ways to specify a model. Analyzed a real data set (300 responses to 5 analogies) using a Lagrange multiplier test for the specification of the model, and demonstrated that there may be many ways to change the specification of an LLTM and achieve the…

  11. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This…

  12. Representational Implications for Understanding Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Ding, Meixia; Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Robert M.; Li, Xiaobao

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have long recognized that students tend to misunderstand the equal sign as an operator; that is, a signal for "doing something" rather than a relational symbol of equivalence or quantity sameness. Students' equal sign misconception has been researched for more than thirty years (Weaver, 1971, 1973) with little…

  13. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  14. Equivalence theorem in effective theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, D.; Gorbenko, V.; Vereshagin, V.

    2011-11-01

    The famous equivalence theorem is reexamined in order to make it applicable to the case of effective theories. We slightly modify the formulation of this theorem and prove it based on the notion of the generating functional for Green functions. This allows one to trace (directly in terms of graphs) the mutual cancellation of different groups of contributions.

  15. Gaze Behavior of Older Adults in Responding to Unexpected Loss of Balance while Walking in an Unfamiliar Environment: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    King, Emily C.; McKay, Sandra M.; Lee, Tracy A.; Scovil, Carol Y.; Peters, Amy L.; Maki, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Rapid reach-to-grasp balance-recovery reactions play a critical role in preventing falls. Recent young-adult studies suggest these reactions may be guided using stored visuo-spatial information from the central field, and that peripheral vision may also play an important role. This study used gaze recordings to examine the visual control of reach-to-grasp reactions in older adults. Methods A motion platform was configured to simulate a “real-life” environment that included a handrail. Subjects performed an activity that required walking to the end of the platform, which was triggered to move suddenly and unexpectedly as they approached the handrail. Twelve healthy older adults (64-79 years old) were tested and compared to 12 healthy young adults (22-30 years old) tested as part of another study. Results Older adults were more than twice as likely as young adults to react to the platform perturbation by grasping the handrail (10/12 versus 4/12), despite being much less likely to visually fixate the handrail after entering the new environment. Grasping errors were remarkably common (5/10 older, 2/4 young), but there was no consistent relationship to the preceding gaze behavior. Conclusion Older adults were highly dependent on using a handrail to recover balance, but commonly failed to direct overt visual attention to the rail after entering the unfamiliar environment. The failure to fixate the rail required the reaching movement to be guided using peripheral vision. Further research is needed to determine whether grasping errors can be prevented via interventions that either attract overt attention to the handrail or improve processing of peripheral-field information.

  16. Mathematically Equivalent, Computationally Non-equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    bears little resemblance to it for computational reasons. Therefore, although the flow of control of the coded algorithm may be visible to a...software. The computational algorithm used is often mathematically equivalent to the defining formula, but bears little resemblence to it for...computational considera- tions, and often bears little resemblence to the formulas that were used to define the transaction originally. Therefore, although the

  17. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  18. Equivalence theorem of uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2017-01-01

    We present an equivalence theorem to unify the two classes of uncertainty relations, i.e. the variance-based ones and the entropic forms, showing that the entropy of an operator in a quantum system can be built from the variances of a set of commutative operators. This means that an uncertainty relation in the language of entropy may be mapped onto a variance-based one, and vice versa. Employing the equivalence theorem, alternative formulations of entropic uncertainty relations are obtained for the qubit system that are stronger than the existing ones in the literature, and variance-based uncertainty relations for spin systems are reached from the corresponding entropic uncertainty relations.

  19. TNT Equivalency of Bulk Nitrocellulose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    9TIN ’IN AD-E400 576 CONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-81007 TNT EQUIVALENCY OF BULK NITROCELLULOSE F. L. MCINTYRE COMPUTER SCIENCES CORPORATION NSTL...September 1978 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(S) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) F. L. Mc~ntyre, Computer Sciences Corporation P. Price...PROJECT. TASK Computer Sciences Corporation AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS NSTL Station, MS 39529 MMT-5784285 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12

  20. Equivalent circuit for birdcage resonators.

    PubMed

    Harpen, M D

    1993-02-01

    We present an equivalent circuit analysis for both low pass and high pass birdcage resonators loaded with lossy samples. In a generalization of the method of Hoult and Lauterbur (J. Magn. Reson. 34, 425 (1979)), we also derive circuit component values by application of the laws of electrodynamics. Measured resonance spectra, quality factors, and feed point impedances in a test resonator are shown to be in agreement with those predicted by the proposed model.

  1. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory

    2016-10-14

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  2. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  3. Living Well with Diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered intervention for maintenance of weight loss, physical activity and glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background By 2025, it is estimated that approximately 1.8 million Australian adults (approximately 8.4% of the adult population) will have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes. Weight management via improved physical activity and diet is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes management. However, the majority of weight loss trials in diabetes have evaluated short-term, intensive clinic-based interventions that, while producing short-term outcomes, have failed to address issues of maintenance and broad population reach. Telephone-delivered interventions have the potential to address these gaps. Methods/Design Using a two-arm randomised controlled design, this study will evaluate an 18-month, telephone-delivered, behavioural weight loss intervention focussing on physical activity, diet and behavioural therapy, versus usual care, with follow-up at 24 months. Three-hundred adult participants, aged 20-75 years, with type 2 diabetes, will be recruited from 10 general practices via electronic medical records search. The Social-Cognitive Theory driven intervention involves a six-month intensive phase (4 weekly calls and 11 fortnightly calls) and a 12-month maintenance phase (one call per month). Primary outcomes, assessed at 6, 18 and 24 months, are: weight loss, physical activity, and glycaemic control (HbA1c), with weight loss and physical activity also measured at 12 months. Incremental cost-effectiveness will also be examined. Study recruitment began in February 2009, with final data collection expected by February 2013. Discussion This is the first study to evaluate the telephone as the primary method of delivering a behavioural weight loss intervention in type 2 diabetes. The evaluation of maintenance outcomes (6 months following the end of intervention), the use of accelerometers to objectively measure physical activity, and the inclusion of a cost-effectiveness analysis will advance the science of broad reach approaches to weight control and health

  4. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-05-12

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  5. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  6. Natural Loss of eyeless/Pax6 Expression in Eyes of Bicyclus anynana Adult Butterflies Likely Leads to Exponential Decrease of Eye Fluorescence in Transgenics

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Antónia

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used visible markers for transgenesis use fluorescent proteins expressed at the surface of the body, such as in eyes. One commonly used marker is the 3xP3-EGFP cassette containing synthetic binding sites for the eyeless/Pax6 conserved transcription factor. This marker cassette leads to fluorescent eyes in a variety of animals tested so far. Here we show that upon reaching adulthood, transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies containing this marker cassette exponentially loose fluorescence in their eyes. After 12 days, transgenic individuals are no longer distinguishable from wild type individuals. The decreased eye fluorescence is likely due to significantly decreased or halted eyeless/Pax6 expression observed in wild type animals upon adult emergence. Implications from these findings include care in screening transgenic animals before these reach adulthood, or shortly thereafter, and in using adult animals of the same age for quantitative screening of likely homozygote and heterozygote individuals. PMID:26173066

  7. Natural Loss of eyeless/Pax6 Expression in Eyes of Bicyclus anynana Adult Butterflies Likely Leads to Exponential Decrease of Eye Fluorescence in Transgenics.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Mainak; Chan, Sam Kok Sim; Monteiro, Antónia

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used visible markers for transgenesis use fluorescent proteins expressed at the surface of the body, such as in eyes. One commonly used marker is the 3xP3-EGFP cassette containing synthetic binding sites for the eyeless/Pax6 conserved transcription factor. This marker cassette leads to fluorescent eyes in a variety of animals tested so far. Here we show that upon reaching adulthood, transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies containing this marker cassette exponentially loose fluorescence in their eyes. After 12 days, transgenic individuals are no longer distinguishable from wild type individuals. The decreased eye fluorescence is likely due to significantly decreased or halted eyeless/Pax6 expression observed in wild type animals upon adult emergence. Implications from these findings include care in screening transgenic animals before these reach adulthood, or shortly thereafter, and in using adult animals of the same age for quantitative screening of likely homozygote and heterozygote individuals.

  8. Conformal dynamical equivalence and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, N. K.

    2011-02-01

    The "Conformal Dynamical Equivalence" (CDE) approach is briefly reviewed, and some of its applications, at various astrophysical levels (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Universe as a whole), are presented. According to the CDE approach, in both the Newtonian and general-relativistic theories of gravity, the isentropic hydrodynamic flows in the interior of a bounded gravitating perfect-fluid source are dynamically equivalent to geodesic motions in a virtual, fully defined fluid source. Equivalently, the equations of hydrodynamic motion in the former source are functionally similar to those of the geodesic motions in the latter, physically, fully defined source. The CDE approach is followed for the dynamical description of the motions in the fluid source. After an observational introduction, taking into account all the internal physical characteristics of the corresponding perfect-fluid source, and based on the property of the isentropic hydrodynamic flows (quite reasonable for an isolated physical system), we examine a number of issues, namely, (i) the classical Newtonian explanation of the celebrated Pioneer-Anomaly effect in the Solar System, (ii) the possibility of both the attractive gravity and the repulsive gravity in a non-quantum Newtonian framework, (iii) the evaluation of the masses - theoretical, dynamical, and missing - and of the linear dimensions of non-magnetized and magnetized large-scale cosmological structures, (iv) the explanation of the flat-rotation curves of disc galaxies, (v) possible formation mechanisms of winds and jets, and (vi) a brief presentation of a conventional approach - toy model to the dynamics of the Universe, characterized by the dominant collisional dark matter (with its subdominant luminous baryonic "contamination"), correctly interpreting the cosmological observational data without the need of the notions dark energy, cosmological constant, and universal accelerating expansion.

  9. Neutral theory and the evolution of ecological equivalence.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Stephen P

    2006-06-01

    Since the publication of the unified neutral theory in 2001, there has been much discussion of the theory, pro and con. The hypothesis of ecological equivalence is the fundamental yet controversial idea behind neutral theory. Assuming trophically similar species are demographically alike (symmetric) on a per capita basis is only an approximation, but it is equivalent to asking: How many of the patterns of ecological communities are the result of species similarities, rather than of species differences? The strategy behind neutral theory is to see how far one can get with the simplification of assuming ecological equivalence before introducing more complexity. In another paper, I review the empirical evidence that led me to hypothesize ecological equivalence among many of the tree species in the species-rich tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island (BCI). In this paper, I develop a simple model for the evolution of ecological equivalence or niche convergence, using as an example evolution of the suite of life history traits characteristic of shade tolerant tropical tree species. Although the model is simple, the conclusions from it seem likely to be robust. I conclude that ecological equivalence for resource use are likely to evolve easily and often, especially in species-rich communities that are dispersal and recruitment limited. In the case of the BCI forest, tree species are strongly dispersal- and recruitment-limited, not only because of restricted seed dispersal, but also because of low recruitment success due to heavy losses of the seedling stages to predators and pathogens and other abiotic stresses such as drought. These factors and the high species richness of the community strongly reduce the potential for competitive exclusion of functionally equivalent or nearly equivalent species.

  10. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  11. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  12. The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups.

    PubMed

    Emadian, Amir; Andrews, Rob C; England, Clare Y; Wallace, Victoria; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-11-28

    Weight loss is crucial for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear which dietary intervention is best for optimising glycaemic control, or whether weight loss itself is the main reason behind observed improvements. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of various dietary interventions on glycaemic control in overweight and obese adults with T2DM when controlling for weight loss between dietary interventions. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT) was conducted. Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science databases were conducted. Inclusion criteria included RCT with minimum 6 months duration, with participants having BMI≥25·0 kg/m2, a diagnosis of T2DM using HbA1c, and no statistically significant difference in mean weight loss at the end point of intervention between dietary arms. Results showed that eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Only four RCT indicated the benefit of a particular dietary intervention over another in improving HbA1c levels, including the Mediterranean, vegan and low glycaemic index (GI) diets. However the findings from one of the four studies showing a significant benefit are questionable because of failure to control for diabetes medications and poor adherence to the prescribed diets. In conclusion there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest that any particular diet is superior in treating overweight and obese patients with T2DM. Although the Mediterranean, vegan and low-GI diets appear to be promising, further research that controls for weight loss and the effects of diabetes medications in larger samples is needed.

  13. Therapeutic equivalents in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Benson, M D

    2001-01-01

    With increasing debate over the rising expenses of health care, a variety of cost-saving measures has been attempted over the years. Use of primary care physicians as "gate keepers," reduction in the length of hospital stays, and pushing women toward vaginal birth after Cesarean section have all been utilized despite on going issues with patient satisfaction and even safety. One remarkable success in stretching health-care dollars that has often been overlooked is the prescription of therapeutic equivalents, or generic drugs. Although available on a limited basis for decades, off-brand manufacture of pharmaceuticals with identical active ingredients as those of the branded drug received a large boost through Congressional legislation in 1984 with the Hatch-Waxman Act. "Fast-track" FDA approval was initiated by Congress to introduce competition into the marketplace for drugs whose patients had expired. While giving close scrutiny to the manufacturing process and requiring the same level of regulatory supervision for factors such as bioavailability and shelf life, the Hatch-Waxman Act removed the burden and expense from generic manufacturers of proving the safety and efficacy all over again of a previously FDA-approved drug. With less than a 20% market share of all prescribed drugs in 1984, the generic drug industry has captured roughly 44% of the market in recent years while accounting for only 8% of expenditures on prescription medication. The prescription of therapeutic equivalents is one method of keeping health care costs down without compromising patient satisfaction or safety.

  14. High temperature effects on water loss and survival examining the hardiness of female adults of the spider beetles, Mezium affine and Gibbium aequinoctiale.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Chambers, Michael J; Tank, Justin L; Keeney, George D

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable ability to tolerate temperatures as high as 52 degrees C for Mezium affine Boieldieu and 56 degrees C for Gibbium aequinoctiale Boieldieu (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) was discovered as part of a water balance study that was conducted to determine whether desiccation-resistance (xerophilic water balance classification) is linked to survival at high temperature. Characteristics of the heat shock response were an intermediate, reversible level of injury, appearing as though dead; greater recovery from heat shock by G. aequinoctiale (57%) than M. affine (30%) that supplemented higher temperature survival by G. aequinoctiale; and lack of protection generated by conditioning at sublethal temperature. Heatinduced mortality is attributed to an abrupt, accelerated water loss at 50 degrees C for M. affine and 54 degrees C for G. aequinoctiale, not to the species (M. affine) that loses water the slowest and has the lower activation energy, E(a) as a measure of cuticular boundary effectiveness. These temperatures where water loss increases sharply are not critical transition temperatures because Arrhenius analysis causes them to be erased (uninterrupted Boltzmann function) and E(a) fails to change when cuticular lipid from these beetles is removed. Our conclusion is that the temperature thresholds for survival and accelerated water loss closely match, and the key survival element in hot and dry environments contributing to wide distribution of G. aequinoctiale and M. affine derives from rising temperature prompting entry into quiescence and a resistance in cuticular lipid fluidity.

  15. Binge ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to a persistent loss of neurogenesis in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus that is associated with impaired adult cognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Crews, Fulton T.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period that coincides with the maturation of adult cognitive faculties. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can impact brain maturation. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 20% EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we discovered that AIE treatment reduced neurogenesis (i.e., doublecortin-immunoreactive [DCX + IR] cells) in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus of late adolescent (P56) male Wistar rats that persisted during abstinence into adulthood (P220). This reduction in neurogenesis was accompanied by a concomitant reduction in proliferating cells (Ki-67) and an increase in cell death (cleaved caspase-3). In the hippocampus, AIE treatment induced a long-term upregulation of neuroimmune genes, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its endogenous agonist high-mobility group box 1 as well as several proinflammatory signaling molecules. Administration of lipopolysaccharide, a gram-negative endotoxin agonist at TLR4, to young adult rats (P70) produced a similar reduction of DCX + IR cells that was observed in AIE-treated animals. Behaviorally, AIE treatment impaired object recognition on the novel object recognition task when assessed from P163 to P165. Interestingly, object recognition memory was positively correlated with DCX + IR in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus while latency to enter the center of the apparatus was negatively correlated with DCX + IR in the ventral dentate gyrus. Together, these data reveal that adolescent binge ethanol exposure persistently inhibits neurogenesis throughout the hippocampus, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might contribute to altered adult cognitive and emotive function. PMID:25729346

  16. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause hair loss in teen girls as well as ...

  17. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  18. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.

  19. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  20. Maternal High-Fat Diet-Induced Loss of Fetal Oocytes Is Associated with Compromised Follicle Growth in Adult Rat Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Tsoulis, Michael W.; Chang, Pauline E.; Moore, Caroline J.; Chan, Kaitlyn A.; Gohir, Wajiha; Petrik, James J.; Vickers, Mark H.; Connor, Kristin L.; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic and reproductive dysfunction. We have shown previously that female rat offspring born to mothers fed a high-fat (HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and display aberrant reproductive cyclicity. The mechanisms driving this reproductive phenotype are currently unknown thus we investigated whether changes in ovarian function were involved. Wistar rats were mated and randomized to: dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Ovaries were collected from fetuses at Embryonic Day (E) 20, and neonatal ovaries at Day 4 (P4), prepubertal ovaries at P27 and adult ovaries at P120. In a subset of offspring, the effects of a HF diet fed postweaning were evaluated. The present study shows that fetuses of mothers fed a HF diet had significantly fewer oocytes at E20, and in neonates, have reduced AMH signaling that may facilitate an increased number of assembled primordial follicles. Both prepubertally and in adulthood, ovaries show increased follicular atresia. As adults, offspring have reduced FSH responsiveness, low expression levels of estrogen receptor alpha (Eralpha), the oocyte-secreted factor, Gdf9, oocyte-specific RNA binding protein, Dazl, and high expression levels of the granulosa-cell derived factor, AMH, in antral follicles. Together, these data suggest that ovarian compromise in offspring born to HF-fed mothers may arise from changes already observable in the fetus and neonate and in the long term, associated with increased follicular atresia through adulthood. PMID:26962114

  1. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  2. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  3. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  4. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-04

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (-0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (-0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (-0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure -5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks.

  5. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A.; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (−0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (−0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (−0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure −5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  6. Increased plasma levels of zinc in obese adult females on a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuko; Kudo, Hideki; Kagawa, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2005-01-01

    Zinc is required for many biological functions including DNA synthesis, cell division, gene expression and the activity of various enzymes in humans and animals. Zinc concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes are lower and urinary zinc excretion and serum insulin levels are higher in subjects with obesity. The effects of a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet were investigated on 23 obese females, who had a body mass index of more than 25.0 and had dieted for 6 months at the Nutrition Clinic, Institute of Nutrition Sciences, Kagawa Nutrition University, Tokyo, Japan. The subjects ranged in age from 29 to 76 (54.3 +/- 13.0) years old. The hypocaloric balanced diet significantly reduced the body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and amount of body fat with a slight lowering of blood pressure and plasma levels of triglyceride. Interestingly, the plasma concentrations of zinc were markedly enhanced at the end of the program.

  7. IL-6 loss causes ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis, reduced capillary density, and dramatically alters the cell populations of the developing and adult heart

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Indroneal; Fuseler, John W.; Intwala, Arti R.; Baudino, Troy A.

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine responsible for many different processes including the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, differentiation, and survival in various cell types and organs, including the heart. Recent studies have indicated that IL-6 is a critical component in the cell-cell communication between myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the effects of IL-6 deficiency on the cardiac cell populations, cardiac function, and interactions between the cells of the heart, specifically cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes. To examine the effects of IL-6 loss on cardiac function, we used the IL-6−/− mouse. IL-6 deficiency caused severe cardiac dilatation, increased accumulation of interstitial collagen, and altered expression of the adhesion protein periostin. In addition, flow cytometric analyses demonstrated dramatic alterations in the cardiac cell populations of IL-6−/− mice compared with wild-type littermates. We observed a marked increase in the cardiac fibroblast population in IL-6−/− mice, whereas a concomitant decrease was observed in the other cardiac cell populations examined. Moreover, we observed increased cell proliferation and apoptosis in the developing IL-6−/− heart. Additionally, we observed a significant decrease in the capillary density of IL-6−/− hearts. To elucidate the role of IL-6 in the interactions between cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes, we performed in vitro studies and demonstrated that IL-6 deficiency attenuated the activation of the STAT3 pathway and VEGF production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that a loss of IL-6 causes cardiac dysfunction by shifting the cardiac cell populations, altering the extracellular matrix, and disrupting critical cell-cell interactions. PMID:19234091

  8. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Bravo, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Methods Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50–64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Results Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1–7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00–1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08–2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60–0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17–1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95–0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conclusions Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern. PMID:26445239

  9. Weight loss referrals for adults in primary care (WRAP): protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing the clinical and cost-effectiveness of primary care referral to a commercial weight loss provider for 12 weeks, referral for 52 weeks, and a brief self-help intervention [ISRCTN82857232

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent trials demonstrate the acceptability and short term efficacy of primary care referral to a commercial weight loss provider for weight management. Commissioners now need information on the optimal duration of intervention and the longer term outcomes and cost effectiveness of such treatment to give best value for money. Methods/Design This multicentre, randomised controlled trial with a parallel design will recruit 1200 overweight adults (BMI ≥28 kg/m2) through their primary care provider. They will be randomised in a 2:5:5 allocation to: Brief Intervention, Commercial Programme for 12 weeks, or Commercial Programme for 52 weeks. Participants will be followed up for two years, with assessments at 0, 3, 12 and 24 months. The sequential primary research questions are whether the CP interventions achieve significantly greater weight loss from baseline to 12 months than BI, and whether CP52 achieves significantly greater weight loss from baseline to 12 months than CP12. The primary outcomes will be an intention to treat analysis of between treatment differences in body weight at 12 months. Clinical effectiveness will be also be assessed by measures of weight, fat mass, and blood pressure at each time point and biochemical risk factors at 12 months. Self-report questionnaires will collect data on psychosocial factors associated with adherence, weight-loss and weight-loss maintenance. A within-trial and long-term cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted from an NHS perspective. Qualitative methods will be used to examine the participant experience. Discussion The current trial compares the clinical and cost effectiveness of referral to a commercial provider with a brief intervention. This trial will specifically examine whether providing longer weight-loss treatment without altering content or intensity (12 months commercial referral vs. 12 weeks) leads to greater weight loss at one year and is sustained at 2 years. It will also

  10. Botulinum toxin in masticatory muscles of the adult rat induces bone loss at the condyle and alveolar regions of the mandible associated with a bone proliferation at a muscle enthesis.

    PubMed

    Kün-Darbois, Jean-Daniel; Libouban, Hélène; Chappard, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    In man, botulinum toxin type A (BTX) is injected in masticatory muscles for several indications such as trismus, bruxism, or masseter hypertrophy. Bone changes in the mandible following BTX injections in adult animal have therefore became a subject of interest. The aim of this study was to analyze condylar and alveolar bone changes following BTX unilateral injections in masseter and temporal muscles in adult rats. Mature male rats (n = 15) were randomized into 2 groups: control (CTRL; n = 6) and BTX group (n= 9). Rats of the BTX group received a single injection of BTX into right masseter and temporal muscles. Rats of the CTRL group were similarly injected with saline solution. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after injections. Masticatory muscles examination and microcomputed tomography (microCT) were performed. A significant difference of weight was found between the 2 groups at weeks 2, 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). Atrophy of the right masseter and temporal muscles was observed in all BTX rats. MicroCT analysis showed significant bone loss in the right alveolar and condylar areas in BTX rats. Decrease in bone volume reached -20% for right alveolar bone and -35% for right condylar bone. A hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the digastric muscle enthesis was found on every right hemimandible in the BTX group and none in the CTRL group. BTX injection in masticatory muscles leads to a significant and major mandible bone loss. These alterations can represent a risk factor for fractures in human. The occurrence of a hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the Mus Digastricus enthesis may constitute an etiological factor for tori.

  11. Testing the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, Anna M.; Comandi, Gian Luca; Pegna, Raffaello; Bramanti, Donato; Doravari, Suresh; Maccarone, Francesco; Lucchesi, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of Dark Energy and the fact that only about 5% of the mass of the universe can be explained on the basis of the current laws of physics have led to a serious impasse. Based on past history, physics might indeed be on the verge of major discoveries; but the challenge is enormous. The way to tackle it is twofold. On one side, scientists try to perform large scale direct observations and measurements - mostly from space. On the other, they multiply their efforts to put to the most stringent tests ever the physical theories underlying the current view of the physical world, from the very small to the very large. On the extremely small scale very exciting results are expected from one of the most impressive experiments in the history of mankind: the Large Hadron Collider. On the very large scale, the universe is dominated by gravity and the present impasse undoubtedly calls for more powerful tests of General Relativity - the best theory of gravity to date. Experiments testing the Weak Equivalence Principle, on which General Relativity ultimately lies, have the strongest probing power of them all; a breakthrough in sensitivity is possible with the “Galileo Galilei” (GG) satellite experiment to fly in low Earth orbit.

  12. Loss of c-Kit and bone marrow failure upon conditional removal of the GATA-2 C-terminal zinc finger domain in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan S; Jin, Jin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Matatall, Katie A; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ullrich, Stephen E; King, Katherine Y; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2016-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the transcriptional regulator GATA-2 associate with multilineage immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The majority of these mutations localize in the zinc finger (ZnF) domains, which mediate GATA-2 DNA binding. Deregulated hematopoiesis with GATA-2 mutation frequently develops in adulthood, yet GATA-2 function in the bone marrow remains unresolved. To investigate this, we conditionally deleted the GATA-2 C-terminal ZnF (C-ZnF) coding sequences in adult mice. Upon Gata2 C-ZnF deletion, we observed rapid peripheral cytopenia, bone marrow failure, and decreased c-Kit expression on hematopoietic progenitors. Transplant studies indicated GATA-2 has a cell-autonomous role in bone marrow hematopoiesis. Moreover, myeloid lineage populations were particularly sensitive to Gata2 hemizygosity, while molecular assays indicated GATA-2 regulates c-Kit expression in multilineage progenitor cells. Enforced c-Kit expression in Gata2 C-ZnF-deficient hematopoietic progenitors enhanced myeloid colony activity, suggesting GATA-2 sustains myelopoiesis via a cell intrinsic role involving maintenance of c-Kit expression. Our results provide insight into mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in bone marrow and may contribute to a better understanding of immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure associated with GATA-2 mutation.

  13. Repeated citalopram administration counteracts kainic acid-induced spreading of PSA-NCAM-immunoreactive cells and loss of reelin in the adult mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jaako, Külli; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Kalda, Anti; Anier, Kaili; Zharkovsky, Tamara; Shastin, Dmitri; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Systemic or intracerebral administration of kainic acid in rodents induces neuronal death followed by a cascade of neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. Kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity is evidenced by alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, dispersion of the granule cell layer and re-organisation of mossy fibres. Similar abnormalities are observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and, therefore, kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuroplasticity might mimic pathological mechanisms leading to the formation of 'epileptic brain' in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Previous studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants might reduce the severity of seizures in epileptic patients and reduce neuronal death in laboratory animal models of kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated whether kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity in mice is modulated by the repeated administration of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We found that at the histopathological level, repeated citalopram treatment counteracted the kainic acid-induced neuronal loss and dispersion of young granule neurons expressing the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule within the granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Citalopram also counteracted the downregulation of reelin on both mRNA and protein levels induced by kainic acid administration. Our findings indicate that repeated administration of citalopram is able to prevent kainic acid-induced abnormal brain plasticity and thereby prevent the formation of an epileptic phenotype.

  14. Equivalency of Galápagos giant tortoises used as ecological replacement species to restore ecosystem functions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Tapia, Washington

    2013-08-01

    Loss of key plant-animal interactions (e.g., disturbance, seed dispersal, and herbivory) due to extinctions of large herbivores has diminished ecosystem functioning nearly worldwide. Mitigating for the ecological consequences of large herbivore losses through the use of ecological replacements to fill extinct species' niches and thereby replicate missing ecological functions has been proposed. It is unknown how different morphologically and ecologically a replacement can be from the extinct species and still provide similar functions. We studied niche equivalency between 2 phenotypes of Galápagos giant tortoises (domed and saddlebacked) that were translocated to Pinta Island in the Galápagos Archipelago as ecological replacements for the extinct saddlebacked giant tortoise (Chelonoidis abingdonii). Thirty-nine adult, nonreproductive tortoises were introduced to Pinta Island in May 2010, and we observed tortoise resource use in relation to phenotype during the first year following release. Domed tortoises settled in higher, moister elevations than saddlebacked tortoises, which favored lower elevation arid zones. The areas where the tortoises settled are consistent with the ecological conditions each phenotype occupies in its native range. Saddlebacked tortoises selected areas with high densities of the arboreal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia galapageia) and mostly foraged on the cactus, which likely relied on the extinct saddlebacked Pinta tortoise for seed dispersal. In contrast, domed tortoises did not select areas with cactus and therefore would not provide the same seed-dispersal functions for the cactus as the introduced or the original, now extinct, saddlebacked tortoises. Interchangeability of extant megaherbivores as replacements for extinct forms therefore should be scrutinized given the lack of equivalency we observed in closely related forms of giant tortoises. Our results also demonstrate the value of trial introductions of sterilized individuals to test

  15. It Pays to Be Organized: Organizing Arithmetic Practice around Equivalent Values Facilitates Understanding of Math Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Chesney, Dana L.; Matthews, Percival G.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Wheeler, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that organizing arithmetic fact practice by equivalent values facilitates children's understanding of math equivalence. Children (M age = 8 years 6 months, N = 104) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions: (a) equivalent values, in which problems were grouped by equivalent sums (e.g., 3 + 4 = 7, 2…

  16. Reprint of "Caffeine protects against memory loss induced by high and non-anxiolytic dose of cannabidiol in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)".

    PubMed

    Nazario, Luiza Reali; Antonioli, Régis Junior; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2015-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) has been investigated in a wide spectrum of clinical approaches due to its psychopharmacological properties. CBD has low affinity for cannabinoid neuroreceptors and agonistic properties to 5-HT receptors. An interaction between cannabinoid and purinergic receptor systems has been proposed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate CBD properties on memory behavioral and locomotor parameters and the effects of pre-treatment of adenosine receptor blockers on CBD impacts on memory using adult zebrafish. CBD (0.1, 0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg) was tested in the avoidance inhibitory paradigm and anxiety task. We analyzed the effect of a long-term caffeine pre-treatment (~20mg/L - four months). Also, acute block of adenosine receptors was performed in co-administration with CBD exposure in the memory assessment. CBD promoted an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in the anxiety task; in the memory assessment, CBD in the dose of 5mg/Kg promoted the strongest effects without interfering with social and aggressive behavior. Caffeine treatment was able to prevent CBD (5mg/kg) effects on memory when CBD was given after the training session. CBD effects on memory were partially prevented by co-treatment with a specific A2A adenosine receptor antagonist when given prior to or after the training session, while CBD effects after the training session were fully prevented by adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. These results indicated that zebrafish have responses to CBD anxiolytic properties that are comparable to other animal models, and high doses changed memory retention in a way dependent on adenosine.

  17. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss in teens: Illnesses or medical conditions. Endocrine (hormonal) conditions, such as uncontrolled diabetes or thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause ...

  18. Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... and painful this loss can be. You might wonder if you'll ever have a baby to hold and call your own. But surviving the emotional impact of pregnancy loss is possible. And many women go on to have successful pregnancies. Expand all | ...

  19. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    PubMed Central

    Sigurðardóttir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice matching-to-sample tasks. Tests confirmed that six equivalence classes had formed. Without further training, plural forms of the stimuli were presented in tests for all matching performances. All participants demonstrated virtually errorless performances. In Experiment 2, classifications of the nouns used in Experiment 1 were brought under contextual control. Three nouns were feminine and three were masculine. The match-to-sample training taught participants to select a comparison of the same number as the sample (i.e., singular or plural) in the presence of contextual stimulus A regardless of noun gender. Concurrently, in the presence of contextual stimulus B, participants were taught to select a comparison of the same gender as the sample (i.e., feminine or masculine), regardless of number. Generalization was assessed using a card-sorting test. All participants eventually sorted the cards correctly into gender and number stimulus classes. When printed words used in training were replaced by their picture equivalents, participants demonstrated almost errorless performances. PMID:22754102

  20. Dietary Supplement Attenuates Radiation-Induced Osteoclastogenic and Oxidative Stress-Related Responses and Protects Adult Mice from Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Tahimic, Candice; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Shahnazari, Mohammed; Halloran, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Our central hypothesis is that oxidative stress plays a key role in cell dysfunction and progressive bone loss caused by radiation exposure during spaceflight. In animal studies, excess free radical formation is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility. We previously reported that exposure to low or high-LET radiation rapidly increases expression levels of pro-osteoclastogenic and oxidative stress-related genes in bone and marrow, followed by pathological changes in skeletal structure. To screen various antioxidants for radioprotective effects on bone, 4 month old, male C57Bl6/J mice were treated with a dietary antioxidant cocktail, injectable alpha-lipoic acid, or a dried plum-enriched diet (DP). Mice were then exposed to 2Gy 137Cs total body radiation and one day later marrow cells were collected and the relevant genes analyzed for expression levels. Of the candidates tested, DP was most effective in reducing bone resorption-related gene expression. Microcomputed tomography revealed that DP also prevented the radiation-induced deterioration of skeletal microarchitecture, as indicated by percent bone volume, trabecular spacing and trabecular number. DP had similar protective effects on skeletal structure after sequential exposure to protons (0.5 Gy, 150MeV/n) and 56Fe 0.5Gy, 600 MeV/n). When cultured ex vivo under osteogenic conditions, bone marrow-derived cells from DP-fed animals exhibited increased colony numbers compared to control diet-fed animals. These findings suggest that DP exerted pro-osteogenic effects apart from previously identified anti-resorptive actions, which may contribute to radioprotection of skeletal tissue. In conclusion, a diet enriched in certain types of antioxidants and polyphenols such as DP may be useful as an intervention to protect tissues from degenerative effects of ionizing radiation.

  1. Dependency of working temperature and equivalent constant of concentric disk-type piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, I.-Mu; Lai, Yi-Ying; Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the effect of equivalent constant and output power on working temperature of concentric disk-type piezoelectric transformer. To analyze the energy loss in the piezoelectric transformer, the equivalent circuit model was built. Losses in the piezoelectric transformer are considered generally having two different parts: dielectric loss and mechanical loss. First of all, a measurement circuit based on an impedance analyzer was built. Then, the circuit simulation software PSIM was employed to verify the experimental results obtained. Secondly, according to the experimental results, temperature and input voltage are the two factors which influenced the energy loss in a piezoelectric transformer. As the input voltage and temperature increased, the energy loss rises, as well. In addition, when the input voltage is low, the temperature becomes the main influencing factor for energy loss of the piezoelectric transformer. On the other hand, when the input voltage is high, the main factor for energy loss of the piezoelectric transformer is the input voltage other than the temperature. Furthermore, the control loop that dealt with the energy loss of the piezoelectric transformer was proposed. At different temperatures, the variations of losses of the piezoelectric transformer are presented in this paper. Finally, the dielectric loss and mechanical loss are combined to analyze the losses within piezoelectric transformers. Then, the relationship between the output power of the piezoelectric transformer and the temperature was revealed. The result showed that as the temperature increased, the output power decreased.

  2. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  3. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  4. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  5. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  6. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  7. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  8. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  9. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003257.htm Memory loss To use the sharing features on this ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... topic was provided by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Topic last reviewed: December ... a total loss of hearing. It can be hereditary or it can result from disease, trauma, certain ...

  11. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  12. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems.

  13. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  14. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  15. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  16. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  17. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  18. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  19. 46 CFR 133.09 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Equivalents. When this part requires a particular fitting, material, or lifesaving appliance or arrangement, the Commandant (CG-521) may accept any other fitting, material, or lifesaving appliance or arrangement... evaluations and tests to determine the equivalent effectiveness of the substitute fitting, material,...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  1. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  2. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  4. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  5. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  6. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  7. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  8. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  9. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  10. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  11. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  12. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  13. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  14. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  15. The Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent Using Personnel Dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xie

    From January 1994, U.S. nuclear plants must develop a technically rigorous approach for determining the effective dose equivalent for their work forces. This dissertation explains concepts associated with effective dose equivalent and describes how to assess effective dose equivalent by using conventional personnel dosimetry measurements. A Monte Carlo computer code, MCNP, was used to calculate photon transport through a model of the human body. Published mathematical phantoms of the human adult male and female were used to simulate irradiation from a variety of external radiation sources in order to calculate organ and tissue doses, as well as effective dose equivalent using weighting factors from ICRP Publication 26. The radiation sources considered were broad parallel photon beams incident on the body from 91 different angles and isotropic point sources located at 234 different locations in contact with or near the body. Monoenergetic photons of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV were considered for both sources. Personnel dosimeters were simulated on the surface of the body and exposed to with the same sources. From these data, the influence of dosimeter position on dosimeter response was investigated. Different algorithms for assessing effective dose equivalent from personnel dosimeter responses were proposed and evaluated. The results indicate that the current single-badge approach is satisfactory for most common exposure situations encountered in nuclear plants, but additional conversion factors may be used when more accurate results become desirable. For uncommon exposures involving source situated at the back of the body or source located overhead, the current approach of using multi-badges and assigning the highest dose is overly conservative and unnecessarily expensive. For these uncommon exposures, a new algorithm, based on two dosimeters, one on the front of the body and another one on the back of the body, has been shown to yield conservative assessment of

  16. How to demonstrate similarity by using noninferiority and equivalence statistical testing in radiology research.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soyeon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Kyoung Ho

    2013-05-01

    Demonstrating similarity between compared groups--that is, equivalence or noninferiority of the outcome of one group to the outcome of another group--requires a different analytic approach than determining the difference between groups--that is, superiority of one group over another. Neither a statistically significant difference between groups (P < .05) nor a lack of significant difference (P ≥ .05) from conventional statistical tests provides answers about equivalence/noninferiority. Statistical testing of equivalence/noninferiority generally uses a confidence interval, where equivalence/noninferiority is claimed when the confidence interval of the difference in outcome between compared groups is within a predetermined equivalence/noninferiority margin that represents a clinically or scientifically acceptable range of differences and is typically described by Δ. The equivalence/noninferiority margin should be justified both clinically and statistically, considering the loss in the main outcome and the compensatory gain, and be chosen conservatively to avoid making a false claim of equivalence/noninferiority for an inferior outcome. Sample size estimation needs to be specified for equivalence/noninferiority design, considering Δ in addition to other general factors. The need for equivalence/noninferiority research studies is expected to increase in radiology, and a good understanding of the fundamental principles of the methodology will be helpful for conducting as well as for interpreting such studies.

  17. Equivalence-Equivalence Responding: Training Conditions Involved in Obtaining a Stable Baseline Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Andres; Bohorquez, Cristobal; Perez, Vicente; Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Gomez, Jesus; Luciano, Carmen; Wilson, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the variables associated with equivalence-equivalence responding, in which participants match pairs of equivalent or nonequivalent stimuli. One such variable is the presence of response competition from nonarbitrary (physical) relational response options. In the current analysis, the experimenters examined the effect…

  18. Matching Derived Functionally-Same Stimulus Relations: Equivalence-Equivalence and Classical Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, after being trained on A-B and A-C matching tasks, subjects match not only functionally-same B and C stimuli (stimulus equivalence), but also BC compounds with same-class elements and BC compounds with different-class elements (equivalence-equivalence). Similar performances are required in classical analogies (a :…

  19. On asymptotically lacunary invariant statistical equivalent set sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancaroglu, Nimet; Nuray, Fatih; Savas, Ekrem

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we define asymptotically invariant equivalence, strongly asymptotically invariant equivalence, asymptotically invariant statistical equivalence, asymptotically lacunary invariant statistical equivalence, strongly asymptotically lacunary invariant equivalence, asymptotically lacunary invariant equivalence (Wijsman sense) for sequences of sets. Also we investigate some relations between asymptotically lacunary invariant statistical equivalence and asymptotically invariant statistical equivalence for sequences of sets. We introduce some notions and theorems as follows, asymptotically lacunary invariant statistical equivalence, strongly asymptotically lacunary invariant equivalence, asymptotically lacunary invariant equivalence (Wijsman sense) for sequences of sets.

  20. Training intraverbal naming to establish equivalence class performances.

    PubMed

    Ma, Monica L; Miguel, Caio F; Jennings, Adrienne M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this three-experiment study was to evaluate whether performance consistent with the formation of equivalence classes could be established after training adults to tact and intraverbally relate the names of visual stimuli. Fourteen participants were exposed to tact training, listener testing, and intraverbal training (A'B' and B'C') prior to matching-to-sample (MTS) and intraverbal posttests presented in different sequences across experiments. All participants demonstrated emergent MTS and intraverbal relations consistent with equivalence class formation. More importantly, all participants emitted experimentally defined or self-generated tacts or intraverbally named the correct sample-comparison pairs at some point during posttests. These results are consistent with the intraverbal naming account (Horne & Lowe, 1996) in that participants who passed novel relations MTS tests also demonstrated emergence of corresponding intraverbal relations. However, verbal reports and latency data suggest that participants did not necessarily have to use intraverbal naming as a problem solving strategy continuously throughout MTS posttests. These results extended previous research by showing that verbal behavior training of baseline relations (A'B' and B'C') is sufficient to establish novel conditional relations consistent with equivalence class formation.

  1. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain diseases, such as thyroid problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends ...

  2. Limb Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... limb. Learning how to use it takes time. Physical therapy can help you adapt. Recovery from the loss of a limb can be hard. Sadness, anger, and frustration are common. If you are having a tough time, talk to your doctor. Treatment with medicine or counseling can help.

  3. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success.

  4. Antireflection design concepts with equivalent layers.

    PubMed

    Schallenberg, Uwe B

    2006-03-01

    Some novel concepts of designing antireflection (AR) coatings with equivalent layers are presented. As an introduction, essential papers concerning thin-film optics and AR designs are cited, and the AR problem and a previously introduced AR-hard design type are discussed. Based on the known matrix formalism, a potential AR region, an equivalent stack index, and an equivalent substrate index are defined to use the theory of stop-band suppression as a starting point for the design of broadband AR coatings. The known multicycle AR design type is identified as a typical solution to the AR problem if the presented approach is used.

  5. On asymptotically generalized statistical equivalent set sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savas, Ekrem

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we shall study the asymptotically λ-statistical equivalent (Wijsman sense) of multiple L. In addition to these definition, natural inclusion theorems shall also be presented. This approach has not been considered in any context before.

  6. 46 CFR 114.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., calculation, information, or test which provides a level of safety equivalent to that established by specific... provisions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as...

  7. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., appliance, apparatus, equipment, calculation, information, or test, which provides a level of safety... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with...

  8. [Therapeutic equivalence of the new oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villar, A; Nacle López, I; Barbero Hernández, M J; Lizan Tudela, L

    2015-10-01

    In an attempt to minimize the economic impact due to the incorporation of innovative drugs, health authorities have promoted and supported the evaluation and market positioning of drugs, as equivalent therapeutic alternatives. This issue has recently gained importance, possibly due to the current economic crisis. The equivalent therapeutic alternatives are justified by the need to compete on price, and by the authorities recommendation to establish therapeutic equivalence, price and financing of medicinal products at the same time. The establishment of the new oral anticoagulants and the equivalent therapeutic alternatives is a problematic issue if it is based on the absence of direct comparisons between different drugs and the questionable methodology used in the current indirect comparisons. Currently, it is difficult to determine when a new oral anticoagulant is more recommendable than others, but efforts are being made in order to propose alternatives for the decision based on patient characteristics.

  9. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  10. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  11. 46 CFR 125.170 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... required by this subchapter may be accepted by the cognizant OCMI; by the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS GENERAL § 125.170 Equivalents... of safety....

  12. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    PubMed

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  13. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  14. Methods for Equivalence and Noninferiority Testing

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gisela Tunes da; Logan, Brent R.; Klein, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Classical hypothesis testing focuses on testing whether treatments have differential effects on outcome. However, sometimes clinicians may be more interested in determining whether treatments are equivalent or whether one has noninferior outcomes. We review the hypotheses for these noninferiority and equivalence research questions, consider power and sample size issues, and discuss how to perform such a test for both binary and survival outcomes. The methods are illustrated on 2 recent studies in hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:19147090

  15. The endotopism semigroups of an equivalence relation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuchok, Yu V; Toichkina, E A

    2014-05-31

    In this work we investigate six types of endotopism semigroups for a given equivalence relation. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of all such endotopisms are presented. Conditions for the regularity and coregularity of each of the endotopism semigroups of a given type are established. The notion of the endotype of a binary relation with respect to its endotopisms is introduced and the endotype of an arbitrary equivalence relation is calculated. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  16. Quantum equivalence of dual field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradkin, E. S.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    1985-06-01

    Motivated by the study of ultraviolet properties of different versions of supergravities duality transformations at the quantum level are discussed. Using the background field method it is proven on shell quantum equivalence for several pairs of dual field theories known to be classically equivalent. The examples considered include duality in chiral model, duality of scalars and second rank antisymmetric gauge tensors, vector duality and duality of the Einstein theory with cosmological term and the Eddington-Schrödinger theory.

  17. The nonequivalence of behavioral and mathematical equivalence.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R R; Green, G

    1992-03-01

    Sidman and his colleagues derived behavioral tests for stimulus equivalence from the axiom in logic and mathematics that defines a relation of equivalence. The analogy has generated abundant research in which match-to-sample methods have been used almost exclusively to study interesting and complex stimulus control phenomena. It has also stimulated considerable discussion regarding interpretation of the analogy and speculation as to its validity and generality. This article reexamines the Sidman stimulus equivalence analogy in the context of a broader consideration of the mathematical axiom than was included in the original presentation of the analogy and some of the data that have accumulated in the interim. We propose that (a) mathematical and behavioral examples of equivalence relations differ substantially, (b) terminology is being used in ways that can lead to erroneous conclusions about the nature of the stimulus control that develops in stimulus equivalence experiments, and (c) complete analyses of equivalence and other types of stimulus-stimulus relations require more than a simple invocation of the analogy. Implications of our analysis for resolving current issues and prompting new research are discussed.

  18. Mortality, AIDS-morbidity and loss to follow-up by current CD4 cell count among HIV-1 infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Africa and Asia: data from the ANRS 12222 collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Gabillard, Delphine; Lewden, Charlotte; Ndoye, Ibra; Moh, Raoul; Ségéral, Olivier; Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Etard, Jean-François; Pagnaroat, Men; Fournier-Nicolle, Isabelle; Eholié, Serge; Konate, Issouf; Minga, Albert; Mpoudi-Ngolé, Eitel; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Anglaret, Xavier; Laurent, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background In resource-limited countries, estimating CD4-specific incidence rates of mortality and morbidity among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may help assess the effectiveness of care and treatment programmes, identify program weaknesses and inform decisions. Methods We pooled data from 13 research cohorts in five sub-Saharan African (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire and Senegal) and two Asian (Cambodia and Laos) countries. HIV-infected adults (≥18 years) who received ART in 1998-2008 and had at least one CD4 count available were eligible. Changes in CD4 counts over time were estimated by a linear mixed regression. CD4-specific incidence rates were estimated as the number of first events occurring in a given CD4 stratum divided by the time spent within the stratum. Results Overall 3,917 adults (62% women) on ART were followed-up during 10,154 person-years. In the ≤50, 51-100, 101-200, 201-350, 351-500, 501-650 and >650/mm3 CD4 cells strata, death rates were: 20.6, 11.8, 6.7, 3.3, 1.8, 0.9 and 0.3 per 100 person-years; AIDS rates were: 50.5, 32.9, 11.5, 4.8, 2.8, 2.2 and 2.2 per 100 person-years; and loss to follow-up rates were: 4.9, 6.1, 3.5, 3.1, 2.9, 1.7 and 1.2 per 100 person-years, respectively. Mortality and morbidity were higher during the first year following ART initiation. Conclusion In these resource-limited settings, death and AIDS rates remained substantial after ART initiation, even in individuals with high CD4 cell counts. Ensuring earlier ART initiation and optimizing case finding and treatment for AIDS-defining diseases should be seen as priorities. PMID:23274931

  19. Testing Response-Stimulus Equivalence Relations Using Differential Responses as a Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Hirofumi

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the notion that an equivalence relation may include a response when differential responses are paired with stimuli presented during training. Eight normal adults learned three kinds of computer mouse movements as differential response topographies (R1, R2, and R3). Next, in matching-to-sample training, one of the response…

  20. Limb Loss in Children: Prosthetic Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults with limb loss. Meeting a world-class swimmer, for instance, shows children that they can do ... they won’t ever be the world’s fastest swimmers, children can learn that there is greatness inside ...

  1. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M; Hunt, Karen A; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L; Karczewski, Konrad J; Barnes, Michael R; Barnett, Anthony H; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R; Trembath, Richard C; MacArthur, Daniel G; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A

    2016-04-22

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans.

  2. Acceptance criteria for method equivalency assessments.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Marion J; Borman, Phil J

    2009-12-15

    Quality by design (ICH-Topic Q8) requires that process control strategy requirements are met and maintained. The challenging task of setting appropriate acceptance criteria for assessment of method equivalence is a critical component of satisfying these requirements. The use of these criteria will support changes made to methods across the product lifecycle. A method equivalence assessment is required when a change is made to a method which may pose a risk to its ability to monitor the quality of the process. Establishing appropriate acceptance criteria are a vital, but not clearly understood, prerequisite to deciding the appropriate design/sample size of the equivalency study. A number of approaches are proposed in the literature for setting acceptance criteria for equivalence which address different purposes. This perspective discusses those purposes and then provides more details on setting acceptance criteria based on patient and producer risk, e.g., tolerance interval approach and the consideration of method or process capability. Applying these to a drug substance assay method for batch release illustrates that, for the equivalence assessment to be meaningful, a clear understanding and appraisal of the control requirements of the method is needed. Rather than a single exact algorithm, the analyst's judgment on a number of aspects is required in deciding the appropriate acceptance criteria.

  3. On SLλ(I)-asymptotically statistical equivalent sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumus, Hafize; Savas, Ekrem

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the notion of SLλ(I)-asymptotically statistical equivalence which is a natural combination of asymptotic I-equivalence and λ-statistical equivalence. We find its relation to I-asymptotically statistical convergence, strong λI-asymptotically equivalence and strong Cesàro I-asymptotically equivalence.

  4. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  5. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  6. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  7. Grammatical equivalents of Palaeolithic tools: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Antonio B

    2010-09-01

    In this article, language is considered as a behavioural trait evolving by means of natural selection, in co-evolution with the Palaeolithic tool industries. This perspective enables an analysis of the grammatical and syntactic equivalents of the multiple abilities and effects of lithic tools across the successive modes of their development and consider their influence in intra-group communication and the social biology of the hominine species concerned. The hypothesis is that grammatical equivalents inherent to stone tool work guide the evolution of language.

  8. Equivalent Widths in the Spectrum of Sirius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Qiu, H. M.; Chen, Y. Q.; Li, Z. W.

    2000-02-01

    The equivalent widths of total 546 lines (26 elements are included) in the spectrum of the bright Am star Sirius from 380 to 930 nm are tabulated. The high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum was obtained with the Coudé Echelle Spectrograph attached to the 2.16 m telescope at Beijing Astronomical Observatory (Xinglong, China). Here we also give the results of the equivalent widths comparison between our measurements and those of Strom et al. and Sadakane & Ueta.

  9. Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... will have serious permanent disabilities like brain damage, hearing loss, and limb amputations. FACT: While some adults are at increased risk and need vaccination, adolescents and young adults generally have a higher risk ...

  10. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  11. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  12. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  13. 46 CFR 154.32 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliance may meet an alternate standard if the Commandant (CG-522) finds that the alternate standard provides an equivalent or greater level of protection for the purpose of safety. (b) The Commandant (CG-522... requesting the finding submits a written application to the Commandant (CG-522) that includes— (1) A...

  14. Equivalence of partition properties and determinacy

    PubMed Central

    Kechris, Alexander S.; Woodin, W. Hugh

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that, within L(ℝ), the smallest inner model of set theory containing the reals, the axiom of determinacy is equivalent to the existence of arbitrarily large cardinals below Θ with the strong partition property κ → (κ)κ. PMID:16593299

  15. Pseudo-Equivalent Groups and Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment by minimum discriminant information provides an approach to linking test forms in the case of a nonequivalent groups design with no satisfactory common items. This approach employs background information on individual examinees in each administration so that weighted samples of examinees form pseudo-equivalent groups in the sense that…

  16. The Nature of Dynamic Equivalence in Translating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of three types of translation: formal correspondence, cognitive content and emotive response-oriented. The latter two are dynamic-equivalent translations. Their purpose is to enable the receptors to understand the implications of the cognitive content or to make a corresponding emotive response without recourse to the original text.…

  17. HOW TO PASS HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAGSBRUN, FRANCINE, ED.

    ORGANIZED INTO A FIVE-DAY STUDY PLAN, ALLOWING ONE DAY'S STUDY TO EACH PART OF THE EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION (SPELLING AND GRAMMAR, SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND MATHEMATICS), THIS BOOK PROVIDES SAMPLE TESTS AND ANSWER SHEETS, A TEST SCORE RECORD AND SELF EVALUATION PROFILE, AND SUPPLEMENTARY TESTS FOR EACH SUBJECT. THE EXAMINEE CAN ORDER…

  18. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  19. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  20. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  1. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  6. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submitted to the Marine Safety Center via the cognizant OCMI. If necessary, the Marine Safety Center may... submitted to the Marine Safety Center via the cognizant OCMI. (c) The Commandant may approve a novel.... Requests for determination of equivalency must be submitted to Commandant (CG-543) via the cognizant OCMI....

  7. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  8. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  9. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  10. SUPPORT FOR USEPA'S PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss recommended and new resources for the USEPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee including: 1) Committee's creation in 1985 and its purpose 2) Drexel University Professor Chuck Haas' 2001 report (Assessment of the PEC Process) and its findings 3) NAS/NR...

  11. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  12. 46 CFR 199.09 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.09 Equivalents. When this part requires a particular fitting, material, or lifesaving appliance or arrangement, the Commandant (CG-521) may accept any other fitting... effectiveness of the substitute fitting, material, or lifesaving appliance or arrangement....

  13. Identifiability and Equivalence of GLLIRM Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM) is a linearly constrained nominal categories model (NCM) that computes the scale and intercept parameters for categories as a weighted sum of basic parameters. This paper addresses the problems of the identifiability of the basic parameters and the equivalence between different GLLIRM…

  14. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for…

  15. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods. PMID:28220075

  16. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  17. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  18. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  19. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  20. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  1. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  2. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  3. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  4. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  5. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  6. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  7. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  8. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  9. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  10. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  11. 46 CFR 170.010 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., the Commanding Officer (MSC), Attn: Marine Safety Center, U.S. Coast Guard Stop 7410, 4200 Wilson Boulevard Suite 400, Arlington, VA 20598-7410, or the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, if the... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS General Provisions § 170.010 Equivalents. Substitutions for fittings,...

  12. 46 CFR 170.010 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., the Commanding Officer, U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Center, 2100 2nd St., SW., Stop 7102, Washington, DC 20593-7102, or the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, if the substitution provides an... ALL INSPECTED VESSELS General Provisions § 170.010 Equivalents. Substitutions for fittings,...

  13. AN UPDATE ON TECHNOLOGIES SEEKING PFRP EQUIVALENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will: 1) Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC), 2) Review the PEC's current membership (of 10), 3) Discuss how a typical application is evaluated, 4) Note where information can be found by those interested in applying to the PEC, 5) List...

  14. The equivalent fundamental-mode source

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G.D.; Busch, R.D.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Okajima, Shigeaki

    1997-02-01

    In 1960, Hansen analyzed the problem of assembling fissionable material in the presence of a weak neutron source. Using point kinetics, he defined the weak source condition and analyzed the consequences of delayed initiation during ramp reactivity additions. Although not clearly stated in Hansen`s work, the neutron source strength that appears in the weak source condition corresponds to the equivalent fundamental-mode source. In this work, we describe the concept of an equivalent fundamental-mode source and we derive a deterministic expression for a factor, g*, that converts any arbitrary source distribution to an equivalent fundamental-mode source. We also demonstrate a simplified method for calculating g* in subcritical systems. And finally, we present a new experimental method that can be employed to measure the equivalent fundamental-mode source strength in a multiplying assembly. We demonstrate the method on the zero-power, XIX-1 assembly at the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  15. Procedures for Determining the Equivalence of Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunivant, Noel

    Eight different methods are reviewed for determining whether two or more tests are equivalent measures. These methods vary in restrictiveness from the Wilks-Votaw test of compound symmetry (which requires that all means, variances, and covariances are equal), to Joreskog's theory of congeneric tests (which requires only that the tests are measures…

  16. Determination of equivalent weight of amines

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.S.

    1987-01-08

    A procedure for the determination of equivalent weight of amines is described. This procedure is based on an acid-base reaction performed in glacial acetic acid. The sum of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines are determined by titration with standard perchloric acid in glacial acetic acid. 1 ref.

  17. Loss and Disorganization from an Attachment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Paula

    2010-01-01

    In this article, it is hypothesized that disorganizing, disorienting, and unresolved states of mind about loss experiences, as classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) coding system, may offer insight into the bereaved mind and may guide clinical treatment approaches. This article discusses pre-loss attachment organizations and the…

  18. A portable dose equivalent meter based on microdosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braby, L. A.

    1985-05-01

    It is generally accepted that the physical basis of the relative biological effectiveness of different radiations is the difference in the spatial distribution of ionization along the charged particle tracks. Thus it is possible to measure physical quantities which may be related to biological damage, and use them to estimate the radiation protection quantity "dose equivalent". A prototype instrument utilizing a spherical proportional counter and a microcomputer to make such measurements has been developed and tested. The detector is filled with gas at low pressure in order to simulate micrometer diameter volumes of tissue. Energy deposition in these small volumes is a stochastic quantity which depends on charged particle stopping power, path length through the site, energy loss straggling, and energy transport by secondary charged particles (delta rays). It has been suggested that this energy deposition distribution be used as a basis for defining radiation quality factor ( overlineQ) [1]. However, to the extent that the energy deposition in the site is proportional to the geometric chord length distribution, energy deposition can also be used to determine the linear energy transfer. The mean quality factor can then be calculated on the basis of the current definition. The prototype instrument uses two amplifiers, with gains of 50 and 1000, processing the pulses from a single detector in order to resolve the wide range of energy deposition events produced by neutron and gamma irradiation. Each amplifier is connected to a specially designed analog to digital converter and a 128 channel multichannel analyzer. A microcomputer controls the system and calculates dose and dose equivalent. Test results for a variety of accelerator produced neutron irradiations show that, from 0.1 to 15 MeV, system accuracy is ±0.5 for overlineQ and ± 15% for dose equivalent.

  19. Energy Consumption Calculation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Railway Vehicle Traction Using Equivalent Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Minoru; Kawamura, Junya; Terauchi, Nobuo

    We are developing a new high performance traction motor for railway vehicle using interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) and expecting it can reduce energy consumption. To estimate the losses and energy consumption of IPMSM, a simple motor model is needed. In this paper, We propose a simple equivalent circuit and loss model for IPMSM, the constants of which can be obtained from several simple test results. The calculation results using them show that the total loss of the IPMSM becomes about 60% of that of the induction motor when used as a traction motor for a typical commuter train.

  20. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence