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Sample records for adult equivalent loss

  1. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  2. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  3. Hearing loss in older adults.

    PubMed

    Walling, Anne D; Dickson, Gretchen M

    2012-06-15

    Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors.

  4. Hearing loss in older adults.

    PubMed

    Walling, Anne D; Dickson, Gretchen M

    2012-06-15

    Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors. PMID:22962895

  5. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended. PMID:27479624

  6. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.

  7. 20 CFR 416.926 - Medical equivalence for adults and children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical equivalence for adults and children. 416.926 Section 416.926 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... § 416.926 Medical equivalence for adults and children. (a) What is medical equivalence? Your...

  8. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  9. The Personal Wellbeing Index: Psychometric Equivalence for Adults and School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomyn, Adrian J.; Tyszkiewicz, Matthew D. Fuller; Cummins, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the wealth of accumulated research evaluating subjective wellbeing (SWB) in children and adults, the validity of scores from parallel forms of SWB measures for each age group has yet to be empirically tested. This study examines the psychometric equivalence of the child and adult forms of the personal wellbeing index (PWI) using…

  10. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  11. Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epidemiology Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss [text version] Note: Higher numbers are better. *This ... 2010 and 2020. The number of persons with hearing loss is calculated based on National Health and Nutrition ...

  12. Contrast sensitivity loss with aging: sampling efficiency and equivalent noise at different spatial frequencies.

    PubMed

    Pardhan, Shahina

    2004-02-01

    The relative contributions of optical and neural factors to the decrease in visual function with aging were investigated by measurement of contrast detection at three different spatial frequencies, in the presence of external noise, on young and older subjects. Contrast detection in noise functions allows two parameters to be measured: sampling efficiency, which indicates neural changes, and equivalent noise, which demonstrates optical effects. Contrast thresholds were measured in the presence of four levels (including zero) of externally added visual noise. Measurements were obtained from eight young and eight older visually normal observers. Compared with young subjects, older subjects showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower sampling efficiencies at spatial frequencies of 1 and 4 cycles per degree (c/deg) and significantly higher equivalent noise levels for gratings of 10 c/deg. Neural and optical factors affect contrast sensitivity loss with aging differently, depending on the spatial frequency tested, implying the existence of different mechanisms.

  13. Increasing the Probability of Stimulus Equivalence with Adults with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Richard R.; McEntee, Julie, E.

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 6 adults with mild mental retardation were taught 3 overlapping conditional discriminations in a linear series structure, establishing the possibility of the emergence of 2 stimulus equivalence classes of 4 stimuli per class. Training employed balanced trial types in which the discriminative stimuli were presented in fixed pairs…

  14. Personal Sound Amplifiers for Adults with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Sara K; Reed, Nicholas S; Nieman, Carrie L; Oh, Esther S; Lin, Frank R

    2016-03-01

    Age-related hearing loss is highly prevalent and often untreated. Use of hearing aids has been associated with improvements in communication and quality of life, but such treatment is unaffordable or inaccessible for many adults. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guide for physicians who work with older adults who are experiencing hearing and communication difficulties. Specifically, we review direct-to-consumer amplification products that can be used to address hearing loss in adults. Helping adults with hearing loss navigate hearing loss treatment options ranging from being professionally fitted with hearing aids to using direct-to-consumer amplification options is important for primary care clinicians to understand given our increasing understanding of the impact of hearing loss on cognitive, social, and physical functioning.

  15. Equivalent weight loss for weight management programs delivered by phone and clinic

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Goetz, Jeannine; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Lambourne, Kate; Mayo, Matthew S.; Hunt, Suzanne; Lee, Jae Hoon; Honas, Jeffrey J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Face-to-face weight management is costly and presents barriers for individuals seeking treatment; thus, alternate delivery systems are needed. The objective of this study was to compare weight management delivered by face-to-face (FTF) clinic or group conference calls (phone). Design and Methods Randomized equivalency trial in 295 overweight/obese men/women (BMI = 35.1±4.9, Age = 43.8±10.2, Minority = 39.8%). Weight loss (0–6 months) was achieved by reducing energy intake between 1,200– 1,500 kcal/day and progressing physical activity to 300 minutes/week. Weight maintenance (7–18 months) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued 300 minutes/week of physical activity. Behavioral weight management strategies were delivered weekly for 6 months and gradually reduced during months 7–18. A cost analysis provided a comparison of expenses between groups. Results Weight change from baseline to 6 months was −13.4 ± 6.7% and −12.3 ± 7.0% for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. Weight change from 6 months to 18 months was 6.4 ± 7.0% and 6.4 ± 5.2%, for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. The cost to FTF participants was $789.58 more person. Conclusions Phone delivery provided equivalent weight loss and maintenance and reduced program cost. Ubiquitous access to phones provides a vast reach for this approach. PMID:23408579

  16. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  17. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  18. Do losses loom larger for children than adults?

    PubMed

    Luking, Katherine R; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 70) and young adults (N = 70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale, along with 2 probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio et al. (2015), which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias toward responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach, and avoidance behavior, respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups; however, children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower RTs specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  19. Recessions, Job Loss, and Mortality Among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beckfield, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed how recessions and job loss jointly shape mortality risks among older US adults. Methods. We used data for 50 states from the Health and Retirement Study and selected individuals who were employed at ages 45 to 66 years during 1992 to 2011. We assessed whether job loss affects mortality risks, whether recessions moderate the effect of job loss on mortality, and whether individuals who do and do not experience job loss are differentially affected by recessions. Results. Compared with individuals not experiencing job loss, mortality risks among individuals losing their job in a recession were strongly elevated (hazard ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 2.3). Job loss during normal times or booms is not associated with mortality. For employed workers, we found a reduction in mortality risks if local labor market conditions were depressed, but this result was not consistent across different model specifications. Conclusions. Recessions increase mortality risks among older US adults who experience job loss. Health professionals and policymakers should target resources to this group during recessions. Future research should clarify which health conditions are affected by job loss during recessions and whether access to health care following job loss moderates this relation. PMID:25211731

  20. Risk indicators for tooth loss in adult workers.

    PubMed

    Batista, Marília Jesus; Rihs, Lílian Berta; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de

    2012-01-01

    Tooth loss continues to be a prevalent condition in Brazilian adults and elderly individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study, conducted among workers in a wholesale grocery chain in the State of São Paulo, was to identify risk indicators for tooth loss in adults. The presence of caries and periodontal status were examined in 387 adults aged 20-64 years, according to World Health Organization criteria. Two outcomes were analyzed: loss of one or more teeth, and loss of four or more teeth. Independent variables analyzed were demographic and socioeconomic factors, clinical conditions, use of dental services, and self-perceived oral health. Poisson regression models were used for multivariate statistical analysis. Participants were missing a mean of 5.38 teeth, and 76.9% (n = 297) had lost at least one tooth; the most frequently lost teeth were permanent molars. Older age and the presence of visible dental biofilm were associated significantly with the two tooth loss outcomes (p < 0.05). Individuals who had visited the dentist 3 or more years previously showed a lower prevalence of tooth loss (prevalence ratio = 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.91). Those with lower household incomes were significantly more likely to have lost four or more teeth (prevalence ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.70). Study results indicated that age and dental biofilm were risk indicators for tooth loss, independently of socioeconomic factors. These risk indicators should be considered when planning oral health programs for adults.

  1. Risk indicators for tooth loss in adult workers.

    PubMed

    Batista, Marília Jesus; Rihs, Lílian Berta; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de

    2012-01-01

    Tooth loss continues to be a prevalent condition in Brazilian adults and elderly individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study, conducted among workers in a wholesale grocery chain in the State of São Paulo, was to identify risk indicators for tooth loss in adults. The presence of caries and periodontal status were examined in 387 adults aged 20-64 years, according to World Health Organization criteria. Two outcomes were analyzed: loss of one or more teeth, and loss of four or more teeth. Independent variables analyzed were demographic and socioeconomic factors, clinical conditions, use of dental services, and self-perceived oral health. Poisson regression models were used for multivariate statistical analysis. Participants were missing a mean of 5.38 teeth, and 76.9% (n = 297) had lost at least one tooth; the most frequently lost teeth were permanent molars. Older age and the presence of visible dental biofilm were associated significantly with the two tooth loss outcomes (p < 0.05). Individuals who had visited the dentist 3 or more years previously showed a lower prevalence of tooth loss (prevalence ratio = 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.91). Those with lower household incomes were significantly more likely to have lost four or more teeth (prevalence ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.70). Study results indicated that age and dental biofilm were risk indicators for tooth loss, independently of socioeconomic factors. These risk indicators should be considered when planning oral health programs for adults. PMID:23018226

  2. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

  3. Psychic loss in adult survivors of father-daughter incest.

    PubMed

    Wingerson, N

    1992-08-01

    Studies show that adult survivors of childhood incest comprise a significant percentage of female psychiatric patients. The varied and multidetermined presenting symptomatology of these patients frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment interventions that fail to address core issues of the incest experience. One such issue is the child's experience of the psychic loss of a physically present parent that is part of the emotional trauma of incest. The goal of this paper is to discuss psychic loss as a core element of the incest experience, particularly in father-daughter incest, and to describe the conditions of childhood mourning that inhibit successful resolution of this loss. Attention is addressed to the psychoanalytic understanding of mourning as a basis for interventions in the treatment of adult survivors.

  4. The Socioeconomic Impact of Hearing Loss in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Susan D.; Francis, Howard W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between hearing loss and educational attainment, income, and unemployment/underemployment in US adults. Study design National cross-sectional survey. Setting Ambulatory examination centers. Patients Adults aged 20-69 years who participated in the 1999-2002 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) audiometric evaluation and income questionnaire (n = 3379). Intervention(s) Pure tone audiometry, with hearing loss defined by World Health Organization criteria of bilateral pure tone average >25 decibels (0.5,1,2,4 kHz). Main outcome measure(s) Low educational attainment, defined as not completing high school; low income, defined as family income less than $20,000/year, and unemployment or underemployment, defined as not having a job or working less than 35 hours per week. Results Individuals with hearing loss had 3.21 times higher odds of low educational attainment (95% CI: 2.20-4.68) compared to normal-hearing individuals. Controlling for education, age, sex, and race, individuals with hearing loss had 1.58 times higher odds of low income (95% CI: 1.16-2.15) and 1.98 times higher odds of being unemployed or underemployed (95% CI: 1.38-2.85) compared to normal-hearing individuals. Conclusions Hearing loss is associated with low educational attainment in US adults. Even after controlling for education and important demographic factors, hearing loss is independently associated with economic hardship, including both low income and unemployment/underemployment. The societal impact of hearing loss is profound in this nationally representative study and should be further evaluated with longitudinal cohorts. PMID:25158616

  5. Community-dwelling older adults with memory loss

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Karen; Surprenant, Aimee; Tracey, Anne-Marie; Godwin, Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the health-related needs of community-dwelling older adults with mild memory loss. Design Qualitative study using semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Setting A large community in Newfoundland. Participants Twenty-two adults between the ages of 58 and 80 years. Methods This needs assessment used a qualitative methodology of collecting and analyzing narrative data to develop an understanding of the issues, resources, and constraints of community-dwelling older adults with mild memory loss. Data were collected through semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using interpretive phenomenologic analysis. Main findings Three constitutive patterns with relational themes and subthemes were identified: forgetting and remembering, normalizing yet questioning, and having limited knowledge of resources. Participants described many examples of how their daily lives were affected by forgetfulness. They had very little knowledge of resources that provided information or support. Most of the participants believed they could not discuss their memory problems with their family doctors. Conclusion It is important for older adults with mild memory loss to have access to resources that will assist them in understanding their condition and make them feel supported. PMID:23486801

  6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell model for aging predictions: Simulated equivalent active surface area loss and comparisons with durability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C.; Gérard, M.; Quinaud, M.; d'Arbigny, J.; Bultel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) lifetime is one of the major challenges to optimize both material properties and dynamic control of the fuel cell system. In this study, by a multiscale modeling approach, a mechanistic catalyst dissolution model is coupled to a dynamic PEMFC cell model to predict the performance loss of the PEMFC. Results are compared to two 2000-h experimental aging tests. More precisely, an original approach is introduced to estimate the loss of an equivalent active surface area during an aging test. Indeed, when the computed Electrochemical Catalyst Surface Area profile is fitted on the experimental measures from Cyclic Voltammetry, the computed performance loss of the PEMFC is underestimated. To be able to predict the performance loss measured by polarization curves during the aging test, an equivalent active surface area is obtained by a model inversion. This methodology enables to successfully find back the experimental cell voltage decay during time. The model parameters are fitted from the polarization curves so that they include the global degradation. Moreover, the model captures the aging heterogeneities along the surface of the cell observed experimentally. Finally, a second 2000-h durability test in dynamic operating conditions validates the approach.

  7. Options for Auditory Training for Adults with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Olson, Anne D

    2015-11-01

    Hearing aid devices alone do not adequately compensate for sensory losses despite significant technological advances in digital technology. Overall use rates of amplification among adults with hearing loss remain low, and overall satisfaction and performance in noise can be improved. Although improved technology may partially address some listening problems, auditory training may be another alternative to improve speech recognition in noise and satisfaction with devices. The literature underlying auditory plasticity following placement of sensory devices suggests that additional auditory training may be needed for reorganization of the brain to occur. Furthermore, training may be required to acquire optimal performance from devices. Several auditory training programs that are readily accessible for adults with hearing loss, hearing aids, or cochlear implants are described. Programs that can be accessed via Web-based formats and smartphone technology are reviewed. A summary table is provided for easy access to programs with descriptions of features that allow hearing health care providers to assist clients in selecting the most appropriate auditory training program to fit their needs. PMID:27587915

  8. Options for Auditory Training for Adults with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Anne D.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing aid devices alone do not adequately compensate for sensory losses despite significant technological advances in digital technology. Overall use rates of amplification among adults with hearing loss remain low, and overall satisfaction and performance in noise can be improved. Although improved technology may partially address some listening problems, auditory training may be another alternative to improve speech recognition in noise and satisfaction with devices. The literature underlying auditory plasticity following placement of sensory devices suggests that additional auditory training may be needed for reorganization of the brain to occur. Furthermore, training may be required to acquire optimal performance from devices. Several auditory training programs that are readily accessible for adults with hearing loss, hearing aids, or cochlear implants are described. Programs that can be accessed via Web-based formats and smartphone technology are reviewed. A summary table is provided for easy access to programs with descriptions of features that allow hearing health care providers to assist clients in selecting the most appropriate auditory training program to fit their needs. PMID:27587915

  9. Analysis of Predisposing Factors for Hearing Loss in Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong Seob; Choi, Hyo Geun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Sim, Songyong; Hong, Sung Kwang; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Hyung-Jong

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to estimate the effects of various risk factors on hearing level in Korean adults, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined data from 13,369 participants collected between 2009 and 2011. Average hearing thresholds at low (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) and high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz), were investigated in accordance with various known risk factors via multiple regression analysis featuring complex sampling. We additionally evaluated data from 4,810 participants who completed a questionnaire concerned with different types of noise exposure. Low body mass index, absence of hyperlipidemia, history of diabetes mellitus, low incomes, low educational status, and smoking were associated with elevated low frequency hearing thresholds. In addition, male sex, low body mass index, absence of hyperlipidemia, low income, low educational status, smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption were associated with elevated high frequency hearing thresholds. Participants with a history of earphone use in noisy circumstances demonstrated hearing thresholds which were 1.024 dB (95% CI: 0.176 to 1.871; P = 0.018) higher, at low-frequencies, compared to participants without a history of earphone use. Our study suggests that low BMI, absence of hyperlipidemia, low household income, and low educational status are related with hearing loss in Korean adults. Male sex, smoking, and heavy alcohol use are related with high frequency hearing loss. A history of earphone use in noisy circumstances is also related with hearing loss.

  10. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  11. Weight loss attempts in adults: goals, duration, and rate of weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, D F; Serdula, M K; Anda, R F; Levy, A; Byers, T

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although attempted weight loss is common, little is known about the goals and durations of weight loss attempts and the rates of achieved weight loss in the general population. METHODS. Data were collected by telephone in 1989 from adults aged 18 years and older in 39 states and the District of Columbia. Analyses were carried out separately for the 6758 men and 14,915 women who reported currently trying to lose weight. RESULTS. Approximately 25% of the men respondents and 40% of the women respondents reported that they were currently trying to lose weight. Among men, a higher percentage of Hispanics (31%) than of Whites (25%) or Blacks (23%) reported trying to lose weight. Among women, however, there were no ethnic differences in prevalence. The average man wanted to lose 30 pounds and to weigh 178 pounds; the average woman wanted to lose 31 pounds and to weigh 133 pounds. Black women wanted to lose an average of 8 pounds more than did White women, but Black women's goal weight was 10 pounds heavier. The average rate of achieved weight loss was 1.4 pounds per week for men and 1.1 pounds per week for women; these averages, however, may reflect only the experience of those most successful at losing weight. CONCLUSIONS. Attempted weight loss is a common behavior, regardless of age, gender, or ethnicity, and weight loss goals are substantial; however, obesity remains a major public health problem in the United States. PMID:1503167

  12. Adult neurogenesis restores dopaminergic neuronal loss in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Lazarini, Françoise; Gabellec, Marie-Madeleine; Moigneu, Carine; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-10-22

    Subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis continuously provides new GABA- and dopamine (DA)-containing interneurons for the olfactory bulb (OB) in most adult mammals. DAergic interneurons are located in the glomerular layer (GL) where they participate in the processing of sensory inputs. To examine whether adult neurogenesis might contribute to regeneration after circuit injury in mice, we induce DAergic neuronal loss by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the dorsal GL or in the right substantia nigra pars compacta. We found that a 6-OHDA treatment of the OB produces olfactory deficits and local inflammation and partially decreases the number of neurons expressing the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) near the injected site. Blockade of inflammation by minocycline treatment immediately after the 6-OHDA administration rescued neither TH(+) interneuron number nor the olfactory deficits, suggesting that the olfactory impairments are most likely linked to TH(+) cell death and not to microglial activation. TH(+) interneuron number was restored 1 month later. This rescue resulted at least in part from enhanced recruitment of immature neurons targeting the lesioned GL area. Seven days after 6-OHDA lesion in the OB, we found that the integration of lentivirus-labeled adult-born neurons was biased: newly formed neurons were preferentially incorporated into glomerular circuits of the lesioned area. Behavioral rehabilitation occurs 2 months after lesion. This study establishes a new model into which loss of DAergic cells could be compensated by recruiting newly formed neurons. We propose that adult neurogenesis not only replenishes the population of DAergic bulbar neurons but that it also restores olfactory sensory processing. PMID:25339754

  13. Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Yaffe, Kristine; Xia, Jin; Xue, Qian-Li; Harris, Tamara B; Purchase-Helzner, Elizabeth; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M

    2013-02-25

    BACKGROUND Whether hearing loss is independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline in older adults is unknown. METHODS We studied 1984 older adults (mean age, 77.4 years) enrolled in the Health ABC Study, a prospective observational study begun in 1997-1998. Our baseline cohort consisted of participants without prevalent cognitive impairment (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MS] score, ≥80) who underwent audiometric testing in year 5. Participants were followed up for 6 years. Hearing was defined at baseline using a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5 to 4 kHz in the better-hearing ear. Cognitive testing was performed in years 5, 8, 10, and 11 and consisted of the 3MS (measuring global function) and the Digit Symbol Substitution test (measuring executive function). Incident cognitive impairment was defined as a 3MS score of less than 80 or a decline in 3MS score of more than 5 points from baseline. Mixed-effects regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS In total, 1162 individuals with baseline hearing loss (pure-tone average >25 dB) had annual rates of decline in 3MS and Digit Symbol Substitution test scores that were 41% and 32% greater, respectively, than those among individuals with normal hearing. On the 3MS, the annual score changes were -0.65 (95% CI, -0.73 to -0.56) vs -0.46 (95% CI, -0.55 to -0.36) points per year (P = .004). On the Digit Symbol Substitution test, the annual score changes were -0.83 (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.73) vs -0.63 (95% CI, -0.75 to -0.51) points per year (P = .02). Compared to those with normal hearing, individuals with hearing loss at baseline had a 24% (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.48) increased risk for incident cognitive impairment. Rates of cognitive decline and the risk for incident cognitive impairment were linearly associated with the severity of an individual's baseline hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss is

  14. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  15. Food- and Nonfood-Related Differential Outcomes in Equivalence Learning by Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Beth; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (characterized by short stature, learning difficulties, incomplete sexual development, and uncontrollable eating) learned the conditional relations necessary for the formation of two equivalence classes under differential/nondifferential and edible/nonedible outcomes. Performance on test trials was better…

  16. Estimation of the equivalent complex modulus of laminated glass beams and its application to sound transmission loss prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Belder, K.; Pintelon, R.; Demol, C.; Roose, P.

    2010-04-01

    The complex modulus E( jω) characterizes the visco-elastic behavior of a material. Using a system identification approach, this modulus can be measured via broadband modal analysis experiments. The technique is applied to determine the equivalent complex modulus E( jω), with its uncertainty bound, of multilayer glass beams from transversal vibration experiments in free-free boundary conditions. This property is related to the effective complex bending stiffness of the laminated glass specimen, and is further used for predicting the sound transmission loss of a multilayer plate. The data are rationalized in the terms of the linear visco-elastic properties of the polymer interlayer.

  17. Assessment of physician and patient (child and adult) equivalent doses during renal angiography by Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Karimian, A; Nikparvar, B; Jabbari, I

    2014-11-01

    Renal angiography is one of the medical imaging methods in which patient and physician receive high equivalent doses due to long duration of fluoroscopy. In this research, equivalent doses of some radiosensitive tissues of patient (adult and child) and physician during renal angiography have been calculated by using adult and child Oak Ridge National Laboratory phantoms and Monte Carlo method (MCNPX). The results showed, in angiography of right kidney in a child and adult patient, that gall bladder with the amounts of 2.32 and 0.35 mSv, respectively, has received the most equivalent dose. About the physician, left hand, left eye and thymus absorbed the most amounts of doses, means 0.020 mSv. In addition, equivalent doses of the physician's lens eye, thyroid and knees were 0.023, 0.007 and 7.9E-4 mSv, respectively. Although these values are less than the reported thresholds by ICRP 103, it should be noted that these amounts are related to one examination. PMID:25063788

  18. Randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive home environment-focused weight loss program for adults

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Amy A.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Fava, Joseph; Maguire, Kimberly; Robichaud, Erica; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Crane, Melissa; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Behavioral weight loss programs (BWL) provide limited instruction on how to change the environmental context of weight-regulating behaviors, perhaps contributing to regain. Drawing on social ecological models, this trial evaluated a comprehensive weight loss program that targeted both an individual’s behavior and their physical and social home environment. Methods Overweight and obese adults (N=201; 48.9±10.5 years; 78.1% women) were randomized to BWL or to BWL plus home environment changes (BWL+H). Groups met weekly for 6 months and bi-monthly for 12 months. BWL+H participants were given items to facilitate healthy choices in their homes (e.g., exercise equipment, portion plates) and attended treatment with a household partner. Weight loss at 6 and 18 months was the primary outcome. Results BWL+H changed many aspects of the home environment and produced better 6 month weight losses than BWL (p=.017). At 18 months, no weight loss differences were observed (p=.19) and rates of regain were equivalent (p=.30). Treatment response was moderated by gender (6 month p=.01; 18 month p=.006). Women lost more weight in BWL+H than BWL at 6 and 18 months, whereas men in BWL lost more weight than those in BWL+H at 18 months. Partners, regardless of gender, lost more weight in BWL+H than BWL at both time points (ps<.0001). Conclusion The home food and exercise environment is malleable and targeting this microenvironment appears to improve initial weight loss, and in women, 18-month outcomes. Research is needed to understand this gender difference and to develop home-focused strategies with more powerful and sustained weight loss effects. PMID:22309885

  19. Equivalent pain relief with and without resection of the posterior tibial tendon in adult flatfoot reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; DeOrio, James K; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is indicated to compensate for the loss of posterior tibial tendon (PTT) function in the treatment of adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PTT resection on pain relief following surgical treatment of stage II AAFD. A retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical treatment for stage II AAFD was performed. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether the degenerated PTT was resected or left in situ. A visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain was recorded for each patient preoperatively. Concomitant surgical procedures and the incidence of postoperative pain were also reported for each group. Deformity correction was assessed with standard weight-bearing radiographs. Thirty-four patients with a mean follow-up of 14 months were included in the study. There was no difference in preoperative VAS pain scores, and patients in both groups demonstrated excellent pain relief postoperatively. Five patients in the PTT resection group and one patient in the PTT in situ group reported lateral-sided foot pain postoperatively. Resection of the PTT did not significantly affect postoperative pain relief. Future prospective studies are needed to determine whether resection of the degenerated PTT is necessary at the time of surgery for stage II AAFD.

  20. Equivalent pain relief with and without resection of the posterior tibial tendon in adult flatfoot reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; DeOrio, James K; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is indicated to compensate for the loss of posterior tibial tendon (PTT) function in the treatment of adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PTT resection on pain relief following surgical treatment of stage II AAFD. A retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical treatment for stage II AAFD was performed. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether the degenerated PTT was resected or left in situ. A visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain was recorded for each patient preoperatively. Concomitant surgical procedures and the incidence of postoperative pain were also reported for each group. Deformity correction was assessed with standard weight-bearing radiographs. Thirty-four patients with a mean follow-up of 14 months were included in the study. There was no difference in preoperative VAS pain scores, and patients in both groups demonstrated excellent pain relief postoperatively. Five patients in the PTT resection group and one patient in the PTT in situ group reported lateral-sided foot pain postoperatively. Resection of the PTT did not significantly affect postoperative pain relief. Future prospective studies are needed to determine whether resection of the degenerated PTT is necessary at the time of surgery for stage II AAFD. PMID:25785467

  1. Targeted deletion of Vegfa in adult mice induces vision loss.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Toshihide; Westenskow, Peter D; Bravo, Stephen; Aguilar, Edith; Friedlander, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Current therapies directed at controlling vascular abnormalities in cancers and neovascular eye diseases target VEGF and can slow the progression of these diseases. While the critical role of VEGF in development has been well described, the function of locally synthesized VEGF in the adult eye is incompletely understood. Here, we show that conditionally knocking out Vegfa in adult mouse retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells, which regulate retinal homeostasis, rapidly leads to vision loss and ablation of the choriocapillaris, the major blood supply for the outer retina and photoreceptor cells. This deletion also caused rapid dysfunction of cone photoreceptors, the cells responsible for fine visual acuity and color vision. Furthermore, Vegfa deletion showed significant downregulation of multiple angiogenic genes in both physiological and pathological states, whereas the deletion of the upstream regulatory transcriptional factors HIFs did not affect the physiological expressions of angiogenic genes. These results suggest that endogenous VEGF provides critical trophic support necessary for retinal function. Targeting factors upstream of VEGF, such as HIFs, may be therapeutically advantageous compared with more potent and selective VEGF antagonists, which may have more off-target inhibitory trophic effects. PMID:23093773

  2. Multiple-ASSR Interactions in Adults with Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Ieda M; Stapells, David R

    2012-01-01

    The multiple auditory steady-state response (multiple-ASSR) technique, where thresholds for up to 8 frequencies (4 in each ear) are obtained simultaneously, is currently of great interest for audiometric assessment of infants. Although threshold estimates using the multiple-ASSR appear to be reasonably accurate, it is not currently known whether it is more efficient to use multiple stimuli or single stimuli when testing individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The current study investigated the effect of single versus multiple simultaneous stimuli on the 80- and 40-Hz ASSRs in adults with normal hearing or SNHL. Results showed significant interactions (i.e., decreased amplitudes) for both ASSRs going from single to multiple stimuli in one ear. Going from multiple one ear to multiple two ears did not further reduce the amplitude of the 80-Hz ASSR. At the 40-Hz rate, however, there was a further amplitude decrease going from one-ear multiple to two-ear multiple stimuli. Importantly, these interactions did not differ between the normal-hearing and SNHL groups. Although supportive of the multiple-ASSR technique, there are likely situations where it is more efficient to use single stimuli. Future studies are required to assess these interactions in infants with varying degrees and configurations of hearing loss. PMID:23049561

  3. Equivalent circuit modeling of losses and dispersion in single and coupled lines for microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Vijai K.; Hill, Achim

    1988-02-01

    Losses and dispersion in open inhomogeneous guided-wave structures such as microstrips and other planar structures at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies and in MMICs (monolithic microwave integrated circuits) have been modeled with circuits consisting of ideal lumped elements and lossless TEM (transverse electromagnetic) lines. It is shown that, given a propagation structure for which numerical techniques to compute the propagation characteristics are available, an equivalent circuit whose terminal frequency and time-domain properties are the same as the structure can be synthesized. This is accomplished by equating the network functions of the given single or coupled line multiport with that of the model and extracting all the parameters of the equivalent circuit model by using standard parameters identification procedures. This model is valid over a desired frequency range and can be used to help design both analog and digital circuits consisting of these structures and other active and passive elements utilizing standard CAD (computer-aided design) programs. To validate the accuracy and usefulness of the models, results for a mismatched 50-ohm line in alumina and a high-impedance MMIC line stub are included.

  4. Cochlear Implantation in Adults with Asymmetric Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Laura K.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Cowdrey, Lisa; King, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objective Bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss is a standard criterion for cochlear implantation. Increasingly, patients are implanted in one ear and continue to use a hearing aid in the non-implanted ear to improve abilities such as sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss in one ear and a more moderate hearing loss in the other ear (i.e., asymmetric hearing) are not typically considered candidates for cochlear implantation. Amplification in the poorer ear is often unsuccessful due to limited benefit, restricting the patient to unilateral listening from the better ear alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with asymmetric hearing loss could benefit from cochlear implantation in the poorer ear with continued use of a hearing aid in the better ear. Design Ten adults with asymmetric hearing between ears participated. In the poorer ear, all participants met cochlear implant candidacy guidelines; seven had postlingual onset and three had pre/perilingual onset of severe-to-profound hearing loss. All had open-set speech recognition in the better hearing ear. Assessment measures included word and sentence recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in fixed noise (four-talker babble) and in diffuse restaurant noise using an adaptive procedure, localization of word stimuli and a hearing handicap scale. Participants were evaluated pre-implant with hearing aids and post-implant with the implant alone, the hearing aid alone in the better ear and bimodally (the implant and hearing aid in combination). Postlingual participants were evaluated at six months post-implant and pre/perilingual participants were evaluated at six and 12 months post-implant. Data analysis compared results 1) of the poorer hearing ear pre-implant (with hearing aid) and post-implant (with cochlear implant), 2) with the device(s) used for everyday listening pre- and post-implant and, 3) between the hearing

  5. Effects of strength vs aerobic exercise on pain severity in adults with fibromyalgia: a randomized equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Qu, Wenchun; Townsend, Cynthia O; Judd, Jeffrey W

    2012-04-01

    Strength training and aerobic exercise have beneficial effects on pain in adults with fibromyalgia. However, the equivalence of strengthening and aerobic exercise has not been reported. The primary aim of this randomized equivalence trial involving patients with fibromyalgia admitted to an interdisciplinary pain treatment program was to test the hypothesis that strengthening (n=36) and aerobic (n=36) exercise have equivalent effects (95% confidence interval within an equivalence margin ± 8) on pain, as measured by the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Secondary aims included determining the effects of strengthening and aerobic exercise on peak Vo(2) uptake, leg strength, and pressure pain thresholds. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the mean (± standard deviation) pain severity scores for the strength and aerobic groups at study completion were 34.4 ± 11.5 and 37.6 ± 11.9, respectively. The group difference was -3.2 (95% confidence interval, -8.7 to 2.3), which was within the equivalence margin of Δ8. Significant improvements in pain severity (P<.001), peak Vo(2) (P<.001), strength (P<.001), and pain thresholds (P<.001) were observed from baseline to week 3 in the intent-to-treat analysis; however, patients in the aerobic group (mean change 2.0 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min) experienced greater gains (P<.013) in peak Vo(2) compared to the strength group (mean change 0.4 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min). Knowledge of the equivalence and physiological effects of exercise have important clinical implications that could allow practitioners to target exercise recommendations on the basis of comorbid medical conditions or patient preference for a particular type of exercise. This study found that strength and aerobic exercise had equivalent effects on reducing pain severity among patients with fibromyalgia.

  6. The Equivalence of Dissipation from Gibbs’ Entropy Production with Phase-Volume Loss in Ergodic Heat-Conducting Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Puneet Kumar; Hoover, William Graham; Hoover, Carol Griswold; Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Gibbs’ thermodynamic entropy is given by the logarithm of the phase volume, which itself responds to heat transfer to and from thermal reservoirs. We compare the thermodynamic dissipation described by (i) phase-volume loss with (ii) heat-transfer entropy production. Their equivalence is documented for computer simulations of the response of an ergodic harmonic oscillator to thermostated temperature gradients. In the simulations one or two thermostat variables control the kinetic energy or the kinetic energy and its fluctuation. All of the motion equations are time-reversible. We consider both strong and weak control variables. In every case, the time-averaged dissipative loss of phase-space volume coincides with the entropy produced by heat transfer. Linear-response theory nicely reproduces the small-gradient results obtained by computer simulation. The thermostats considered here are ergodic and provide simple dynamical models, some of them with as few as three ordinary differential equations, while remaining capable of reproducing Gibbs’ canonical phase-space distribution and are precisely consistent with irreversible thermodynamics.

  7. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  8. Evidence-based practice: management of adult sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chau, Justin K; Cho, John J W; Fritz, Dieter K

    2012-10-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a complex disease state influenced by genetics, age, noise, and many other factors. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding the causes of sensorineural hearing loss and reviews the more challenging clinical presentations of sensorineural hearing loss. We have reviewed the latest medical literature in an attempt to provide an evidence-based strategy for the assessment and management of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, rapidly progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and asymmetric/unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

  9. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  10. Relationship between Diagnostic Criteria, Depressive Equivalents and Diagnosis of Depression among Older Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, L.; Martin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Depression is more common among persons with an intellectual disability (ID) than the general population, and may be expected to increase with age just as in the general population. However, little is known about depression among older adults with ID. The literature has questioned the use of standard diagnostic criteria for depression…

  11. The Greatest Generation Meets Its Greatest Challenge: Vision Loss and Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Coleen

    2005-01-01

    Having lived through the Great Depression and World War II, older adults now face the challenge of vision loss in record numbers. Depression is closely associated with functional loss and social isolation in late-life vision loss. The principles of assisting those who are aging will also benefit those who are aging with a visual impairment. They…

  12. Keeping Older Adults with Vision Loss Safe: Chronic Conditions and Comorbidities that Influence Functional Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddering, Anne T.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans aged 60 and older. The loss of central vision from AMD can decrease visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, color discrimination, and the ability to adapt to changes in lighting conditions. Older adults with vision loss often have other chronic,…

  13. Transitions and Loss: Illuminating Parameters of Young Adults' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita; Scanlon, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Different disciplinary groups are increasingly questioning current conceptualisations of young adults' educational, social and personal lives after compulsory schooling. New perspectives are being advanced on the life trajectories of choice and complexity now experienced by school leavers. A consistent theme is the changed nature of young adults'…

  14. Using stimulus equivalence procedures to teach name-face matching to adults with brain injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, B J; Green, G; Braunling-McMorrow, D

    1992-01-01

    On pretests, 3 men with brain injuries matched dictated names of three therapists to written names, but did not match dictated or written names to photos, produce correct names in response to photos, locate offices given written names, or name therapists on sight. Match-to-sample training established conditional relations between dictated names and photos. Posttests showed the emergence of untrained conditional relations involving photos and written names, indicating development of three classes of equivalent stimuli (each containing a dictated name, photo, and written name). For 1 participant, conditional relations involving photos of office nameplates were also examined, but did not emerge pre- or posttraining. Two participants produced names orally when given photos and sorted written names and faces together after training; the 3rd participant was unavailable for these posttests. After training, 1 participant located and named all three therapists in their offices. PMID:1634433

  15. A 5-year study of attachment loss and tooth loss in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Beck, J D; Sharp, T; Koch, G G; Offenbacher, S

    1997-08-01

    Tooth loss is a widely recognized endpoint measure for the effects of periodontal diseases and the impact of periodontal therapy. In fact, traditional clinical measures of periodontal status often are considered to be surrogate endpoints in that they are assumed to be related to tooth loss. However, the strength of the relationship between attachment loss and tooth loss in a representative population of untreated subjects has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this paper is to present the trends in attachment loss over a 5-yr period in a population of community-dwelling elderly blacks and whites. Specifically, this paper presents attachment loss trends both at the person and tooth level to address the following issues; 1) whether teeth that experience attachment loss during 1 time period are more likely to be lost at the next time period; and 2) given similar levels of attachment loss, why are some people more likely to lose teeth? In 1988, the University of North Carolina School of Dentistry initiated the Piedmont 65+ Dental Study, which was designed to elicit 800 dentate respondents in the 5-country area who were examined again at 18, 36 and 60 months. Our findings indicated that teeth with poorer attachment level at baseline had a higher probability of being lost during the next 5 yr and teeth that experienced attachment loss during a time period were more likely to be lost during the next time period than teeth without additional attachment loss. In addition, it appears that there are person-level characteristics associated with increasing tendency towards tooth loss in people with similar periodontal status, a finding that may clarify the relationship between attachment loss and tooth loss. PMID:9379319

  16. Confident living program for senior adults experiencing vision and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Berry, Paige; Kelley-Bock, Mia; Rei, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Many people experience both vision and hearing losses as they age. The Confident Living Program was developed by Helen Keller National Center to address the unique psychosocial and educational needs of older adults living with dual-sensory impairments.

  17. Measurement equivalence of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth between black and white adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison M; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the equivalence or comparability of the measurement properties of seven selected items measuring posttraumatic growth among self-identified Black (n = 270) and White (n = 707) adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina, using data from the Baseline Survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group Study. Internal consistency reliability was equally good for both groups (Cronbach's alphas = .79), as were correlations between individual scale items and their respective overall scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of a congeneric measurement model of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth showed adequate measures of fit for both groups. The results showed only small variation in magnitude of factor loadings and measurement errors between the two samples. Tests of measurement invariance showed mixed results, but overall indicated that factor loading, error variance, and factor variance were similar between the two samples. These seven selected items can be useful for future large-scale surveys of posttraumatic growth.

  18. Measurement equivalence of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth between black and white adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison M; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the equivalence or comparability of the measurement properties of seven selected items measuring posttraumatic growth among self-identified Black (n = 270) and White (n = 707) adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina, using data from the Baseline Survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group Study. Internal consistency reliability was equally good for both groups (Cronbach's alphas = .79), as were correlations between individual scale items and their respective overall scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of a congeneric measurement model of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth showed adequate measures of fit for both groups. The results showed only small variation in magnitude of factor loadings and measurement errors between the two samples. Tests of measurement invariance showed mixed results, but overall indicated that factor loading, error variance, and factor variance were similar between the two samples. These seven selected items can be useful for future large-scale surveys of posttraumatic growth. PMID:23654027

  19. Weight loss expectations and goals in a population sample of overweight and obese US adults.

    PubMed

    Fabricatore, Anthony N; Wadden, Thomas A; Rohay, Jeffrey M; Pillitteri, Janine L; Shiffman, Saul; Harkins, Andrea M; Burton, Steven L

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate weight loss expectations and goals in a population sample of US adults who planned to make a weight loss attempt, and to examine predictors of those expectations and goals. Participants were 658 overweight and obese adults (55% women, mean age = 47.9 years, BMI = 31.8 kg/m(2)) who responded to a telephone survey about weight loss. Respondents reported weight loss expectations (i.e., reductions they realistically expected) and goals (i.e., reductions they ideally desired) for an upcoming "serious and deliberate" weight loss attempt. They also reported the expectations they had, and the reductions they actually achieved, in a previous attempt. Respondents' weight loss expectations for their upcoming attempt (8.0% reduction in initial weight) were significantly more modest than their goals for that attempt (16.8%), and smaller than the losses that they expected (12.0%), and achieved (8.9%) in their most recent past attempt (Ps loss expectations and goals. After controlling for BMI, age, and gender, previous weight loss was unrelated to expectations (but was inversely related to goals) for the upcoming weight loss attempt. Results suggest that overweight and obese individuals can select realistic weight loss expectations that are more modest than their ideal goals. BMI and gender appear to be more important than previous weight loss experiences in determining expectations among persons planning a weight loss attempt.

  20. Otoacoustic Emissions in an Adult with Severe Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieve, Beth A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the unexpected finding of evoked otoacoustic emissions from one ear of a subject with severe-to-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. It is suggested that the subject may have a group of surviving outer hair cells in some regions of the left cochlea with corresponding inner hair cell or neural damage. (Author/DB)

  1. The Impact of Hearing Loss on Quality of Life in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dayna S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wiley, Terry L.; Nondahl, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigate the impact of hearing loss on quality of life in a large population of older adults. Design and Methods: Data are from the 5-year follow-up Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, a population-based longitudinal study of age-related hearing impairment conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. Participants (N = 2,688) were 53-97…

  2. Masking Release in Children and Adults with Hearing Loss When Using Amplification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Marc; McCreery, Ryan; Kopun, Judy; Lewis, Dawna; Alexander, Joshua; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared masking release for adults and children with normal hearing and hearing loss. For the participants with hearing loss, masking release using simulated hearing aid amplification with 2 different compression speeds (slow, fast) was compared. Method: Sentence recognition in unmodulated noise was compared with recognition…

  3. Communicating about Loss: Experiences of Older Australian Adults with Cerebral Palsy and Complex Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark, Leigha; Balandin, Susan; Clemson, Lindy

    2011-01-01

    Loss and grief is a universal human experience, yet little is known about how older adults with a lifelong disability, such as cerebral palsy, and complex communication needs (CCN) experience loss and manage the grieving process. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Australian participants with cerebral palsy and CCN to determine the types…

  4. The need for improved detection and management of adult-onset hearing loss in australia.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Catherine M; Gopinath, Bamini; Schneider, Julie; Reath, Jennifer; Hickson, Louise; Leeder, Stephen R; Mitchell, Paul; Cowan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Adult-onset hearing loss is insidious and typically diagnosed and managed several years after onset. Often, this is after the loss having led to multiple negative consequences including effects on employment, depressive symptoms, and increased risk of mortality. In contrast, the use of hearing aids is associated with reduced depression, longer life expectancy, and retention in the workplace. Despite this, several studies indicate high levels of unmet need for hearing health services in older adults and poor use of prescribed hearing aids, often leading to their abandonment. In Australia, the largest component of financial cost of hearing loss (excluding the loss of well-being) is due to lost workplace productivity. Nonetheless, the Australian public health system does not have an effective and sustainable hearing screening strategy to tackle the problem of poor detection of adult-onset hearing loss. Given the increasing prevalence and disease burden of hearing impairment in adults, two key areas are not adequately met in the Australian healthcare system: (1) early identification of persons with chronic hearing impairment; (2) appropriate and targeted referral of these patients to hearing health service providers. This paper reviews the current literature, including population-based data from the Blue Mountains Hearing Study, and suggests different models for early detection of adult-onset hearing loss. PMID:23710184

  5. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

  6. Aided speech recognition abilities of adults with a severe or severe-to-profound hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Flynn, M C; Dowell, R C; Clark, G M

    1998-04-01

    Adults with severe or severe-to-profound hearing losses constitute between 11% and 13.5% of the hearing-impaired population. A detailed investigation of the speech recognition of adults with severe (n = 20) or severe-to-profound (n = 14) hearing loss was conducted at The University of Melbourne. Each participant took part in a series of speech recognition tasks while wearing his or her currently fitted hearing aid(s). The assessments included closed-set tests of consonant recognition and vowel recognition, combined with open-set tests of monosyllabic word recognition and sentence recognition. Sentences were presented in quiet and in noise at +10 dB SNR to replicate an environment more typical of everyday listening conditions. Although the results demonstrated wide variability in performance, some general trends were observed. As expected vowels were generally well perceived compared with consonants. Monosyllabic word recognition scores for both the adults with a severe hearing impairment (M = 67.2%) and the adults with a severe-to-profound hearing impairment (M = 38.6%) could be predicted from the segmental tests, with an allowance for lexical effects. Scores for sentences presented in quiet showed additional linguistic effects and a significant decrease in performance with the addition of background noise (from 82.9% to 74.1% for adults with a severe hearing loss and from 55.8% to 34.2% for adults with a severe-to-profound hearing loss). Comparisons were made between the participants and a group of adults using a multiple-channel cochlear implant. This comparison indicated that some adults with a severe or severe-to-profound hearing loss may benefit from the use of a cochlear implant. The results of this study support the contention that cochlear implant candidacy should not rely solely on audiometric thresholds. PMID:9570583

  7. Low loss factor Co{sub 2}Z ferrite composites with equivalent permittivity and permeability for ultra-high frequency applications

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhijuan; Chang, Hong; Sokolov, Alexander S.; Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie Harris, Vincent G.; Wang, Xian

    2014-08-11

    Ferrite composites of nominal composition Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2+x}Ir{sub x}Fe{sub 24−2x}O{sub 41} were studied in order to achieve low magnetic and dielectric losses and equivalent permittivity and permeability over a frequency range of 0.3–1 GHz. Crystallographic structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, which revealed a Z-type phase accompanied by increasing amounts of Y-type phase as the iridium amount was increased. The measured microwave dielectric and magnetic properties showed that the loss tan δ{sub ε} and loss tan δ{sub μ} decreased by 80% and 90% at 0.8 GHz with the addition of iridium of x = 0.12 and 0.15, respectively. An effective medium approximation was adopted to analyze the composite ferrites having mixed phase structures. Moreover, adding Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} enabled equivalent values of real permittivity and real permeability over the studied frequency range. The resultant data give rise to low loss factors, i.e., tan δ{sub ε}/ε′ = 0.008 and tan δ{sub μ}/μ′ = 0.037 at 0.8 GHz, while characteristic impedance was the same as that of free space.

  8. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.

  9. Does Diet-Induced Weight Loss Lead to Bone Loss in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zibellini, Jessica; Seimon, Radhika V; Lee, Crystal M Y; Gibson, Alice A; Hsu, Michelle S H; Shapses, Sue A; Nguyen, Tuan V; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Diet-induced weight loss has been suggested to be harmful to bone health. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (using a random-effects model) to quantify the effect of diet-induced weight loss on bone. We included 41 publications involving overweight or obese but otherwise healthy adults who followed a dietary weight-loss intervention. The primary outcomes examined were changes from baseline in total hip, lumbar spine, and total body bone mineral density (BMD), as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary outcomes were markers of bone turnover. Diet-induced weight loss was associated with significant decreases of 0.010 to 0.015 g/cm(2) in total hip BMD for interventions of 6, 12, or 24 (but not 3) months' duration (95% confidence intervals [CIs], -0.014 to -0.005, -0.021 to -0.008, and -0.024 to -0.000 g/cm(2), at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively). There was, however, no statistically significant effect of diet-induced weight loss on lumbar spine or whole-body BMD for interventions of 3 to 24 months' duration, except for a significant decrease in total body BMD (-0.011 g/cm(2); 95% CI, -0.018 to -0.003 g/cm(2)) after 6 months. Although no statistically significant changes occurred in serum concentrations of N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), interventions of 2 or 3 months in duration (but not of 6, 12, or 24 months' duration) induced significant increases in serum concentrations of osteocalcin (0.26 nmol/L; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.39 nmol/L), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (4.72 nmol/L; 95% CI, 2.12 to 7.30 nmol/L) or N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) (3.70 nmol/L; 95% CI, 0.90 to 6.50 nmol/L bone collagen equivalents [BCEs]), indicating an early effect of diet-induced weight loss to promote bone breakdown. These data show that in overweight and obese individuals, a single diet-induced weight-loss intervention induces a small decrease in total hip BMD, but not lumbar spine

  10. Intrusion of incisors in adult patients with marginal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Melsen, B; Agerbaek, N; Markenstam, G

    1989-09-01

    Elongated and spaced incisors are common problems in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease. Thirty patients characterized by marginal bone loss and deep overbite were treated by intrusion of incisors. Three different methods for intrusion were applied: (1) J hooks and extraoral high-pull headgear, (2) utility arches, (3) intrusion bent into a loop in a 0.17 x 0.25-inch wire, and (4) base arch as described by Burstone. The intrusion was evaluated from the displacement of the apex, incision, and the center of resistance of the most prominent or elongated central incisor. Change in the marginal bone level and the amount of root resorption were evaluated on standardized intraoral radiographs. The pockets were assessed by standardized probing and the clinical crown length was measured on study casts. The results showed that the true intrusion of the center of resistance varied from 0 to 3.5 mm and was most pronounced when intrusion was performed with a base arch. The clinical crown length was generally reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 mm. The marginal bone level approached the cementoenamel junction in all but six cases. All cases demonstrated root resorption varying from 1 to 3 mm. The total amount of alveolar support--that is, the calculated area of the alveolar wall--was unaltered or increased in 19 of the 30 cases. The dependency of the results on the oral hygiene, the force distribution, and the perioral function was evaluated in relation to the individual cases. It was obvious that intrusion was best performed when (1) forces were low (5 to 15 gm per tooth) with the line of action of the force passing through or close to the center of resistance, (2) the gingiva status was healthy, and (3) no interference with perioral function was present.

  11. Acute neurological visual loss in young adults: causes, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, R; El Ayoubi, N; Hamam, R

    2015-12-01

    Visual loss in the young adult can be caused by demyelinating diseases, inflammatory and autoimmune processes, infections, ischaemic events, and compressive lesions of the optic nerve. Diagnosis of the aetiologies of visual loss is reached by combining data from radiological studies, electrophysiological tests, and blood and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Treatment is primarily aimed at decreasing the insult on the optic nerve and eventually controlling the primary disorder. The literature discusses separately the different aetiologies of visual loss. We present a review of the clinical characteristics of visual loss in the young adult, the different diagnostic measures, and the latest therapeutic strategies. The aim of this work is to summarise this entity in a practical way to guide clinicians in the diagnosis and management of this disorder. PMID:26504248

  12. Sociodemographic and Health-Related Risk Factors Associated with Tooth Loss Among Adults in Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, Catherine A.; Oh, Junhie; Fuller, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being. Very little Rhode Island state-level information exists on the determinants of tooth loss. The objective of this study was to systematically identify sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, health conditions and disabilities, and dental insurance coverage associated with tooth loss among noninstitutionalized adults in Rhode Island. Methods We analyzed Rhode Island’s 2008 and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data in 2011. The survey had 4 response categories for tooth loss: none, 1 to 5, 6 or more but not all, and all. We used multinomial logistic regression models to assess the relationship between 4 risk factor domains and tooth loss. Results An estimated 57.6% of Rhode Island adults had all their teeth, 28.9% had 1 to 5 missing teeth, 8.9% had 6 to 31 missing teeth, and 4.6% were edentulous. Respondents who had low income, low education, unhealthy behaviors (ie, were former or current smokers and did not engage in physical activity), chronic conditions (ie, diabetes and obesity) or disabilities, and no dental insurance coverage were more likely to have fewer teeth compared with their referent groups. However, the association of these variables with tooth loss was not uniform by age group. Conclusion Adults who report risky health behaviors or impaired health may be considered target subpopulations for prevention of tooth loss and promotion of good oral health. PMID:23537519

  13. Masking Release in Children and Adults With Hearing Loss When Using Amplification

    PubMed Central

    McCreery, Ryan; Kopun, Judy; Lewis, Dawna; Alexander, Joshua; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study compared masking release for adults and children with normal hearing and hearing loss. For the participants with hearing loss, masking release using simulated hearing aid amplification with 2 different compression speeds (slow, fast) was compared. Method Sentence recognition in unmodulated noise was compared with recognition in modulated noise (masking release). Recognition was measured for participants with hearing loss using individualized amplification via the hearing-aid simulator. Results Adults with hearing loss showed greater masking release than the children with hearing loss. Average masking release was small (1 dB) and did not depend on hearing status. Masking release was comparable for slow and fast compression. Conclusions The use of amplification in this study contrasts with previous studies that did not use amplification. The results suggest that when differences in audibility are reduced, participants with hearing loss may be able to take advantage of dips in the noise levels, similar to participants with normal hearing. Although children required a more favorable signal-to-noise ratio than adults for both unmodulated and modulated noise, masking release was not statistically different. However, the ability to detect a difference may have been limited by the small amount of masking release observed. PMID:26540194

  14. Eighteen-month incidence of tooth loss among older adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R J; Drake, C W; Beck, J D

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated tooth loss in North Carolina adults 65 years of age or older. A random sample of 335 Blacks and 284 Whites participated in dental examinations and interviews at baseline and again after 18 months. Blacks were more likely than Whites to lose at least one tooth (36% vs 19%), and they lost more teeth on average (1.0 vs 0.4). Several oral disease conditions and symptoms were related to tooth loss, but many other hypothesized factors were not. Risk models were inconclusive in the identification of factors related to risk of tooth loss. PMID:7702124

  15. CHILDHOOD PARENTAL LOSS AND ADULT PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: EFFECTS OF LOSS CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTEXTUAL FACTORS*

    PubMed Central

    TYRKA, AUDREY R.; WIER, LAUREN; PRICE, LAWRENCE H.; ROSS, NICOLE S.; CARPENTER, LINDA L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood parental death and childhood parental separation are linked to lifetime depressive and anxiety disorders after controlling for related risk factors. Participants were 105 individuals from the community, including a group with separation/desertion from a parent, a group with childhood parental death, and a matched control group whose parents remained married and living together. Participants completed interviews and questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety and depression, family psychiatric history, childhood maltreatment, and childhood parental relationships. Participants with separation/desertion and those with parental death were significantly more likely than the control subjects to report the subsequent onset of symptoms of a depressive or anxiety disorder. These effects were not fully explained by parental relationships or childhood maltreatment. However, in the group with parental separation only, family history of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for the apparent effect of parental separation. These findings indicate that parental death may be a specific risk factor for depressive and anxiety disorders. For parental separation/desertion, our results highlight the overriding influence of risk factors that commonly co-occur with this form of parental loss. PMID:19069576

  16. The Role of Organizations in Reaching Older Adults about Vision Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Vision impairment affects approximately 17% of Americans age 45 and older. Yet, 94% of adults with self-reported vision loss did not receive any type of vision rehabilitation services to help them retain independence. These findings underscore the need for promoting awareness about what can be done when vision fails. A national dissemination…

  17. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  18. Promoting a Message on Vision Loss to Diverse Groups of Adults: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…

  19. Communication, Academic, and Social Skills of Young Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Durieux-Smith, Andree; Olds, Janet; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Duquette, Cheryll; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on data collected as part of a larger research study designed to investigate factors that facilitate the integration of children with hearing loss into mainstream environments. Aspects of communicative, academic, and social functioning for 43 adolescents and young adults were examined using questionnaires. In addition,…

  20. Evaluation of an Approach to Weight Loss in Adults with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Richard R.; Saunders, Muriel D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Smith, Bryan K.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Guilford, Brianne; Rondon, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    Of 79 overweight adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities who participated in a weight loss intervention, 73 completed the 6-month diet phase. The emphasis in the intervention was consumption of high volume, low calorie foods and beverages, including meal-replacement shakes. Lower calorie frozen entrees were recommended to control…

  1. Weight Loss in Adults with Down Syndrome and with Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Metseagharun, T.; Haque, S.

    2004-01-01

    An association between weight loss and Alzheimer's disease has been established in the general population but little information is available regarding this association in people with intellectual disabilities. A 4-year longitudinal study of adults with Down syndrome with and without Alzheimer's disease was undertaken. Age-associated weight loss…

  2. Effects of Aging and Adult-Onset Hearing Loss on Cortical Auditory Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common feature in human aging. It has been argued that dysfunctions in central processing are important contributing factors to hearing loss during older age. Aging also has well documented consequences for neural structure and function, but it is not clear how these effects interact with those that arise as a consequence of hearing loss. This paper reviews the effects of aging and adult-onset hearing loss in the structure and function of cortical auditory regions. The evidence reviewed suggests that aging and hearing loss result in atrophy of cortical auditory regions and stronger engagement of networks involved in the detection of salient events, adaptive control and re-allocation of attention. These cortical mechanisms are engaged during listening in effortful conditions in normal hearing individuals. Therefore, as a consequence of aging and hearing loss, all listening becomes effortful and cognitive load is constantly high, reducing the amount of available cognitive resources. This constant effortful listening and reduced cognitive spare capacity could be what accelerates cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. PMID:27242405

  3. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  4. The Effect of Productive Activities on Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults With Dual Sensory Loss.

    PubMed

    McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of three productive activities (paid employment, volunteer work, and informal helping) to mitigate the negative effects of dual sensory loss (DSL) on depressive symptoms among older adults. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. The sample consisted of 2,688 persons: 1,380 who developed DSL during the study and 1,308 who did not. Although participation in each of the productive activities was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for older adults with DSL, volunteering was also the only variable that moderated the relationship between DSL and depressive symptoms. Persons with a DSL who volunteered exhibited a larger decrease in depressive symptoms compared to persons without sensory loss who volunteered. A volunteer intervention for older adults with DSL may be a viable option to help reduce depression in this population.

  5. Unresolved loss in the Adult Attachment Interview: implications for marital and parenting relationships.

    PubMed

    Busch, Amy L; Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn P

    2008-01-01

    This study examined links between the unresolved loss of a significant person and current functioning in marital and parenting relationships. Participants were 80 women who had experienced loss, their husbands, and their preschool children. Unresolved loss was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, and individual, marital, and parenting adaptation was assessed through videotaped observations and women's self-reports. As predicted, women with unresolved loss displayed less positive emotion and more anxiety and anger with both their husbands and children, compared to women who were not unresolved. They also displayed less authoritative and more authoritarian parenting styles with their children. Yet unresolved women did not report more individual or relationship difficulties, suggesting that direct observations are needed to assess the implications of unresolved loss for family functioning.

  6. Health status attributes of older African-American adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Kenneth C

    2004-06-01

    This article describes a study that examined hearing loss and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) attributes of 71 African-American older adults ranging in age from 60 to 89 years. Demographic profiles were used to obtain pertinent case histories, audiometric testing was used to obtain estimates of peripheral hearing sensitivity, and middle-ear integrity was assessed via tympanometry. The health status (i.e., HRQoL) attributes were determined via self-report scores on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results from bivariate analyses determined statistically significant correlations between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales. Multivariate regression models revealed a statistically significant impact between hearing loss and lower SF-36 scores across subscales, even after controlling for experimental confounds. These findings suggest that hearing loss is capable of contributing to HRQoL deficits in African-American older adults. The importance of these data in terms of pre-existing attitudes of African-American older adults towards hearing healthcare services and long-term effects of untreated hearing loss are considered. PMID:15233487

  7. A systematic review of motivational interviewing for weight loss among adults in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R. D.; Ivezaj, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centred method of intervention focused on enhancing intrinsic motivation and behaviour change. A previous review of the literature and meta-analyses support the effectiveness of MI for weight loss. None of these studies, however, focused on the bourgeoning literature examining MI for weight loss among adults within primary care settings, which confers unique barriers to providing weight loss treatment. Further, the current review includes 19 studies not included in previous reviews or meta-analyses. We conducted a comprehensive review of PubMed, MI review papers, and citations from relevant papers. A total of 24 adult randomized controlled trials were identified. MI interventions typically were provided individually by a range of clinicians and compared with usual care. Few studies provided adequate information regarding MI treatment fidelity. Nine studies (37.5%) reported significant weight loss at post-treatment assessment for the MI condition compared with control groups. Thirteen studies (54.2%) reported MI patients achieving at least 5% loss of initial body weight. There is potential for MI to help primary care patients lose weight. Conclusions, however, must be drawn cautiously as more than half of the reviewed studies showed no significant weight loss compared with usual care and few reported MI treatment fidelity. PMID:25752449

  8. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2') following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation.

  9. Evaluation of an approach to weight loss in adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard R; Saunders, Muriel D; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Guilford, Brianne; Rondon, Mary F

    2011-04-01

    Of 79 overweight adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities who participated in a weight loss intervention, 73 completed the 6-month diet phase. The emphasis in the intervention was consumption of high volume, low calorie foods and beverages, including meal-replacement shakes. Lower calorie frozen entrees were recommended to control portion size. A walking activity was encouraged. Participants attended monthly meetings in which a small amount of cash was exchanged for self-recorded intake and exercise records completed on picture-based forms. Average weight loss was 13.2 pounds (6.3%) of baseline weight at 6 months, with weight loss shown by 64 of the 73 individuals enrolled. Those completing a 6-month follow-up phase showed weight loss of 9.4% of baseline. Increased choice and control are discussed as possible contributors to individual success. PMID:21446873

  10. Evaluation of an approach to weight loss in adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard R; Saunders, Muriel D; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Guilford, Brianne; Rondon, Mary F

    2011-04-01

    Of 79 overweight adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities who participated in a weight loss intervention, 73 completed the 6-month diet phase. The emphasis in the intervention was consumption of high volume, low calorie foods and beverages, including meal-replacement shakes. Lower calorie frozen entrees were recommended to control portion size. A walking activity was encouraged. Participants attended monthly meetings in which a small amount of cash was exchanged for self-recorded intake and exercise records completed on picture-based forms. Average weight loss was 13.2 pounds (6.3%) of baseline weight at 6 months, with weight loss shown by 64 of the 73 individuals enrolled. Those completing a 6-month follow-up phase showed weight loss of 9.4% of baseline. Increased choice and control are discussed as possible contributors to individual success.

  11. Vision Loss and Psychological Distress among Ethiopians Adults: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Abateneh, Aemero; Tesfaye, Markos; Bekele, Sisay; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-01-01

    Background Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. Results The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62). Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015) and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54) were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. Conclusion Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of psychosocial care into the

  12. Neuron regeneration reverses 3-acetylpyridine-induced cell loss in the cerebral cortex of adult lizards.

    PubMed

    Font, E; García-Verdugo, J M; Alcántara, S; López-García, C

    1991-06-14

    Systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine to adult lizards results in extensive loss of neurons in the medial cerebral cortex, other brain areas remaining largely unaffected. After the neurotoxic trauma, new cells are produced by mitotic division of cells in the ventricular wall. The new cells migrate along radial glial fibers and replace lost neurons in the medial cortex. Electron microscopic examination of cells labeled with [3H]thymidine confirms that the newly generated cells are neurons. Thus, neuron regeneration can occur in the cerebral cortex of adult lizards.

  13. Effect of Speaker Age on Speech Recognition and Perceived Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Wilding, Phillipa J.; Rickard, Natalie A.; O'Beirne, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults exhibit difficulty understanding speech that has been experimentally degraded. Age-related changes to the speech mechanism lead to natural degradations in signal quality. We tested the hypothesis that older adults with hearing loss would exhibit declines in speech recognition when listening to the speech of older adults,…

  14. Mental health and dual sensory loss in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heine, Chyrisse; Browning, Colette J

    2014-01-01

    Mental health is a core component of quality of life in old age. Dual Sensory Loss (DSL; combined vision and hearing loss) is prevalent in older adults and has been correlated with decreased levels of well-being. This systematic review aimed to critically review and summarize the evidence from studies that examined the mental health of older adults with DSL. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) statement, specific databases were searched and eight articles were selected for final review. Seven studies investigated the association between DSL and depression or depressive symptoms, whilst one study explored the relationship between DSL and quality of life. No studies investigated the impact of DSL on anxiety. Overall, results of this review suggested that there is a significant relationship between DSL and decreased mental health with those with DSL either displaying depressive symptoms or being at risk for developing depression. Future research should focus on comparative studies of older people with and without sensory loss, as well as targeted studies of older people with dual sensory loss, that incorporate well-defined and valid measures of sensory loss and mental health.

  15. Social Network Characteristics Associated with Weight Loss among Black and Hispanic Adults with Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Ginger; Phillips, Erica G.; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol; Wells, Martin; Peterson, Janey C.; Hippolyte, Jessica; Ramos, Rosio; Martinez, Guillerma; Eldridge, Johanna; Charlson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine social network member characteristics associated with weight loss. Methods Cross-sectional examination of egocentric network data from 245 Black and Hispanic adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 enrolled in a small change weight loss study. The relationship between weight loss at 12 months and characteristics of helpful and harmful network members (relationship, contact frequency, living proximity and body size) were examined. Results There were 2,571 network members identified. Mean weight loss was -4.8 (±11.3) lbs. among participants with network help and no harm with eating goals vs. +3.4 (±7.8) lbs. among participants with network harm alone. In a multivariable regression model, greater weight loss was associated with help from a child with eating goals (p=.0002) and coworker help with physical activity (p=.01). Weight gain was associated with having network members with obesity living in the home (p=.048) and increased network size (p=.002). Conclusions There was greater weight loss among participants with support from children and coworkers. Weight gain was associated with harmful network behaviors and having network members with obesity in the home. Incorporating child and co-worker support, and evaluating network harm and the body size of network members should be considered in future weight loss interventions. PMID:26179578

  16. Suppression of water loss during adult diapause in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Denlinger, David L

    2007-01-01

    One of the major challenges of overwintering in the mosquito, Culex pipiens, is prevention of dehydration. In this study, we compare the water balance requirements of nondiapausing and diapausing adult females of C. pipiens. Although their percentage water content is lower, diapausing females contain both higher initial and dry masses than nondiapausing individuals. Both nondiapausing and diapausing females tolerate a loss of up to 40% of their water mass before dying, but diapausing female C. pipiens reach this point after a longer period due to their lower rate of water loss. Males, which do not overwinter in diapause, showed no differences in their water balance characteristics when reared under diapausing or nondiapausing conditions. Likewise, no changes were noted in the water balance of pupae, indicating that diapause-related changes do not occur prior to adult eclosion. This mosquito does not replenish internal water stores by generating metabolic water or by absorbing vapor from the atmosphere, but instead relies on drinking liquid water (or blood feeding in the case of nondiapausing females). The critical transition temperature, a point where water loss increases rapidly with temperature, was the highest for females, then males, then pupae, but was not influenced by the diapause program. Females in diapause did not utilize common polyols (glycerol, trehalose and sorbitol) to retain water, but instead the presence of twice the amount of cuticular hydrocarbons in diapausing compared with nondiapausing females suggests that the deposition of hydrocarbons contribute to the reduced rates of water loss. The laboratory results were also verified in field-collected specimens: mosquitoes in the late fall and winter had a lower percentage water content and water loss rate, higher initial mass, dry mass and more cuticular hydrocarbons than individuals collected during the summer. Thus, the major features of diapause that contribute to the suppression of water loss

  17. Job-loss and weight gain in British adults: Evidence from two longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, Pablo; Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have been associated with unemployment but less is known about changes in weight associated with changes in employment. We examined weight changes associated with job-loss, retirement and maintaining employment in two samples of working adults in the United Kingdom. This was a prospective study of 7201 adults in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study (aged 39–76 years) and 4539 adults in the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) who were followed up over 43 months and 26 months, respectively. In both samples, changes in measured (EPIC) and self-reported (BHPS) weight were computed for each participant and assessed in relation to three employment transitions: maintaining paid employment, retirement and job-loss. Regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Further analyses evaluated the contribution of diet, physical activity and smoking to weight gain. In EPIC-Norfolk, weight change differed across the three employment transitions for women but not men. The mean (95% CI) annualised change in weight for women who became unemployed over the follow-up period was 0.70 (0.55, 0.85) kg/y while those who maintained employment gained 0.49 (0.43, 0.55) kg/y (P = 0.007). Accounting for changes in smoking, diet and physical activity did not substantially alter the difference in weight gain among groups. In BHPS, job-loss was associated with weight gain of 1.56 (0.89, 2.23) kg/y, while those who maintained employment 0.60 (0.53, 0.68) kg/y (P < 0.001). In both samples, weight changes associated with retirement were similar to those staying in work. In BHPS, job-loss was also associated with significant declines in self-reported well-being and increases in sleep-loss. Two UK-based samples of working adults reveal strong associations between job-loss and excess weight gain. The mediating behaviours are so far unclear but psychosocial mechanisms and sleep-loss may contribute to the excess weight gain among

  18. Applying a technology‐based system for weight loss in adults with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lang, W.; Barone Gibbs, B.; Davis, K. K.; Burke, L. E.; Kovacs, S. J.; Portzer, L. A.; Jakicic, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this study was to compare an in‐person, group‐based behavioral weight loss intervention to technology‐based interventions in adults with obesity. Methods Adults (N = 39; body mass index: 39.5 ± 2.8 kg m−2; age: 39.9 ± 11.5 years) participated in a 6‐month program with randomization to one of three intervention groups: standard behavioral weight loss, a technology‐based system combined with a monthly intervention telephone call (TECH) or an enhanced technology‐based system combined with a monthly intervention telephone call (EN‐TECH). All groups were prescribed an energy‐restricted diet and physical activity. Assessments occurred at 0, 3 and 6 months. Separate mixed‐effects models using unstructured dependence structure were fit to the outcomes. Results Weight loss (least square means ± standard error) at 6 months was −6.57 ± 1.65 kg in standard behavioral weight loss, −5.18 ± 1.72 kg in TECH and −6.25 ± 1.95 kg in EN‐TECH (p‐value for time effect ≤ 0.0001). A similar pattern was observed for change in body mass index, waist circumference and percent body fat. There was a decrease in total energy intake (p = 0.0005) and percent dietary fat intake (p = 0.0172), and physical activity increased (p = 0.0003). Conclusions Findings provide initial information on the use of technology‐based interventions that include wearable devices combined with brief monthly telephone calls for weight loss in adults with obesity. PMID:27812375

  19. Leptin and Hunger Levels in Young Healthy Adults After One Night of Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, and blood pressure/heart rate and whether a 2-hour mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (4 consecutive nights followed by a night of sleep loss and 2 recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (1400–1600) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-hour blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (pre-deprivation) and sixth day (post-deprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of “comfort” food and obesity. PMID:20545838

  20. Frequent Self-Weighing and Visual Feedback for Weight Loss in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Levitsky, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has suggested that self-weighing may be beneficial for weight control in adults, but few studies have independently assessed the contribution of this behavior to weight loss. This study experimentally tested daily self-weighing and visual feedback (the Caloric Titration Method (CTM)) as a weight loss and weight loss maintenance intervention over 2 years. 162 overweight individuals were randomized to the CTM intervention or delayed treatment control group. In year 1, weight change was compared between groups, and in year 2, the control group started using the CTM while the intervention group continued using the CTM for maintenance. A significant difference in weight loss over the first year (CTM n = 70; 2.6 ± 5.9 kg versus control n = 65; 0.5 ± 4.4 kg, p = 0.019) was qualified by a group × gender × time interaction (p = 0.002) such that men lost more weight using the CTM. In year 2, the CTM group maintained their weight and the control group lost an amount similar to the intervention group in year 1. Daily self-weighing and visual feedback facilitated a minimal amount of weight loss and maintenance of this loss. Future research investigating characteristics of those who benefit from this type of self-directed intervention is warranted. PMID:26064677

  1. Frequent Self-Weighing and Visual Feedback for Weight Loss in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Pacanowski, Carly R; Levitsky, David A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has suggested that self-weighing may be beneficial for weight control in adults, but few studies have independently assessed the contribution of this behavior to weight loss. This study experimentally tested daily self-weighing and visual feedback (the Caloric Titration Method (CTM)) as a weight loss and weight loss maintenance intervention over 2 years. 162 overweight individuals were randomized to the CTM intervention or delayed treatment control group. In year 1, weight change was compared between groups, and in year 2, the control group started using the CTM while the intervention group continued using the CTM for maintenance. A significant difference in weight loss over the first year (CTM n = 70; 2.6 ± 5.9 kg versus control n = 65; 0.5 ± 4.4 kg, p = 0.019) was qualified by a group × gender × time interaction (p = 0.002) such that men lost more weight using the CTM. In year 2, the CTM group maintained their weight and the control group lost an amount similar to the intervention group in year 1. Daily self-weighing and visual feedback facilitated a minimal amount of weight loss and maintenance of this loss. Future research investigating characteristics of those who benefit from this type of self-directed intervention is warranted. PMID:26064677

  2. Handheld Electronic Technology for Weight Loss in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle C; Burley, V J; Cade, J E

    2014-09-01

    Handheld electronic devices could offer a convenient and scalable platform with which to deliver a weight loss intervention. This paper aims to summarise the evidence provided by randomised trials of such interventions. There is heterogeneity among trials in terms of the components of the intervention package, the theoretical framework, the comparison groups and the duration of follow-up. While in the short term (<6 months) trials have shown some promising findings, two trials (one of a text message intervention and one of a PDA device for dietary self-monitoring) do not indicate clinically significant weight loss in the longer term (1-2 years). Topical issues are discussed including the importance of further research into dietary self-monitoring, the logistics of trialling smartphone applications and considerations of health literacy. There is currently no definitive randomised controlled trial of a smartphone app for weight loss in adults and further research into this approach is warranted. PMID:26626760

  3. Vitamin A equivalence of spirulina beta-carotene in Chinese adults assessed by stable isotope dilution and reference techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Spirulina is a high-protein food supplement that contains carotenoids. Objective: The study aimed at determining the vitamin A equivalence of spirulina beta-carotene in humans. Design: Spirulina was grown in a 23 atom% 2H2O cultural solution. Spirulina beta-carotene showed the highest ab...

  4. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    PubMed

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  5. The effects of a hearing education program on recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices in young adults.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Sofie, Degeest; Bart, Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Excessive recreational noise exposure in young adults might result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. Inducing behavioral change in young adults is one of the aims of a hearing conservation program (HCP). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a hearing education program after 6 months in young adults in relation to knowledge regarding their individual hearing status. The results of a questionnaire regarding the weekly equivalent recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, and hearing loss and hearing protector devices (HPDs) were compared between both sessions. Seventy-eight young adults completed the questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposure, youth attitude to noise scale (YANS), and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL). Their hearing status was evaluated based on admittance measures, audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The main analysis consisted of a mixed model analysis of variance with dependent variables of either the noise exposure or the scores on (subscales of) YANS and BAHPHL. The independent variables were hearing status and session one versus session two. There was a significant decrease in recreational noise exposure and several (sub) scales of YANS and BAHPHL between both the sessions. This behavioral change resulted in a more frequent use of HPDs in 12% of the participants. However, the behavioral change was not completely related to the knowledge of young adults' individual hearing status. To prevent hearing damage in young people, investing in HCPs is necessary, apart from regulating sound levels and its compliance at various leisure-time activities. Also, the long-term effect of HCPs and their most cost-efficient repetition rates should be further investigated.

  6. Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 prolongs the life span of adult human keratinocytes, enhances skin equivalent development, and facilitates lentiviral transduction.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Rodijk-Olthuis, Diana; Jansen, Patrick A M; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; van Erp, Piet E; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2012-09-01

    The use of tissue-engineered human skin equivalents (HSE) for fundamental research and industrial application requires the expansion of keratinocytes from a limited number of skin biopsies donated by adult healthy volunteers or patients. A pharmacological inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinases, Y-27632, was recently reported to immortalize neonatal human foreskin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the potential use of Y-27632 to expand human adult keratinocytes and evaluated its effects on HSE development and in vitro gene delivery assays. Y-27632 was found to significantly increase the life span of human adult keratinocytes (up to five to eight passages). The epidermal morphology of HSEs generated from high-passage, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes resembled the native epidermis and was improved by supplementing Y-27632 during the submerged phase of HSE development. In addition, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes responded normally to inflammatory stimuli, and could be used to generate HSEs with a psoriatic phenotype, upon stimulation with relevant cytokines. Furthermore, Y-27632 significantly enhanced both lentiviral transduction efficiency of primary adult keratinocytes and epidermal morphology of HSEs generated thereof. Our study indicates that Y-27632 is a potentially powerful tool that is used for a variety of applications of adult human keratinocytes. PMID:22519508

  7. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  8. Of Mice and Men-Warning: Intact Versus Castrated Adult Male Mice as Xenograft Hosts Are Equivalent to Hypogonadal Versus Abiraterone Treated Aging Human Males, Respectively

    PubMed Central

    Sedelaar, J.P. Michiel; Dalrymple, Susan S.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immune deficient male mice bearing human prostate cancer xenografts are used to evaluate therapeutic response to novel androgen ablation approaches and the results compared to surgical castration based upon assumption that testosterone microenvironment in intact and castrated adult male mice mimics eugonadal and castrated aging adult human males. METHODS To test these assumptions, serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were determined longitudinally in groups (n > 20) of intact versus castrated adult male nude, NOG, and immune competent C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS In adult male mice, TT and FT varies by 30- to 100-fold within the same animal providing a microenvironment that is only equivalent to hypogonadal, not eugonadal, adult human males (TT is 1.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml [5.8 ± 4.1 nM] in nude and 2.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml [8.7 ± 4.4 nM] in NOG mice versus >4.2 ng/ml [14.7 nM] in eugonadal humans). This was confirmed based upon enhanced growth of androgen dependent human prostate cancer xenografts inoculated into mice supplemented with exogenous testosterone to elevate and chronically maintain serum TT at a level (5 ng/ml [18 nM]) equivalent to a 50-year-old eugonadal human male. In castrated mice, TT and FT range from 2 to 20 pg/ml (7–70 pM) and <0.8 pg/ml (<2.6 pM), respectively, which is equivalent to castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with abiraterone. This was confirmed based upon the inability of another CYP17A1 inhibitor, ketoconazole, to inhibit the growth of CRPC xenografts in castrated mice. CONCLUSIONS Adult male mice supplemented with testosterone mimic eugonadal human males, while unsupplemented animals mimic standard androgen ablation and castrated animals mimic abiraterone treated patients. These studies confirm what is claimed in Robert Burns’ poem “To a Mouse” that “The best laid schemes of mice and men/often go awry. PMID:23775398

  9. Measurement equivalence of the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire across African American and non-Latino White substance using adult outpatients.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Frank R

    2013-08-01

    Analyses of the effectiveness of substance abuse treatments across racial/ethnic groups should ensure that outcome measures have the same conceptual meaning (i.e., measurement equivalence) across groups. Because racial groups differ in perceptions and experiences of the therapeutic alliance, this study investigated measurement equivalence properties of the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II) across racial groups. The sample included 138 African American and 133 non-Latino White participants, age 18-64 years, who participated in a randomized clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Results demonstrated configural invariance and two forms of metric invariance (weak and strong/scalar), suggesting that conceptualizations of therapeutic alliance and overall levels of endorsement of therapeutic alliance are comparable across racial groups. The groups indicated partial, strict metric nonequivalence. No studies to date reported measurement equivalence properties of the HAq-II. Findings support valid measurement and interpretation of HAq-II outcomes. PMID:23522849

  10. New neurons in the adult brain: The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a matter of debate. In the case of the hippocampus, integration of new cells in to the existing neuronal circuitry may be involved in memory processes and the regulation of emotionality. In recent years, various studies have examined how the production of new cells and their development into neurons is affected by sleep and sleep loss. While disruption of sleep for a period shorter than one day appears to have little effect on the basal rate of cell proliferation, prolonged restriction or disruption of sleep may have cumulative effects leading to a major decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation, cell survival and neurogenesis. Importantly, while short sleep deprivation may not affect the basal rate of cell proliferation, one study in rats shows that even mild sleep restriction may interfere with the increase in neurogenesis that normally occurs with hippocampus-dependent learning. Since sleep deprivation also disturbs memory formation, these data suggest that promoting survival, maturation and integration of new cells may be an unexplored mechanism by which sleep supports learning and memory processes. Most methods of sleep deprivation that have been employed affect both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Available data favor the hypothesis that decreases in cell proliferation are related to a reduction in REM sleep, whereas decreases in the number of cells that subsequently develop into adult neurons may be related to reductions in both NREM and REM sleep. The mechanisms by which sleep loss affects different aspects of adult neurogenesis are unknown. It has been proposed that adverse effects of sleep disruption may be mediated by stress and

  11. Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort.

    PubMed

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome.

  12. Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort

    PubMed Central

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Cute, Stephanie L.; Humes, Larry E.; Dubno, Judy R.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome. PMID:24909603

  13. Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort.

    PubMed

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome. PMID:24909603

  14. Diet quality of adults using intuitive eating for weight loss - pilot study.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Judith C; Borchardt, Nadia; Ramos, Elizabeth; Mhoon, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    As the incidence of obesity and related disease steadily increases, researchers and medical practitioners are continuously examining new approaches to prevent and manage the epidemic. Intuitive eating (IE) is a new and innovative approach that uses an individual's response to internal cues of hunger, satiety, and appetite, and replaces calorie restriction (CR). CR is the standard approach for weight reduction. This study was a randomized controlled trial with two groups in which we accessed records of the dietary intake of obese adults using CR and IE to achieve weight loss. The participants were sedentary obese individuals with no history of chronic diseases. They engaged in physical activity three times per week for 30 min and recorded their daily food intake in a food diary. Instructions were given for CR and IE at the start and midpoint of the study. The duration of the study was six weeks. Weight and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) calculated. The CR group's total weight loss was significantly (p = 0.03) lower than that of the IE group. The CR group had consistent weight loss throughout the study, while the IE group's weight loss was significantly less at the endpoint compared to the midpoint. CR is a superior approach to weight management than IE.

  15. The effects of a hearing education program on recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Hannah; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Sofie, Degeest; Bart, Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Excessive recreational noise exposure in young adults might result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. Inducing behavioral change in young adults is one of the aims of a hearing conservation program (HCP). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a hearing education program after 6 months in young adults in relation to knowledge regarding their individual hearing status. The results of a questionnaire regarding the weekly equivalent recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, and hearing loss and hearing protector devices (HPDs) were compared between both sessions. Seventy-eight young adults completed the questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposure, youth attitude to noise scale (YANS), and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL). Their hearing status was evaluated based on admittance measures, audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The main analysis consisted of a mixed model analysis of variance with dependent variables of either the noise exposure or the scores on (subscales of) YANS and BAHPHL. The independent variables were hearing status and session one versus session two. There was a significant decrease in recreational noise exposure and several (sub) scales of YANS and BAHPHL between both the sessions. This behavioral change resulted in a more frequent use of HPDs in 12% of the participants. However, the behavioral change was not completely related to the knowledge of young adults’ individual hearing status. To prevent hearing damage in young people, investing in HCPs is necessary, apart from regulating sound levels and its compliance at various leisure-time activities. Also, the long-term effect of HCPs and their most cost-efficient repetition rates should be further investigated. PMID:26356367

  16. Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2015-01-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for increased hunger and caloric intake, late-night eating, attenuated fat loss when dieting, and for weight gain and obesity. It is unknown whether altered energy-balance responses to sleep loss are stable (phenotypic) over time, and the extent to which individuals differ in vulnerability to such responses. Healthy adults experienced two laboratory exposures to sleep restriction separated by 60-2132 days. Caloric intake, meal timing and weight were objectively measured. Although there were substantial phenotypic differences among participants in weight gain, increased caloric intake, and late-night eating and fat intake, responses within participants showed stability across sleep restriction exposures. Weight change was consistent in both normal-weight and overweight adults. Weight change and increased caloric intake were more stable in men whereas late-night eating was consistent in both genders. This is the first evidence of phenotypic differential vulnerability and trait-like stability of energy balance responses to repeated sleep restriction, underscoring the need for biomarkers and countermeasures to predict and mitigate this vulnerability.

  17. Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.; Goel, Namni

    2015-01-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for increased hunger and caloric intake, late-night eating, attenuated fat loss when dieting, and for weight gain and obesity. It is unknown whether altered energy-balance responses to sleep loss are stable (phenotypic) over time, and the extent to which individuals differ in vulnerability to such responses. Healthy adults experienced two laboratory exposures to sleep restriction separated by 60–2132 days. Caloric intake, meal timing and weight were objectively measured. Although there were substantial phenotypic differences among participants in weight gain, increased caloric intake, and late-night eating and fat intake, responses within participants showed stability across sleep restriction exposures. Weight change was consistent in both normal-weight and overweight adults. Weight change and increased caloric intake were more stable in men whereas late-night eating was consistent in both genders. This is the first evidence of phenotypic differential vulnerability and trait-like stability of energy balance responses to repeated sleep restriction, underscoring the need for biomarkers and countermeasures to predict and mitigate this vulnerability. PMID:26446681

  18. Factors Associated with Tooth Loss in Older Adults in Rural Colorado.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Scarbro, Sharon; Bryant, Lucinda L; Puma, Jini

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that are associated with tooth loss in older adults living in the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado, which is a rural and large geographical area (roughly the size of Connecticut) that has a large population age 60 years or older. Data used in this manuscript were collected as a part of the SLV Community Health Survey. The analyzed sample included 308 adults over the age of 65 years who completed the survey. Basic descriptive statistics and a series of step-wise binary logistic regression analyses were conducted; the dependent variable was the number of permanent teeth removed because of tooth decay or gum disease. Fifty-two percent of the participants were male, Hispanic participants made up 40 % of the sample and 76 % of the participants had at least a high school education. Tooth loss was significantly associated with older age (OR = 1.09; p = 0.02), lower income (OR = 0.01; p = 0.00), less than high school education (OR = 0.32; p = 0.01), being Hispanic (OR = 2.15; p = 0.05), self-reported fair-poor health status (OR 2.94; p = 0.02), consumption of one or more than one sweet beverage per day (OR = 4.52; p = 0.00), no dental insurance (OR = 4.70; p = 0.01) and length of time since last dental visit (OR = 0.21; p = 0.01). The findings of the present study suggest possible causes for tooth loss in rural adults and underscore the need for in-depth research to study the overall oral health of rural older adults living in SLV. PMID:26518778

  19. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Han, Xiaoyan; Qi, Zhi; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Liu, Aiping

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to determine the up-to-date prevalence of overweight and obesity, the distributions of body weight perception and weight loss practice in Beijing adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. A total of 2563 men and 4088 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included. Data were obtained from questionnaire and physical examination. Results The prevalence of overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m2) was 42.1% and 20.3% in men and 35.6% and 17.1% in women, respectively. Age was inversely associated with overweight in both sexes, and obesity in women. Education level was negatively associated with overweight and obesity in women but not in men. Only 49.1% men and 58.3% women had a correct perception of their body weight. Underestimation of body weight was more common than overestimation, especially in men, the older people, and those with low education level. The percentage of taking action to lose weight was inversely associated with men and old age, and positively associated with higher education level, higher BMI, and self-perception as “fat” (OR = 3.78 in men, OR = 2.91 in women). Only 26.1% of overweight/obese individuals took action to lose weight. The top two weight loss practices were to reduce the amount of food intake and exercise. Conclusion Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent with high incorrect body weight perceptions in the general adult population in Beijing. Weight loss practice was poor in overweight and obese individuals. Actions at multiple levels are needed to slow or control this overweight and obesity epidemic. PMID:25225884

  20. Effects of Maintained Weight Loss on Sleep Dynamics and Neck Morphology in Severely Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Teri L.; Ballard, Robert D.; Weil, Kathleen M.; Shepard, Trudy Y.; Scherzinger, Ann L.; Stamm, Elizabeth R.; Sharp, Teresa A.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of the study were to determine if moderate weight loss in severely obese adults resulted in 1) reduction in apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), 2) improved pharyngeal patency, 3) reduced total body oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) during sleep, and 4) improved sleep quality. The main outcome was the change in AHI from before to after weight loss. Fourteen severely obese (BMI>40 kg/m2) patients (3 males, 11 females) completed a highly controlled weight reduction program which included 3 months of weight loss and 3 months of weight maintenance. At baseline and post-weight loss, patients underwent pulmonary function testing, polysomnography, and MRI to assess neck morphology. Weight decreased from 134±6.6 kg to 118±6.1 kg (mean ± SEM; F=113.763, p<0.0001). There was a significant reduction in the AHI between baseline and post-weight loss (SUBJECT, F=11.11, p=0.007). Moreover, patients with worse sleep disordered breathing (SDB) at baseline had the greatest improvements in AHI (GROUP, F=9.00, p=0.005). Reductions in VO2 (285±12 to 234±16 ml/min; F=24.85, p<0.0001) and VCO2 (231±9 to 186±12 ml/min; F=27.74, p<0.0001) were also observed, and pulmonary function testing showed improvements in spirometry parameters. Sleep studies revealed improved minimum SaO2 (83.4±61.9% to 89.1±1.2%; F=7.59, p=0.016), and mean SaO2 (90.4±1.1% to 93.8±1.0%; F=6.89, p=0.022), and a significant increase in the number of arousals (8.1±1.4 at baseline, to 17.1±3.0 after weight loss; F=18.13, p=0.001). In severely obese patients, even moderate weight loss (~10%) boasts substantial benefit in terms of the severity of SDB and sleep dynamics. PMID:18948968

  1. Hospitalization for fractures and bone loss in adults. Why do we regard these phenomena as dull?

    PubMed

    Wylie, C M

    1977-01-01

    The epidemiology of serious fractures in adults relates less to the frequency of forceful accidents and more directly to the loss of bone in middle-aged and older people. To support this statement, hospital discharge rates for fractures in recent years are examined from different geographic areas. Rates for the United States rise with age, so that serious fractures form 10 percent of all hospital discharges at 85 years and older. Saskatchewan data suggest that rates for men remain low until 60 years; for women the figures began to rise at 45 years, before many had reached the menopause. Rates are lower among women than men in Saskatchewan until around 50 years, surpassing those of men at age 55 and older. Among Medicare enrollees in 1967 in the United States, women had higher discharge rates for fractures than men of the same age and race. Whites also had higher rates than blacks, so much so that white males had higher rates than black women of the same age. Such data confirm the past impression that blacks who survive into the older ages are a biological elite, more able to maintain bone strength than whites of either sex, although by no means being exempt from bone loss with age. A fractured femur was the most frequent diagnosis, forming a higher percentage of all fractures in women than men, and rising steeply with age in both sexes. The pattern of fractures by sex differs from the epidemiology of forceful accidents, which more often involve men than women. Bone loss with age, or osteoporosis, is perhaps the most powerful host factor to dominate the picture of fractures in the elderly. The existing possibilities for preventing or slowing this change are thus assessed; women may no longer accept as natural the widespread bone loss and accompanying fractures that lower the quality of life in later years. PMID:319479

  2. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested. PMID:25575844

  3. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested.

  4. Barriers to and Facilitators of Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance in Adult UK People: A Thematic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himanshu

    2014-12-01

    Adult obesity and overweight is affecting every region of the world and is described as one of today's most significant and neglected public health problems. The problem has taken the shape of an epidemic not only because the prevalence of obesity has witnessed a dramatic progress in a short period of time, but also because obesity has paved the way for increased risks for morbidity and mortality associated with it. It has been predicted that about half of the adult men and more than a quarter of adult women would be obese by 2030 in the UK and this figure could rise up to 50% in 2050 for whole of the adult UK population. Although a modest 5-10% weight loss maintained in the long term can significantly decrease health risk, few people engage in weight loss activities. Against this background, this review paper aims to investigate the reasons helping and/or hindering adults in the UK maintain weight loss in the long term; using online and organizational data sources and thematically analyzing the data. Self-body perception, enhanced self-confidence, social support, self-motivation, incentives and rewards, increased physical activity levels and healthy eating habits facilitated people in maintaining weight loss in the long term and overall quality of life. Extreme weather conditions, natural phenomena such as accidents, injuries and ill-health, work commitments, inability for time management and to resist the temptation for food constrained the successful long-term weight loss maintenance.

  5. Predictors of Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Monique T.; Verhoeven, Adrie J. M.; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Boessen, Ruud; Pellis, Linette P.; van t Spijker, Adriaan; Timman, Reinier; Ozcan, Behiye; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Methods 192 patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI>27 kg/m2 from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Erasmus Medical Center underwent an 8-week very low calorie diet. Baseline demographic, psychological and physiological parameters were measured and the C-index was calculated of the model with the largest explained variance of relative weight loss using backward linear regression analysis. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques. Results Weight loss after the diet was 7.8±4.6 kg (95%CI 7.2–8.5; p<0.001) and was independently associated with the baseline variables fasting glucose (B = -0.33 (95%CI -0.49, -0.18), p = 0.001), anxiety (HADS; B = -0.22 (95%CI -0.34, -0.11), p = 0.001), numb feeling in extremities (B = 1.86 (95%CI 0.85, 2.87), p = 0.002), insulin dose (B = 0.01 (95%CI 0.00, 0.02), p = 0.014) and waist-to-hip ratio (B = 6.79 (95%CI 2.10, 11.78), p = 0.003). This model explained 25% of the variance in weight loss. The C-index of this model to predict successful (≥5%) weight loss was 0.74 (95%CI 0.67–0.82), with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89–0.97) and specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.16–0.42). When only the obese T2D patients (BMI≥30 kg/m2; n = 181) were considered, age also contributed to the model (B = 0.06 (95%CI 0.02, 0.11), p = 0.008), whereas waist-to-hip ratio did not. Conclusions Diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with T2D was predicted by five baseline parameters, which were predominantly diabetes related. However, failure seems difficult to predict. We propose to test this prediction model in future prospective diet intervention studies in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27494531

  6. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  7. Unilateral eye enucleation in adult rats causes neuronal loss in the contralateral superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, S. A.; BEDI, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have reported the morphological changes induced by unilateral enucleation during early neonatal life on the developing visual system. This study has examined cellular changes in the superior colliculi by removal of a single eye in adult rats. Anaesthetised male hooded rats aged 90 d had their right eyes removed. Groups of nonenucleated control and enucleated rats were killed when aged either 150 or 390 d. The brains were removed and both the right and left superior colliculi dissected out. The volume of the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS) within these colliculi was estimated stereologically by light microscopy, as well as the numerical density and total number of neurons within this cell layer. The volume of the cell layer was reduced by about 40% on the side contralateral to the enucleated eye but not on the ipsilateral side at both survival periods examined. The numerical density of neurons within the SGS was unaffected by the enucleation so that the colliculi contralateral to the enucleated eye showed a substantial loss of neurons within this cell layer. This study demonstrates the importance of the retinal ganglion cell input, even in adult animals, for maintaining the viability of neurons in the SGS layer of the superior colliculus. PMID:9183672

  8. Sensorineural hearing loss: a complication of acute otitis media in adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo Hyun; Park, Sung Joon; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Min-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    We aim to evaluate the incidence and clinical manifestations of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adult patients with acute otitis media (AOM). Seventy-five patients (age > 18 years; 83 ears) diagnosed with AOM between January 2008 and March 2011 at our clinic were enroled and retrospectively reviewed. We detected audiometrically confirmed SNHL during the course of AOM in eight patients. The clinical course, treatment, and audiometric final outcome of each case were reviewed. SNHL was associated with AOM in 8 out of 83 ears (9.3%). The mean age of patients was 57.5 years, and the mean follow-up period was 21.1 months (range 0.6-46.3 months). The most common symptom was tinnitus. Mean bone conduction hearing threshold was 39.5 dB in pure tone audiometry. All patients showed high-frequency HL, and three showed pan-frequency HL. All patients were treated with oral antibiotics at the initial visit. Seven ears were treated with a combination of oral steroids. Myringotomy was also performed. Seven of eight patients showed improvement; however, 8 kHz thresholds were not improved. This suggested that the inflammation spread through the round window. The mean duration of recovery was 18.6 days. SNHL associated with AOM in adult patients occurs during the early phases of the disease course. High-frequency hearing was commonly affected and was well treated with oral antibiotics, myringotomy, and steroid therapy. Audiometry can be helpful for treating adult patients with AOM. Active treatment, including myringotomy, should be performed during the early phase, if SNHL is suspected. PMID:23990061

  9. Prevalence of Impaired Memory in Hospitalized Adults and Associations with In-Hospital Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Calev, Hila; Spampinato, Lisa M; Press, Valerie G; Meltzer, David O; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective inpatient teaching requires intact patient memory, but studies suggest hospitalized adults may have memory deficits. Sleep loss among inpatients could contribute to memory impairment. Objective To assess memory in older hospitalized adults, and to test the association between sleep quantity, sleep quality and memory, in order to identify a possible contributor to memory deficits in these patients. Design Prospective cohort study Setting General medicine and hematology/oncology inpatient wards Patients 59 hospitalized adults at least 50 years of age with no diagnosed sleep disorder. Measurements Immediate memory and memory after a 24-hour delay were assessed using a word recall and word recognition task from the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT). A vignette-based memory task was piloted as an alternative test more closely resembling discharge instructions. Sleep duration and efficiency overnight in the hospital were measured using actigraphy. Results Mean immediate recall was 3.8 words out of 15 (SD=2.1). Forty-nine percent of subjects had poor memory, defined as immediate recall score of 3 or lower. Median immediate recognition was 11 words out of 15 (IQR=9, 13). Median delayed recall score was 1 word and median delayed recognition was 10 words (IQR= 8–12). In-hospital sleep duration and efficiency were not significantly associated with memory. The medical vignette score was correlated with immediate recall (r=0.49, p<0.01) Conclusions About half of inpatients studied had poor memory while in the hospital, signaling that hospitalization might not be an ideal teachable moment. In-hospital sleep was not associated with memory scores. PMID:25872763

  10. Chronic systemic administration of 5-HT produces weight loss in mature adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S

    1995-09-01

    Adult male rats were allowed to free-feed until their body weights had stabilised. They were next trained onto a 4 h per day feeding regimen, until further stabilisation occurred. All rats then received saline injections for 5 days, to establish baseline body weights. One group was then injected with 5.0 mg/kg 5-HT daily for 30 days while the other group continued with saline. Progressive and significant weight loss occurred in the drug-treated animals. After 30 days, the 5-HT-treated rats had lost 7.0% of their baseline body weights, whereas the control group had gained 1.3%. At this point, the 5-HT treated rats were switched back to saline injections to investigate rebound effects. Although the group that had received 5-HT treatment showed evidence of rebound weight gain, mean weights at the end of the 10 day rebound period were still 4.5% lower than baseline values. These data clearly indicate that chronic systemic administration of 5-HT can produce considerable weight loss in rats.

  11. Eating behavior traits and sleep as determinants of weight loss in overweight and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Filiatrault, M-L; Chaput, J-P; Drapeau, V; Tremblay, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between eating behavior traits and weight loss according to sleep quality and duration in adults enrolled in common weight-loss interventions. Methods: Participants included overweight and obese men and women (n=150) (mean±s.d. age, 38.8±8.6 years; mean±s.d. body mass index (BMI), 33.3±3.5 kg m−2) who were subjected to a dietary intervention over a period of 12–16 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, eating behavior traits (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire), sleep quality (total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score) and sleep duration (hours per night, self-reported from the PSQI) were assessed at both baseline and post intervention. Linear regression analysis was used to quantify the relationships between eating behavior traits and changes in anthropometric markers for all subjects and by sleep categories (short sleep: <7 h per night vs recommended sleep: ⩾7 h per night; poor sleep quality: ⩾5 PSQI score vs good sleep quality: <5 PSQI score). We adjusted for age, sex and baseline BMI in analyses. Results: Baseline eating behavior traits were modest predictors of weight-loss success, but they were all significantly associated with their changes over the weight-loss intervention (P<0.01). The diet intervention induced significant changes in eating behavior traits and even more for those having a non-favorable eating behavior profile at baseline. We observed that changes in flexible control and strategic dieting behavior were constantly negatively associated with changes in body weight and fat mass (P<0.05) for recommended duration sleepers. The change in situational susceptibility to disinhibition was positively associated with the change in fat mass and body weight for those having healthy sleeping habits (P<0.05). For poor quality sleepers, the change in avoidance of fattening foods was negatively associated with changes in adiposity (P<0.05). Conclusion: Eating behavior traits and sleep may act

  12. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness.

  13. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets amongmidlife adults.1

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Noel D; Reicks, Marla M; Sibley, Shalamar D; Redmon, J Bruce; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that a whey protein diet would result in greater weight loss and improved body compositioncompared to standard weight loss diets. Weight change, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults was compared between diet groups. Eighteen subjects enrolled ina5 month study of8 weeks controlled food intake followed by 12 weeks ad libitum intake. Subjects were randomized to one of three treatment groups: control diet (CD) (55% carbohydrate: 15% protein: 30% fat), mixed protein (MP) (40% carbohydrate: 30% protein: 30% fat), or whey protein (WP) (40% carbohydrate: 15% mixed protein: 15% whey protein: 30% fat). Measurements included weight, metabolic measures, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and resting energy expenditure. No statistically significant differences in total weight loss or total fat loss were observed between treatments, however, a trend toward greater total weight loss (p = 0.08) and total fat loss (p=0.09) was observed in the WP group compared to the CD group. Fat loss in the leg and gynoid regions was greater (p < 0.05) in the WP group than the CD group. No RAAS mediated response was observed, but a decrease in systolic blood pressure was significantly greater (p <0.05) in the WP group compared to the CD group. In summary, increased whey protein intake did not result in statistically significant differences in weight loss or in total fat loss, but significant differences in regional fat loss and in decreased blood pressure were observed in the WP group. PMID:21419314

  14. Validation of airway resistance models for predicting pressure loss through anatomically realistic conducting airway replicas of adults and children.

    PubMed

    Borojeni, Azadeh A T; Noga, Michelle L; Martin, Andrew R; Finlay, Warren H

    2015-07-16

    This work describes in vitro measurement of the total pressure loss at varying flow rate through anatomically realistic conducting airway replicas of 10 children, 4 to 8 years old, and 5 adults. Experimental results were compared with analytical predictions made using published airway resistance models. For the adult replicas, the model proposed by van Ertbruggen et al. (2005. J. Appl. Physiol. 98, 970-980) most accurately predicted central conducting airway resistance for inspiratory flow rates ranging from 15 to 90 L/min. Models proposed by Pedley et al. (1970. J. Respir. Physiol. 9, 371-386) and by Katz et al. (2011. J. Biomech. 44, 1137-1143) also provided reasonable estimates, but with a tendency to over predict measured pressure loss for both models. For child replicas, the Pedley and Katz models both provided good estimation of measured pressure loss at flow rates representative of resting tidal breathing, but under predicted measured values at high inspiratory flow rate (60 L/min). The van Ertbruggen model, developed based on flow simulations performed in an adult airway model, tended to under predict measured pressure loss through the child replicas across the range of flow rates studied (2 to 60 L/min). These results are intended to provide guidance for selection of analytical pressure loss models for use in predicting airway resistance and ventilation distribution in adults and children.

  15. Auditory Steady-State Response Thresholds in Adults With Conductive and Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinabadi, Reza; Jafarzadeh, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Auditory steady state response (ASSR) provides a frequency-specific and automatic assessment of hearing sensitivity and is used in infants and difficult-to-test adults. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the ASSR thresholds among various types (normal, conductive, and sensorineural), degree (normal, mild, and moderate), and configuration (flat and sloping) of hearing sensitivity, and measuring the cutoff point between normal condition and hearing loss for different frequencies. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial was performed in Iran and included patients who were referred from Ear, Nose, and Throat Department. A total of 54 adults (27 with sensorineural hearing loss, 17 with conductive hearing losses, and 10 with normal hearing) were randomly chosen to participate in our study. The type and degree of hearing loss were determined through testing by otoscopy, tympanometry, acoustic reflex, and pure tone audiometry. Then the ASSR was tested at carrier frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. Results: The ASSR accurately estimates the behavioral thresholds as well as flat and sloping configurations. There was no correlation between types of hearing loss and difference of behavioral and ASSR thresholds (P = 0.69). The difference between ASSR and behavioral thresholds decreased as severity of hearing loss increased. The 40, 35, 30, and 35 dB could be considered as cutoffs between normal hearing and hearing loss for 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz, respectively. Conclusions: The ASSR can accurately predict the degree and configuration of hearing loss and discriminate the normal hearing from mild or moderate hearing loss and mild from moderate hearing loss, except for 500 Hz. The Air-conducted ASSR could not define the type of hearing loss. PMID:25763263

  16. Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Matthew S; Farmer, Mildred; Yasunaga, Koichi; Matsuo, Noboru; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Komikado, Masanori; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Wilder, Donna; Jones, Franz; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Cartwright, Yolanda

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercise-induced weight loss. Participants (n = 132 with 107 completers) were randomly assigned to receive a beverage containing approximately 625 mg of catechins with 39 mg caffeine or a control beverage (39 mg caffeine, no catechins) for 12 wk. Participants were asked to maintain constant energy intake and engage in >or=180 min/wk moderate intensity exercise, including >or=3 supervised sessions per week. Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry), abdominal fat areas (computed tomography), and clinical laboratory tests were measured at baseline and wk 12. There was a trend (P = 0.079) toward greater loss of body weight in the catechin group compared with the control group; least squares mean (95% CI) changes, adjusted for baseline value, age, and sex, were -2.2 (-3.1, -1.3) and -1.0 (-1.9, -0.1) kg, respectively. Percentage changes in fat mass did not differ between the catechin [5.2 (-7.0, -3.4)] and control groups [-3.5 (-5.4, 1.6)] (P = 0.208). However, percentage changes in total abdominal fat area [-7.7 (-11.7, -3.8) vs. -0.3 (-4.4, 3.9); P = 0.013], subcutaneous abdominal fat area [-6.2 (-10.2, -2.2) vs. 0.8 (-3.3, 4.9); P = 0.019], and fasting serum triglycerides (TG) [-11.2 (-18.8, -3.6) vs. 1.9 (-5.9, 9.7); P = 0.023] were greater in the catechin group. These findings suggest that green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced changes in abdominal fat and serum TG.

  17. How It Matters when It Happens: Life Changes Related to Functional Loss in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Kathrin; Wang, Shu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of loss of vision on important life domains depending on life context. The sample included two groups dealing with vision impairment: middle-aged (n = 44) and older adults (n = 107). Findings showed important group differences in extent, type, and facet of life changes across and within four life domains:…

  18. Adult Conditional Knockout of PGC-1α Leads to Loss of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haisong; Zhang, Shuran; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar; Xu, Jinchong; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Pirooznia, Shelia; Andrabi, Shaida A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have implicated a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator protein-1α (PGC-1α) in PD and in animal or cellular models of PD. The role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons is not clear. Here we find that there are four different PGC-1α isoforms expressed in SH-SY5Y cells, and these four isoforms are expressed across subregions of mouse brain. Adult conditional PGC-1α knock-out mice show a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons that is accompanied by a reduction of dopamine in the striatum. In human PD postmortem tissue from the SNpc, there is a reduction of PGC-1α isoforms and mitochondria markers. Our findings suggest that all four isoforms of PGC-1α are required for the proper expression of mitochondrial proteins in SNpc DA neurons and that PGC-1α is essential for SNpc DA neuronal survival, possibly through the maintenance of mitochondrial function. PMID:27622213

  19. Adult Conditional Knockout of PGC-1α Leads to Loss of Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Zhang, Shuran; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar; Xu, Jinchong; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Kang, Bong-Gu; Lee, Yunjong; Zhang, Jianmin; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C; Pirooznia, Shelia; Andrabi, Shaida A; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have implicated a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator protein-1α (PGC-1α) in PD and in animal or cellular models of PD. The role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons is not clear. Here we find that there are four different PGC-1α isoforms expressed in SH-SY5Y cells, and these four isoforms are expressed across subregions of mouse brain. Adult conditional PGC-1α knock-out mice show a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons that is accompanied by a reduction of dopamine in the striatum. In human PD postmortem tissue from the SNpc, there is a reduction of PGC-1α isoforms and mitochondria markers. Our findings suggest that all four isoforms of PGC-1α are required for the proper expression of mitochondrial proteins in SNpc DA neurons and that PGC-1α is essential for SNpc DA neuronal survival, possibly through the maintenance of mitochondrial function. PMID:27622213

  20. Adult Conditional Knockout of PGC-1α Leads to Loss of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haisong; Zhang, Shuran; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar; Xu, Jinchong; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Pirooznia, Shelia; Andrabi, Shaida A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have implicated a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator protein-1α (PGC-1α) in PD and in animal or cellular models of PD. The role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons is not clear. Here we find that there are four different PGC-1α isoforms expressed in SH-SY5Y cells, and these four isoforms are expressed across subregions of mouse brain. Adult conditional PGC-1α knock-out mice show a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons that is accompanied by a reduction of dopamine in the striatum. In human PD postmortem tissue from the SNpc, there is a reduction of PGC-1α isoforms and mitochondria markers. Our findings suggest that all four isoforms of PGC-1α are required for the proper expression of mitochondrial proteins in SNpc DA neurons and that PGC-1α is essential for SNpc DA neuronal survival, possibly through the maintenance of mitochondrial function.

  1. Coregulation, dysregulation, self-regulation: an integrative analysis and empirical agenda for understanding adult attachment, separation, loss, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Sbarra, David A; Hazan, Cindy

    2008-05-01

    An integrative framework is proposed for understanding how multiple biological and psychological systems are regulated in the context of adult attachment relationships, dysregulated by separation and loss experiences, and, potentially, re-regulated through individual recovery efforts. Evidence is reviewed for a coregulatory model of normative attachment, defined as a pattern of interwoven physiology between romantic partners that results from the conditioning of biological reward systems and the emergence of felt security within adult pair bonds. The loss of coregulation can portend a state of biobehavioral dysregulation, ranging from diffuse psychophysiological arousal and disorganization to a full-blown (and highly organized) stress response. The major task for successful recovery is adopting a self-regulatory strategy that attenuates the dysregulating effects of the attachment disruption. Research evidence is reviewed across multiple levels of analysis, and the article concludes with a series of testable research questions on the interconnected nature of attachment, loss, and recovery processes.

  2. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults' hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ² test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.

  3. Estimated tooth loss based on number of present teeth in Japanese adults using national surveys of dental disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Koichi; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Fukai, Kakuhiro; Takiguchi, Toru; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Oral health instruction for adults should take into account the potential effect of tooth loss, as this has been suggested to predict further tooth loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether further tooth loss could be predicted from the number of present teeth (PT). We employed the same method as in our previous study, this time using two national surveys of dental disease, which were deemed to represent a generational cohort. Percentiles were estimated using the cumulative frequency distribution of PT from the two surveys. The first was a survey of 704 participants aged 50-59 years conducted in 2005, and the second was a survey of 747 participants aged 56-65 years conducted in 2011. The 1st to 100th percentiles of the number of PT were calculated for both age groups. Using these percentiles and a generational cohort analysis based on the two surveys, the number of teeth lost per year could be calculated. The distribution of number of teeth lost generated a convex curve. Peak tooth loss occurred at around 12-14 PT, with 0.54 teeth being lost per year. The percentage of teeth lost (per number of PT) increased as number of PT decreased. The results confirmed that tooth loss promotes further tooth loss. These data should be made available for use in adult oral health education.

  4. Associations Between Adult and Childhood Secondhand Smoke Exposures with Fecundity and Fetal Loss Among Women who Visited a Cancer Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Peppone, Luke J.; Piazza, Kenneth M.; Mahoney, Martin C.; Morrow, Gary R.; Mustian, Karen; Palesh, Oxana G.; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND A large percentage of the population continues to be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). Although studies have consistently linked active smoking to various pregnancy outcomes, results from the few studies examining SHS exposure and pregnancy difficulties have been inconsistent. METHODS Approximately 4,800 women who presented to Roswell Park Cancer Institute between 1982 and 1998 and reported being pregnant at least once were queried about their childhood and adult exposures to SHS using a standardized questionnaire. Women were asked to report on selected prenatal pregnancy outcomes (fetal loss and difficulty becoming pregnant). RESULTS Approximately 11.3% of women reported difficulty becoming pregnant, while 32% reported a fetal loss or 12.4% reported multiple fetal losses. Forty percent reported any prenatal pregnancy difficulty (fetal loss and/or difficulty becoming pregnant). SHS exposures from their parents were associated with difficulty becoming pregnant (OR=1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48) and lasting > 1 year (OR=1.34, 95%CI 1.12–1.60). Exposure to SHS in both at home during childhood and at the time of survey completion was also associated with fetal loss (OR=1.39, 95%CI 1.17–1.66) and multiple fetal losses (OR=1.62, 95%CI 1.25–2.11). Increasing current daily hours of SHS exposure as an adult was related to the occurrence of both multiple fetal loss and reduced fecundity (ptrend<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Reports of exposures to SHS during childhood and as an adult were associated with increased odds for prenatal pregnancy difficulties. These findings underscore the public health perspective that all persons, especially women in their reproductive years, should be fully protected from tobacco smoke. PMID:19039010

  5. Latent Mean and Covariance Differences with Measurement Equivalence in College Students with Developmental Difficulties versus the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III/Wechsler Memory Scale-III Normative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Gregg, Noel; Bandalos, Deborah; Davis, Mark; Coleman, Chris; Holdnack, James A.; Weiss, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    Intelligence tests are usually part of the assessment battery for the diagnosis of adults with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Professionals must ensure that inferences drawn from such test scores are equivalent across populations with and without disabilities. Examination of measurement equivalence…

  6. Occurrence of osteoporosis & factors determining bone mineral loss in young adults with Graves’ disease

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Dibakar; Dutta, Deep; Maisnam, Indira; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is a paucity of data with conflicting reports regarding the extent and pattern of bone mineral (BM) loss in Graves’ disease (GD), especially in young adults. Also, interpretation of BM data in Indians is limited by use of T-score cut-offs derived from Caucasians. This study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence of osteoporosis in active treatment naive patients with GD and determine the factors predicting BM loss, using standard T-scores from Caucasians and compare with the cut-offs proposed by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for diagnosing osteoporosis in Indians. Methods: Patients with GD, >20 yr age without any history of use of anti-thyroid drugs, and normal controls without fracture history, drugs use or co-morbidities underwent BM density (BMD) assessment at lumbar spine, hip and forearm, thyroid function and calcium profile assessment. Women with menopause or premature ovarian insufficiency and men with androgen deficiency were excluded. Results: Patients with GD (n=31) had significantly lower BMD at spine (1.01±0.10 vs. 1.13±0.16 g/cm2), hip (0.88±0.10 vs. 1.04±0.19 g/cm2) and forearm (0.46±0.04 vs. 0.59±0.09 g/cm2) compared with controls (n=30) (P<0.001). Nine (29%) and six (19.3%) patients with GD had osteoporosis as per T-score and ICMR criteria, respectively. None of GD patients had osteoporosis at hip or spine as per ICMR criteria. Serum T3 had strongest inverse correlation with BMD at spine, hip and femur. Step-wise linear regression analysis after adjusting for age, BMI and vitamin D showed T3 to be the best predictor of reduced BMD at spine, hip and forearm, followed by phosphate at forearm and 48 h I131 uptake for spine BMD in GD. Interpretation & conclusions: Osteoporosis at hip or spine is not a major problem in GD and more commonly involves forearm. Diagnostic criterion developed from Caucasians tends to overdiagnose osteoporosis in Indians. T3 elevation and phosphate are important predictors

  7. Experiences of hearing loss and views towards interventions to promote uptake of rehabilitation support among UK adults

    PubMed Central

    Rolfe, Crystal; Gardner, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Effective hearing loss rehabilitation support options are available. Yet, people often experience delays in receiving rehabilitation support. This study aimed to document support-seeking experiences among a sample of UK adults with hearing loss, and views towards potential strategies to increase rehabilitation support uptake. People with hearing loss were interviewed about their experiences of seeking support, and responses to hypothetical intervention strategies, including public awareness campaigns, a training programme for health professionals, and a national hearing screening programme. Design: Semi-structured qualitative interview design with thematic analysis. Study sample: Twenty-two people with hearing loss, aged 66–88. Results: Three themes, representing barriers to receiving rehabilitation support and potential areas for intervention, were identified: making the journey from realization to readiness, combatting social stigma, and accessing appropriate services. Barriers to receiving support mostly focused on appraisal of hearing loss symptoms. Interventions enabling symptom appraisal, such as routine screening, or demonstrating how to raise the topic effectively with a loved one, were welcomed. Conclusions: Interventions to facilitate realization of hearing loss should be prioritized. Raising awareness of the symptoms and prevalence of hearing loss may help people to identify hearing problems and reduce stigma, in turn increasing hearing loss acceptance. PMID:27379464

  8. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment may benefit, not harm, young adult staff members.

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S; Earleywine, M

    2015-08-01

    Despite the success of weight-management programmes, some researchers caution that participation in an aggressive approach to weight management could promote the development of eating pathology. The current study evaluated the risks and benefits for young adults of serving as staff members in an immersion treatment of adolescent obesity over the course of a summer. Participants included weight loss staff members (n = 108) along with a comparison group of young adults with similar demographic characteristics (n = 136). Participants completed assessments of eating disorder and obesity risk at three time points: the beginning of the summer, the end of the summer and a 6-week follow-up. Weight loss leadership participants who were initially overweight lost weight over the course of the summer, but those at healthy weights maintained their weight. Comparison participants also maintained their weight during the summer. Weight loss staff members also increased dietary restraint over the summer, and increases in dietary restraint appeared to facilitate appropriate weight reduction. Participation as a leader in an immersion weight loss programme seemed to benefit, not harm, young adults; this suggests potential advantages for using weight controlling interventions in a wide range of individuals, including as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:26129749

  9. The influence of audibility on speech recognition with nonlinear frequency compression for children and adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    McCreery, Ryan W.; Alexander, Joshua; Brennan, Marc A.; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) and other frequency lowering strategies is to increase the audibility of high-frequency sounds that are not otherwise audible with conventional hearing-aid processing due to the degree of hearing loss, limited hearing aid bandwidth or a combination of both factors. The aim of the current study was to compare estimates of speech audibility processed by NFC to improvements in speech recognition for a group of children and adults with high-frequency hearing loss. Design Monosyllabic word recognition was measured in noise for twenty-four adults and twelve children with mild to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Stimuli were amplified based on each listener’s audiogram with conventional processing (CP) with amplitude compression or with NFC and presented under headphones using a software-based hearing aid simulator. A modification of the speech intelligibility index (SII) was used to estimate audibility of information in frequency-lowered bands. The mean improvement in SII was compared to the mean improvement in speech recognition. Results All but two listeners experienced improvements in speech recognition with NFC compared to CP, consistent with the small increase in audibility that was estimated using the modification of the SII. Children and adults had similar improvements in speech recognition with NFC. Conclusion Word recognition with NFC was higher than CP for children and adults with mild to severe hearing loss. The average improvement in speech recognition with NFC (7%) was consistent with the modified SII, which indicated that listeners experienced an increase in audibility with NFC compared to CP. Further studies are necessary to determine if changes in audibility with NFC are related to speech recognition with NFC for listeners with greater degrees of hearing loss, with a greater variety of compression settings, and using auditory training. PMID:24535558

  10. A Study of the Combined Use of a Hearing Aid and Tactual Aid in an Adult with Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Charlotte M.; Delhorne, Lorraine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of the combined used of a hearing aid and tactual aid to supplement lip-reading in the reception of speech and for the recognition of environmental sounds in an adult with profound hearing loss. Speech conditions included lip-reading alone (L), lip-reading + tactual aid (L+TA) lip-reading + hearing aid (L+HA) and…

  11. Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ): A Pilot Clinical Trial in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Mehling, Wolf; Wu, Eveline; Beristianos, Matthew; Yaffe, Kristine; Skultety, Karyn; Chesney, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current dementia medications have small effect sizes, many adverse effects and do not change the disease course. Therefore, it is critically important to study alternative treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to pilot-test a novel, integrative group exercise program for individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia called Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ), which focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand) while increasing mindful body awareness and facilitating social connection. Methods We performed a 36-week cross-over pilot clinical trial to compare PLIÉ with usual care (UC) at an adult day program for individuals with dementia in San Francisco, CA. Assessments of physical performance, cognitive function, physical function, dementia-related behaviors, quality of life and caregiver burden were performed by blinded assessors at baseline, 18 weeks (cross-over) and 36 weeks. Our primary outcomes were effect sizes based on between-group comparisons of change from baseline to 18 weeks; secondary outcomes were within-group comparisons of change before and after cross-over. Results Twelve individuals enrolled (7 PLIÉ, 5 UC) and 2 withdrew (1 PLIÉ, 18 weeks; 1 UC, 36 weeks). Participants were 82% women (mean age, 84 ± 4 years); caregivers were 82% daughters (mean age, 56 ± 13 years). Effect sizes were not statistically significant but suggested potentially clinically meaningful (≥0.25 SDs) improvement with PLIÉ versus UC for physical performance (Cohen’s D: 0.34 SDs), cognitive function (0.76 SDs) and quality of life (0.83 SDs) as well as for caregiver measures of participant’s quality of life (0.33 SDs) and caregiver burden (0.49 SDs). Results were similar when within-group comparisons were made before and after cross-over. Conclusions PLIÉ is a novel, integrative exercise program that shows promise for improving physical function, cognitive function, quality of life

  12. Second Language Acquisition and First Language Loss in Adult Early Bilinguals: Exploring Some Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the linguistic knowledge of adult second language (L2) learners, who learned the L2 after puberty, with the potentially "eroded" first language (L1) grammars of adult early bilinguals who were exposed to the target language since birth and learned the other language simultaneously, or early in childhood (before age 5). I make…

  13. Oral health disparity in older adults: dental decay and tooth loss.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Paula K; Kaufman, Laura B; Karpas, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Progress has been made in reducing dental caries and edentulism in older adults, but disparities continue to exist related to race, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, and sex. Lack of training in treating medically complex patients, economic factors including absence of coverage for oral health services in Medicare and as a required service for adults in Medicaid, and attitudinal issues on the part of patients, caregivers, and providers contribute to barriers to care for older adults. In addition to the impact of oral health on overall health, oral health impacts quality of life and social and employment opportunities.

  14. Water Consumption Increases Weight Loss During a Hypocaloric Diet Intervention in Middle-aged and Older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55–75 years, BMI 25–40 kg/m2) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (β = −0.87, P < 0.001) showed a 44% greater decline in weight over the 12 weeks than the nonwater group (β = −0.60, P < 0.001). Test meal EI was lower in the WP than NP condition at baseline, but not at week 12 (baseline: WP 498 ± 25 kcal, NP 541 ± 27 kcal, P = 0.009; 12-week: WP 480 ± 25 kcal, NP 506 ± 25 kcal, P = 0.069). Thus, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion. PMID:19661958

  15. Preserved Microvascular Endothelial Function in Young, Obese Adults with Functional Loss of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Evans, Trent D.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) in younger (27 ± 1 year) obese (n = 29) and lean (n = 46) humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of l-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC). Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After l-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction. PMID:26733880

  16. Preserved Microvascular Endothelial Function in Young, Obese Adults with Functional Loss of Nitric Oxide Signaling.

    PubMed

    Harrell, John W; Johansson, Rebecca E; Evans, Trent D; Sebranek, Joshua J; Walker, Benjamin J; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Serlin, Ronald C; Schrage, William G

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) in younger (27 ± 1 year) obese (n = 29) and lean (n = 46) humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of l-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC). Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After l-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction. PMID:26733880

  17. Use of new guidance to profile 'equivalent minutes' of aerobic physical activity for adults in England reveals gender, geographical, and socio-economic inequalities in meeting public health guidance: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David; Townsend, Nick; Foster, Charlie

    2016-12-01

    English physical activity guidance now recognises a double weighting of vigorous over moderate activity; 1 min of vigorous activity is the same as two 'equivalent' minutes of moderate activity. In addition, concerns of over-estimation of occupational PA led to newly applied measurement methods for this domain. Vigorous activity is associated with higher socio-economic position and occupational PA has the opposite association, so these changes may increase inequalities. We profiled adults' total and domain-specific 'equivalent minutes' of weekly PA in England 2012, and investigated inequalities in PA participation, accounting for the new weighting of vigorous PA, and new measurements of occupational PA. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data on the self-reported PA of 8158 adults was used to produce a profile of the domain and duration of weekly 'equivalent minutes' of PA. Vigorous PA was double-weighted compared to moderate PA, and the percentage contribution from each PA domain quantified, stratified by gender and activity status and split by socio-demographic variables. Women, older adults, and adults without qualifications, from deprived areas, with worse employment conditions, or living in the North of England were significantly less likely to meet MVPA guidance. Type of activity was also socially patterned, particularly sport participation, which contributed a higher percentage of PA in adults of higher socioeconomic status. For active men, sporting activity was the most prevalent domain, and sports and walking for active women. In England, there are important socio-demographic differences in how adults participate in PA, and in percentage meeting public health guidance. PMID:27413661

  18. Knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about hearing loss and hearing protection among racial/ethnically diverse young adults.

    PubMed

    Crandell, Carl; Mills, Terry L; Gauthier, Ricardo

    2004-02-01

    Over 11 million individuals exhibit some degree of permanent noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Despite such data, there remains a paucity of empirical evidence on the knowledge of noise exposure and hearing protection devices (HPDs) for young adults, particularly those of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. This lack of research is unfortunate, as prior research suggests that the incidence of NIHL can be reduced through educational programs, such as hearing conservation programs (HCPs). Moreover, research also indicates that such educational programs are more beneficial when developed for specific age and/or ethnic/racial groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the knowledge base of 200 college-aged young adults aged 18-29, concerning the auditory mechanism, NIHL, and the use of HPDs. The second aim of this study was to identify race and ethnicity differences or similarities in knowledge of these areas among African-American and caucasian young adults. Overall, in many instances, a majority of the young adults in our study demonstrated a high degree of knowledge concerning factors associated with exposure to excessive noise and the risk of hearing loss. Yet, the results also revealed significant racial/ethnic differences in knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about the use of HPDs. Recent estimates suggest that more than 11 million individuals in the United States exhibit some degree of NIHL. Moreover, 40 million individuals work in environments that contain potentially harmful noise levels, and over 50 million Americans routinely use firearms--a common cause of noise-induced hearing impairment. A specific hallmark manifestation of NIHL is a permanent decrease in hearing sensitivity from 3,000-6,000 Hz, with a characteristic notch at 4,000 Hz. Additional effects of exposure to high noise levels include physiological changes in heart rate and blood pressure, decrease in work productivity, and an interference with communication that results

  19. Equivalence-Equivalence: Matching Stimuli with Same Discriminative Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that after being trained on A-B and A-C match-to-sample tasks, adults match not only same-class B and C stimuli (equivalence) but also BC compounds with same-class elements and with different-class elements (BC-BC). The assumption was that the BC-BC performances are based on matching equivalence and nonequivalence…

  20. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  1. Long-term asymmetric hearing affects cochlear implantation outcomes differently in adults with pre- and postlingual hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Dowell, Richard C; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears. PMID:26043227

  2. Long-term asymmetric hearing affects cochlear implantation outcomes differently in adults with pre- and postlingual hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Dowell, Richard C; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears.

  3. Long-Term Asymmetric Hearing Affects Cochlear Implantation Outcomes Differently in Adults with Pre- and Postlingual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M.; Dowell, Richard C.; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears. PMID:26043227

  4. Neighborhood environment and loss of physical function in older adults: evidence from the Alameda County Study.

    PubMed

    Balfour, Jennifer L; Kaplan, George A

    2002-03-15

    Research suggests that neighborhood environment may influence functional health at an older age. This study examined the association between neighborhood problems and incidence of overall and lower-extremity functional loss. A total of 883 participants in the Alameda County Study who were aged 55 years and older and functionally healthy were questioned in 1994 and 1995 as part of an ongoing cohort study. Participants rated the severity of six neighborhood problems: traffic, noise, crime, trash and litter, lighting, and public transportation. Seventeen percent reported multiple neighborhood problems. Functional loss was measured by self-report of severe difficulty with physical tasks (e.g., climbing stairs, lifting 10 pounds (4.54 kg)). After 1 year, 6.1% developed overall functional loss, and 3.9% developed lower-extremity functional loss. Regression models adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, health, and behavioral risk factors. Compared with those who reported nonproblem neighborhoods, those who reported multiple-problem neighborhoods were at increased risk of overall functional loss (odds ratio = 2.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.60) and lower-extremity functional loss (odds ratio = 3.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 8.51). Neighborhood problems associated with the largest increase in risk were excessive noise, inadequate lighting, and heavy traffic. Older people who reported problematic neighborhood environments had a greater risk of functional deterioration over 1 year compared with those in better neighborhoods.

  5. The effect of a traditional dance training program on the physical fitness of adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tsimaras, Vasileios K; Kyriazis, Dimitrios A; Christoulas, Kosmas I; Fotiadou, Eleni G; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Angelopoulou, Nikoletta A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a traditional dance training program on aerobic capacity and muscle strength of adults with hearing loss. Twenty-three adults with hearing loss were separated into 2 groups. Thirteen subjects (6 men, 7 women, mean age, 25.7 +/- 3.9 years) constituted the intervention group, whereas 10 subjects (5 men, 5 women, mean age, 26.4 +/- 5.9 years) formed the control group. Pretraining and posttraining treadmill tests were performed to determine heart rate (HR peak), peak minute ventilation (VE peak), peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak, absolute and relative), and time to exhaustion (min). Peak torque of hamstring and quadriceps muscles at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 180 degrees /s, and 300 degrees /s was also measured. The intervention group followed a 12-week traditional dance training program, whereas the control group received no training during this period. Repeated measures of multiple analyses of variance were used to test mean differences between the values of both groups. A paired t-test was used to compare the values within each group prior and after program participation. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. Following the 12-week training program, significant improvements in peak physiological parameters were seen for the intervention group for peak minute ventilation, peak oxygen consumption (both absolute and relative), time to exhaustion, and peak torque values between the 2 measurements (initial and final). No significant improvements in peak physiological parameters and peak torque were noticed in the control group. In conclusion, adults with hearing loss can improve their physical fitness levels with the application of a systematic and well-designed traditional dance training program.

  6. Prepregnancy and Early Adulthood Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Change in Relation to Fetal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Colaci, Daniela S.; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Toth, Thomas L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine prospectively the relationships of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18, and weight change since age 18 with risk of fetal loss. Methods Our prospective cohort study included 25,719 pregnancies reported by 17,027 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II between 1990 and 2009. In 1989, height, current weight, and weight at age 18 were self-reported. Current weight was updated every 2 years thereafter. Pregnancies were self-reported, with case pregnancies lost spontaneously and comparison pregnancies ending in ectopic pregnancy, induced abortion, or live birth. Results Incident fetal loss was reported in 4,494 (17.5%) pregnancies. Compared to those of normal BMI, the multivariate relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of fetal loss was 1.07 (1.00, 1.15) for overweight women, 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) for class I obese women, and 1.27 (1.11, 1.45) for class II & III obese women (P, trend=<0.001). BMI at age 18 was not associated with fetal loss (P, trend=0.59). Compared to women who maintained a stable weight (+/− 4 kg) between age 18 and before pregnancy, women who lost weight had a 20% (95% CI 9, 29%) lower risk of fetal loss. This association was stronger among women who were overweight at age 18. Conclusion Being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy was associated with higher risk of fetal loss. In women overweight or obese at age 18, losing 4 kg or more was associated with a lower risk of fetal loss. PMID:25198273

  7. Memory Loss and Frontal Cognitive Dysfunction in a Patient with Adult-onset Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kunihiko; Sone, Jun; Fujioka, Yusuke; Masuda, Michihito; Ohdake, Reiko; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Adult-onset NIID can result in prominent dementia. We herein describe the case of a 74-year-old man who presented with dementia, cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, and autonomic dysfunction. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the corticomedullary junction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed frontal-dominant white matter hyperintensity. NIID was diagnosed from the presence of intranuclear inclusions in a skin biopsy sample. Neuropsychological testing revealed memory loss and frontal cognitive dysfunction, especially in relation to language and executive functions. We were therefore able to confirm the association of NIID with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27523009

  8. The Effect of Hearing Loss on the Perception of Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susie; von Hapsburg, Deborah; Hay, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitates language learning in infants with normal hearing, compared to adult-directed speech (ADS). It is well established that infants with normal hearing prefer to listen to IDS over ADS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infants with hearing impairment (HI), like their NH peers, show a…

  9. Gains and Losses in Creative Personality as Perceived by Adults across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Yeung, Dannii Y.; Sue-Chan, Christina; Chan, Kara; Hui, Desmond C. K.; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used a life span model to study the subjective perception of creative personality (CP) in emerging, young, middle-aged, and older Hong Kong Chinese adults. We also asked participants to estimate the approximate age by which people develop and lose CP across adulthood. We expected an interesting interplay between internalized age…

  10. The impact of hearing loss on language performance in older adults with different stages of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Lodeiro-Fernández, Leire; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana; Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Rodríguez-Villamil, José Luis; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The possible relationship between audiometric hearing thresholds and cognitive performance on language tests was analyzed in a cross-sectional cohort of older adults aged ≥65 years (N=98) with different degrees of cognitive impairment. Materials and methods Participants were distributed into two groups according to Reisberg’s Global Deterioration Scale (GDS): a normal/predementia group (GDS scores 1–3) and a moderate/moderately severe dementia group (GDS scores 4 and 5). Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and receptive and production-based language function (Verbal Fluency Test, Boston Naming Test, and Token Test) were assessed. Results Results showed that the dementia group achieved significantly lower scores than the predementia group in all language tests. A moderate negative correlation between hearing loss and verbal comprehension (r=−0.298; P<0.003) was observed in the predementia group (r=−0.363; P<0.007). However, no significant relationship between hearing loss and verbal fluency and naming scores was observed, regardless of cognitive impairment. Conclusion In the predementia group, reduced hearing level partially explains comprehension performance but not language production. In the dementia group, hearing loss cannot be considered as an explanatory factor of poor receptive and production-based language performance. These results are suggestive of cognitive rather than simply auditory problems to explain the language impairment in the elderly. PMID:25914528

  11. Difficulties Accepting the Loss of a Spouse: A Precursor for Intensified Grieving among Widowed Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason M.; Futterman, Andrew; Thompson, Larry W.; Moran, Christine; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has identified three distinct factors that make up the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-Present (TRIG-Present) scale, which tap into grief-related thoughts, emotional response, and nonacceptance regarding a loss. In the present study, the authors sought to identify which of these core grief experiences in the early aftermath of…

  12. Relationships among hearing loss, cognition and balance ability in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Da Hyun; Lee, Jong Dae; Lee, Hee Joong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among hearing loss, cognition, and balance ability in elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 46 elderly individuals over 65 years of age who were attending senior welfare centers participated in this study. Through a hearing test, the speech frequency pure tone average in the better ear was checked. We set a criterion of hearing loss if the better ear hearing level (BEHL) value was 25 dB or more. Cognition ability was evaluated using the Korean mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE). Dynamic balance ability was evaluated by the timed up and go (TUG) test, and static balance ability was tested using a one-leg stance test (OLST). [Results] The ages of the subjects were all related to BEHL, TUG, K-MMSE, and OLST. BEHL had a negative correlation with OLST, whereas it had no correlation with K-MMSE or TUG. The hearing loss group had a significantly shorter OLST time than the normal hearing group. [Conclusion] As elderly individuals get older, their hearing and cognition, as well as their balance abilities deteriorate. The results of this study indicate there is a significant correlation between hearing loss and static balance. PMID:26157259

  13. Making Physical Activity Accessible to Older Adults with Memory Loss: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McCurry, Susan M.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Teri, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), memory loss may prevent successful engagement in exercise, a key factor in preventing additional disability. The Resources and Activities for Life Long Independence (RALLI) program uses behavioral principles to make exercise more accessible for these individuals. Exercises are broken…

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6 mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (−.40 ± .06 and −.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600. PMID:24490058

  15. Bringing the Adult Learning Experience of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance into Focus: A Narrative Analysis with Implications for Educators and Clinicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stametz, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the many social, medical, and political viewpoints on obesity, little is known of the weight loss maintenance experience and the impact on learning processes and outcomes among adults. The purpose of this study was two-fold: a) to explore the experience and meaning-making processes of individuals who have maintained a weight loss and…

  16. Auditory training can improve working memory, attention, and communication in adverse conditions for adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Henshaw, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) helps compensate for degradation in the auditory signal. A series of three high-quality training studies are discussed, which include, (i) a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of phoneme discrimination in quiet that trained adults with mild hearing loss (n = 44), (ii) a repeated measures study that trained phoneme discrimination in noise in hearing aid (HA) users (n = 30), and (iii) a double-blind RCT that directly trained working memory (WM) in HA users (n = 57). AT resulted in generalized improvements in measures of self-reported hearing, competing speech, and complex cognitive tasks that all index executive functions. This suggests that for AT related benefits, the development of complex cognitive skills may be more important than the refinement of sensory processing. Furthermore, outcome measures should be sensitive to the functional benefits of AT. For WM training, lack of far-transfer to untrained outcomes suggests no generalized benefits to real-world listening abilities. We propose that combined auditory-cognitive training approaches, where cognitive enhancement is embedded within auditory tasks, are most likely to offer generalized benefits to the real-world listening abilities of adults with hearing loss. PMID:26074826

  17. Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults2

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-01-01

    Background Rodent studies show that oligofructose promotes weight loss, stimulates satiety hormone secretion, reduces energy intake, and improves lipid profiles. Objective Our objective was to examine the effects of oligofructose supplementation on body weight and satiety hormone concentrations in overweight and obese adults. Design This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-eight otherwise healthy adults with a body mass index (in kg/m2) > 25 were randomly assigned to receive 21 g oligo-fructose/d or a placebo (maltodextrin) for 12 wk. Body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); meal tolerance tests, including satiety hormone response; food intake; and subjective appetite ratings were determined. Results There was a reduction in body weight of 1.03 ±0.43 kg with oligofructose supplementation, whereas the control group experienced an increase in body weight of 0.45 ± 0.31 kg over 12 wk (P = 0.01). A lower area under the curve (AUC) for ghrelin (P = 0.004) and a higher AUC for peptide YY (PYY) with oligofructose (P = 0.03) coincided with a reduction in self-reported caloric intake (P ≤ 0.05). Glucose decreased in the oligofructose group and increased in the control group between initial and final tests (P ≤ 0.05). Insulin concentrations mirrored this pattern (P ≤ 0.05). Oligofructose supplementation did not affect plasma active glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion. According to a visual analog scale designed to assess side effects, oligofructose was well tolerated. Conclusions Independent of other lifestyle changes, oligofructose supplementation has the potential to promote weight loss and improve glucose regulation in overweight adults. Suppressed ghrelin and enhanced PYY may contribute in part to the reduction in energy intake. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00522353. PMID:19386741

  18. A cross-sectional study assessing the self-reported weight loss strategies used by adult Australian general practice patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant public health concern. General practitioners (GPs) see a large percentage of the population and are well placed to provide weight management advice. There has been little examination of the types of weight loss strategies used in Australian general practice patients. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the proportion of normal weight, overweight and obese general practice patients who report trying to lose weight in the past 12 months, the types of weight loss strategies and diets used as well as the proportion consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Methods Adult patients completed a touchscreen computer survey while waiting for their appointment. Responses from 1335 patients in twelve Australian practices are reported. Results A larger proportion of obese patients had tried to lose weight in the past 12 months (73%) compared to those who were overweight (55%) and normal weight (33%). The most commonly used strategy used was changing diet and increasing exercise in all BMI categories. Less than 10% used strategies such as prescription medication, over the counter supplements and consulted a weight loss specialist. Low calorie and low fat diets were the most frequently reported diets used to lose weight in those who were normal weight, overweight and obese. Overall, the proportion seeking GP advice was low, with 12% of normal weight, 15% of overweight and 43% of obese patients consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Conclusions A large proportion of overweight or obese patients have tried to lose weight and utilized strategies such as changing diet and increasing exercise. Most attempts however were unassisted, with low rates of consultation with GPs and weight loss specialists. Ways to assist overweight and obese general practice patients with their weight loss attempts need to be identified. PMID:22646972

  19. Nocturnal eating predicts tooth loss among adults: results from the Danish MONICA study.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jennifer D; Williams, Karen B; Heitmann, Berit L

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between nocturnal eating, such as that associated with night eating syndrome (NES), and oral health is unknown. This study sought to determine if nocturnal eating is related to tooth loss in a large, epidemiologic sample. Danes (N=2217; age range 30-60 years, M BMI [kg/m(2)]=25.9, % Male=50.1) enrolled in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) were assessed on oral health, eating behavior, anthropometrics, general health, and demographic characteristics in both 1987/88 and 1993/94. We hypothesized that nocturnal eating at time one (1987/88) predicts number of missing teeth at time two (1993/94), when controlling for age, education, smoking status, body mass, carbohydrate intake, binge eating behavior, and diabetes diagnosis. A negative binomial model predicting number of missing teeth from nocturnal eating while controlling for covariates was conducted. Expected change in log count of missing teeth was significantly less for non-night eaters (p=.009), non-smokers (p=.001), non-diabetics (p=.001) and for each successive younger age group (p=.0001). Additionally, expected increase in log count of missing teeth was significantly greater for individuals with less than "high school diploma" education compared to those with the highest level of education (p=.0001). In sum, nocturnal eating contributes to tooth loss. Treatment providers should encourage good oral health care practices to reduce the risk of tooth loss associated with nocturnal eating.

  20. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Radiation Dose-Equivalent Radiography, Multidetector Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Fractures of Adult Cadaveric Wrists

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Reidelbach, Carolin; Krauß, Tobias; Lampert, Florian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Fiebich, Martin; Goerke, Sebastian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiography, to radiography equivalent dose multidetector computed tomography (RED-MDCT) and to radiography equivalent dose cone beam computed tomography (RED-CBCT) for wrist fractures. Methods As study subjects we obtained 10 cadaveric human hands from body donors. Distal radius, distal ulna and carpal bones (n = 100) were artificially fractured in random order in a controlled experimental setting. We performed radiation dose equivalent radiography (settings as in standard clinical care), RED-MDCT in a 320 row MDCT with single shot mode and RED-CBCT in a device dedicated to musculoskeletal imaging. Three raters independently evaluated the resulting images for fractures and the level of confidence for each finding. Gold standard was evaluated by consensus reading of a high-dose MDCT. Results Pooled sensitivity was higher in RED-MDCT with 0.89 and RED-MDCT with 0.81 compared to radiography with 0.54 (P = < .004). No significant differences were detected concerning the modalities’ specificities (with values between P = .98). Raters' confidence was higher in RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT compared to radiography (P < .001). Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT for wrist fractures proved to be similar and in some parts even higher compared to radiography. Readers are more confident in their reporting with the cross sectional modalities. Dose equivalent cross sectional computed tomography of the wrist could replace plain radiography for fracture diagnosis in the long run. PMID:27788215

  1. Federally Qualified Health Centers Minimize the Impact of Loss of Frequency and Independence of Movement in Older Adult Patients through Access to Transportation Services

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Krystal Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Loss of mobility in older adults (65 and older) is associated with falling, loss of independence, and mortality. This paper, which to the author's knowledge is the first of its kind, summarizes findings of Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) case reports and how FQHCs minimize the impacts of mobility loss in older adult patients (who would not receive primary services without these transportation programs) by providing access to primary care services through transportation programs. This paper features the transportation programs of four FQHCs located in both urban and rural United States areas: LifeLong Medical Care (Oakland, CA); Hudson Headwaters Health Network (Queensbury, NY); North End Community Health Center (Boston, MA); Aaron E. Henry Community Health Services Center, Inc. (Clarksdale, MS). This paper is beneficial to primary care providers and public health officials in outlining how transportation may be used to minimize the effects of mobility loss in older adult patients. PMID:21748013

  2. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats. PMID:26275507

  3. Social Cognitive Changes Following Weight Loss and Physical Activity Interventions in Obese, Older Adults in Poor Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Brawley, Lawrence; Gaukstern, Jill E.; Ambrosius, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The study objectives were to determine (a) the effects of group-mediated cognitive–behavioral interventions on change in performance self-efficacy, satisfaction with function, and with appearance among older, overweight/obese adults in poor cardiovascular health and (b) whether self-efficacy mediated change in 400-m walk time. Methods This translational, randomized controlled trial of physical activity and weight loss was conducted within community Cooperative Extension Centers. Participants were randomized to three intervention arms: Physical Activity, Weight Loss+ Physical Activity, or a Successful Aging education control. Results Across 18 months, the Weight Loss+Physical Activity intervention demonstrated greater improvements in self-efficacy, satisfaction with function, and appearance versus other trial arms. Physical Activity intervention participants also experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy and satisfaction with function versus those in Successful Aging. Self-efficacy mediated 400-m walk time at 18 months. Conclusions Both group-mediated cognitive–behavioral interventions yielded desirable improvements in social cognitions and preserved mobility improvements post-intervention. PMID:22773225

  4. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats.

  5. Socioeconomic Position and Health-Seeking Behavior for Hearing Loss Among Older Adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Emily; Ploubidis, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with progression in the health-seeking process for hearing loss. Method. Logistic regression of data from a cross-sectional survey representative of noninstitutionalized, 50 years and older population of England (ELSA wave 2, 2004). Using self-reported hearing difficulty as starting point, we examined the association between SEP and health-seeking behaviors in 6 stages leading to hearing aid acquisition and use. Results. Higher SEP was associated with lower odds of self-reported hearing difficulty, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–0.91, p < .001). There was marginal negative association between higher SEP and receiving hearing aid recommendation (adjusted OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–0.99, p = .05). SEP was not associated with any other stage of health-seeking behavior. Discussion. Among the noninstitutionalized older population of England, SEP-related inequalities exist in the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss. However, SEP is not strongly associated with progression in the remaining stages of health-seeking process during and after an individual’s contact with the health system. PMID:24663332

  6. Audiologic Management of Older Adults With Hearing Loss and Compromised Cognitive/Psychoacoustic Auditory Processing Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kricos, Patricia B.

    2006-01-01

    The number and proportion of older adults in the United States population is increasing, and more clinical audiologists will be called upon to deliver hearing care to the approximately 35% to 50% of them who experience hearing difficulties. In recent years, the characteristics and sources of receptive communication difficulties in older individuals have been investigated by hearing scientists, cognitive psychologists, and audiologists. It is becoming increasingly apparent that cognitive compromises and psychoacoustic auditory processing disorders associated with aging may contribute to communication difficulties in this population. This paper presents an overview of best practices, based on our current knowledge base, for clinical management of older individuals with limitations in cognitive or psychoacoustic auditory processing capabilities, or both, that accompany aging. PMID:16528428

  7. Predictors of loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment for adult patients in the Oromia region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Megerso, Abebe; Garoma, Sileshi; Eticha, Tolosa; Workineh, Tilaye; Daba, Shallo; Tarekegn, Mihretu; Habtamu, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It is known that antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome related causes. Patient’s lost to follow-up (LTFU) in this treatment poses a paramount problem to the public and health care services. Information on predictors of loss to follow-up is scarce in this study area and similar settings. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying correlates of loss to follow-up in ART among adult patients in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. Methods A case–control study was conducted between February 2015 and April 2015 using medical records. The stratified sampling technique was used to select health facilities. The number of patient records to be included in the study was proportionally allocated to each stratum based on their patient proportion in the regional data. Specific health facilities from which to include the records were randomly selected from a list of the health facilities per stratum. All adult patient records registered as LTFU (416) in the selected health facilities during the 12-month period prior to the data collection date, and 832 patients with good adherence to ART were included. Data were double-entered into Epi Info 7 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to report the results. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed using open code computer software. Results Age 15–24 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 19.82 95% CI: 6.80, 57.73); day laborers (AOR, 5.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23, 8.89), rural residents (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.89), World Health Organization clinical stage IV (AOR, 2.29; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.62), baseline CD4 <350 cells/mL (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.13), suboptimal adherence to ART (AOR, 7.42; 95% CI: 1.87, 29.41), were factors which increased the risk of loss to follow-up in ART. Conclusion Multiple risk factors, both socioeconomic and clinical, were associated with loss to follow-up. Attention is required to

  8. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to loss at 3 mo, but only the group following the caloric and fat reduction advice maintained weight loss at the 12- and 18-mo follow-up assessments. Nonetheless, the group following the high vegetable advice did not regain weight above baseline. In conclusion, traditional messages to reduce calories and fat are important, and increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight. PMID:19234056

  9. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to loss at 3 mo, but only the group following the caloric and fat reduction advice maintained weight loss at the 12- and 18-mo follow-up assessments. Nonetheless, the group following the high vegetable advice did not regain weight above baseline. In conclusion, traditional messages to reduce calories and fat are important, and increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight.

  10. Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Social and Mobile Weight Loss Trial for Young Adults (project SMART)

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, K; Marshall, SJ; Davila, EP; Kolodziejczyk, JK; Fowler, J; Calfas, KJ; Huang, J; Rock, CL; Griswold, W; Gupta, A; Merchant, G; Norman, GJ; Raab, F; Donohue, M; Fogg, BJ; Robinson, TN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the theoretical rationale, intervention design, and clinical trial of a two-year weight control intervention for young adults deployed via social and mobile media. Methods A total of 404 overweight or obese college students from three Southern California universities (Mage = 22(±4) years; MBMI=29(±2.8); 70% female) were randomized to participate in the intervention or to receive an informational web-based weight loss program. The intervention is based on behavioral theory and integrates intervention elements across multiple touch points, including Facebook, SMS, smartphone applications, blogs, and e-mail. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weight weekly, post their health behaviors on Facebook, and e-mail their weight loss questions/concerns to a health coach. The intervention is adaptive because new theory-driven and iteratively tailored intervention elements are developed and released over the course of the two-year intervention in response to patterns of use and user feedback. Measures of body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SED), diet, weight management practices, smoking, alcohol, sleep, body image, self-esteem, and depression occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Currently, all participants have been recruited, and all are in the final year of the trial. Conclusion Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies for PA, SED, and dietary intake can be embedded in an intervention using social and mobile technologies to promote healthy weight-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:24215774

  11. Mobile phone intervention and weight loss among overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangchao; Kong, Xiaomu; Cao, Jie; Chen, Shufeng; Li, Changwei; Huang, Jianfeng; Gu, Dongfeng; Kelly, Tanika N

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the association of mobile phone intervention with net change in weight-related measures among overweight and obese adults. We searched electronic databases and conducted a bibliography review to identify articles published between the inception date of each database and March 27, 2014. Fourteen trials (including 1,337 participants in total) that met the eligibility criteria were included. Two investigators independently abstracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across trials using random-effects models. Compared with the control group, mobile phone intervention was associated with significant changes in body weight and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of -1.44 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.12, -0.76) and -0.24 units (95% CI: -0.40, -0.08), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the associations were consistent across study-duration and intervention-type subgroups. For example, net body weight changes were -0.92 kg (95% CI: -1.58, -0.25) and -1.85 kg (95% CI: -2.99, -0.71) in trials of shorter (<6 months) and longer (≥6 months) duration, respectively. These findings provide evidence that mobile phone intervention may be a useful tool for promoting weight loss among overweight and obese adults.

  12. Self-perceived loss of control and untreated dental decay in African American adults with and without sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Brian; Woods, Dexter; George, David; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Katz, Ralph; Lanzkron, Sophie; Diener-West, Marie; Powe, Neil

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between self-perceived loss of control as measured by dental external locus of control summary scores, with the amount of untreated dental decay in African American adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and African Americans adults without SCD. The sample included 102 subjects with SCD and 103 subjects without SCD matched on age, sex, and recruitment location (mean age of all subjects 35.4 years, 55.6% female). Subjects with SCD in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 2.58-fold (CI 1.05, 6.34) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) in multivariable analysis using the negative binomial regression model. For subjects without SCD, those in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 3.00-fold (CI 1.38, 6.49) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) using similar analysis. This study showed that higher dental external locus of control is associated with increased untreated tooth decay, both for African Americans with and without SCD and that the magnitude of the association did not differ across groups. PMID:16960327

  13. Mobile phone intervention and weight loss among overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangchao; Kong, Xiaomu; Cao, Jie; Chen, Shufeng; Li, Changwei; Huang, Jianfeng; Gu, Dongfeng; Kelly, Tanika N

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the association of mobile phone intervention with net change in weight-related measures among overweight and obese adults. We searched electronic databases and conducted a bibliography review to identify articles published between the inception date of each database and March 27, 2014. Fourteen trials (including 1,337 participants in total) that met the eligibility criteria were included. Two investigators independently abstracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across trials using random-effects models. Compared with the control group, mobile phone intervention was associated with significant changes in body weight and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of -1.44 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.12, -0.76) and -0.24 units (95% CI: -0.40, -0.08), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the associations were consistent across study-duration and intervention-type subgroups. For example, net body weight changes were -0.92 kg (95% CI: -1.58, -0.25) and -1.85 kg (95% CI: -2.99, -0.71) in trials of shorter (<6 months) and longer (≥6 months) duration, respectively. These findings provide evidence that mobile phone intervention may be a useful tool for promoting weight loss among overweight and obese adults. PMID:25673817

  14. NO orchestrates the loss of synaptic boutons from adult "sick" motoneurons: modeling a molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moreno-López, Bernardo; Sunico, Carmen R; González-Forero, David

    2011-02-01

    Synapse elimination is the main factor responsible for the cognitive decline accompanying many of the neuropathological conditions affecting humans. Synaptic stripping of motoneurons is also a common hallmark of several motor pathologies. Therefore, knowledge of the molecular basis underlying this plastic process is of central interest for the development of new therapeutic tools. Recent advances from our group highlight the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key molecule triggering synapse loss in two models of motor pathologies. De novo expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS) in motoneurons commonly occurs in response to the physical injury of a motor nerve and in the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In both conditions, this event precedes synaptic withdrawal from motoneurons. Strikingly, nNOS-synthesized NO is "necessary" and "sufficient" to induce synaptic detachment from motoneurons. The mechanism involves a paracrine/retrograde action of NO on pre-synaptic structures, initiating a downstream signaling cascade that includes sequential activation of (1) soluble guanylyl cyclase, (2) cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase, and (3) RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling. Finally, ROCK activation promotes phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chain, which leads to myosin activation and actomyosin contraction. This latter event presumably contributes to the contractile force to produce ending axon retraction. Several findings support that this mechanism may operate in the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Astaxanthin rescues neuron loss and attenuates oxidative stress induced by amygdala kindling in adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Xie, Tao; He, Xue-Xin; Mao, Zhuo-Feng; Jia, Li-Jing; Wang, Wei-Ping; Zhen, Jun-Li; Liu, Liang-Min

    2015-06-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the neuronal damage induced by epilepsy. The present study assessed the possible neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin (ATX) on neuronal damage, in hippocampal CA3 neurons following amygdala kindling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically kindled in the amygdala and ATX or equal volume of vehicle was given by intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours after the last stimulation, the rats were sacrificed by decapitation. Histopathological changes and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured, cytosolic cytochrome c (CytC) and caspase-3 activities in the hippocampus were also recorded. We found extensive neuronal damage in the CA3 region in the kindling group, which was preceded by increases of ROS level and MDA concentration and was followed by caspase-3 activation and an increase in cytosolic CytC. Treatment with ATX markedly attenuated the neuronal damage. In addition, ATX significantly decreased ROS and MDA concentrations and increased GSH levels. Moreover, ATX suppressed the translation of CytC release and caspase-3 activation in hippocampus. Together, these results suggest that ATX protects against neuronal loss due to epilepsy in the rat hippocampus by attenuating oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the mitochondrion-related apoptotic pathway.

  16. Dating after late-life spousal loss: Does it compromise relationships with adult children?

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Boerner, Kathrin

    2013-12-01

    In Widowhood in an American City (1973), Helena Lopata observed that widows struggle with new romantic relationships because their children often are resentful toward these new partners. Since the publication of Lopata's classic work, however, few studies have explored empirically the ways that widow(er)'s dating affects their relationships with children. We use prospective data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples study (CLOC) to explore: (1) the impact of bereaved spouses' dating on positive and negative aspects of parent-child relationships six and 18 months postloss; (2) the extent to which these associations are explained by preloss characteristics; and (3) the factors that moderate the association between widow(er) dating and parent-child relations. Multivariate analyses show that widowers who are interested in dating six months postloss report low levels of support and high levels of conflict with their children, yet widows report enhanced relationship quality. This pattern reflects the fact that men who are interested in dating do form new relationships, whereas women's interests are not translated into actual dating. Widowers' dating six months postloss compromises parent-child closeness among those with a history of strained parent-child relations, yet enhances closeness among those with historically good relationships. Dating takes a harsher toll on parent-daughter compared to parent-son relationships. Overall, dating threatens parent-child relationships in specific cases, yet it may also strengthen widow(er) s' parent-child bonds. We discuss the implications for the well-being of older widow(er)s and adult children.

  17. Body mass trajectory, energy balance, and weight loss as determinants of health and mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bales, Connie W; Buhr, Gwendolen T

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between body mass (usually measured as BMI in kg/m(2)) and healthy longevity is a major focus of study in the nutrition and aging field. Over-nutrition now rivals frailty as the major nutritional concern; the number of older adults who are obese has increased dramatically in the past 3 decades. While obesity exacerbates a host of life-threatening, age-related chronic diseases, a somewhat paradoxical finding is that being somewhat overweight in old age appears to be a benefit with regard to longevity. In our recently completed systematic review of randomized controlled weight reduction trials, we found that weight loss interventions in overweight/obese older subjects led to significant benefits for those with osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, while having slightly negative effects on bone mineral density and lean body mass. In contrast to this finding, the preponderance of epidemiological evidence indicates that higher BMIs are associated with increased survival after age 65 years. Because of this contradictory state of the science, there is a critical need for further study of the relationship of weight and weight loss/gain to health in the later years of life. PMID:20054222

  18. Effects of exercise and diet on weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kouvelioti, R; Vagenas, G; Langley-Evans, S

    2014-08-01

    Overweight and obesity are widespread nutritional disorders. Their treatment aims at effective weight loss (WL) and weight loss maintenance (WLM). Previous systematic reviews show weight regain, after recommended exercise and diet combined. However, certain experimental and methodological inconsistencies in the original studies and in these reviews left space for a substantial revisit of this problem. This study aimed at systematically re-reviewing the effectiveness of exercise combined with diet on WLM in overweight and obese adults. Literature was searched through Embase and Sport Discus (up to 2008), and PubMed (Medline) and ISI Web of science (up to 2012). 14 randomized clinical trials (RCT) were retained, their quality was assessed by the Jadad scale, and detailed methodological and statistical characteristics were evaluated. Overall estimations showed a WL of 11.1 kg (about 13%) after an average of about 4 months from baseline, a WLM of 5.8 kg (about 52%) and a weight regain of 5.1 kg after an average period of about 21 months. WL was successful but almost half of it (about 48%) was regained, which agrees with previous findings. The Jadad score showed very good to excellent quality for all 14 studies. However, further assessment revealed serious weakness such as high average dropout (>20%), not estimating experimental power or not using a control group in more than half of the studies, possible lack of adherence and variability in demographic traits. Future studies may focus on improving these limitations for more accurate results in this crucial research field.

  19. Effects of a mindfulness‐based weight loss intervention in adults with obesity: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Patricia J.; Kristeller, Jean; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Kemeny, Margaret E.; Dallman, Mary; Lustig, Robert H.; Grunfeld, Carl; Nixon, Douglas F.; Milush, Jeffrey M.; Goldman, Veronica; Laraia, Barbara; Laugero, Kevin D.; Woodhouse, Leslie; Epel, Elissa S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adding mindfulness‐based eating and stress management practices to a diet‐exercise program improves weight loss and metabolic syndrome components. Methods In this study 194 adults with obesity were randomized to a 5.5‐month program with or without mindfulness training and identical diet‐exercise guidelines. Intention‐to‐treat analyses with multiple imputation were used for missing data. The primary outcome was 18‐month weight change. Results Estimated effects comparing the mindfulness to control arm favored the mindfulness arm in (a) weight loss at 12 months, −1.9 kg (95% CI: −4.5, 0.8; P = 0.17), and 18 months, −1.7 kg (95% CI: −4.7, 1.2; P = 0.24), though not statistically significant; (b) changes in fasting glucose at 12 months, −3.1 mg/dl (95% CI: −6.3, 0.1; P = 0.06), and 18 months, −4.1 mg/dl (95% CI: −7.3, −0.9; P = 0.01); and (c) changes in triglyceride/HDL ratio at 12 months, −0.57 (95% CI: −0.95, −0.18; P = 0.004), and 18 months, −0.36 (95% CI: −0.74, 0.03; P = 0.07). Estimates for other metabolic risk factors were not statistically significant, including waist circumference, blood pressure, and C‐reactive protein. Conclusions Mindfulness enhancements to a diet‐exercise program did not show substantial weight loss benefit but may promote long‐term improvement in some aspects of metabolic health in obesity that requires further study. PMID:26955895

  20. Glia-related mechanisms in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the adult rat in response to unilateral conductive hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Alvarado, Juan C.; López-Muñoz, Diego F.; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; Gabaldón-Ull, María C.; Juiz, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss causes a progressive decline in cochlear activity that may result in functional and structural modifications in auditory neurons. However, whether these activity-dependent changes are accompanied by a glial response involving microglia, astrocytes, or both has not yet been fully elucidated. Accordingly, the present study was designed to determine the involvement of glial related mechanisms in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) of adult rats at 1, 4, 7, and 15 d after removing middle ear ossicles. Quantitative immunohistochemistry analyses at light microscopy with specific markers of microglia or astroglia along with immunocytochemistry at the electron microscopy level were used. Also, in order to test whether trophic support by neurotrophins is modulated in glial cells by auditory activity, the expression and distribution of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its colocalization with microglial or astroglial markers was investigated. Diminished cochlear activity after middle ear ossicle removal leads to a significant ipsilateral increase in the mean gray levels and stained area of microglial cells but not astrocytes in the AVCN at 1 and 4 d post-lesion as compared to the contralateral side and control animals. These results suggest that microglial cells but not astrocytes may act as dynamic modulators of synaptic transmission in the cochlear nucleus immediately following unilateral hearing loss. On the other hand, NT-3 immunostaining was localized mainly in neuronal cell bodies and axons and was upregulated at 1, 4 and 7 d post-lesion. Very few glial cells expressed this neurotrophin in both control and experimental rats, suggesting that NT-3 is primarily activated in neurons and not as much in glia after limiting auditory activity in the AVCN by conductive hearing loss. PMID:25352772

  1. Olfactory neuron loss in adult male CD rats following subchronic inhalation exposure to hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, K A; James, R A; Gross, E A; Dorman, D C

    2000-01-01

    Dysosmia and anosmia are reported to occur following human exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The clinical association between H2S exposure and olfactory dysfunction in humans necessitates evaluation of the nasal cavity and olfactory system in experimental animals used to study H2S toxicity. The purpose of this study was to subchronically expose 10-week-old male CD rats to relatively low concentrations of H2S and to histologically evaluate the nasal cavity for exposure-related lesions. Rats (n = 12/group) were exposed via inhalation to 0, 10, 30, or 80 ppm H2S 6 h/d and 7 d/wk for 10 weeks. Following exposure to 30 and 80 ppm H2S, a significant increase in nasal lesions limited to the olfactory mucosa was observed. The lesions, which consisted of olfactory neuron loss and basal cell hyperplasia, were multifocal, bilaterally symmetrical, and had a characteristic rostrocaudal distribution pattern. Regions of the nasal cavity affected included the dorsal medial meatus and the dorsal and medial portions of the ethmoid recess. The no observed adverse effect level for olfactory lesions in this study was 10 ppm. For perspective, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value (TLV) recommendation for H2S is currently 10 ppm (proposed revision: 5 ppm), so the concentrations employed in the present study were 3 and 8 times the TLV. These findings suggest that subchronic inhalation exposure to a relatively low level of H2S (30 ppm) can result in olfactory toxicity in rats. However, because of differences in the breathing style and nasal anatomy of rats and humans, additional research is required to determine the significance of these results for human health risk assessment.

  2. Is Social Network Diversity Associated with Tooth Loss among Older Japanese Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Saito, Masashige; Ito, Kanade; Suzuki, Kayo; Osaka, Ken; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to examine social network diversity as a potential determinant of oral health, considering size and contact frequency of the social network and oral health behaviors. Methods Our cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Data from 19,756 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were analyzed. We inquired about diversity of friendships based on seven types of friends. Ordered logistic regression models were developed to determine the association between the diversity of social networks and number of teeth (categorized as ≥20, 10–19, 1–9, and 0). Results Of the participants, 54.1% were women (mean age, 73.9 years; standard deviation, 6.2). The proportion of respondents with ≥20 teeth was 34.1%. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation), marital status, health status (diabetes and mental health), and size and contact frequency of the social network, an increase in the diversity of social networks was significantly associated with having more teeth (odds ratio = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.11). Even adjusted for oral health behaviors (smoking, curative/preventive dental care access, use of dental floss/fluoride toothpaste), significant association was still observed (odds ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08)). Conclusion Social connectedness among people from diverse backgrounds may increase information channels and promote the diffusion of oral health behaviors and prevent tooth loss. PMID:27459102

  3. Increased Skeletal Muscle Capillarization After Aerobic Exercise Training and Weight Loss Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Adults With IGT

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Steven J.; Blumenthal, Jacob B.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Transcapillary transport of insulin is one determinant of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle; thus, a reduction in capillary density (CD) may worsen insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle CD is lower in older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with those with normal glucose tolerance and may be modifiable through aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL). We tested the hypothesis that 6-month AEX+WL would increase CD to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in older adults with IGT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixteen sedentary, overweight-obese (BMI 27–35 kg/m2), older (63 ± 2 years) men and women with IGT underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure insulin sensitivity, oral glucose tolerance tests, exercise and body composition testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies to determine CD before and after 6-month AEX+WL. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity (M) and 120-min postprandial glucose (G120) correlated with CD at baseline (r = 0.58 and r = −0.60, respectively, P < 0.05). AEX+WL increased maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) 18% (P = 0.02) and reduced weight and fat mass 8% (P < 0.02). CD increased 15% (264 ± 11 vs. 304 ± 14 capillaries/mm2, P = 0.01), M increased 21% (42.4 ± 4.0 vs. 51.4 ± 4.3 µmol/kg FFM/min, P < 0.05), and G120 decreased 16% (9.35 ± 0.5 vs. 7.85 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P = 0.008) after AEX+WL. Regression analyses showed that the AEX+WL-induced increase in CD independently predicted the increase in M (r = 0.74, P < 0.01) as well as the decrease in G120 (r = −0.55, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Six-month AEX+WL increases skeletal muscle CD in older adults with IGT. This represents one mechanism by which AEX+WL improves insulin sensitivity in older adults with IGT. PMID:24595633

  4. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial – Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)

    PubMed Central

    Batch, Bryan C.; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. Purpose To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to; 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. Methods A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18–35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. Conclusions If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. PMID:24462568

  5. Previous exposure to simulated microgravity does not exacerbate bone loss during subsequent exposure in the proximal tibia of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Anthony, Rachel A; Kwaczala, Andrea T; Judex, Stefan; Bloomfield, Susan A; Hogan, Harry A

    2013-10-01

    Extended periods of inactivity cause severe bone loss and concomitant deterioration of the musculoskeletal system. Considerable research has been aimed at better understanding the mechanisms and consequences of bone loss due to unloading and the associated effects on strength and fracture risk. One factor that has not been studied extensively but is of great interest, particularly for human spaceflight, is how multiple or repeated exposures to unloading and reloading affect the skeleton. Space agencies worldwide anticipate increased usage of repeat-flier crewmembers, and major thrust of research has focused on better understanding of microgravity effects on loss of bone density at weightbearing skeletal sites; however there is limited data available on repeat microgravity exposure. The adult hindlimb unloaded (HU) rat model was used to determine how an initial unloading cycle will affect a subsequent exposure to disuse and recovery thereafter. Animals underwent 28 days of HU starting at 6 months of age followed by 56 days of recovery, and then another 28 days of HU with 56 days of recovery. In vivo longitudinal pQCT was used to quantify bone morphological changes, and ex vivo μCT was used to quantify trabecular microarchitecture and cortical shell geometry at the proximal tibia metaphysis (PTM). The mechanical properties of trabecular bone were examined by the reduced platen compression mechanical test. The hypothesis that the initial HU exposure will mitigate decrements in bone mass and density for the second HU exposure was supported as pre- to post-HU declines in total BMC, total vBMD, and cortical area by in vivo pQCT at the proximal tibia metaphysis were milder for the second HU (and not significant) compared to an age-matched single HU (3% vs. 6%, 2% vs. 6%, and 2% vs. 6%, respectively). In contrast, the hypothesis was not supported at the microarchitectural level as losses in BV/TV and Tb.Th. were similar during 2nd HU exposure and age-matched single HU

  6. Mania and Behavioral Equivalents: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita B.; Cooper, Christopher L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has failed to address the possibility of behavioral equivalents in people with ID and mania. The relationship between a measure of mania and possible behavioral equivalents was assessed in 693 adults, most with severe or profound ID, living in a large residential setting. The mania subscale of the DASH-II proved to be a…

  7. Hearing Instruments for Unilateral Severe-to-Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sandra Nelson; Lucas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the nature and quality of the evidence for the use of hearing instruments in adults with a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Design: The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and DARE databases were searched with no restrictions on language. The search included articles from the start of each database until February 11, 2015. Studies were included that (a) assessed the impact of any form of hearing instrument, including devices that reroute signals between the ears or restore aspects of hearing to a deaf ear, in adults with a sensorineural severe to profound loss in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear; (b) compared different devices or compared a device with placebo or the unaided condition; (c) measured outcomes in terms of speech perception, spatial listening, or quality of life; (d) were prospective controlled or observational studies. Studies that met prospectively defined criteria were subjected to random effects meta-analyses. Results: Twenty-seven studies reported in 30 articles were included. The evidence was graded as low-to-moderate quality having been obtained primarily from observational before-after comparisons. The meta-analysis identified statistically significant benefits to speech perception in noise for devices that rerouted the speech signals of interest from the worse ear to the better ear using either air or bone conduction (mean benefit, 2.5 dB). However, these devices also degraded speech understanding significantly and to a similar extent (mean deficit, 3.1 dB) when noise was rerouted to the better ear. Data on the effects of cochlear implantation on speech perception could not be pooled as the prospectively defined criteria for meta-analysis were not met. Inconsistency in the assessment of outcomes relating to sound localization also precluded the synthesis of evidence across studies. Evidence for

  8. Gray Matter Loss and Related Functional Connectivity Alterations in A Chinese Family With Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-Li; Long, Lili; Shen, Hui; Fang, Peng; Song, Yanmin; Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Lin; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Yunci; Zhang, Yong; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Dewen

    2015-10-01

    Benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME) is a non-progressive monogenic epilepsy syndrome. So far, the structural and functional brain reorganizations in BAFME remain uncharacterized. This study aims to investigate gray matter atrophy and related functional connectivity alterations in patients with BAFME using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Eleven BAFME patients from a Chinese pedigree and 15 matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Optimized voxel-based morphometric and resting-state functional MRI approaches were performed to measure gray matter atrophy and related functional connectivity, respectively. The Trail-Making Test-part A and part B, Digit Symbol Test (DST), and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) were carried out to evaluate attention and executive functions.The BAFME patients exhibited significant gray matter loss in the right hippocampus, right temporal pole, left orbitofrontal cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. With these regions selected as seeds, the voxel-wise functional connectivity analysis revealed that the right hippocampus showed significantly enhanced connectivity with the right inferior parietal lobule, bilateral middle cingulate cortex, left precuneus, and left precentral gyrus. Moreover, the BAFME patients showed significant lower scores in DST and VFT tests compared with the healthy controls. The gray matter densities of the right hippocampus, right temporal pole, and left orbitofrontal cortex were significantly positively correlated with the DST scores. In addition, the gray matter density of the right temporal pole was significantly positively correlated with the VFT scores, and the gray matter density of the right hippocampus was significantly negatively correlated with the duration of illness in the patients.The current study demonstrates gray matter loss and related functional connectivity alterations in the BAFME patients, perhaps underlying deficits in attention and executive functions in the BAFME.

  9. Gray Matter Loss and Related Functional Connectivity Alterations in A Chinese Family With Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ling-Li; Long, Lili; Shen, Hui; Fang, Peng; Song, Yanmin; Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Lin; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Yunci; Zhang, Yong; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME) is a non-progressive monogenic epilepsy syndrome. So far, the structural and functional brain reorganizations in BAFME remain uncharacterized. This study aims to investigate gray matter atrophy and related functional connectivity alterations in patients with BAFME using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eleven BAFME patients from a Chinese pedigree and 15 matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Optimized voxel-based morphometric and resting-state functional MRI approaches were performed to measure gray matter atrophy and related functional connectivity, respectively. The Trail-Making Test-part A and part B, Digit Symbol Test (DST), and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) were carried out to evaluate attention and executive functions. The BAFME patients exhibited significant gray matter loss in the right hippocampus, right temporal pole, left orbitofrontal cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. With these regions selected as seeds, the voxel-wise functional connectivity analysis revealed that the right hippocampus showed significantly enhanced connectivity with the right inferior parietal lobule, bilateral middle cingulate cortex, left precuneus, and left precentral gyrus. Moreover, the BAFME patients showed significant lower scores in DST and VFT tests compared with the healthy controls. The gray matter densities of the right hippocampus, right temporal pole, and left orbitofrontal cortex were significantly positively correlated with the DST scores. In addition, the gray matter density of the right temporal pole was significantly positively correlated with the VFT scores, and the gray matter density of the right hippocampus was significantly negatively correlated with the duration of illness in the patients. The current study demonstrates gray matter loss and related functional connectivity alterations in the BAFME patients, perhaps underlying deficits in attention and executive functions in the

  10. Comparison of effects of diet versus exercise weight loss regimens on LDL and HDL particle size in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile characterized by a predominance of small LDL and HDL particles. Weight loss, by dietary restriction or exercise, increases LDL particle size. Whether these interventions can augment HDL size in conjunction with LDL size remains unknown. Objective This study compared the effects of alternate day fasting (ADF), calorie restriction (CR), and endurance exercise on LDL and HDL particle size in overweight and obese subjects. Methods In a 12-week parallel-arm trial, adult subjects (n = 60) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: 1) ADF (75% energy restriction for 24-h alternated with ad libitum feeding for 24-h), 2) CR (25% energy restriction every day), 3) exercise (moderate intensity training 3 x/week), or 4) control. Results Body weight was reduced (P < 0.001) by ADF, CR, and exercise (5.2 ± 1.1%, 5.0 ± 1.4%, 5.1 ± 0.9%, respectively). Plasma LDL cholesterol decreased (P < 0.05) with ADF (10 ± 4%) and CR (8 ± 4%), whereas HDL cholesterol increased (P < 0.05) with exercise (16 ± 5%). Integrated LDL particle size was augmented (P = 0.01) by ADF and CR. The proportion of small LDL particles decreased (P = 0.04) with ADF only, and the proportion of large HDL particles increased (P = 0.03) with exercise only. Conclusion These results indicate that dietary restriction increases LDL particle size, while endurance training augments HDL particle size, with minimal weight loss. None of these interventions concomitantly increased both LDL and HDL particle size, however. PMID:21767400

  11. Lifestyle weight-loss intervention outcomes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Franz, Marion J; Boucher, Jackie L; Rutten-Ramos, Stephanie; VanWormer, Jeffrey J

    2015-09-01

    The majority of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, and weight loss is a recommended treatment strategy. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to answer the following primary question: In overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, what are the outcomes on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from lifestyle weight-loss interventions resulting in weight losses greater than or less than 5% at 12 months? Secondary questions are: What are the lipid (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) outcomes from lifestyle weight-loss interventions resulting in weight losses greater than or less than 5% at 12 months? And, what are the weight and metabolic outcomes from differing amounts of macronutrients in weight-loss interventions? Inclusion criteria included randomized clinical trial implementing weight-loss interventions in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, minimum 12-month study duration, a 70% completion rate, and an HbA1c value reported at 12 months. Eleven trials (eight compared two weight-loss interventions and three compared a weight-loss intervention group with a usual care/control group) with 6,754 participants met study criteria. At 12 months, 17 study groups (8 categories of weight-loss intervention) reported weight loss <5% of initial weight (-3.2 kg [95% CI: -5.9, -0.6]). A meta-analysis of the weight-loss interventions reported nonsignificant beneficial effects on HbA1c, lipids, or blood pressure. Two study groups reported a weight loss of ≥5%: a Mediterranean-style diet implemented in newly diagnosed adults with type 2 diabetes and an intensive lifestyle intervention implemented in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. Both included regular physical activity and frequent contact with health professionals and reported significant beneficial effects on HbA1c, lipids, and blood pressure. Five

  12. Lifestyle weight-loss intervention outcomes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Franz, Marion J; Boucher, Jackie L; Rutten-Ramos, Stephanie; VanWormer, Jeffrey J

    2015-09-01

    The majority of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, and weight loss is a recommended treatment strategy. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to answer the following primary question: In overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, what are the outcomes on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from lifestyle weight-loss interventions resulting in weight losses greater than or less than 5% at 12 months? Secondary questions are: What are the lipid (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) outcomes from lifestyle weight-loss interventions resulting in weight losses greater than or less than 5% at 12 months? And, what are the weight and metabolic outcomes from differing amounts of macronutrients in weight-loss interventions? Inclusion criteria included randomized clinical trial implementing weight-loss interventions in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, minimum 12-month study duration, a 70% completion rate, and an HbA1c value reported at 12 months. Eleven trials (eight compared two weight-loss interventions and three compared a weight-loss intervention group with a usual care/control group) with 6,754 participants met study criteria. At 12 months, 17 study groups (8 categories of weight-loss intervention) reported weight loss <5% of initial weight (-3.2 kg [95% CI: -5.9, -0.6]). A meta-analysis of the weight-loss interventions reported nonsignificant beneficial effects on HbA1c, lipids, or blood pressure. Two study groups reported a weight loss of ≥5%: a Mediterranean-style diet implemented in newly diagnosed adults with type 2 diabetes and an intensive lifestyle intervention implemented in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. Both included regular physical activity and frequent contact with health professionals and reported significant beneficial effects on HbA1c, lipids, and blood pressure. Five

  13. Evaluation of the immunological and hematological effects of chronic exposure of adult Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arena, S.R.; Segre, M.; French, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems; however, limited data is available on their effects on the immune system of wild species. Previous work by our lab found that 4 and 6-week old white-footed mice (Perornyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. The present study examines various immunological parameters of 22-week old white footed mice born from dams chronically exposed to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites. Females were fed diets containing either Aroclor 1254 in corn oil or corn off only, for 3 months, then bred; pups were maintained on the same diets as their mothers. At 22 weeks of age, 31 of the young Peromyscus were analyzed. Body and organ weights were taken and immune function was evaluated by assessing blood profiles, cellularity of thymus and spleen, antibody response to the antigen DNP-KLH, and the in vitro proliferative response to the T-cell mitogen Conconavalin A (Con A). Liver weights and liver to body weight ratios in the treated mice were significantly higher compared to controls, while the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower. In addition, the number of thymocytes in the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher degree of proliferation to Con A. Taken together, these results and those obtained from our previous study, indicate that monitoring of vulnerable immunological parameters in white-footed mice may be a useful indicator of exposure.

  14. Paired comparisons of nonlinear frequency compression, extended bandwidth, and restricted bandwidth hearing-aid processing for children and adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Marc A.; McCreery, Ryan; Kopun, Judy; Hoover, Brenda; Alexander, Joshua; Lewis, Dawna; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preference for speech and music processed with nonlinear frequency compression and two controls (restricted and extended bandwidth hearing-aid processing) was examined in adults and children with hearing loss. Purpose Determine if stimulus type (music, sentences), age (children, adults) and degree of hearing loss influence listener preference for nonlinear frequency compression, restricted bandwidth and extended bandwidth. Research Design Within-subject, quasi-experimental study. Using a round-robin procedure, participants listened to amplified stimuli that were 1) frequency-lowered using nonlinear frequency compression, 2) low-pass filtered at 5 kHz to simulate the restricted bandwidth of conventional hearing aid processing, or 3) low-pass filtered at 11 kHz to simulate extended bandwidth amplification. The examiner and participants were blinded to the type of processing. Using a two-alternative forced-choice task, participants selected the preferred music or sentence passage. Study Sample Sixteen children (8–16 years) and 16 adults (19–65 years) with mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Intervention All subjects listened to speech and music processed using a hearing-aid simulator fit to the Desired Sensation Level algorithm v.5.0a (Scollie et al, 2005). Results Children and adults did not differ in their preferences. For speech, participants preferred extended bandwidth to both nonlinear frequency compression and restricted bandwidth. Participants also preferred nonlinear frequency compression to restricted bandwidth. Preference was not related to degree of hearing loss. For music, listeners did not show a preference. However, participants with greater hearing loss preferred nonlinear frequency compression to restricted bandwidth more than participants with less hearing loss. Conversely, participants with greater hearing loss were less likely to prefer extended bandwidth to restricted bandwidth. Conclusion Both age groups preferred access to

  15. Is the pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine equivalent after lumbar epidural administration through a needle or a catheter in male and female adults?

    PubMed

    Faura, Ana; Modamio, Pilar; Blanco, Domingo; Segarra, Ignacio; Lastra, Cecilia F; Izquierdo, Elisenda; Casasín, Tomás; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2015-03-01

    We assessed possible pharmacokinetic modifications due to different epidural injection techniques using either a needle or a catheter. Adult patients (n=23) undergoing lower abdominal or lower extremity surgery were randomly assigned a single bupivacaine epidural injection anesthesia (0.5%, 15 mL, 0.3 mL/s) through needle or catheter device. Plasma bupivacaine concentration was quantified using a validated HPLC method and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. CMAX and TMAX were similar in both groups: 952 ± 346 ng/mL, 0.65 ± 0.5 1h in the needle group; 810 ± 307 ng/mL, 0.43 ± 0.29 h in the catheter group respectively. Plasma AUC₀→∞ was also similar in both groups: 3868 ± 1687 ngh/mL for needle versus 4096 ± 1748 ngh/mL using catheter. The catheter group showed slower disposition than the needle group: t₁/₂=3.9 ± 2.3 h, MRT=6.0 ± 3.1 h versus 2.7 ± 1.03 h and 4.5 ± 1.2 h with needle administration respectively though it did not reach statistical significance, Cl/F and V/F were also similar. Lastly, female patients showed significant longer t1/2 after administration through catheter (5.7 ± 2.0 h) than needle (2.7 ± 0.6 h) group (P=0.0279). The device type does not affect the pharmacokinetics which is similar in both groups although sex-based differences might exist.

  16. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  17. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  18. Effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neve, M; Morgan, P J; Jones, P R; Collins, C E

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate the effectiveness of web-based interventions on weight loss and maintenance and identify which components of web-based interventions are associated with greater weight change and low attrition rates. A literature search from 1995 to April 2008 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: participants were aged >or=18 years with a body mass index >or=25, at least one study arm involved a web-based intervention with the primary aim of weight loss or maintenance, and reported weight-related outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies aimed to achieve weight loss, and five focused on weight maintenance. Heterogeneity was evident among the studies with seven research questions examined across interventions of varying intensity. Seven studies were assessed for effectiveness based on percentage weight change, with four studies deemed effective. Although the four meta-analyses suggest meaningful weight change, it is not possible to determine the effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss or maintenance due to heterogeneity of designs and thus the small number of comparable studies. Higher usage of website features may be associated with positive weight change, but we do not know what features improve this effect or reduce attrition.

  19. High School Equivalency Testing in Arizona. Forum: Responding to Changes in High School Equivalency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the state of Arizona has used the General Educational Development (GED) Test to award the Arizona High School Equivalency (HSE) Diploma, as the GED Test was the only test available, recognized and accepted in the United States as the measure by which adults could demonstrate the educational attainment equivalent to high school…

  20. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  1. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE UPDATE: PFRP EQUIVALENCY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will:

    Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee
    Review the PEC's current membership of 10
    Discuss how a typical application is evaluated
    Note where information can be found
    List present deliberations/applications and describe t...

  2. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    PubMed

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  3. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  4. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes.

  5. By land or by stream? contribution of constrained dispersal by adult caddisflies to diversity loss from urban headwaters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adult stage of streams insects is responsible for important life-cycle processes such as dispersal and reproduction, yet interactions of adult stream insects with terrestrial landscapes are rarely studied. This trend is especially problematic in urbanized landscapes where th...

  6. Prevalence of Loss of All Teeth (Edentulism) and Associated Factors in Older Adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa †

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Hewlett, Sandra; Yawson, Alfred E.; Moynihan, Paula; Preet, Raman; Wu, Fan; Guo, Godfrey; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Snodgrass, James J.; Chatterji, Somnath; Engelstad, Mark E.; Kowal, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Little information exists about the loss of all one’s teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO’s) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367), Ghana (N = 4724), India (N = 7150), Mexico (N = 2315), Russian Federation (N = 3938) and South Africa (N = 3840). Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%–21.7%) than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%–9.0%). In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education), chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma), health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption) and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion) were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention. PMID:25361046

  7. An open study of the effectiveness of a multi-component weight-loss intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity.

    PubMed

    Melville, Craig A; Boyle, Susan; Miller, Susan; Macmillan, Susan; Penpraze, Victoria; Pert, Carol; Spanos, Dimitrios; Matthews, Lynsay; Robinson, Nicola; Murray, Heather; Hankey, Catherine R

    2011-05-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities experience high rates of obesity. Despite this higher risk, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of weight-loss interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity. The present study examined the effectiveness of the TAKE 5 multi-component weight-loss intervention. Adults with obesity were invited using specialist intellectual disability services to participate in the study. Obesity was defined as a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater. TAKE 5 included a daily energy-deficit diet of 2510 kJ (600 kcal), achieved via a personalised dietary prescription. Participants' body weight, BMI, waist circumference and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured before and after the intervention. A total of fifty-four individuals consented to participate, of which forty-seven (87 %) completed the intervention in the study period. There was a significant decrease in body weight (mean difference - 4·47 (95 % CI - 5·91, - 3·03) kg; P < 0·0001), BMI (- 1·82 (95 % CI - 2·36, - 1·29) kg/m(2); P < 0·0001), waist circumference (- 6·29 (95 % CI - 7·85, - 4·73) cm; P < 0·0001) and daily sedentary behaviour of participants (- 41·40 (95 % CI - 62·45, - 20·35) min; P = 0·00 034). Of the participants who completed the intervention, seventeen (36·2 %) lost 5 % or more of their initial body weight. Findings from the study suggest that TAKE 5 is an effective weight-loss intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity. The effectiveness of TAKE 5 should be examined further in a controlled study.

  8. Supporting Adults with an Intellectual Disability during Experiences of Loss and Bereavement: Staff Views, Experiences and Suggestions for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, John; Guerin, Suzanne; Dodd, Philip; Hillery, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Care staff are a major source of information and support for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) following a bereavement. How staff perceive the loss experience has implications for the quality and level of support provided to individuals with ID at times of personal loss. Method: Twenty-four staff members participated in the…

  9. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of

  10. Relating equivalence relations to equivalence relations: A relational framing model of complex human functioning

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Dermot; Hegarty, Neil; Smeets, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    The current study aimed to develop a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning. In Experiments 1 and 2 subjects (adults and children) were trained and tested for the formation of four, three-member equivalence relations using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. All subjects (Experiments 1 and 2) were exposed to tests that examined relations between equivalence and non-equivalence relations. For example, on an equivalence-equivalence relation test, the complex sample B1/C1 and the two complex comparisons B3/C3 and B3/C4 were used, and on a nonequivalence-nonequivalence relation test the complex sample B1/C2 was presented with the same two comparisons. All subjects consistently related equivalence relations to equivalence relations and nonequivalence relations to nonequivalence relations (e.g., picked B3/C3 in the presence of B1/C1 and picked B3/C4 in the presence of B1/C2). In Experiment 3, the equivalence responding, the equivalence-equivalence responding, and the nonequivalence-nonequivalence responding was successfully brought under contextual control. Finally, it was shown that the contextual cues could function successfully as comparisons, and the complex samples and comparisons could function successfully as contextual cues and samples, respectively. These data extend the equivalence paradigm and contribute to a behaviour-analytic interpretation of analogical reasoning and complex human functioning, in general. PMID:22477120

  11. Loss of the calcium channel β4 subunit impairs parallel fibre volley and Purkinje cell firing in cerebellum of adult ataxic mice.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Bruno; Benedetti, Ariane; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2016-06-01

    The auxiliary voltage-gated calcium channel subunit β4 supports targeting of calcium channels to the cell membrane, modulates ionic currents and promotes synaptic release in the central nervous system. β4 is abundant in cerebellum and its loss causes ataxia. However, the type of calcium channels and cerebellar functions affected by the loss of β4 are currently unknown. We therefore studied the structure and function of Purkinje cells in acute cerebellar slices of the β4 (-/-) ataxic (lethargic) mouse, finding that loss of β4 affected Purkinje cell input, morphology and pacemaker activity. In adult lethargic cerebellum evoked postsynaptic currents from parallel fibres were depressed, while paired-pulse facilitation and spontaneous synaptic currents were unaffected. Because climbing fibre input was spared, the parallel fibre/climbing fibre input ratio was reduced. The dendritic arbor of adult lethargic Purkinje cells displayed fewer and shorter dendrites, but a normal spine density. Accordingly, the width of the molecular and granular layers was reduced. These defects recapitulate the impaired cerebellar maturation observed upon Cav 2.1 ataxic mutations. However, unlike Cav 2.1 mutations, lethargic Purkinje cells also displayed a striking decrease in pacemaker firing frequency, without loss of firing regularity. All these deficiencies appear in late development, indicating the importance of β4 for the normal differentiation and function of mature Purkinje cells networks. The observed reduction of the parallel fibre input, the altered parallel fibre/climbing fibre ratio and the reduced Purkinje cell output can contribute to the severe motor impairment caused by the loss of the calcium channel β4 subunit in lethargic mice. PMID:27003325

  12. Functional classes and equivalence relations

    PubMed Central

    Sidman, Murray; Wynne, Constance K.; Maguire, Russell W.; Barnes, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Three adult subjects were taught a set of two-choice simultaneous discriminations, with three positive and three negative stimuli; all possible combinations of positive and negative stimuli yielded nine different pairs. The discriminations were repeatedly reversed and rereversed, the former positive stimuli becoming negative and the former negative stimuli becoming positive. With all subjects, a reversal of the contingencies for one pair of stimuli became sufficient to change their responses to all of the other pairs. The reversals had produced functional stimulus classes. Then, all subjects showed conditional discriminations emerging between members of a functional class; given a sample from one class and comparisons from both classes, they selected the comparison that was in the same class as the sample. Next, 2 of the subjects showed that the within-class conditional relations possessed the symmetric and transitive properties of equivalence relations; after having been taught to relate new stimuli to existing class members, the subjects then matched other class members to the new stimuli. Subsequent tests of two-choice discriminations showed that the conditional discriminations had transferred functional class membership to the new stimuli. The 3rd subject, who did not show equivalence relations among functional class members, was also found to have lost the within-class conditional relations after the equivalence tests. PMID:16812597

  13. A systematic review of the effectiveness of smartphone applications that encourage dietary self-regulatory strategies for weight loss in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Semper, H M; Povey, R; Clark-Carter, D

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to systematically review the evidence to explore whether smartphone applications that use self-regulatory strategies are beneficial for weight loss in overweight and obese adults over the age of 18 years. Sixteen electronic databases were searched for articles published up to April 2015 including MEDLINE, OVID, Ingenta, PSYCARTICLES and PSYCINFO, CINAHL, Sportdiscus, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, JSTOR, EBSCO, Proquest, Wiley and Google Scholar. Twenty nine eligible studies were retrieved of which six studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies that recruited participants under the age of 18 years, adults with a chronic condition or did not report weight loss outcomes were excluded. Study findings were combined using a narrative synthesis. Overall, evidence suggests that smartphone applications may be a useful tool for self-regulating diet for weight loss as participants in the smartphone application group in all studies lost at least some bodyweight. However, when compared to other self-monitoring methods, there was no significant difference in the amount of weight lost. Findings should be interpreted with caution based on the design of the studies and the comparator groups used. Future research needs to be more methodologically rigorous and incorporate measures of whether eating habits become healthier in addition to measuring weight and BMI. PMID:27192162

  14. A systematic review of the effectiveness of smartphone applications that encourage dietary self-regulatory strategies for weight loss in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Semper, H M; Povey, R; Clark-Carter, D

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to systematically review the evidence to explore whether smartphone applications that use self-regulatory strategies are beneficial for weight loss in overweight and obese adults over the age of 18 years. Sixteen electronic databases were searched for articles published up to April 2015 including MEDLINE, OVID, Ingenta, PSYCARTICLES and PSYCINFO, CINAHL, Sportdiscus, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, JSTOR, EBSCO, Proquest, Wiley and Google Scholar. Twenty nine eligible studies were retrieved of which six studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies that recruited participants under the age of 18 years, adults with a chronic condition or did not report weight loss outcomes were excluded. Study findings were combined using a narrative synthesis. Overall, evidence suggests that smartphone applications may be a useful tool for self-regulating diet for weight loss as participants in the smartphone application group in all studies lost at least some bodyweight. However, when compared to other self-monitoring methods, there was no significant difference in the amount of weight lost. Findings should be interpreted with caution based on the design of the studies and the comparator groups used. Future research needs to be more methodologically rigorous and incorporate measures of whether eating habits become healthier in addition to measuring weight and BMI.

  15. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  16. Is Bone Loss Linked to Chronic Inflammation in Antiretroviral-Naïve HIV-Infected Adults? A 48 Week Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    HILEMAN, Corrilynn O; LABBATO, Danielle E; STORER, Norma J; TANGPRICHA, Vin; MCCOMSEY, Grace A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been implicated in bone loss in HIV. The role of inflammation and vitamin D is unclear and better investigated in ART-naïve individuals. Design and Methods This is a 48-week, prospective, cohort study to compare baseline and change in hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) in HIV-infected, ART-naïve adults and healthy controls matched by age, sex, and race. We also studied associations between bone loss and inflammation markers and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) using logistic regression. Results 47 HIV-infected adults and 41 controls were included. Baseline 25(OH)D, BMD at total hip, trochanter, and spine, and prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis were similar between groups. In the HIV-infected group, total hip and trochanter, but not spine, BMD decreased over 48 weeks (hip −0.005 (−0.026-0.008)g/cm2, p=0.02 within-group; trochanter −0.013 (−0.03-0.003), p<0.01). BMD did not change at any site within controls. The HIV-infected group was more likely to have bone loss at the trochanter (p=0.03). This risk persisted after adjustment for age, sex, race, BMI, smoking, and hepatitis C (OR 4 (95% CI 1.2-15.8)). In the HIV-infected group, higher IL-6 concentrations (p=0.04) and Caucasian race (p<0.01) were independently associated with progression to osteopenia or osteoporosis, but not 25(OH)D levels. Conclusion BMD at the total hip and trochanter sites decreased in the HIV-infected, ART-naïve adults, but not controls, over this 48-week study. Higher serum IL-6 concentrations were associated with progression to osteopenia or osteoporosis status in the HIV-infected group. PMID:24871454

  17. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  18. Memory Loss, Dementia, and Stroke: Implications for Rehabilitation of Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Older adults with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are not immune to the other diseases of aging. Although AMD is the leading cause of low vision in older Americans, stroke is the leading cause of disability, and dementias affect another 2.5 million older Americans. Each condition alone can significantly impair a person's ability to…

  19. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g.,…

  20. The effectiveness of including support people in a cognitive behavioural weight loss maintenance programme for obese adults: study rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Rieger, E; Treasure, J; Swinbourne, J; Adam, B; Manns, C; Caterson, I

    2014-04-01

    The well-documented finding that obese adults have a high likelihood of weight regain following participation in behavioural weight loss programmes highlights the importance of developing more effective approaches for weight loss maintenance. One promising approach is to improve the quality of social support for effective weight control available to an obese individual by including support people in behavioural weight loss programmes. This paper describes the rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial that evaluates the effectiveness of training support people to assist obese adults in their weight management. The study entails a two-arm randomized controlled trial in which obese participants take part in a 1-year (26-session) cognitive behaviour therapy group weight management programme, including motivational interviewing strategies (CBT-MI). In one arm, participants receive CBT-MI alone, while in the second arm (CBT-MI-SP), participants also have a support person who attends 10 group sessions designed to teach effective skills for supporting an individual in healthy weight control. More specifically, support people will be trained in skills that aim to promote self-motivation for weight management. Assessments of anthropometric, medical, behavioural, motivational, psychological and social functioning take place at pre-treatment, post-treatment and a 1-year follow-up. By helping obese participants to increase and sustain their motivation and skills for weight control both during treatment and in the crucial period after treatment cessation through the ongoing input of support people, the CBT-MI-SP approach of the current study has the potential to effectively help patients to achieve sustained weight loss while minimizing the patient's need for ongoing, intensive weight control treatment with its attendant costs. PMID:25826731

  1. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Eveline S; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E; Yeo, Gene W; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-02-19

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43(Q331K) and TDP-43(M337V)), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43-dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43(Q331K), but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43(Q331K) enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage.

  2. Impact of Weight Loss on Ankle-Brachial Index and Inter-Artery Blood Pressures in Overweight and Obese Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Bahnson, Judy; Knowler, William C.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Beavers, Daniel; Johnson, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Design and Methods The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education (DSE) in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Annual ankle and brachial blood pressures over four years were used compute ankle-brachial indices (ABIs) and to assess inter-artery blood pressure differences in 5018 participants. Results ILI, compared to DSE, produced 7.8% (Year 1) to 3.6% (Year 4) greater weight losses. These did not affect prevalence of low (<0.90) ABI (3.60% in DSE versus 3.14% in ILI; p=0.20) or elevated (>1.40) ABI (7.52% in DSE versus 7.59% in ILI: p=0.90), but produced smaller mean (SE) maximum inter-artery systolic blood pressure differences among ankle sites [19.7 (0.2) mmHg for ILI versus 20.6 (0.2) mmHg for DSE (p<0.001)] and between arms [5.8 (0.1) mmHg for ILI versus 6.1 (0.1) mmHg for DSE (p=0.01)]. Conclusions Four years of intensive behavioral weight loss intervention did not significantly alter prevalence of abnormal ABI, however it did reduce differences in systolic blood pressures among arterial sites. PMID:24174392

  3. Behavioral deficits induced by third-trimester equivalent alcohol exposure in male C57BL/6J mice are not associated with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis but are still rescued with voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Bucko, P J; Miller, D S; DeAngelis, R S; Krebs, C P; Rhodes, J S

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce permanent alterations in brain structure and profound behavioral deficits. Mouse models can help discover mechanisms and identify potentially useful interventions. This study examined long-term influences of either a single or repeated alcohol exposure during the third-trimester equivalent on survival of new neurons in the hippocampus, behavioral performance on the Passive avoidance and Rotarod tasks, and the potential role of exercise as a therapeutic intervention. C57BL/6J male mice received either saline or 5g/kg ethanol split into two s.c. injections, two hours apart, on postnatal day (PD)7 (Experiment 1) or on PD5, 7 and 9 (Experiment 2). All mice were weaned on PD21 and received either a running wheel or remained sedentary from PD35-PD80/81. From PD36-45, mice received i.p. injections of 50mg/kg bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Behavioral testing occurred between PD72-79. Number of surviving BrdU+ cells and immature neurons (doublecortin; DCX+) was measured at PD80-81. Alcohol did not affect number of BrdU+ or DCX+ cells in either experiment. Running significantly increased number of BrdU+ and DCX+ cells in both treatment groups. Alcohol-induced deficits on Rotarod performance and acquisition of the Passive avoidance task (Day 1) were evident only in Experiment 2 and running rescued these deficits. These data suggest neonatal alcohol exposure does not result in long-term impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse model. Three doses of ethanol were necessary to induce behavioral deficits. Finally, the mechanisms by which exercise ameliorated the neonatal alcohol induced behavioral deficits remain unknown. PMID:27491590

  4. Comparison of conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma for photons using a male adult voxel simulator in sitting and standing posture with geometry of irradiation antero-posterior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, D. C.; Cavalcante, F. R.; Carvalho, A. B.; Hunt, J.

    2014-02-01

    The dose conversion coefficient (DCC) is important to quantify and assess effective doses associated with medical, professional and public exposures. The calculation of DCCs using anthropomorphic simulators and radiation transport codes is justified since in-vivo measurement of effective dose is extremely difficult and not practical for occupational dosimetry. DCCs have been published by the ICRP using simulators in a standing posture, which is not always applicable to all exposure scenarios, providing an inaccurate dose estimation. The aim of this work was to calculate DCCs for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (H/Kair) using the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code and the VOXTISS8 adult male voxel simulator in sitting and standing postures. In both postures, the simulator was irradiated by a plane source of monoenergetic photons in antero-posterior (AP) geometry. The photon energy ranged from 15 keV to 2 MeV. The DCCs for both postures were compared and the DCCs for the standing simulator were higher. For certain organs, the difference of DCCs were more significant, as in gonads (48% higher), bladder (16% higher) and colon (11% higher). As these organs are positioned in the abdominal region, the posture of the anthropomorphic simulator modifies the form in which the radiation is transported and how the energy is deposited. It was also noted that the average percentage difference of conversion coefficients was 33% for the bone marrow, 11% for the skin, 13% for the bone surface and 31% for the muscle. For other organs, the percentage difference of the DCCs for both postures was not relevant (less than 5%) due to no anatomical changes in the organs of the head, chest and upper abdomen. We can conclude that is important to obtain DCCs using different postures from those present in the scientific literature.

  5. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity and hair cell ablation in the adult gerbil: A simple model to study hair cell loss and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Leila; Rivolta, Marcelo N

    2015-07-01

    The Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, has been widely employed as a model for studies of the inner ear. In spite of its established use for auditory research, no robust protocols to induce ototoxic hair cell damage have been developed for this species. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of an aminoglycoside-induced model of hair cell loss, using kanamycin potentiated by the loop diuretic furosemide. Interestingly, we show that the gerbil is relatively insensitive to gentamicin compared to kanamycin, and that bumetanide is ineffective in potentiating the ototoxicity of the drug. We also examine the pathology of the spiral ganglion after chronic, long-term hair cell damage. Remarkably, there is little or no neuronal loss following the ototoxic insult, even at 8 months post-damage. This is similar to the situation often seen in the human, where functioning neurons can persist even decades after hair cell loss, contrasting with the rapid, secondary degeneration found in rats, mice and other small mammals. We propose that the combination of these factors makes the gerbil a good model for ototoxic damage by induced hair cell loss.

  6. Illustrating the (in)visible: Understanding the impact of loss in adults living with secondary lymphedema after cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roanne; Hamilton, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Life with a disability is often riddled with paradoxes, one of which is being visibly marked, while personal experiences, losses, and challenges remain hidden. Our article draws attention to this paradox among people who live with secondary lymphedema after cancer (SLC). SLC is a relatively unfamiliar chronic condition within medical and lay discourses of cancer, which proves challenging for the many cancer survivors who are in search of information and understanding. Thirteen men and women with SLC were recruited from two research sites (Fredericton, NB, and Ottawa, ON, Canada) to participate in semi-structured interviews about the physical and psychosocial aspects of SLC. Using a methodology of interpretive description, our analysis of participant interviews reveals the complex ways in which men and women felt both visible and invisible within various contexts. We discuss three majors themes: (in)visibility and appearance related to material losses; (in)visibility and action connected to visible losses in function, as well as invisible struggles to care for oneself; and the loss of present and future well-being, as SLC renders some limitations visible while potentially obscuring a hopeful future indefinitely. Our research indicates that timely diagnosis of SLC would be an immediate first step in recognizing the physical and emotional dimensions of the condition. To accomplish this, increased awareness is needed. To enhance quality of life for those living with SLC, the development of new resources and psychosocial supports is also required. PMID:25148936

  7. Paid Support Workers for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities; Their Current Knowledge of Hearing Loss and Future Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShea, Lynzee; Fulton, John; Hayes, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities are more likely to have hearing loss than the general population. For those unable to self-advocate, the responsibility of detection and management falls to their caregivers. Methods: This is the first cycle of a project using action research methodology to improve services. Twenty care workers…

  8. Tailored weight loss intervention in obese adults within primary care practice: rationale, design, and methods of Choose to Lose.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sheri J; Risica, Patricia M; Gans, Kim M; Marcus, Bess H; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-07-01

    Although there are efficacious weight loss interventions that can improve health and delay onset of diabetes and hypertension, these interventions have not been translated into clinical practice. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a tailored lifestyle intervention in primary care patients. Patients were recruited by their primary care physicians and eligible participants were randomized to an enhanced intervention or standard intervention. All participants met with a lifestyle counselor to set calorie and physical activity goals and to discuss behavioral strategies at baseline, 6 and 12 months. During the first year, enhanced intervention participants receive monthly counseling phone calls to assist in attaining and maintaining their goals. Enhanced intervention participants also receive weekly mailings consisting of tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos focusing on weight loss, physical activity promotion and healthy eating. The second year focuses on maintenance with enhanced intervention participants receiving tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos regularly throughout the year. Standard intervention participants receive five informational handouts on weight loss across the two years. This enhanced intervention that consists of multiple modalities of print, telephone, and video with limited face-to-face counseling holds promise for being effective for encouraging weight loss, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, and also for being cost effective and generalizable for wide clinical use. This study will fill an important gap in our knowledge regarding the translation and dissemination of research from efficacy studies to best practices in clinical settings. PMID:24937016

  9. Illustrating the (in)visible: understanding the impact of loss in adults living with secondary lymphedema after cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roanne; Hamilton, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Life with a disability is often riddled with paradoxes, one of which is being visibly marked, while personal experiences, losses, and challenges remain hidden. Our article draws attention to this paradox among people who live with secondary lymphedema after cancer (SLC). SLC is a relatively unfamiliar chronic condition within medical and lay discourses of cancer, which proves challenging for the many cancer survivors who are in search of information and understanding. Thirteen men and women with SLC were recruited from two research sites (Fredericton, NB, and Ottawa, ON, Canada) to participate in semi-structured interviews about the physical and psychosocial aspects of SLC. Using a methodology of interpretive description, our analysis of participant interviews reveals the complex ways in which men and women felt both visible and invisible within various contexts. We discuss three majors themes: (in)visibility and appearance related to material losses; (in)visibility and action connected to visible losses in function, as well as invisible struggles to care for oneself; and the loss of present and future well-being, as SLC renders some limitations visible while potentially obscuring a hopeful future indefinitely. Our research indicates that timely diagnosis of SLC would be an immediate first step in recognizing the physical and emotional dimensions of the condition. To accomplish this, increased awareness is needed. To enhance quality of life for those living with SLC, the development of new resources and psychosocial supports is also required.

  10. Tailored weight loss intervention in obese adults within primary care practice: rationale, design, and methods of Choose to Lose.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sheri J; Risica, Patricia M; Gans, Kim M; Marcus, Bess H; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-07-01

    Although there are efficacious weight loss interventions that can improve health and delay onset of diabetes and hypertension, these interventions have not been translated into clinical practice. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a tailored lifestyle intervention in primary care patients. Patients were recruited by their primary care physicians and eligible participants were randomized to an enhanced intervention or standard intervention. All participants met with a lifestyle counselor to set calorie and physical activity goals and to discuss behavioral strategies at baseline, 6 and 12 months. During the first year, enhanced intervention participants receive monthly counseling phone calls to assist in attaining and maintaining their goals. Enhanced intervention participants also receive weekly mailings consisting of tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos focusing on weight loss, physical activity promotion and healthy eating. The second year focuses on maintenance with enhanced intervention participants receiving tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos regularly throughout the year. Standard intervention participants receive five informational handouts on weight loss across the two years. This enhanced intervention that consists of multiple modalities of print, telephone, and video with limited face-to-face counseling holds promise for being effective for encouraging weight loss, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, and also for being cost effective and generalizable for wide clinical use. This study will fill an important gap in our knowledge regarding the translation and dissemination of research from efficacy studies to best practices in clinical settings.

  11. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity and hair cell ablation in the adult gerbil: A simple model to study hair cell loss and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Leila; Rivolta, Marcelo N.

    2015-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, has been widely employed as a model for studies of the inner ear. In spite of its established use for auditory research, no robust protocols to induce ototoxic hair cell damage have been developed for this species. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of an aminoglycoside-induced model of hair cell loss, using kanamycin potentiated by the loop diuretic furosemide. Interestingly, we show that the gerbil is relatively insensitive to gentamicin compared to kanamycin, and that bumetanide is ineffective in potentiating the ototoxicity of the drug. We also examine the pathology of the spiral ganglion after chronic, long-term hair cell damage. Remarkably, there is little or no neuronal loss following the ototoxic insult, even at 8 months post-damage. This is similar to the situation often seen in the human, where functioning neurons can persist even decades after hair cell loss, contrasting with the rapid, secondary degeneration found in rats, mice and other small mammals. We propose that the combination of these factors makes the gerbil a good model for ototoxic damage by induced hair cell loss. PMID:25783988

  12. Long term maintenance of weight loss with non-surgical interventions in obese adults: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, S U; Knittle, K; Avenell, A; Araújo-Soares, V

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review and describe currently available approaches to supporting maintenance of weight loss in obese adults and to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study selection Studies were identified through to January 2014. Randomised trials of interventions to maintain weight loss provided to initially obese adults (aged ≥18) after weight loss of ≥5% body weight with long term (≥12 months) follow-up of weight change (main outcome) were included. Study appraisal and synthesis Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate; study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of interventions on weight loss maintenance with the inverse variance method and a random effects model. Results are presented as mean differences in weight change, with 95% confidence intervals. Results 45 trials involving 7788 individuals were included. Behavioural interventions focusing on both food intake and physical activity resulted in an average difference of −1.56 kg (95% confidence interval −2.27 to −0.86 kg; 25 comparisons, 2949 participants) in weight regain compared with controls at 12 months. Orlistat combined with behavioural interventions resulted in a −1.80 kg (−2.54 to −1.06; eight comparisons, 1738 participants) difference compared with placebo at 12 months. All orlistat studies reported higher frequencies of adverse gastrointestinal events in the experimental compared with placebo control groups. A dose-response relation for orlistat treatment was found, with 120 mg doses three times a day leading to greater weight loss maintenance (−2.34 kg, −3.03 to −1.65) compared with 60 mg and 30 mg three times a day (−0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval −1.92 to 0.52), P=0.02. Conclusions Behavioural

  13. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  14. Reduction of food theft and long-term maintenance of weight loss in a Prader-Willi adult.

    PubMed

    Page, T J; Stanley, A E; Richman, G S; Deal, R M; Iwata, B A

    1983-09-01

    Behavioral interventions have had limited success in managing the chronic hyperphagia and obesity that are of presumed organic etiology in Prader-Willi syndrome. Thus, frequent foraging for food and covert consumption continue to be health-threatening problems for many Prader-Willi individuals. This case study was designed to replicate methods for assessment and treatment of food theft. A token program based on differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior and response-cost eliminated theft in three hospital settings. Prior to discharge, the program was expanded to include contingencies on exercise behavior and weight loss, and staff from the subject's group home residence were trained to implement a modified program in the natural environment. Reduced food theft and continued weight loss were maintained in the group home and an apartment-living arrangement. A total of 81 lb (37 kg) was lost during a 2-yr period. PMID:6358272

  15. Reduction of food theft and long-term maintenance of weight loss in a Prader-Willi adult.

    PubMed

    Page, T J; Stanley, A E; Richman, G S; Deal, R M; Iwata, B A

    1983-09-01

    Behavioral interventions have had limited success in managing the chronic hyperphagia and obesity that are of presumed organic etiology in Prader-Willi syndrome. Thus, frequent foraging for food and covert consumption continue to be health-threatening problems for many Prader-Willi individuals. This case study was designed to replicate methods for assessment and treatment of food theft. A token program based on differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior and response-cost eliminated theft in three hospital settings. Prior to discharge, the program was expanded to include contingencies on exercise behavior and weight loss, and staff from the subject's group home residence were trained to implement a modified program in the natural environment. Reduced food theft and continued weight loss were maintained in the group home and an apartment-living arrangement. A total of 81 lb (37 kg) was lost during a 2-yr period.

  16. Tailored weight loss intervention in obese adults within primary care practice: Rationale, design, and methods of Choose to Lose

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Sheri J.; Risica, Patricia M.; Gans, Kim M.; Marcus, Bess H.; Eaton, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are efficacious weight loss interventions that can improve health and delay onset of diabetes and hypertension, these interventions have not been translated into clinical practice. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a tailored lifestyle intervention in primary care patients. Patients were recruited by their primary care physicians and eligible participants were randomized to an enhanced intervention or augmented usual care. All participants met with a lifestyle counselor to set calorie and physical activity goals and to discuss behavioral strategies at baseline, 6 and 12 months. During the first year, enhanced intervention participants receive monthly counseling phone calls to assist in attaining and maintaining their goals. Enhanced intervention participants also receive weekly mailings consisting of tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos focusing on weight loss, physical activity promotion and healthy eating. The second year focuses on maintenance with enhanced intervention participants receiving tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos regularly throughout the year. Augmented usual care participants receive five informational handouts on weight loss across the two years. This enhanced intervention that consists of multiple modalities of print, telephone, and video with limited face-to-face counseling holds promise for being effective for encouraging weight loss, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, and also for being cost effective and generalizable for wide clinical use. This study will fill an important gap in our knowledge regarding the translation and dissemination of research from efficacy studies to best practices in clinical settings. PMID:24937016

  17. Metabolic equivalents during scooter exercise.

    PubMed

    Kijima, Akira; Arimoto, Morio; Muramatsu, Shigeru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic equivalents (METs) for scooter exercise (riding a scooter, scootering) and to examine the energy expenditure and the heart rate response, so that the results can be used in health promotion activities. Eighteen young adults (10 males and 8 females) participated in scootering on a treadmill at three different speeds for six minutes each. Before, during, and after the exercise, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide product, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were measured. These measurements kept steady states from the 3rd to 6th minute of each different speed session. The MET values acquired during scootering at 80 m.min(-1), 110 m.min(-1), and 140 m.min(-1) were 3.9, 4.3, and 5.0, respectively. Calculated using VO(2) (ml.kg(-1).min(-1))x[4.0+R], the energy consumption for scootering at each speed was 67.0+/-10.6, 73.3+/-10.2, and 84.8+/-7.9 cal.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively. The regression equation between scootering speed (X, m.min(-1)) and VO(2) (Y, ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) is Y=0.062X+8.655, and the regression equation between HR (X, beats.min(-1)) and VO(2)reserve (Y, %) is Y=0.458X-11.264. These equations can be applied to both females and males. Thus, scootering at 80 to 140 m.min(-1) might not be sufficient to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of young male adults similar to the participants, but it may contribute many healthy benefits to most female adults and even male adults, and improve their health and fitness at the faster speeds.

  18. CuZnSOD gene deletion targeted to skeletal muscle leads to loss of contractile force but does not cause muscle atrophy in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Davis, Carol; Sakellariou, George K.; Shi, Yun; Kayani, Anna C.; Pulliam, Daniel; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Richardson, Arlan; Jackson, Malcolm J.; McArdle, Anne; Brooks, Susan V.; Van Remmen, Holly

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that deletion of CuZnSOD in mice (Sod1−/− mice) leads to accelerated loss of muscle mass and contractile force during aging. To dissect the relative roles of skeletal muscle and motor neurons in this process, we used a Cre-Lox targeted approach to establish a skeletal muscle-specific Sod1-knockout (mKO) mouse to determine whether muscle-specific CuZnSOD deletion is sufficient to cause muscle atrophy. Surprisingly, mKO mice maintain muscle masses at or above those of wild-type control mice up to 18 mo of age. In contrast, maximum isometric specific force measured in gastrocnemius muscle is significantly reduced in the mKO mice. We found no detectable increases in global measures of oxidative stress or ROS production, no reduction in mitochondrial ATP production, and no induction of adaptive stress responses in muscle from mKO mice. However, Akt-mTOR signaling is elevated and the number of muscle fibers with centrally located nuclei is increased in skeletal muscle from mKO mice, which suggests elevated regenerative pathways. Our data demonstrate that lack of CuZnSOD restricted to skeletal muscle does not lead to muscle atrophy but does cause muscle weakness in adult mice and suggest loss of CuZnSOD may potentiate muscle regenerative pathways.—Zhang, Y., Davis, C., Sakellariou, G.K., Shi, Y., Kayani, A.C., Pulliam, D., Bhattacharya, A., Richardson, A., Jackson, M.J., McArdle, A., Brooks, S.V., Van Remmen, H. CuZnSOD gene deletion targeted to skeletal muscle leads to loss of contractile force but does not cause muscle atrophy in adult mice. PMID:23729587

  19. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  20. The Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues regarding The Interaction Equivalency Theorem posited by Anderson (2003a), which consists of the three interaction elements found in formal education courses among teacher, student, and content. It first examines the core concepts of the theorem and argues that two theses of different dimensions can be…

  1. Improved equivalent source theory.

    PubMed

    Umul, Yusuf Z

    2009-08-01

    The equivalent source theorem, which is an important technique in the study of radiation and scattering by apertures, is improved by using the two axioms of the modified theory of physical optics. The method is applied to the problem of radiation of electromagnetic waves by a parallel plate waveguide. The results are investigated numerically.

  2. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  3. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the PEC in 1985 to make recommendations to EPA and State managers on the equivalency of unproven sewage sludge disinfection technologies/processes to either a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or a Process to Further...

  4. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  5. Cat-scratch disease in adult hospitalized for prolonged-Fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Guiyedi, Vincent; Haddad, Hanna; Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Gire, Fabien; Ongali, Brice; Lore, Philippes; Gameiro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old patient with a Cat-scratch disease presenting three months continuous alteration of the general condition, including prolonged-fever, anorexia, asthenia, weight loss associated with adenitis and multiple thoracic-abdominal adenopathies, leukocytosis with neutrophil polynuclear predominance, and increased of C-reactive protein. The serologies of toxoplasmosis, infectious mononucleosis, human immunodeficiency virus, Brucellosis, Bartonellosis and the tuberculosis research by tuberculin reaction test and Ziehl acid-alcohol resistant bacilli direct examination were negatives. The cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus serologies were positives only for immunoglobulin-G. The Bartonella henselae diagnosis was made with the analysis of histopathological specimens. The clinical and biological symptoms regressed following eight weeks of azithromycin's treatment. According to this observation, the cat-scratch disease should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients presenting prolonged-fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss. The azithromycin would be an alternative therapeutic issue for this pathology in case of confirmed efficacy by studies in a large patient population.

  6. Legacy effects of short-term intentional weight loss on total body and thigh composition in overweight and obese older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chmelo, E A; Beavers, D P; Lyles, M F; Marsh, A P; Nicklas, B J; Beavers, K M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Weight regain following intentional weight loss may negatively impact body composition, accelerating fat regain and increasing risk of physical disability. The purpose of this study was to compare long-term changes in whole body and thigh composition in obese older adults who intentionally lost and then partially regained weight to obese older adults who remained weight stable. Subjects/Methods: This pilot study analyzed total body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and thigh (computed tomography (CT)) composition data collected from 24 older (65–79 years) adults 18 months after completion of a 5-month randomized trial that compared resistance training alone (RT) with RT plus caloric restriction (RT+CR). Results: Mean loss of body mass in the RT+CR group (n=13) was 7.1±2.4 kg during the 5-month intervention (74% fat mass; 26% lean mass; all P<0.01), whereas RT (n=11) remained weight stable (+0.3±1.8 kg; P=0.64). Differential group effects were observed for all DXA and CT body composition measures at 5 months (all P⩽0.01); however, by 23 months, group differences persisted only for total body (RT+CR: 81.6±10.0 kg vs RT: 88.5±14.9 kg; P=0.03) and lean (RT+CR: 50.8±9.3 kg vs RT: 54.4±12.0 kg; P<0.01) mass. All RT+CR participants regained weight from 5 to 23 months (mean gain=+4.8±2.6 kg; P<0.01). Total fat mass and all thigh fat volumes increased, whereas thigh muscle volume decreased, during the postintervention follow-up in RT+CR (all P⩽0.01). In the RT group, body mass did not change from 5 to 23 months (−0.2±0.9 kg; P=0.87). Decreased total thigh volume, driven by the loss of thigh muscle volume, were the only postintervention body composition changes observed in the RT group (both P<0.04). Conclusions: Short-term body composition benefits of an RT+CR intervention may be lost within 18 months after completion of the intervention. PMID:27043417

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  8. The social context and meaning of virginity loss among African American and Puerto Rican young adults in Hartford.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Pamela I; Badiane, Louise; Singer, Merrill

    2013-09-01

    We describe virginity loss experiences of inner-city minority youth to understand the meaning attributed to first sex and the social and structural factors that contribute to early sexual debut. We interviewed 62 18-25-year-old African American and Puerto Rican Hartford men and women about their sexual and romantic life histories. Transcripts were coded in ATLAS.ti and analyzed for themes about virginity and sexual debut. We found different conceptions of virginity as a stigma to be lost, a normal part of growing up, and a gift to be given. The normative experience was consensual, early, and unplanned sexual debut. Inner-city minority youth have similar feelings, motivations, and experiences of sexual debut as non-ethnic youth reported in the literature except they are far younger. We discuss structural factors that affect inner-city sexual scripts for early sexual debut and identify it as a health inequity.

  9. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  10. Obtaining an equivalent beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    In modeling a complex structure the researcher was faced with a component that would have logical appeal if it were modeled as a beam. The structure was a mast of a robot controlled gantry crane. The structure up to this point already had a large number of degrees of freedom, so the idea of conserving grid points by modeling the mast as a beam was attractive. The researcher decided to make a separate problem of of the mast and model it in three dimensions with plates, then extract the equivalent beam properties by setting up the loading to simulate beam-like deformation and constraints. The results could then be used to represent the mast as a beam in the full model. A comparison was made of properties derived from models of different constraints versus manual calculations. The researcher shows that the three-dimensional model is ineffective in trying to conform to the requirements of an equivalent beam representation. If a full 3-D plate model were used in the complete representation of the crane structure, good results would be obtained. Since the attempt is to economize on the size of the model, a better way to achieve the same results is to use substructuring and condense the mast to equivalent end boundary and intermediate mass points.

  11. Sources of variation in loss rates of color bands applied to adult roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) in the western North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Gochfeld, M.

    1994-01-01

    A model-based analysis was done to test several hypotheses concerning the rates of loss of butt-ended color bands placed on adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) in the western North Atlantic. These birds were captured and color banded from 1987-1991 at four colony sites, and recaptured from 1989-1992 as part of a study of the population dynamics of this species. Two types of color bands, Darvic and celluloid, were used, but only one band type was used for each individual bird. Each bird was given three color bands. The estimated probability that a bird with all color bands present during one breeding season still had all color bands during the next breeding season was 0.87. The analysis provided no evidence that colony site, cohort, calendar year of banding, age of color band, or whether or not the bands were heat-sealed closed, were important sources of variation in band-retention probabilities.

  12. MEAL-BASED ENHANCEMENT OF PROTEIN QUALITY AND QUANTITY DURING WEIGHT LOSS IN OBESE OLDER ADULTS WITH MOBILITY LIMITATIONS: RATIONALE AND DESIGN FOR THE MEASUR-UP TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Shelley R.; Starr, Kathryn N. Porter; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E.; Pieper, Carl F.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity and Strength: Understanding the Response --Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 grams of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume −30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity. PMID:25461495

  13. Meal-based enhancement of protein quality and quantity during weight loss in obese older adults with mobility limitations: rationale and design for the MEASUR-UP trial.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelley R; Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E; Pieper, Carl F; Bales, Connie W

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity, and Strength: Understanding the Response - Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 g of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume ~30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity. PMID:25461495

  14. Six-month changes in ideal cardiovascular health vs. Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk among young adults enrolled in a weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; King, Wendy C; Belle, Steven H; Jakicic, John M

    2016-05-01

    The Framingham Risk equation uses sex, age, smoking, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and systolic blood pressure to predict 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (FR-10). The American Heart Association's Ideal Cardiovascular Health (IDEAL) score uses smoking, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity to encourage a healthy cardiovascular phenotype. This study aimed to compare 6-month changes in the FR-10 vs. IDEAL score among young adults with BMI ≥25 to <40kg/m(2) enrolled in a behavioral weight loss intervention at the University of Pittsburgh (2010-12). Medians [25th, 75th percentiles] are reported. Weight decreased by 8kg [-12, -4] among 335 participants. Of 7 possible points, IDEAL score was 4 [3, 4] at baseline, improved (i.e., increased) by 1 [0, 2] over 6months, and improved in 64.2% and worsened in 6.6% of participants (p<0.001). IDEAL classification of BMI, physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucose improved (all p<0.001), but not of smoking or diet (both p≥0.05). FR-10 was <1% at baseline for 88.1% of participants and changed in few participants (improved, i.e. decreased, in 7.5%, worsened in 1.8%, p<0.001). Among young adults with overweight or obesity enrolled in a weight loss intervention, IDEAL detected positive changes in a majority of participants while the FR-10 did not. These findings suggest that IDEAL score may be more sensitive to positive cardiovascular health changes resulting from a behavioral intervention in this population. PMID:26923555

  15. Six-month changes in ideal cardiovascular health vs. Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk among young adults enrolled in a weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; King, Wendy C; Belle, Steven H; Jakicic, John M

    2016-05-01

    The Framingham Risk equation uses sex, age, smoking, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and systolic blood pressure to predict 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (FR-10). The American Heart Association's Ideal Cardiovascular Health (IDEAL) score uses smoking, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity to encourage a healthy cardiovascular phenotype. This study aimed to compare 6-month changes in the FR-10 vs. IDEAL score among young adults with BMI ≥25 to <40kg/m(2) enrolled in a behavioral weight loss intervention at the University of Pittsburgh (2010-12). Medians [25th, 75th percentiles] are reported. Weight decreased by 8kg [-12, -4] among 335 participants. Of 7 possible points, IDEAL score was 4 [3, 4] at baseline, improved (i.e., increased) by 1 [0, 2] over 6months, and improved in 64.2% and worsened in 6.6% of participants (p<0.001). IDEAL classification of BMI, physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucose improved (all p<0.001), but not of smoking or diet (both p≥0.05). FR-10 was <1% at baseline for 88.1% of participants and changed in few participants (improved, i.e. decreased, in 7.5%, worsened in 1.8%, p<0.001). Among young adults with overweight or obesity enrolled in a weight loss intervention, IDEAL detected positive changes in a majority of participants while the FR-10 did not. These findings suggest that IDEAL score may be more sensitive to positive cardiovascular health changes resulting from a behavioral intervention in this population.

  16. Loss of endothelial-ARNT in adult mice contributes to dampened circulating proangiogenic cells and delayed wound healing.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Tao, Jiayi; Gomer, Alla; Ramirez-Bergeron, Diana L

    2014-12-01

    The recruitment and homing of circulating bone marrow-derived cells include endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that are critical to neovascularization and tissue regeneration of various vascular pathologies. We report here that conditional inactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor's (HIF) transcriptional activity in the endothelium of adult mice (Arnt(ΔiEC) mice) results in a disturbance of infiltrating cells, a hallmark of neoangiogenesis, during the early phases of wound healing. Cutaneous biopsy punches show distinct migration of CD31(+) cells into wounds of control mice by 36 hours. However, a significant decline in numbers of infiltrating cells with immature vascular markers, as well as decreased transcript levels of genes associated with their expression and recruitment, were identified in wounds of Arnt(ΔiEC) mice. Matrigel plug assays further confirmed neoangiogenic deficiencies alongside a reduction in numbers of proangiogenic progenitor cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-treated Arnt(ΔiEC) mice. In addition to HIF's autocrine requirements in endothelial cells, our data implicate that extrinsic microenvironmental cues provided by endothelial HIF are pivotal for early migration of proangiogenic cells, including those involved in wound healing.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis with multiple markers indicates repeated loss of the adult medusa stage in Campanulariidae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Boero, Ferdinando; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2006-03-01

    The Campanulariidae is a group of leptomedusan hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) that exhibit a diverse array of life cycles ranging from species with a free medusa stage to those with a reduced or absent medusa stage. Perhaps the best-known member of the taxon is Obelia which is often used as a textbook model of hydrozoan life history. However, Obelia medusae have several unique features leading to a hypothesis that Obelia arose, in a saltational fashion, from an ancestor that lacked a medusa, possibly representing an example of a rare evolutionary reversal. To address the evolution of adult sexual stages in Campanulariidae, a molecular phylogenetic approach was employed using two nuclear (18S rDNA and calmodulin) and two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. Prior to the main analysis, we conducted a preliminary analysis of leptomedusan taxa which suggests that Campanulariidae as presently considered needs to be redefined. Campanulariid analyses are consistent with morphological understanding in that three major clades are recovered. However, several recognized genera are not monophyletic calling into question some "diagnostic" features. Furthermore, ancestral states were reconstructed using parsimony, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate possible evolutionary transitions in life-history stages. The results indicate that life-cycle transitions have occurred multiple times, and that Obelia might be derived from an ancestor with Clytia-like features.

  18. Loss of dystrophin and the microtubule-binding protein ELP-1 causes progressive paralysis and death of adult C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hueston, Jennifer L.; Suprenant, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    EMAP-like proteins (ELPs) are conserved microtubule-binding proteins that function during cell division and in the behavior of post-mitotic cells. In C. elegans, ELP-1 is broadly expressed in many cells and tissues including the touch receptor neurons and body wall muscle. Within muscle, ELP-1 is associated with a microtubule network that is closely opposed to the integrin-based adhesion sites called dense bodies. To examine ELP-1 function we utilized an elp-1 RNA interference assay and screened for synthetic interactions with mutated adhesion site proteins. We reveal a synthetic lethal relationship between ELP-1 and the dystrophin-like protein, DYS-1. Reduction of ELP-1 in a dystrophin [dys-1(cx18)] mutant results in adult animals with motility defects, splayed and hypercontracted muscle with altered cholinergic signaling. Worms fill with vesicles, become flaccid and die. We conclude that ELP-1 is a genetic modifier of a C. elegans model of muscular dystrophy. PMID:19582871

  19. Loss of attentional inhibition in older adults--Does it really exist? An experimental dissociation of inhibitory and memory retrieval processes.

    PubMed

    Giesen, Carina; Eberhard, Maike; Rothermund, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    It is commonly assumed that attentional inhibitory functioning decreases with age, even though empirical evidence is mixed. These inconsistencies possibly stem from methodological artifacts: distractor inhibition is typically assessed with the negative priming paradigm, which confounds inhibition and episodic retrieval. In the present study, we investigated age differences in a sequential distractor repetition paradigm (Giesen, Frings, & Rothermund, 2012) that provides independent estimates of distractor inhibition and episodic retrieval processes. Older (60+ yrs) and younger (below 30 years) adults identified target letters that were flanked by distractors (JKJ). Inhibitory processes were preserved in older adults, who showed reliable distractor repetition benefits resulting from persistent distractor inhibition; however, a significant loss of inhibition was apparent for the older subgroup of participants (65+ yrs) compared with a subgroup of young-old participants (60 to 64 years). No age differences were found for episodic retrieval processes of stimulus-response bindings that were indexed by an interaction of distractor repetition and response relation. Findings highlight the importance of dissociating between distractor inhibition and retrieval processes that are differently implicated in age-related cognitive change.

  20. Transient Hearing Loss Within a Critical Period Causes Persistent Changes to Cellular Properties in Adult Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Mowery, Todd M; Kotak, Vibhakar C; Sanes, Dan H

    2015-08-01

    Sensory deprivation can induce profound changes to central processing during developmental critical periods (CPs), and the recovery of normal function is maximal if the sensory input is restored during these epochs. Therefore, we asked whether mild and transient hearing loss (HL) during discrete CPs could induce changes to cortical cellular physiology. Electrical and inhibitory synaptic properties were obtained from auditory cortex pyramidal neurons using whole-cell recordings after bilateral earplug insertion or following earplug removal. Varying the age of HL onset revealed brief CPs of vulnerability for membrane and firing properties, as well as, inhibitory synaptic currents. These CPs closed 1 week after ear canal opening on postnatal day (P) 18. To examine whether the cellular properties could recover from HL, earplugs were removed prior to (P17) or after (P23), the closure of these CPs. The earlier age of hearing restoration led to greater recovery of cellular function, but firing rate remained disrupted. When earplugs were removed after the closure of these CPs, several changes persisted into adulthood. Therefore, long-lasting cellular deficits that emerge from transient deprivation during a CP may contribute to delayed acquisition of auditory skills in children who experience temporary HL.

  1. Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation on Balance Control and Sensory Organization in Adult Patients with Profound Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Grosjean, Rémy; Gauchard, Gérome C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies were interested in the consequence of vestibular dysfunction related to cochlear implantation on balance control. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of unilateral cochlear implantation on the modalities of balance control and sensorimotor strategies. Posturographic and vestibular evaluations were performed in 10 patients (55 ± 20 years) with profound hearing loss who were candidates to undergo unilateral multichannel cochlear implantation. The evaluation was carried out shortly before and one year after surgery. Posturographic tests were also performed in 10 age-matched healthy participants (63 ± 16 years). Vestibular compensation was observed within one year. In addition, postural performances of the patients increased within one year after cochlear implantation, especially in the more complex situations, in which sensory information is either unavailable or conflicting. Before surgery, postural performances were higher in the control group compared to the patients' group. One year after cochlear implantation, postural control was close to normalize. The improvement of postural performance could be explained by a mechanism of vestibular compensation. In addition, the recovery of auditory information which is the consequence of cochlear implantation could lead to an extended exploration of the environment possibly favoring the development of new balance strategies. PMID:26583121

  2. Caffeine protects against memory loss induced by high and non-anxiolytic dose of cannabidiol in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Nazario, Luiza Reali; Antonioli, Régis; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2015-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) has been investigated in a wide spectrum of clinical approaches due to its psychopharmacological properties. CBD has low affinity for cannabinoid neuroreceptors and agonistic properties to 5-HT receptors. An interaction between cannabinoid and purinergic receptor systems has been proposed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate CBD properties on memory behavioral and locomotor parameters and the effects of pre-treatment of adenosine receptor blockers on CBD impacts on memory using adult zebrafish. CBD (0.1, 0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg) was tested in the avoidance inhibitory paradigm and anxiety task. We analyzed the effect of a long-term caffeine pre-treatment (~20mg/L - four months). Also, acute block of adenosine receptors was performed in co-administration with CBD exposure in the memory assessment. CBD promoted an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in the anxiety task; in the memory assessment, CBD in the dose of 5mg/Kg promoted the strongest effects without interfering with social and aggressive behavior. Caffeine treatment was able to prevent CBD (5mg/kg) effects on memory when CBD was given after the training session. CBD effects on memory were partially prevented by co-treatment with a specific A2A adenosine receptor antagonist when given prior to or after the training session, while CBD effects after the training session were fully prevented by adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. These results indicated that zebrafish have responses to CBD anxiolytic properties that are comparable to other animal models, and high doses changed memory retention in a way dependent on adenosine.

  3. The role of the fatosphere in fat adults' responses to obesity stigma: a model of empowerment without a focus on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dickins, Marissa; Thomas, Samantha L; King, Bri; Lewis, Sophie; Holland, Kate

    2011-12-01

    Obese adults face pervasive and repeated weight-based stigma. Few researchers have explored how obese individuals proactively respond to stigma outside of a dominant weight-loss framework. Using a grounded theory approach, we explored the experiences of 44 bloggers within the Fatosphere--an online fat-acceptance community. We investigated participants' pathways into the Fatosphere, how they responded to and interacted with stigma, and how they described the impact of fat acceptance on their health and well-being. The concepts and support associated with the fat-acceptance movement helped participants shift from reactive strategies in responding to stigma (conforming to dominant discourses through weight loss) to proactive responses to resist stigma (reframing "fat" and self-acceptance). Participants perceived that blogging within the Fatosphere led them to feel more empowered. Participants also described the benefits of belonging to a supportive community, and improvements in their health and well-being. The Fatosphere provides an alternative pathway for obese individuals to counter and cope with weight-based stigma. PMID:21810992

  4. Loss of Nogo receptor homolog NgR2 alters spine morphology of CA1 neurons and emotionality in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Sarah C.; Sartori, Simone B.; Lehmann, Julian; Sah, Anupam; Singewald, Nicolas; Bandtlow, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms which stabilize dendrites and dendritic spines are essential for regulation of neuronal plasticity in development and adulthood. The class of Nogo receptor proteins, which are critical for restricting neurite outgrowth inhibition signaling, have been shown to have roles in developmental, experience and activity induced plasticity. Here we investigated the role of the Nogo receptor homolog NgR2 in structural plasticity in a transgenic null mutant for NgR2. Using Golgi-Cox staining to analyze morphology, we show that loss of NgR2 alters spine morphology in adult CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, significantly increasing mushroom-type spines, without altering dendritic tree complexity. Furthermore, this shift is specific to apical dendrites in distal CA1 stratum radiatum (SR). Behavioral alterations in NgR2−/− mice were investigated using a battery of standardized tests and showed that whilst there were no alterations in learning and memory in NgR2−/− mice compared to littermate controls, NgR2−/− displayed reduced fear expression in the contextual conditioned fear test, and exhibited reduced anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. This suggests that the loss of NgR2 results in a specific phenotype of reduced emotionality. We conclude that NgR2 has role in maintenance of mature spines and may also regulate fear and anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:24860456

  5. The role of the fatosphere in fat adults' responses to obesity stigma: a model of empowerment without a focus on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dickins, Marissa; Thomas, Samantha L; King, Bri; Lewis, Sophie; Holland, Kate

    2011-12-01

    Obese adults face pervasive and repeated weight-based stigma. Few researchers have explored how obese individuals proactively respond to stigma outside of a dominant weight-loss framework. Using a grounded theory approach, we explored the experiences of 44 bloggers within the Fatosphere--an online fat-acceptance community. We investigated participants' pathways into the Fatosphere, how they responded to and interacted with stigma, and how they described the impact of fat acceptance on their health and well-being. The concepts and support associated with the fat-acceptance movement helped participants shift from reactive strategies in responding to stigma (conforming to dominant discourses through weight loss) to proactive responses to resist stigma (reframing "fat" and self-acceptance). Participants perceived that blogging within the Fatosphere led them to feel more empowered. Participants also described the benefits of belonging to a supportive community, and improvements in their health and well-being. The Fatosphere provides an alternative pathway for obese individuals to counter and cope with weight-based stigma.

  6. Mechanisms of adaptation from a multiple to a single step recovery strategy following repeated exposure to forward loss of balance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Carty, Christopher P; Cronin, Neil J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Mills, Peter M; Barrett, Rod S

    2012-01-01

    When released from an initial, static, forward lean angle and instructed to recover with a single step, some older adults are able to meet the task requirements, whereas others either stumble or fall. The purpose of the present study was to use the concept of margin of stability (MoS) to investigate balance recovery responses in the anterior-posterior direction exhibited by older single steppers, multiple steppers and those that are able to adapt from multiple to single steps following exposure to repeated forward loss of balance. One hundred and fifty-one healthy, community dwelling, older adults, aged 65-80 years, participated in the study. Participants performed four trials of the balance recovery task from each of three initial lean angles. Balance recovery responses in the anterior-posterior direction were quantified at three events; cable release (CR), toe-off (TO) and foot contact (FC), for trials performed at the intermediate lean angle. MoS was computed as the anterior-posterior distance between the forward boundary of the Base of Support (BoS) and the vertical projection of the velocity adjusted centre of mass position (XCoM). Approximately one-third of participants adapted from a multiple to a single step recovery strategy following repeated exposure to the task. MoS at FC for the single and multiple step trials in the adaptation group were intermediate between the exclusively single step group and the exclusively multiple step group, with the single step trials having a significant, 3.7 times higher MoS at FC than the multiple step trials. Consistent with differences between single and multiple steppers, adaptation from multiple to single steps was attributed to an increased BoS at FC, a reduced XCoM at FC and an increased rate of BoS displacement from TO to FC. Adaptations occurred within a single test session and suggest older adults that are close to the threshold of successful recovery can rapidly improve dynamic stability following repeated

  7. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed.

  8. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed. PMID:26882324

  9. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit), liquid (grapefruit juice) and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9) were randomly assigned to (127 g) grapefruit (GF), grapefruit juice (GFJ) or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams) of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm). However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2%) and GFJ (+8.2%) preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%). Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF and GFJ preload

  10. Equivalence Principle in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime. We show that the affine structure of the light cone in the FLRW spacetime should be treated locally in terms of the optical metric gαβ which is not reduced to the Minkowski metric fαβ due to the nonuniform parametrization of the local equations of light propagation with the proper time of the observer's clock. The physical consequence of this difference is that the Doppler shift of radio waves measured locally is affected by the Hubble expansion.

  11. Gradient equivalent crystal theory.

    PubMed

    Zypman, F R; Ferrante, J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an extension of the formalism of equivalent crystal theory (ECT) by introducing an electron density gradient term so that the total model density becomes a more accurate representation of the real local density. Specifically, we allow for the electron density around a lattice site to have directionality, in addition to an average value, as assumed in ECT. We propose that an atom senses its neighbouring density as a weighted sum-the weights given by the its own electronic probability. As a benchmark, the method is used to compute vacancy migration energy curves of iron. These energies are in good agreement with previously published results. PMID:21690822

  12. Transition after Traumatic Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuban, Caelan

    2011-01-01

    Children experience grief when they suffer the loss of a close relationship. When that loss also traumatizes children, they experience additional emotional reactions. It is important that adults educate themselves and others who deal with children about typical, healthy grief reactions. Following a non-violent loss, the initial reactions of…

  13. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SOURCE DURING WEIGHT LOSS ON BODY COMPOSITION, CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ABDOMINALLY OBESE, OLDER ADULTS: A PILOT FEEDING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BEAVERS, K.M.; GORDON, M.M.; EASTER, L.; BEAVERS, D.P.; HAIRSTON, K.G.; NICKLAS, B.J.; VITOLINS, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Design Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. Participants 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. Intervention A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Measurements Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. Results A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1

  14. Local unitary equivalence of quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yang, Min; Zhao, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The correspondence between local unitary equivalence of bipartite quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence is thoroughly investigated and strengthened. It is proved that local unitary equivalence can be studied through simultaneous similarity under projective orthogonal transformations, and four parametrization independent algorithms are proposed to judge when two density matrices on ℂd1 ⊗ ℂd2 are locally unitary equivalent in connection with trace identities, Kronecker pencils, Albert determinants and Smith normal forms.

  15. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lasker, Denise A Walker; Evans, Ellen M; Layman, Donald K

    2008-01-01

    Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS) response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y) matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79) consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d): PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and < 170 g/d carbohydrate) or CHO (0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate) for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07) with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03). PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P < 0.05) and increases in HDL-C (+5% vs. -3%; P = 0.05); however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P < 0.05). INS responses to the meal challenge were improved in PRO compared to CHO (P < 0.05) at both 1 hr (-34.3% vs. -1.0%) and 2 hr (-9.2% vs. +46.2%), an effect that remained significant after controlling for weight or fat loss (both P < 0.05). Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease. PMID:18990242

  16. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Rebecca D.

    2012-07-01

    Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  17. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  18. Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Predicts Immune Recovery, Death, and Loss to Follow-Up Among HIV-Infected Adults in Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jessica; Mwale, Jonas; Marx, Melissa A.; Goma, Fastone M.; Mulenga, Lloyd B.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Eron, Joseph J.; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the association of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with CD4+ T cell count recovery, death, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) among HIV-infected adults in Zambia. We compared baseline characteristics of patients by sex and age at ART initiation [categorized as 16–29 years, 30–39 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years, and 60 years and older]. We used the medication possession ratio to assess adherence and analysis of covariance to measure the adjusted change in CD4+ T cell count during ART. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of age with death and LTFU. In a secondary analysis, we repeated models with age as a continuous variable. Among 92,130 HIV-infected adults who initiated ART, the median age was 34 years and 6,281 (6.8%) were aged ≥50 years. Compared with 16–29 year olds, 40–49 year olds (–46 cells/mm3), 50–59 year olds (–53 cells/mm3), and 60+ year olds (–60 cells/mm3) had reduced CD4+ T cell gains during ART. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for death was increased for individuals aged ≥40 years (AHR 1.25 for 40–49 year olds, 1.56 for 50–59 year olds, and 2.97 for 60+ year olds). Adherence and retention in care were poorest among 16–29 year olds but similar in other groups. As a continuous variable, a 5-year increase in age predicted reduced CD4+ T cell count recovery and increased risk of death. Increased age at ART initiation was associated with poorer clinical outcomes, while age <30 years was associated with a higher likelihood of being lost to follow-up. HIV treatment guidelines should consider age-specific recommendations. PMID:24998881

  19. An Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in Obese Adult Inpatients Engaged in a 1-Month-Weight-Loss Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a compulsive need for and use of a specific substance leading to a habit, tolerance, and psychophysiological symptoms. Excessive food consumption is similar to that of substance addiction. Some individuals who have trouble losing weight display addictive eating symptoms. To investigate food addiction in a sample of obese adults referred to hospital for a 1-month-weight-loss treatment. The Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS-16) was used as a screening tool in 88 obese inpatients. The construct validity of the YFAS-16 was assessed by testing its correlations with measures of binge eating (Binge Eating Scale), impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), and emotional dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). 34.1% of our sample was diagnosed with YFAS food addiction. Such diagnosis was also supported by strong associations between FA and psychological and behavioral features, typically descriptive of classic addiction. Patients who endorsed the YFAS-16 criteria for food addiction (FA) had significantly higher binge eating levels, greater emotional dysregulation, and nonacceptance of negative feelings; they lacked goal-oriented behavior, had little impulse control, had difficulty in emotion recognition, and attentional impulsivity; and they were unable to concentrate and lacked inhibitory control behavior, unlike participants who did not meet the FA criteria. Further research is needed to support the reliability of the YFAS-16. This measure has the potential to be applied in epidemiological research, estimating the prevalence of FA within the Italian population and to assess new treatments' efficacy for obese patients with food addiction symptoms seeking weight-loss treatments.

  20. Association of diabetes with tooth loss in Hispanic/Latino adults: findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Greenblatt, Ariel P; Salazar, Christian R; Northridge, Mary E; Kaplan, Robert C; Taylor, George W; Finlayson, Tracy L; Qi, Qibin; Badner, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between diabetes mellitus and missing teeth in Hispanic/Latino adults from diverse heritage groups who reside in the USA. Research design and methods The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) is a multicenter, population-based study of 18–74 years old who underwent a physical and oral examination (n=15 945). Glycemic status was categorized as diabetes, impaired, or normal, based on medication use, and American Diabetes Association criteria for fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). HbA1c<7% indicated good glycemic control, and HbA1c>7% indicated uncontrolled diabetes. We estimated ORs and 95% CIs for missing >9 teeth and being edentulous (missing all natural teeth), after adjustment for age, income, education, Hispanic background, study site/center, nativity, last dental visit, health insurance, diet quality, cigarette smoking, obesity, periodontitis, and C reactive protein. Results Persons with uncontrolled diabetes had a significant increased likelihood of missing >9 teeth and being edentulous as compared with persons with normal glycemic status (adjusted OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.55 and adjusted OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.46, respectively). The association appeared to be stronger at younger ages (18–44 years old; p for interaction <0.0001). However, we found no associations of either impaired glycemia or controlled diabetes with tooth loss in adjusted models. Conclusions Dentists should be aware of their Hispanic patients' diabetes status and whether or not they are well controlled, because these may affect tooth loss and impair oral function, which can lead to poor nutrition and complications of diabetes. PMID:27239319

  1. Hepatic PPARγ Is Not Essential for the Rapid Development of Steatosis After Loss of Hepatic GH Signaling, in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Kineman, Rhonda D; Majumdar, Neena; Subbaiah, Papasani V; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose

    2016-05-01

    Our group has previously reported de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and hepatic triglyceride content increases in chow-fed male mice within 7 days of hepatocyte-specific GH receptor knockdown (aLivGHRkd). Here, we report that these changes are associated with an increase in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), consistent with previous reports showing steatosis is associated with an increase in PPARγ expression in mice with congenital loss of hepatic GH signaling. PPARγ is thought to be an important driver of steatosis by enhancing DNL, as well as increasing the uptake and esterification of extrahepatic fatty acids (FAs). In order to determine whether hepatic PPARγ is critical for the rapid development of steatosis in the aLivGHRkd mouse model, we have generated aLivGHRkd mice, with or without PPARγ (ie, adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific double knockout of GHR and PPARγ). Hepatic PPARγ was not required for the rapid increase in liver triglyceride content or FA indexes of DNL (16:0/18:2 and 16:1/16:0). However, loss of hepatic PPARγ blunted the rise in fatty acid translocase/CD36 and monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 expression induced by aLivGHRkd, and this was associated with a reduction in the hepatic content of 18:2. These results suggest that the major role of PPARγ is to enhance pathways critical in uptake and reesterification of extrahepatic FA. Because FAs have been reported to directly increase PPARγ expression, we speculate that in the aLivGHRkd mouse, the FA produced by DNL enhances the expression of PPARγ, which in turn increases extrahepatic FA uptake, thereby further enhancing PPARγ activity and exacerbating steatosis overtime. PMID:26950202

  2. An Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in Obese Adult Inpatients Engaged in a 1-Month-Weight-Loss Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a compulsive need for and use of a specific substance leading to a habit, tolerance, and psychophysiological symptoms. Excessive food consumption is similar to that of substance addiction. Some individuals who have trouble losing weight display addictive eating symptoms. To investigate food addiction in a sample of obese adults referred to hospital for a 1-month-weight-loss treatment. The Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS-16) was used as a screening tool in 88 obese inpatients. The construct validity of the YFAS-16 was assessed by testing its correlations with measures of binge eating (Binge Eating Scale), impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), and emotional dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). 34.1% of our sample was diagnosed with YFAS food addiction. Such diagnosis was also supported by strong associations between FA and psychological and behavioral features, typically descriptive of classic addiction. Patients who endorsed the YFAS-16 criteria for food addiction (FA) had significantly higher binge eating levels, greater emotional dysregulation, and nonacceptance of negative feelings; they lacked goal-oriented behavior, had little impulse control, had difficulty in emotion recognition, and attentional impulsivity; and they were unable to concentrate and lacked inhibitory control behavior, unlike participants who did not meet the FA criteria. Further research is needed to support the reliability of the YFAS-16. This measure has the potential to be applied in epidemiological research, estimating the prevalence of FA within the Italian population and to assess new treatments' efficacy for obese patients with food addiction symptoms seeking weight-loss treatments. PMID:26267366

  3. Lower dipeptidyl peptidase-4 following exercise training plus weight loss is related to increased insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malin, Steven K; Huang, Hazel; Mulya, Anny; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a circulating glycoprotein that impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the effect of exercise on plasma DPP-4 in adults with metabolic syndrome is unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of exercise on DPP-4 and its role in explaining exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity. Fourteen obese adults (67.9±1.2 years, BMI: 34.2±1.1kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) underwent a 12-week supervised exercise intervention (60min/day for 5 days/week at ∼85% HRmax). Plasma DPP-4 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40mU/m(2)/min) and estimated by HOMA-IR. Visceral fat (computerized tomography), 2-h glucose levels (75g oral glucose tolerance), and basal fat oxidation as well as aerobic fitness (indirect calorimetry) were also determined before and after exercise. The intervention reduced visceral fat, lowered blood pressure, glucose and lipids, and increased aerobic fitness (P<0.05). Exercise improved clamp-derived insulin sensitivity by 75% (P<0.001) and decreased HOMA-IR by 15% (P<0.05). Training decreased plasma DPP-4 by 10% (421.8±30.1 vs. 378.3±32.5ng/ml; P<0.04), and the decrease in DPP-4 was associated with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (r=-0.59; P<0.04), HOMA-IR (r=0.59; P<0.04) and fat oxidation (r=-0.54; P<0.05). Increased fat oxidation also correlated with lower 2-h glucose levels (r=-0.64; P<0.02). Exercise training reduces plasma DPP-4, which may be linked to elevated insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. Maintaining low plasma DPP-4 concentrations is a potential mechanism whereby exercise plus weight loss prevents/delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults with metabolic syndrome.

  4. A randomized trial comparing two approaches to weight loss: Differences in weight loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Oehlhof, Marissa W; Hinman, Nova; LeRoy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Ashrafioun, Lee; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Darby, Lynn A; Gumble, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study compared treatment outcomes for a new weight loss program that emphasized reducing unhealthy relationships with food, body image dissatisfaction, and internalized weight bias (New Perspectives) to a weight loss program that emphasizes environmental modification and habit formation and disruption (Transforming Your Life). Fifty-nine overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to either a 12-week New Perspectives or Transforming Your Life intervention. Despite equivalent outcomes at the end of treatment, the Transforming Your Life participants were significantly more effective at maintaining their weight loss than New Perspectives participants during the 6-month no-treatment follow-up period. PMID:23349402

  5. Reciprocal effects of treatment-induced increases in exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates, in obese adults seeking weight loss: a field-based trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A better understanding of interrelations of exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates of self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation, may be useful for the architecture of improved weight loss treatments. Theory-based research within field settings, with samples possessing high probabilities of health risks, might enable rapid application of useful findings. Methods Adult volunteers with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] 35–50 kg/m2; age = 43.0 ± 9.5 y; 83% female) were randomly assigned to six monthly cognitive-behavioral exercise support sessions paired with either group-based nutrition education (n = 145) or cognitive behavioral methods applied to improved eating (n = 149). After specification of mediation models using a bias-corrected bootstrapping procedure, a series of reciprocal effects analyses assessed: a) the reciprocal effects of changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake, resulting from the treatments, b) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables tested (i.e. self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation) and fruit and vegetable change, resulting from change in exercise volume, and c) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables and exercise change, resulting from change in fruit and vegetable intake. Results Mediation analyses suggested a reciprocal effect between changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable intake. After inclusion of psychosocial variables, also found were reciprocal effects between change in fruit and vegetable intake and change in mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, and self-regulation for eating; and change in exercise volume and change in mood and exercise-related self-regulation. Conclusion Findings had implications for behavioral weight-loss theory and treatment. Specifically, results suggested that treatments should focus upon, and leverage, the transfer effects from each of the primary weight-loss

  6. Effects of repeated exposure to morphine in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice: age-dependent differences in locomotor stimulation, sensitization, and body weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Koek, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Given evidence for age-related differences in the effects of drugs of abuse, surprisingly few preclinical studies have explored effects of opioids in adolescents (versus adults). Objectives This study compared the motor stimulating and ataxic effects of repeatedly-administered morphine in adolescent, late-adolescent, and adult mice. Methods Mice were treated with saline or morphine (10–100 mg/kg, i.p.) once per day for 4 days, and morphine (3.2–56 mg/kg)-induced locomotion was assessed 3 days or 5 weeks later. Different mice were treated repeatedly with morphine and ataxia was measured. Results Acute administration of morphine increased locomotion more in adolescents than in adults. Repeated morphine enhanced morphine-induced locomotion, assessed 3 days later, to a similar extent in each age group (minimum effective dose: 17.8 mg/kg). This sensitization was still evident 5 weeks later when the adolescents had become adult, but was smaller and occurred at a higher dose (56 mg/kg). In animals treated repeatedly with morphine as adults, sensitization was no longer apparent 5 weeks later. Intermittent morphine was at least 10-fold less potent to produce body weight loss in adolescents than in adults. Repeated morphine did not alter morphine-induced ataxia at any age. Conclusions Compared with adults, adolescents were more sensitive to the acute locomotor stimulating effects of morphine and to its long-lasting locomotor sensitizing effects, consistent with overactivity of dopamine systems during adolescence. In contrast, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to body weight loss induced by intermittent morphine, an effect indicative of morphine withdrawal in adult rodents. PMID:24096538

  7. Older Adults and Smell Loss

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Narrator: Our sense of smell is very important. Without it, we would not be able to enjoy food and beverages or the scents and fragrances ... important warning signal. Dr. Beauchamp: he sense of smell is important because it serves two main functions. ...

  8. Dungeness Crab Dredging Entrainment Studies in the Lower Columbia River, 2002 – 2004: Loss Projections, Salinity Model, and Scenario Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Dungeness crab studies conducted in 2002 for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) constituted a major step forward in quantifying crab entrainment through statistical projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) and loss to the fishery (LF) from proposed construction and maintenance dredging in the Columbia River navigation channel (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). These studies also examined the influence of bottom salinity on crab abundance and entrainment rates. Additional sampling was conducted in 2004 to tighten loss projections, further develop the crab salinity model, and apply the model to assess correlations of entrainment rates and projected losses with seasonal salinity changes.

  9. Challenging Behaviors Should Not Be Considered Depressive Equivalents in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities. II. A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita B.; Cooper, Christopher L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has proposed behavioral equivalents for depression, but evidence for behavioral equivalents has been contradictory. The relationship between a measure of depression and several proposed behavioral equivalents of depression was assessed in 693 adults living in a large residential setting. Most were adults with severe or profound…

  10. Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

  11. Estimating equivalence with quantile regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence testing and corresponding confidence interval estimates are used to provide more enlightened statistical statements about parameter estimates by relating them to intervals of effect sizes deemed to be of scientific or practical importance rather than just to an effect size of zero. Equivalence tests and confidence interval estimates are based on a null hypothesis that a parameter estimate is either outside (inequivalence hypothesis) or inside (equivalence hypothesis) an equivalence region, depending on the question of interest and assignment of risk. The former approach, often referred to as bioequivalence testing, is often used in regulatory settings because it reverses the burden of proof compared to a standard test of significance, following a precautionary principle for environmental protection. Unfortunately, many applications of equivalence testing focus on establishing average equivalence by estimating differences in means of distributions that do not have homogeneous variances. I discuss how to compare equivalence across quantiles of distributions using confidence intervals on quantile regression estimates that detect differences in heterogeneous distributions missed by focusing on means. I used one-tailed confidence intervals based on inequivalence hypotheses in a two-group treatment-control design for estimating bioequivalence of arsenic concentrations in soils at an old ammunition testing site and bioequivalence of vegetation biomass at a reclaimed mining site. Two-tailed confidence intervals based both on inequivalence and equivalence hypotheses were used to examine quantile equivalence for negligible trends over time for a continuous exponential model of amphibian abundance. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Adult AMPA GLUA1 Receptor Subunit Loss in 5-HT Neurons Results in a Specific Anxiety-Phenotype with Evidence for Dysregulation of 5-HT Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Tillmann; Vogt, Miriam A; Gartside, Sarah E; Berger, Stefan M; Lujan, Rafael; Lau, Thorsten; Herrmann, Elke; Sprengel, Rolf; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Both the glutamatergic and serotonergic (5-HT) systems are implicated in the modulation of mood and anxiety. Descending cortical glutamatergic neurons regulate 5-HT neuronal activity in the midbrain raphe nuclei through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To analyze the functional role of GLUA1-containing AMPA receptors in serotonergic neurons, we used the Cre-ERT2/loxP-system for the conditional inactivation of the GLUA1-encoding Gria1 gene selectively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. These Gria15-HT−/− mice exhibited a distinct anxiety phenotype but showed no alterations in locomotion, depression-like behavior, or learning and memory. Increased anxiety-related behavior was associated with significant decreases in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) expression and activity, and subsequent reductions in tissue levels of 5-HT, its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine in the raphe nuclei. However, TPH2 expression and activity as well as monoamine levels were unchanged in the projection areas of 5-HT neurons. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings of 5-HT neurons revealed that, while α1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation was unchanged, excitatory responses to AMPA were enhanced and the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory response to 5-HT was attenuated in Gria15-HT−/− mice. Our data show that a loss of GLUA1 protein in 5-HT neurons enhances AMPA receptor function and leads to multiple local molecular and neurochemical changes in the raphe nuclei that dysregulate 5-HT neuronal activity and induce anxiety-like behavior. PMID:25547714

  13. Adult AMPA GLUA1 receptor subunit loss in 5-HT neurons results in a specific anxiety-phenotype with evidence for dysregulation of 5-HT neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tillmann; Vogt, Miriam A; Gartside, Sarah E; Berger, Stefan M; Lujan, Rafael; Lau, Thorsten; Herrmann, Elke; Sprengel, Rolf; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Both the glutamatergic and serotonergic (5-HT) systems are implicated in the modulation of mood and anxiety. Descending cortical glutamatergic neurons regulate 5-HT neuronal activity in the midbrain raphe nuclei through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To analyze the functional role of GLUA1-containing AMPA receptors in serotonergic neurons, we used the Cre-ERT2/loxP-system for the conditional inactivation of the GLUA1-encoding Gria1 gene selectively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. These Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice exhibited a distinct anxiety phenotype but showed no alterations in locomotion, depression-like behavior, or learning and memory. Increased anxiety-related behavior was associated with significant decreases in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) expression and activity, and subsequent reductions in tissue levels of 5-HT, its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine in the raphe nuclei. However, TPH2 expression and activity as well as monoamine levels were unchanged in the projection areas of 5-HT neurons. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings of 5-HT neurons revealed that, while α1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation was unchanged, excitatory responses to AMPA were enhanced and the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory response to 5-HT was attenuated in Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice. Our data show that a loss of GLUA1 protein in 5-HT neurons enhances AMPA receptor function and leads to multiple local molecular and neurochemical changes in the raphe nuclei that dysregulate 5-HT neuronal activity and induce anxiety-like behavior.

  14. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals. PMID:17904939

  15. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  16. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  17. SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings. PMID:22556683

  18. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.].

  19. Measuring the psychosocial consequences of hearing loss in a working adult population: focus on validity and reliability of the Italian translation of the Hearing Handicap Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Monzani, D; Genovese, E; Palma, S; Rovatti, V; Borgonzoni, M; Martini, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary Despite increasing demand for questionnaires for assessing hearing handicap and the effectiveness of some tools across different languages, empirical studies to evaluate the reliability and the validity of translations of original English questionnaires into an Italian version have not been reported in the literature, thus making comparisons of Italian experimental and clinical data across cultures and countries impossible. This study tested the global assumption that the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA), that is one of the most widely used instruments in English-speaking countries, can be adapted to the Italian language maintaining the reliability and clinical validity of the original version. The English version of this 25-item, self-assessment questionnaire was developed by Newman et al. in 1990 and special emphasis was placed on emotional reaction and social limitations perceived by hearing-impaired subjects and scored separately. This tool was translated into the Italian language by a forward and backward technique, as established by the IQOLA (International Quality of Life Assessment) project. Overall, 94 subjects, aged 18-65 years, with acquired hearing impairment and 104 individuals with no hearing problems, well-matched for socio-demographic variables, were enrolled in the study in a case-control design. Reliability of the Italian version of HHIA was tested by measuring internal consistency and test-retest reproducibility. Validity was assessed by using construct, convergent and discriminant methods. A Cronbach’s alpha coefficient near 0.90 confirmed a more than acceptable internal consistency and a highly statistically significant Spearman’s correlation coefficient (< 0.005) between scores of the two administrations at an interval of one month documented an excellent stability of the questionnaire over time. Construct validity was demonstrated by a correlation between the severity of hearing loss and the score of questionnaire (< 0

  20. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  1. Equivalency Theory and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discusses distance education and the need for an accepted theory. Highlights include theories of independent study; theory of industrialization of teaching; theory of interaction and communication; and equivalency theory that is based on local control, personalized instruction, and telecommunications. (LRW)

  2. Comparison of conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma using a sitting and standing female adult voxel simulators exposure to photons in antero-posterior irradiation geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, F. R.; Galeano, D. C.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.; Hunt, J.

    2014-02-01

    Due to the difficulty in implementing invasive techniques for calculations of dose for some exposure scenarios, computational simulators have been created to represent as realistically as possible the structures of the human body and through radiation transport simulations to obtain conversion coefficients (CCs) to estimate dose. In most published papers simulators are implemented in the standing posture and this may not describe a real scenario of exposure. In this work we developed exposure scenarios in the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code using a female simulator in standing and sitting postures. The simulator was irradiated in the antero-posterior (AP) geometry by a plane source of monoenergetic photons with energy from 10 keV to 2 MeV. The conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (HT/Kair) were calculated for both scenarios and compared. The results show that the percentage difference of CCs for the organs of the head and thorax was not significant (less than 5%) since the anatomic position of the organs is the same in both postures. The percentage difference is more significant to the ovaries (71% for photon energy of 20 keV), to the bladder (39% at 60 keV) and to the uterus (37% at 100 keV) due to different processes of radiation interactions in the legs of the simulator when its posture is changed. For organs and tissues that are distributed throughout the entire body, such as bone (21% at 100 keV) and muscle (30% at 80 keV) the percentage difference of CCs reflects a reduction of interaction of photons with the legs of the simulator. Therefore, the calculation of conversion coefficients using simulators in the sitting posture is relevant for a more accurate dose estimation in real exposures to radiation.

  3. Transforming Your Life: An Environmental Modification Approach to Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Young, Kathleen M.; Koball, Afton; Gumble, Amanda; Darby, Lynn A.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Wott, Carissa B.; Hinman, Nova

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compared a traditional behavioral weight loss program with a weight loss intervention emphasizing environmental modification and habit formation and disruption. Fifty-four overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to either a 14-week LEARN or TYL intervention. Forty-two participants completed the six-month follow-up assessment. Treatment outcomes between LEARN and TYL participants were equivalent. During the six-month no-treatment follow-up period, participants evidenced a 3.3 lb (SD = 9.2) weight gain. The TYL intervention appears to represent an attractive option for individuals seeking an alternative to the traditional behavioral approach to weight loss. PMID:20929947

  4. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  5. Gaze Behavior of Older Adults in Responding to Unexpected Loss of Balance while Walking in an Unfamiliar Environment: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    King, Emily C.; McKay, Sandra M.; Lee, Tracy A.; Scovil, Carol Y.; Peters, Amy L.; Maki, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Rapid reach-to-grasp balance-recovery reactions play a critical role in preventing falls. Recent young-adult studies suggest these reactions may be guided using stored visuo-spatial information from the central field, and that peripheral vision may also play an important role. This study used gaze recordings to examine the visual control of reach-to-grasp reactions in older adults. Methods A motion platform was configured to simulate a “real-life” environment that included a handrail. Subjects performed an activity that required walking to the end of the platform, which was triggered to move suddenly and unexpectedly as they approached the handrail. Twelve healthy older adults (64-79 years old) were tested and compared to 12 healthy young adults (22-30 years old) tested as part of another study. Results Older adults were more than twice as likely as young adults to react to the platform perturbation by grasping the handrail (10/12 versus 4/12), despite being much less likely to visually fixate the handrail after entering the new environment. Grasping errors were remarkably common (5/10 older, 2/4 young), but there was no consistent relationship to the preceding gaze behavior. Conclusion Older adults were highly dependent on using a handrail to recover balance, but commonly failed to direct overt visual attention to the rail after entering the unfamiliar environment. The failure to fixate the rail required the reaching movement to be guided using peripheral vision. Further research is needed to determine whether grasping errors can be prevented via interventions that either attract overt attention to the handrail or improve processing of peripheral-field information.

  6. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  7. Determination of equivalent circuit for PVDF shock-pressure gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Kotulski, J.D.; Anderson, M.U.; Brock, B.C.; Gomez, J.; Graham, R.A.; Vittitoe, C.N.

    1993-07-01

    Broadband impedance measurements of a PVDF shock-pressure gauge are used to build an equivalent circuit for the gauge. The essential components are a gauge capacitance and a low-loss transmission line. Component features are consistent with the physical characteristics. With knowledge of this circuit, troublesome oscillations can be anticipated and prevented.

  8. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  9. Children's Equivalence Judgments: Crossmapping Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mix, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers made numerical comparisons between sets with varying degrees of shared surface similarity. When surface similarity was pitted against numerical equivalence (i.e., crossmapping), children made fewer number matches than when surface similarity was neutral (i.e, all sets contained the same objects). Only children who understood the…

  10. Meaning Equivalence and Linguistic Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhmanova, Olga; Marcenko, A. N.

    This manual discusses recent research in the field of semantics. It was prepared as part of a series of books to be used in connection with a course of advanced study for experienced philologists and teachers. The Introduction and Part One are based mainly on the 1971-1972 course of lectures on Meaning Equivalence by Akhmanova, and discuss the…

  11. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  12. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This…

  13. Multiple Functions in Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Brian; Keenan, Mickey

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of training a "drawing" response to each of three stimuli in a 5-member equivalence class. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were an arbitrary word, a shape, or a mathematical symbol. Subjects then were trained to draw a separate component of a stickman at each of the 3 stimuli. Subsequent tests for function…

  14. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  15. Equivalence theorem and infrared divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, T.

    1996-08-01

    We look at the equivalence theorem as a statement about the absence of polynomial infrared divergences when {ital m}{sub {ital W}}{r_arrow}0. We prove their absence in a truncated toy model and conjecture that, if they exist at all, they are due to couplings between light particles. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Living Well with Diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered intervention for maintenance of weight loss, physical activity and glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background By 2025, it is estimated that approximately 1.8 million Australian adults (approximately 8.4% of the adult population) will have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes. Weight management via improved physical activity and diet is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes management. However, the majority of weight loss trials in diabetes have evaluated short-term, intensive clinic-based interventions that, while producing short-term outcomes, have failed to address issues of maintenance and broad population reach. Telephone-delivered interventions have the potential to address these gaps. Methods/Design Using a two-arm randomised controlled design, this study will evaluate an 18-month, telephone-delivered, behavioural weight loss intervention focussing on physical activity, diet and behavioural therapy, versus usual care, with follow-up at 24 months. Three-hundred adult participants, aged 20-75 years, with type 2 diabetes, will be recruited from 10 general practices via electronic medical records search. The Social-Cognitive Theory driven intervention involves a six-month intensive phase (4 weekly calls and 11 fortnightly calls) and a 12-month maintenance phase (one call per month). Primary outcomes, assessed at 6, 18 and 24 months, are: weight loss, physical activity, and glycaemic control (HbA1c), with weight loss and physical activity also measured at 12 months. Incremental cost-effectiveness will also be examined. Study recruitment began in February 2009, with final data collection expected by February 2013. Discussion This is the first study to evaluate the telephone as the primary method of delivering a behavioural weight loss intervention in type 2 diabetes. The evaluation of maintenance outcomes (6 months following the end of intervention), the use of accelerometers to objectively measure physical activity, and the inclusion of a cost-effectiveness analysis will advance the science of broad reach approaches to weight control and health

  17. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. PMID:27187457

  18. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-05-12

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  19. Natural Loss of eyeless/Pax6 Expression in Eyes of Bicyclus anynana Adult Butterflies Likely Leads to Exponential Decrease of Eye Fluorescence in Transgenics.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Mainak; Chan, Sam Kok Sim; Monteiro, Antónia

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used visible markers for transgenesis use fluorescent proteins expressed at the surface of the body, such as in eyes. One commonly used marker is the 3xP3-EGFP cassette containing synthetic binding sites for the eyeless/Pax6 conserved transcription factor. This marker cassette leads to fluorescent eyes in a variety of animals tested so far. Here we show that upon reaching adulthood, transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies containing this marker cassette exponentially loose fluorescence in their eyes. After 12 days, transgenic individuals are no longer distinguishable from wild type individuals. The decreased eye fluorescence is likely due to significantly decreased or halted eyeless/Pax6 expression observed in wild type animals upon adult emergence. Implications from these findings include care in screening transgenic animals before these reach adulthood, or shortly thereafter, and in using adult animals of the same age for quantitative screening of likely homozygote and heterozygote individuals.

  20. Natural Loss of eyeless/Pax6 Expression in Eyes of Bicyclus anynana Adult Butterflies Likely Leads to Exponential Decrease of Eye Fluorescence in Transgenics

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Antónia

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used visible markers for transgenesis use fluorescent proteins expressed at the surface of the body, such as in eyes. One commonly used marker is the 3xP3-EGFP cassette containing synthetic binding sites for the eyeless/Pax6 conserved transcription factor. This marker cassette leads to fluorescent eyes in a variety of animals tested so far. Here we show that upon reaching adulthood, transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies containing this marker cassette exponentially loose fluorescence in their eyes. After 12 days, transgenic individuals are no longer distinguishable from wild type individuals. The decreased eye fluorescence is likely due to significantly decreased or halted eyeless/Pax6 expression observed in wild type animals upon adult emergence. Implications from these findings include care in screening transgenic animals before these reach adulthood, or shortly thereafter, and in using adult animals of the same age for quantitative screening of likely homozygote and heterozygote individuals. PMID:26173066

  1. Equivalent Imperfections In Arched Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallemule, Marian

    2015-09-01

    There are currently three design methods to verify the in-plane buckling of an arched structure: substitute member method, the method of equivalent imperfection with recommendations for arched bridges, and the equivalent unique global and local initial imperfection method (EUGLI), which uses the critical elastic buckling mode as an imperfection. The latter method is included in the EN 1993-1-1 cl. 5.3.2 (11) since 2002; however, to this day it is neither utilized in the design practice nor is it incorporated in ordinary structural analysis software. The main purpose of this article is to show the application of the proposed methods in a step-by-step manner to the numerical example considered and to compare these design methods for various arched structures. Verification of the in-plane buckling of an arch is explained in detail.

  2. The Stanford equivalence principle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Paul W., Jr.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Bye, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Stanford Equivalence Principle Program (Worden, Jr. 1983) is intended to test the uniqueness of free fall to the ultimate possible accuracy. The program is being conducted in two phases: first, a ground-based version of the experiment, which should have a sensitivity to differences in rate of fall of one part in 10(exp 12); followed by an orbital experiment with a sensitivity of one part in 10(exp 17) or better. The ground-based experiment, although a sensitive equivalence principle test in its own right, is being used for technology development for the orbital experiment. A secondary goal of the experiment is a search for exotic forces. The instrument is very well suited for this search, which would be conducted mostly with the ground-based apparatus. The short range predicted for these forces means that forces originating in the Earth would not be detectable in orbit. But detection of Yukawa-type exotic forces from a nearby large satellite (such as Space Station) is feasible, and gives a very sensitive and controllable test for little more effort than the orbiting equivalence principle test itself.

  3. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  4. The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups.

    PubMed

    Emadian, Amir; Andrews, Rob C; England, Clare Y; Wallace, Victoria; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-11-28

    Weight loss is crucial for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear which dietary intervention is best for optimising glycaemic control, or whether weight loss itself is the main reason behind observed improvements. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of various dietary interventions on glycaemic control in overweight and obese adults with T2DM when controlling for weight loss between dietary interventions. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT) was conducted. Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science databases were conducted. Inclusion criteria included RCT with minimum 6 months duration, with participants having BMI≥25·0 kg/m2, a diagnosis of T2DM using HbA1c, and no statistically significant difference in mean weight loss at the end point of intervention between dietary arms. Results showed that eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Only four RCT indicated the benefit of a particular dietary intervention over another in improving HbA1c levels, including the Mediterranean, vegan and low glycaemic index (GI) diets. However the findings from one of the four studies showing a significant benefit are questionable because of failure to control for diabetes medications and poor adherence to the prescribed diets. In conclusion there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest that any particular diet is superior in treating overweight and obese patients with T2DM. Although the Mediterranean, vegan and low-GI diets appear to be promising, further research that controls for weight loss and the effects of diabetes medications in larger samples is needed. PMID:26411958

  5. High temperature effects on water loss and survival examining the hardiness of female adults of the spider beetles, Mezium affine and Gibbium aequinoctiale.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Chambers, Michael J; Tank, Justin L; Keeney, George D

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable ability to tolerate temperatures as high as 52 degrees C for Mezium affine Boieldieu and 56 degrees C for Gibbium aequinoctiale Boieldieu (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) was discovered as part of a water balance study that was conducted to determine whether desiccation-resistance (xerophilic water balance classification) is linked to survival at high temperature. Characteristics of the heat shock response were an intermediate, reversible level of injury, appearing as though dead; greater recovery from heat shock by G. aequinoctiale (57%) than M. affine (30%) that supplemented higher temperature survival by G. aequinoctiale; and lack of protection generated by conditioning at sublethal temperature. Heatinduced mortality is attributed to an abrupt, accelerated water loss at 50 degrees C for M. affine and 54 degrees C for G. aequinoctiale, not to the species (M. affine) that loses water the slowest and has the lower activation energy, E(a) as a measure of cuticular boundary effectiveness. These temperatures where water loss increases sharply are not critical transition temperatures because Arrhenius analysis causes them to be erased (uninterrupted Boltzmann function) and E(a) fails to change when cuticular lipid from these beetles is removed. Our conclusion is that the temperature thresholds for survival and accelerated water loss closely match, and the key survival element in hot and dry environments contributing to wide distribution of G. aequinoctiale and M. affine derives from rising temperature prompting entry into quiescence and a resistance in cuticular lipid fluidity.

  6. Binge ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to a persistent loss of neurogenesis in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus that is associated with impaired adult cognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Crews, Fulton T.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period that coincides with the maturation of adult cognitive faculties. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can impact brain maturation. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 20% EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we discovered that AIE treatment reduced neurogenesis (i.e., doublecortin-immunoreactive [DCX + IR] cells) in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus of late adolescent (P56) male Wistar rats that persisted during abstinence into adulthood (P220). This reduction in neurogenesis was accompanied by a concomitant reduction in proliferating cells (Ki-67) and an increase in cell death (cleaved caspase-3). In the hippocampus, AIE treatment induced a long-term upregulation of neuroimmune genes, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its endogenous agonist high-mobility group box 1 as well as several proinflammatory signaling molecules. Administration of lipopolysaccharide, a gram-negative endotoxin agonist at TLR4, to young adult rats (P70) produced a similar reduction of DCX + IR cells that was observed in AIE-treated animals. Behaviorally, AIE treatment impaired object recognition on the novel object recognition task when assessed from P163 to P165. Interestingly, object recognition memory was positively correlated with DCX + IR in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus while latency to enter the center of the apparatus was negatively correlated with DCX + IR in the ventral dentate gyrus. Together, these data reveal that adolescent binge ethanol exposure persistently inhibits neurogenesis throughout the hippocampus, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might contribute to altered adult cognitive and emotive function. PMID:25729346

  7. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  8. Meconium ileus equivalent in older patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hanly, J G; Fitzgerald, M X

    1983-04-30

    Meconium ileus equivalent is one of the lesser known manifestations of cystic fibrosis, and occurs most often in older patients. With the improved overall survival of patients with cystic fibrosis, one would expect to see this condition more often in the future. Of 53 patients attending our cystic fibrosis clinic for adolescents and adults, eight had experienced a total of 25 episodes of meconium ileus equivalent. Recurrent attacks occurred in seven patients, of whom four had at least four separate, well documented episodes: these episodes were associated with obvious recognised precipitating factors in only three patients. All patients responded to appropriate medical treatment with acetylcysteine or sodium diatrizoate, including three who had previously undergone surgery for meconium ileus equivalent elsewhere. Controversies remain, however, concerning the role of prophylactic medical management with acetylcysteine, sodium diatrizoate, and pancreatic supplements. PMID:6404483

  9. Transosseous-Equivalent Repair for Distal Patellar Tendon Avulsion.

    PubMed

    Galos, David K; Konda, Sanjit R; Kaplan, Daniel J; Ryan, William E; Alaia, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Extensor mechanism disruptions are relatively uncommon injuries involving injury to the quadriceps tendon, patella, or patellar tendon. Patellar tendon avulsions from the tibial tubercle in adults are rare; as such, little technical information has been written regarding surgical management of this injury in the adult. Transosseous-equivalent repairs have been described in the management of several types of tendon ruptures, including rotator cuff and distal triceps tendon ruptures, but not previously in patellar injuries. We present a technique for repairing an avulsion injury of the patellar tendon from the tibial tubercle using suture anchors in a transosseous-equivalent manner. This technique for treating distal patellar tendon avulsion injuries likely increases contact area at the repair site while potentially improving fixation strength. PMID:27462538

  10. Equivalence principle in Chameleon models .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiselburd, L.; Landau, S.; Salgado, M.; Sudarsky, D.

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with Eötvös type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  11. Does the Amount of Fat Mass Predict Age-Related Loss of Lean Mass, Muscle Strength, and Muscle Quality in Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jingzhong; Stenholm, Sari; Caserotti, Paolo; Houston, Denise K.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; You, Tongjian; Lee, Jung Sun; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. An excessive amount of adipose tissue may contribute to sarcopenia and may be one mechanism underlying accelerated loss of muscle mass and strength with aging. We therefore examined the association of baseline total body fat with changes in leg lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality over 7 years of follow-up and whether this link was explained by adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Methods. Data were from 2,307 men and women, aged 70–79 years, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Total fat mass was acquired from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leg lean mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Years 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8. Knee extension strength was measured by isokinetic dynamometer in Years 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Muscle quality was calculated as muscle strength divided by leg lean mass. Results. Every SD greater fat mass was related to 1.3 kg more leg lean mass at baseline in men and 1.5 kg in women (p < .01). Greater fat mass was also associated with a greater decline in leg lean mass in both men and women (0.02 kg/year, p < .01), which was not explained by higher levels of adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Larger fat mass was related to significantly greater muscle strength but significantly lower muscle quality at baseline (p < .01). No significant differences in decline of muscle strength and quality were found. Conclusions. High fatness was associated with lower muscle quality, and it predicts accelerated loss of lean mass. Prevention of greater fatness in old age may decrease the loss of lean mass and maintain muscle quality and thereby reducing disability and mobility impairments. PMID:21572082

  12. Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain of adult mice heterozygote for Engrailed1: a new genetic model for Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Le Pen, Gwenaëlle; Sonnier, Laure; Hartmann, Andreas; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Trovero, Fabrice; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Prochiantz, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Engrailed1 is a developmental gene of the homeogene family that controls the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons throughout life. Since these neurons have been crucially implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), transgenic mice lacking one En1 allele could be of particular interest for the development of an animal model for PD. We showed in En1+/- mice, some traits reminiscent of PD such as (1) a progressive loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and (2) motor deficits, anhedonia, decreased social interactions and depression-like behaviours. Further validation is needed, but these first results suggest that En1+/- mice could provide a promising model for the study of PD.

  13. Meal replacements are as effective as structured weight-loss diets for treating obesity in adults with features of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Manny; Foster, Paul R; Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M

    2004-08-01

    Meal replacements are widely used as a weight-loss strategy; however, their effectiveness outside controlled clinical trial environments is unknown. We compared meal replacements with a structured weight-reduction diet in overweight/obese Australians with raised triglycerides. In a randomized parallel design, 2 groups [meal replacement (MR) and control (C)] of 66 matched subjects underwent a 6000 kJ intervention for 3 mo (stage 1) and a further 3 mo (stage 2). The groups were provided oral and written information. The C group was supplied with shopping vouchers and followed a low fat/energy diet. The MR group was supplied with Slim-Fast trade mark products for 2 meals (1800 kJ) and consumed a low-fat evening meal. Clients were weighed every 2 wk and received structured supervision without professional dietary input, with compliance assessed by 3-d weighed food records. Blood biomarkers were used to assess fruit/vegetable intake and a questionnaire was used to assess attitudes to treatment. Fifty-five subjects completed stage 1 (withdrawals: 7 in the MR group, 4 in the C group) and 42 subjects completed stage 2. Weight loss was 6.0 +/- 4.2 kg (6.3%) for the MR group and 6.6 +/- 3.4 kg (6.9%) for the C group at 3 mo, and 9.0 +/- 6.9 kg (9.4%) for the MR group and 9.2 +/- 5.1 kg (9.3%) for the C group at 6 mo (different over time within but not between treatments). Serum folate and plasma beta-carotene were higher in the MR group. Plasma homocysteine fell in both groups (P < 0.005). Dietary fiber intake was higher in the C group (P < 0.02) and calcium was higher in the MR group (P < 0.001). We concluded meal replacement is equally effective for losing weight compared with conventional but structured weight-loss diets. Dietary compliance and convenience were viewed more favorably by participants who consumed meal replacements than by those in a conventional weight-loss program.

  14. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  15. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (-0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (-0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (-0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure -5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  16. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A.; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (−0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (−0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (−0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure −5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  17. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Bravo, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Methods Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50–64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Results Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1–7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00–1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08–2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60–0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17–1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95–0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conclusions Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern. PMID:26445239

  18. Productivity loss and resource utilization, and associated indirect and direct costs in individuals providing care for adults with schizophrenia in the EU5

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shaloo; Isherwood, Gina; Jones, Kevin; Van Impe, Kristel

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to understand the impact of providing care for adults with schizophrenia on productivity, resource utilization, and costs in the EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK). Methods Data from the 2010, 2011, and 2013 EU5 National Health and Wellness Survey, an online questionnaire of a nationwide sample of adults, were analyzed. Schizophrenia caregivers (n=398) were matched to noncaregivers (n=158,989) and other caregivers (n=14,341) via propensity scores. Outcome measures included health care utilization, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire-based scores, and associated direct and indirect costs (estimated from the literature). Significant differences between schizophrenia caregivers vs noncaregivers and other caregivers (eg, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease) were examined. Results After matching, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 26.1%), provider visits (8.0 vs 5.7), emergency room visits (0.9 vs 0.2), hospitalizations (0.8 vs 0.1), and direct costs (€2,258 vs €617) than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Employed schizophrenia caregivers reported greater absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work impairment (35.0% vs 20.7%), and indirect costs (€6,667 vs €3,795) than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers) reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 32.3%) and provider visits (8.0 vs 6.6), P<0.05. A greater proportion of schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers) reported at least one emergency room visit (26.1% vs 20.2%) and hospitalization (20.4% vs 14.3%), P<0.05. Employed schizophrenia caregivers incurred greater indirect costs than other caregivers (€6,667 vs €5,104). Discussion Schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment, resource utilization, and costs than noncaregivers and other caregivers. Better support systems for schizophrenia caregivers may help reduce the burden on the health care system and caregivers

  19. Weight loss referrals for adults in primary care (WRAP): protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing the clinical and cost-effectiveness of primary care referral to a commercial weight loss provider for 12 weeks, referral for 52 weeks, and a brief self-help intervention [ISRCTN82857232

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent trials demonstrate the acceptability and short term efficacy of primary care referral to a commercial weight loss provider for weight management. Commissioners now need information on the optimal duration of intervention and the longer term outcomes and cost effectiveness of such treatment to give best value for money. Methods/Design This multicentre, randomised controlled trial with a parallel design will recruit 1200 overweight adults (BMI ≥28 kg/m2) through their primary care provider. They will be randomised in a 2:5:5 allocation to: Brief Intervention, Commercial Programme for 12 weeks, or Commercial Programme for 52 weeks. Participants will be followed up for two years, with assessments at 0, 3, 12 and 24 months. The sequential primary research questions are whether the CP interventions achieve significantly greater weight loss from baseline to 12 months than BI, and whether CP52 achieves significantly greater weight loss from baseline to 12 months than CP12. The primary outcomes will be an intention to treat analysis of between treatment differences in body weight at 12 months. Clinical effectiveness will be also be assessed by measures of weight, fat mass, and blood pressure at each time point and biochemical risk factors at 12 months. Self-report questionnaires will collect data on psychosocial factors associated with adherence, weight-loss and weight-loss maintenance. A within-trial and long-term cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted from an NHS perspective. Qualitative methods will be used to examine the participant experience. Discussion The current trial compares the clinical and cost effectiveness of referral to a commercial provider with a brief intervention. This trial will specifically examine whether providing longer weight-loss treatment without altering content or intensity (12 months commercial referral vs. 12 weeks) leads to greater weight loss at one year and is sustained at 2 years. It will also

  20. Electroweak Vortices and Gauge Equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, Samuel W.; Törnkvist, Ola

    Vortex configurations in the electroweak gauge theory are investigated. Two gauge-inequivalent solutions of the field equations, the Z and W vortices, have previously been found. They correspond to embeddings of the Abelian Nielsen-Olesen vortex solution into a U(1) subgroup of SU(2)×U(1). It is shown here that any electroweak vortex solution can be mapped into a solution of the same energy with a vanishing upper component of the Higgs field. The correspondence is a gauge equivalence for all vortex solutions except those for which the winding numbers of the upper and lower Higgs components add to zero. This class of solutions, which includes the W vortex, corresponds to a singular solution in the one-component gauge. The results, combined with numerical investigations, provide an argument against the existence of other vortex solutions in the gauge-Higgs sector of the Standard Model.

  1. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  2. Botulinum toxin in masticatory muscles of the adult rat induces bone loss at the condyle and alveolar regions of the mandible associated with a bone proliferation at a muscle enthesis.

    PubMed

    Kün-Darbois, Jean-Daniel; Libouban, Hélène; Chappard, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    In man, botulinum toxin type A (BTX) is injected in masticatory muscles for several indications such as trismus, bruxism, or masseter hypertrophy. Bone changes in the mandible following BTX injections in adult animal have therefore became a subject of interest. The aim of this study was to analyze condylar and alveolar bone changes following BTX unilateral injections in masseter and temporal muscles in adult rats. Mature male rats (n = 15) were randomized into 2 groups: control (CTRL; n = 6) and BTX group (n= 9). Rats of the BTX group received a single injection of BTX into right masseter and temporal muscles. Rats of the CTRL group were similarly injected with saline solution. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after injections. Masticatory muscles examination and microcomputed tomography (microCT) were performed. A significant difference of weight was found between the 2 groups at weeks 2, 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). Atrophy of the right masseter and temporal muscles was observed in all BTX rats. MicroCT analysis showed significant bone loss in the right alveolar and condylar areas in BTX rats. Decrease in bone volume reached -20% for right alveolar bone and -35% for right condylar bone. A hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the digastric muscle enthesis was found on every right hemimandible in the BTX group and none in the CTRL group. BTX injection in masticatory muscles leads to a significant and major mandible bone loss. These alterations can represent a risk factor for fractures in human. The occurrence of a hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the Mus Digastricus enthesis may constitute an etiological factor for tori.

  3. Loss of c-Kit and bone marrow failure upon conditional removal of the GATA-2 C-terminal zinc finger domain in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan S; Jin, Jin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Matatall, Katie A; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ullrich, Stephen E; King, Katherine Y; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2016-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the transcriptional regulator GATA-2 associate with multilineage immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The majority of these mutations localize in the zinc finger (ZnF) domains, which mediate GATA-2 DNA binding. Deregulated hematopoiesis with GATA-2 mutation frequently develops in adulthood, yet GATA-2 function in the bone marrow remains unresolved. To investigate this, we conditionally deleted the GATA-2 C-terminal ZnF (C-ZnF) coding sequences in adult mice. Upon Gata2 C-ZnF deletion, we observed rapid peripheral cytopenia, bone marrow failure, and decreased c-Kit expression on hematopoietic progenitors. Transplant studies indicated GATA-2 has a cell-autonomous role in bone marrow hematopoiesis. Moreover, myeloid lineage populations were particularly sensitive to Gata2 hemizygosity, while molecular assays indicated GATA-2 regulates c-Kit expression in multilineage progenitor cells. Enforced c-Kit expression in Gata2 C-ZnF-deficient hematopoietic progenitors enhanced myeloid colony activity, suggesting GATA-2 sustains myelopoiesis via a cell intrinsic role involving maintenance of c-Kit expression. Our results provide insight into mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in bone marrow and may contribute to a better understanding of immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure associated with GATA-2 mutation.

  4. Low circulating levels of bisphenol-A induce cognitive deficits and loss of asymmetric spine synapses in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of adult male monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, John D; Jentsch, James D; Groman, Stephanie M; Roth, Robert H; Redmond, D. Eugene; Leranth, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is widely used in the manufacture of plastics, epoxy resins and certain paper products. A majority of the population in the developed world is routinely exposed to BPA from multiple sources and has significant circulating levels of BPA. Although BPA is categorized as an endocrine disruptor with a growing literature on adverse effects, it is uncertain whether cognitive dysfunction is induced in humans by exposure to BPA. The present study examined the impact of BPA in primate brain by exposing adult male vervet monkeys for 4 weeks continuously to circulating levels of BPA that were in the range measured in studies of humans environmentally exposed to BPA. This regimen of exposure to BPA decreased both working memory accuracy and the number of excitatory synaptic inputs on dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in two brain regions that are necessary for working memory (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus). These observed behavioral and synaptic effects ameliorated following withdrawal from BPA. As Old world monkeys (e.g., vervets) and humans share some uniquely primate morphological, endocrine and cognitive traits, this study indicates the potential for significant cognitive disruption following exposure of humans to BPA. PMID:25557059

  5. Classroom Activities for Introducing Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Equivalence relations and partitions are two interconnected ideas that play important roles in advanced mathematics. While students encounter the informal notion of equivalence in many courses, the formal definition of an equivalence relation is typically introduced in a junior level transition-to-proof course. This paper reports the results of a…

  6. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  7. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  8. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  9. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  10. Stimulus Equivalence: Testing Sidman's (2000) Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Jones, Max; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2006-01-01

    Sidman's (2000) theory regarding the origin of equivalence relations predicts that a reinforcing stimulus common to distinct equivalence classes must drop out of the equivalence relations. This prediction was tested in the present study by arranging class-specific reinforcers, R1 and R2, following correct responding on the prerequisite conditional…

  11. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  12. Ghrelin suppression is associated with weight loss and insulin action following gastric bypass surgery at 12 months in obese adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Samat, A; Malin, S K; Huang, H; Schauer, P R; Kirwan, J P; Kashyap, S R

    2013-10-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery reverses type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in approximately 80% of patients. Ghrelin regulates glucose homeostasis, but its role in T2DM remission after RYGB surgery is unclear. Nine obese T2DM subjects underwent a mixed meal tolerance test before and at 1 and 12 months after RYGB surgery. Changes in ghrelin, body weight, glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity (IS) were measured. At 1 month, body weight, glycaemia and IS were improved, while ghrelin concentrations were reduced (p < 0.05). After 12 months, body weight and fasting glucose were reduced (30 and 16%, respectively; p < 0.05) and IS was enhanced (threefold; p < 0.05). Ghrelin suppression improved by 32% at 12 months (p < 0.05), and this was associated with weight loss (r = 0.72, p = 0.03), enhanced IS (r = -0.78, p = 0.01) and peak postprandial GLP-1 (r = -0.73, p = 0.03). These data suggest that postprandial ghrelin suppression may be part of the mechanism that contributes to diabetes remission after RYGB surgery.

  13. Reprint of "Caffeine protects against memory loss induced by high and non-anxiolytic dose of cannabidiol in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)".

    PubMed

    Nazario, Luiza Reali; Antonioli, Régis Junior; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2015-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) has been investigated in a wide spectrum of clinical approaches due to its psychopharmacological properties. CBD has low affinity for cannabinoid neuroreceptors and agonistic properties to 5-HT receptors. An interaction between cannabinoid and purinergic receptor systems has been proposed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate CBD properties on memory behavioral and locomotor parameters and the effects of pre-treatment of adenosine receptor blockers on CBD impacts on memory using adult zebrafish. CBD (0.1, 0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg) was tested in the avoidance inhibitory paradigm and anxiety task. We analyzed the effect of a long-term caffeine pre-treatment (~20mg/L - four months). Also, acute block of adenosine receptors was performed in co-administration with CBD exposure in the memory assessment. CBD promoted an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in the anxiety task; in the memory assessment, CBD in the dose of 5mg/Kg promoted the strongest effects without interfering with social and aggressive behavior. Caffeine treatment was able to prevent CBD (5mg/kg) effects on memory when CBD was given after the training session. CBD effects on memory were partially prevented by co-treatment with a specific A2A adenosine receptor antagonist when given prior to or after the training session, while CBD effects after the training session were fully prevented by adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. These results indicated that zebrafish have responses to CBD anxiolytic properties that are comparable to other animal models, and high doses changed memory retention in a way dependent on adenosine.

  14. Development and validation of human psoriatic skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Tjabringa, Geuranne; Bergers, Mieke; van Rens, Desiree; de Boer, Roelie; Lamme, Evert; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2008-09-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease driven by aberrant interactions between the epithelium and the immune system. Anti-psoriatic drugs can therefore target either the keratinocytes or the immunocytes. Here we sought to develop an in vitro reconstructed skin model that would display the molecular characteristics of psoriatic epidermis in a controlled manner, allowing the screening of anti-psoriatic drugs and providing a model in which to study the biology of this disease. Human skin equivalents generated from normal human adult keratinocytes after air exposure and stimulation by keratinocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor displayed the correct morphological and molecular characteristics of normal human epidermis whereas the psoriasis-associated proteins, hBD-2, SKALP/elafin, and CK16, were absent. Skin equivalents generated from foreskin keratinocytes were clearly abnormal both morphologically and with respect to gene expression. When normal skin equivalents derived from adult keratinocytes were stimulated with psoriasis-associated cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-6, and IL-22] or combinations thereof, strong expression of hBD-2, SKALP/elafin, CK16, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was induced as shown by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Retinoic acid but not cyclosporin A was found to inhibit cytokine-induced gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. These results illustrate the potential of this disease model to study the molecular pathology and pharmacological intervention in vitro. PMID:18669614

  15. Equivalency of Galápagos giant tortoises used as ecological replacement species to restore ecosystem functions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Tapia, Washington

    2013-08-01

    Loss of key plant-animal interactions (e.g., disturbance, seed dispersal, and herbivory) due to extinctions of large herbivores has diminished ecosystem functioning nearly worldwide. Mitigating for the ecological consequences of large herbivore losses through the use of ecological replacements to fill extinct species' niches and thereby replicate missing ecological functions has been proposed. It is unknown how different morphologically and ecologically a replacement can be from the extinct species and still provide similar functions. We studied niche equivalency between 2 phenotypes of Galápagos giant tortoises (domed and saddlebacked) that were translocated to Pinta Island in the Galápagos Archipelago as ecological replacements for the extinct saddlebacked giant tortoise (Chelonoidis abingdonii). Thirty-nine adult, nonreproductive tortoises were introduced to Pinta Island in May 2010, and we observed tortoise resource use in relation to phenotype during the first year following release. Domed tortoises settled in higher, moister elevations than saddlebacked tortoises, which favored lower elevation arid zones. The areas where the tortoises settled are consistent with the ecological conditions each phenotype occupies in its native range. Saddlebacked tortoises selected areas with high densities of the arboreal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia galapageia) and mostly foraged on the cactus, which likely relied on the extinct saddlebacked Pinta tortoise for seed dispersal. In contrast, domed tortoises did not select areas with cactus and therefore would not provide the same seed-dispersal functions for the cactus as the introduced or the original, now extinct, saddlebacked tortoises. Interchangeability of extant megaherbivores as replacements for extinct forms therefore should be scrutinized given the lack of equivalency we observed in closely related forms of giant tortoises. Our results also demonstrate the value of trial introductions of sterilized individuals to test

  16. Equivalency of Galápagos giant tortoises used as ecological replacement species to restore ecosystem functions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Tapia, Washington

    2013-08-01

    Loss of key plant-animal interactions (e.g., disturbance, seed dispersal, and herbivory) due to extinctions of large herbivores has diminished ecosystem functioning nearly worldwide. Mitigating for the ecological consequences of large herbivore losses through the use of ecological replacements to fill extinct species' niches and thereby replicate missing ecological functions has been proposed. It is unknown how different morphologically and ecologically a replacement can be from the extinct species and still provide similar functions. We studied niche equivalency between 2 phenotypes of Galápagos giant tortoises (domed and saddlebacked) that were translocated to Pinta Island in the Galápagos Archipelago as ecological replacements for the extinct saddlebacked giant tortoise (Chelonoidis abingdonii). Thirty-nine adult, nonreproductive tortoises were introduced to Pinta Island in May 2010, and we observed tortoise resource use in relation to phenotype during the first year following release. Domed tortoises settled in higher, moister elevations than saddlebacked tortoises, which favored lower elevation arid zones. The areas where the tortoises settled are consistent with the ecological conditions each phenotype occupies in its native range. Saddlebacked tortoises selected areas with high densities of the arboreal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia galapageia) and mostly foraged on the cactus, which likely relied on the extinct saddlebacked Pinta tortoise for seed dispersal. In contrast, domed tortoises did not select areas with cactus and therefore would not provide the same seed-dispersal functions for the cactus as the introduced or the original, now extinct, saddlebacked tortoises. Interchangeability of extant megaherbivores as replacements for extinct forms therefore should be scrutinized given the lack of equivalency we observed in closely related forms of giant tortoises. Our results also demonstrate the value of trial introductions of sterilized individuals to test

  17. It Pays to Be Organized: Organizing Arithmetic Practice around Equivalent Values Facilitates Understanding of Math Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Chesney, Dana L.; Matthews, Percival G.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Wheeler, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that organizing arithmetic fact practice by equivalent values facilitates children's understanding of math equivalence. Children (M age = 8 years 6 months, N = 104) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions: (a) equivalent values, in which problems were grouped by equivalent sums (e.g., 3 + 4 = 7, 2…

  18. Reversal of baseline relations and stimulus equivalence: II. Children.

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, C; Chambers, L; Galizio, M

    1995-01-01

    In a systematic replication of a study using college-student subjects (Pilgrim & Galizio, 1990), 5- to 7-year-old children learned two conditional discriminations (i.e., A1B1, A2B2, A1C1, and A2C2) in a two-choice arbitrary match-to-sample task and showed the emergence of two three-member equivalence classes (A1B1C1 and A2B2C2). Baseline conditional discrimination performance were quickly controlled by reversals of the AC reinforcement contingencies (i.e., choosing Comparison Stimulus C2 was reinforced given Sample A1, and choosing C1 was reinforced given Sample A2) when the reversals were introduced in restricted baselines. On reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity/equivalence probes following the reversal, there was some limited indication of equivalence-class reorganization (i.e., A1B1C2 and A2B2C1) in keeping with the concurrently performed baseline relations for 2 of 5 subjects, but the predominant pattern across probe trials was one of inconsistent conditional control. These findings suggest that, given similar challenges, equivalence-class performances may be more easily disrupted in young children than in adults. PMID:7751832

  19. Reversal of baseline relations and stimulus equivalence: II. Children.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, C; Chambers, L; Galizio, M

    1995-05-01

    In a systematic replication of a study using college-student subjects (Pilgrim & Galizio, 1990), 5- to 7-year-old children learned two conditional discriminations (i.e., A1B1, A2B2, A1C1, and A2C2) in a two-choice arbitrary match-to-sample task and showed the emergence of two three-member equivalence classes (A1B1C1 and A2B2C2). Baseline conditional discrimination performance were quickly controlled by reversals of the AC reinforcement contingencies (i.e., choosing Comparison Stimulus C2 was reinforced given Sample A1, and choosing C1 was reinforced given Sample A2) when the reversals were introduced in restricted baselines. On reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity/equivalence probes following the reversal, there was some limited indication of equivalence-class reorganization (i.e., A1B1C2 and A2B2C1) in keeping with the concurrently performed baseline relations for 2 of 5 subjects, but the predominant pattern across probe trials was one of inconsistent conditional control. These findings suggest that, given similar challenges, equivalence-class performances may be more easily disrupted in young children than in adults.

  20. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  1. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. ...

  2. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common baldness" usually means male-pattern baldness, or permanent-pattern baldness. It is also called androgenetic alopecia. ... will grow back normally. However, scarring can cause permanent hair loss. Hot oil hair treatments or chemicals ...

  3. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... results in the loss of, or damage to brain tissue or nerve cells, such as Parkinson disease , Huntington disease , or multiple sclerosis Low levels of important nutrients or vitamins, such as low vitamin B1 or B12

  4. Partial perceptual equivalence between vision and touch for texture information.

    PubMed

    Picard, Delphine

    2006-03-01

    The present study examined the extent to which vision and touch are perceptually equivalent for texture information in adults. Using Garbin's method, we selected two sets of textures having high versus low cross-modal dissimilarity values between vision and touch (Experiment 1). The two sets of textures were then used as material in a cross-modal matching task (Experiment 2). Results showed that asymmetries occurred in the performances when the stimuli had high cross-modal dissimilarity values, but not when the stimuli had low cross-modal dissimilarity values. These results extend Garbin's findings on shape information to the texture domain and support the idea that partial perceptual equivalence exists between vision and touch. PMID:16359632

  5. Amyloid-beta induced CA1 pyramidal cell loss in young adult rats is alleviated by systemic treatment with FGL, a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived mimetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Nicola J; Gabbott, Paul L; Klementiev, Boris; Davies, Heather A; Colyer, Frances M; Novikova, Tatiana; Stewart, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of neurotoxic amyloid-beta in the brain are a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease. FG-Loop (FGL), a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide that corresponds to its second fibronectin type III module, has been shown to provide neuroprotection against a range of cellular insults. In the present study impairments in social recognition memory were seen 24 days after a 5 mg/15 µl amyloid-beta(25-35) injection into the right lateral ventricle of the young adult rat brain. This impairment was prevented if the animal was given a systemic treatment of FGL. Unbiased stereology was used to investigate the ability of FGL to alleviate the deleterious effects on CA1 pyramidal cells of the amyloid-beta(25-35) injection. NeuN, a neuronal marker (for nuclear staining) was used to identify pyramidal cells, and immunocytochemistry was also used to identify inactive glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3β) and to determine the effects of amyloid-beta(25-35) and FGL on the activation state of GSK3β, since active GSK3β has been shown to cause a range of AD pathologies. The cognitive deficits were not due to hippocampal atrophy as volume estimations of the entire hippocampus and its regions showed no significant loss, but amyloid-beta caused a 40% loss of pyramidal cells in the dorsal CA1 which was alleviated partially by FGL. However, FGL treatment without amyloid-beta was also found to cause a 40% decrease in CA1 pyramidal cells. The action of FGL may be due to inactivation of GSK3β, as an increased proportion of CA1 pyramidal neurons contained inactive GSK3β after FGL treatment. These data suggest that FGL, although potentially disruptive in non-pathological conditions, can be neuroprotective in disease-like conditions.

  6. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  7. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  8. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  9. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  10. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  11. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  12. Diet, exercise or diet with exercise: comparing the effectiveness of treatment options for weight-loss and changes in fitness for adults (18-65 years old) who are overfat, or obese; systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, James E

    2015-01-01

    There are number of means of methods to alter body composition, and metabolic issues, available for the adult who is overfat. The following is a systematic review and meta-analysis focused on comparing changes from treatment program for adults who are overfat based on analysis of aggregated effect size (ES) of inducing changes. So as to determine the relative effectiveness of such protocols and intervention plans of choice. This tiered meta-analysis of 66-population based studies, and 162-studywise groups, a clear pattern of ES being established across and within treatments. First, hypocaloric balance is necessary for changing body composition, but the effectiveness for establishing imbalance does not equate with the effectiveness for body compositional changes, or any biomarkers associated with metabolic issues. With analysis showing that there is a necessity to include exercise in combination with diet effectively elicit changes in body composition and biomarkers of metabolic issues. More importantly, the combination, resistance training (RT) was more effective than endurance training (ET) or combination of RT and ET, particularly when progressive training volume of 2-to-3 sets for 6-to-10 reps at an intensity of ≥75% 1RM, utilizing whole body and free-weight exercises, at altering body compositional measures (ES of 0.47, 0.30, and 0.40 for loss of BM, FM, and retention of FFM respectively) and reducing total cholesterol (ES = 0.85), triglycerides (ES = 0.86) and low-density lipoproteins (ES = 0.60). Additionally RT was more effective at reducing fasting insulin levels (ES = 3.5) than ET or ET and RT. Even though generally lower ES than RT, the inclusion of ET was more effective when performed at high intensity (e.g. ≥70% VO2max or HRmax for 30-minutes 3-4x's/wk), or in an interval training style than when utilizing the relatively common prescribed method of low-to-moderate (e.g., 50-70% VO2max or HRmax for at least equal time) steady state

  13. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems. PMID:18019234

  14. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  15. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  16. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  17. 33 CFR 105.135 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 105.135 Section 105.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.135 Equivalents. For any measure required by this part,...

  18. 33 CFR 104.135 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 104.135 Section 104.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.135 Equivalents. For any measure required by this part, the...

  19. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  20. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  1. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  2. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  3. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  4. Equivalent Mass of a Coil Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Finds that first-year college students can understand in detail the origin of the equivalent mass. Provides both a simple calculation derivation of this result as well as a noncalculus derivation. Argues that for every soft spring, the equivalent mass should be somewhere between m0/3 and m0/2. (CCM)

  5. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  6. 46 CFR 114.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equivalence of the substitute. (b) The Commandant may accept compliance by a high speed craft with the provisions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an... approve a novel lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance...

  7. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable... IMO Resolution A. 520(13) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); or (2) Has successfully... corporate structure of a vessel's company when determining the acceptability of an equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  9. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  10. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  11. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  13. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  15. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  16. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  17. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  19. 46 CFR 154.32 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 154.32 Section 154.32 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES General § 154.32 Equivalents. (a) A vessel that fails...

  20. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  1. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  2. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  3. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  4. The Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent Using Personnel Dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xie

    From January 1994, U.S. nuclear plants must develop a technically rigorous approach for determining the effective dose equivalent for their work forces. This dissertation explains concepts associated with effective dose equivalent and describes how to assess effective dose equivalent by using conventional personnel dosimetry measurements. A Monte Carlo computer code, MCNP, was used to calculate photon transport through a model of the human body. Published mathematical phantoms of the human adult male and female were used to simulate irradiation from a variety of external radiation sources in order to calculate organ and tissue doses, as well as effective dose equivalent using weighting factors from ICRP Publication 26. The radiation sources considered were broad parallel photon beams incident on the body from 91 different angles and isotropic point sources located at 234 different locations in contact with or near the body. Monoenergetic photons of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV were considered for both sources. Personnel dosimeters were simulated on the surface of the body and exposed to with the same sources. From these data, the influence of dosimeter position on dosimeter response was investigated. Different algorithms for assessing effective dose equivalent from personnel dosimeter responses were proposed and evaluated. The results indicate that the current single-badge approach is satisfactory for most common exposure situations encountered in nuclear plants, but additional conversion factors may be used when more accurate results become desirable. For uncommon exposures involving source situated at the back of the body or source located overhead, the current approach of using multi-badges and assigning the highest dose is overly conservative and unnecessarily expensive. For these uncommon exposures, a new algorithm, based on two dosimeters, one on the front of the body and another one on the back of the body, has been shown to yield conservative assessment of

  5. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... 70. PHYSICAL OR EMOTIONAL STRESS Physical or emotional stress may cause one-half to three-quarters of scalp hair ... for weeks to months after the episode of stress. Hair shedding ... long-term (chronic). Causes of this type of hair loss are: High ...

  6. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychosocial impact of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively ... 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  7. Iodine losses during Winkler titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, George P.; Stalcup, Marvel C.; Stanley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure iodine loss during the aliquot version of the Winkler titration for dissolved oxygen in seawater shows that 0.01-0.03 ml l -1 equivalent oxygen is lost at typical oceanic concentrations in the method presently used. A standardization technique, which mimics that employed during the titration of seawater samples, compensates for this iodine loss throughout the oceanic range. This result, contradicting an earlier report by GREEN and CARRITT (1966, Analyst, 91, 207-208), demonstrates that the whole-bottle method of oxygen titration is not to be preferred over the aliquot method.

  8. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... March 6, 2009. The monitors are commercially available from the applicant, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Air... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent... of the designation of five new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY:...

  9. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  10. Effect of a Web-Based Behavior Change Program on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults at High Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sinead; Woodside, Jayne V; Ware, Lisa J; Hunter, Steven J; McGrath, Alanna; Cardwell, Christopher R; Appleton, Katherine M; Young, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-based programs are a potential medium for supporting weight loss because of their accessibility and wide reach. Research is warranted to determine the shorter- and longer-term effects of these programs in relation to weight loss and other health outcomes. Objective The aim was to evaluate the effects of a Web-based component of a weight loss service (Imperative Health) in an overweight/obese population at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a randomized controlled design and a true control group. Methods A total of 65 overweight/obese adults at high risk of CVD were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 (n=32) was provided with the Web-based program, which supported positive dietary and physical activity changes and assisted in managing weight. Group 2 continued with their usual self-care (n=33). Assessments were conducted face-to-face. The primary outcome was between-group change in weight at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included between-group change in anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid measurements, physical activity, and energy intake at 3, 6, and 12 months. Interviews were conducted to explore participants’ views of the Web-based program. Results Retention rates for the intervention and control groups at 3 months were 78% (25/32) vs 97% (32/33), at 6 months were 66% (21/32) vs 94% (31/33), and at 12 months were 53% (17/32) vs 88% (29/33). Intention-to-treat analysis, using baseline observation carried forward imputation method, revealed that the intervention group lost more weight relative to the control group at 3 months (mean –3.41, 95% CI –4.70 to –2.13 kg vs mean –0.52, 95% CI –1.55 to 0.52 kg, P<.001), at 6 months (mean –3.47, 95% CI –4.95 to –1.98 kg vs mean –0.81, 95% CI –2.23 to 0.61 kg, P=.02), but not at 12 months (mean –2.38, 95% CI –3.48 to –0.97 kg vs mean –1.80, 95% CI –3.15 to –0.44 kg, P=.77). More intervention group participants lost ≥5% of their baseline body

  11. Characterization of dissipation factors in terms of piezoelectric equivalent circuit parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2006-12-01

    The equivalent circuit of a piezoelectric ceramic is established composed of the equivalent circuit parameters derived from the complex materials coefficients. The equivalent circuit parameters are connected to real and imaginary parts of the complex materials coefficients of the piezoelectric ceramics. With respect to the definition of dissipation factors, the dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric dissipation factors which represent the losses in the materials are thus expressed through the equivalent circuit parameters. In temperature and stress experiments, by measuring the equivalent circuit parameters during the process of the temperature and stress changes, three dissipation factors are computed. Compared with the results of other previous research, a similar increase of the elastic dissipation factor with stress is observed. Moreover, it is also found that the elastic dissipation factor reaches its saturation over a stress level of about 10 MPa. The responses of dissipation factors in lower temperature (-30 degrees C to 20 degrees C) are studied. PMID:17186919

  12. Beam loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanGinneken, A.; Edwards, D.; Harrison, M.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents results from simulations of beam losses during the operation of a superconducting accelerator. The calculations use a combination of hadron/electromagnetic cascade plus elastic scattering codes with accelerator tracking routines. These calculations have been used in conjunction with the design of the Fermilab Tevatron. First accelerator geometry is described. The rest of the paper discusses a detailed attempt to simulate a fast extraction cycle, essentially in chronological order. Beginning with an unperturbed beam, the simulation generates proton phase-space distributions incident on the electrostatic septum. These interact either elastically or inelastically with the septum wires, and the products of these interactions are traced through the machine. Where these leave the accelerator, energy deposition levels in the magnets are calculated together with the projected response of the beam-loss monitors in this region. Finally, results of the calculation are compared with experimental data. (AIP)

  13. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Wen, Yu-Mei; Li, Ping

    2006-06-01

    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established. In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  14. [Hereditary hearing loss: genetic counselling].

    PubMed

    Cabanillas Farpón, Rubén; Cadiñanos Bañales, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview of hereditary hearing loss, with special attention to the etiological diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss, the genes most frequently mutated in our environment, the techniques available for their analysis and the clinical implications of genetic diagnosis. More than 60% of childhood sensorineural hearing loss is genetic. In adults, the percentage of hereditary hearing loss is unknown. Genetic testing is the highest yielding test for evaluating patients with sensorineural hearing loss. The process of genetic counselling is intended to inform patients and their families of the medical, psychological and familial implications of genetic diseases, as well as the risks, benefits and limitations of genetic testing. The implementation of any genetic analysis must be always preceded by an appropriate genetic counselling process.

  15. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. PMID:27392191

  16. 46 CFR 114.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approve a novel lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance characteristics... Acceptance of Prototype Novel Life-Saving Appliances and Arrangements”; or (2) Has successfully undergone...

  17. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  18. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  19. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  20. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    PubMed

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  1. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5 Equivalent facilitation. Nothing in this part is intended to prevent the use of designs or technologies as alternatives...

  2. [Therapeutic equivalence of the new oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villar, A; Nacle López, I; Barbero Hernández, M J; Lizan Tudela, L

    2015-10-01

    In an attempt to minimize the economic impact due to the incorporation of innovative drugs, health authorities have promoted and supported the evaluation and market positioning of drugs, as equivalent therapeutic alternatives. This issue has recently gained importance, possibly due to the current economic crisis. The equivalent therapeutic alternatives are justified by the need to compete on price, and by the authorities recommendation to establish therapeutic equivalence, price and financing of medicinal products at the same time. The establishment of the new oral anticoagulants and the equivalent therapeutic alternatives is a problematic issue if it is based on the absence of direct comparisons between different drugs and the questionable methodology used in the current indirect comparisons. Currently, it is difficult to determine when a new oral anticoagulant is more recommendable than others, but efforts are being made in order to propose alternatives for the decision based on patient characteristics. PMID:26146035

  3. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  4. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  5. Inelastic diffraction and equivalence of states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecki, A.

    1991-09-01

    A new approach to diffraction, based on the concept of equivalent states, is applied to the inclusive inelastic scattering. Differences from the classical description of Good and Walker are pointed out.

  6. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  7. Multilingual energy dictionary. [Equivalents in 6 languages

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, A.

    1981-01-01

    This dictionary covers 1600 entries - ranging from oil well to synthetic natural gas and waste heat recovery - that cover both concepts and equipment, providing the equivalents of the most-important energy terms in six languages: English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. Each term is listed six times - under each language, with all five foreign equivalents - permitting easy translation among all six languages. Separate entries are also given for British and American English where usage differs in the two countries.

  8. The endotopism semigroups of an equivalence relation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuchok, Yu V; Toichkina, E A

    2014-05-31

    In this work we investigate six types of endotopism semigroups for a given equivalence relation. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of all such endotopisms are presented. Conditions for the regularity and coregularity of each of the endotopism semigroups of a given type are established. The notion of the endotype of a binary relation with respect to its endotopisms is introduced and the endotype of an arbitrary equivalence relation is calculated. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  9. On equivalent characterizations of convexity of functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkioulekas, Eleftherios

    2013-04-01

    A detailed development of the theory of convex functions, not often found in complete form in most textbooks, is given. We adopt the strict secant line definition as the definitive definition of convexity. We then show that for differentiable functions, this definition becomes logically equivalent with the first derivative monotonicity definition and the tangent line definition. Consequently, for differentiable functions, all three characterizations are logically equivalent.

  10. The Physical Mirror Equivalence for the Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatori, Sergio Luigi; Compagnoni, Marco; Guerra, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the total space of the canonical bundle of and we use a proposal by Hosono, together with results of Seidel and Auroux-Katzarkov-Orlov, to deduce the physical mirror equivalence between and the derived Fukaya category of its mirror which assigns the expected central charge to BPS states. By construction, our equivalence is compatible with the mirror map relating the complex and the Kähler moduli spaces and with the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants.

  11. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  12. Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

    PubMed

    Mourand, Isabelle; Crespel, Arielle; Gelisse, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically significant weight loss in 7 of 15 consecutive adult patients (47%; 3 male, 4 female, aged 18-31 years) treated with RUF as add-on therapy (800-2,400 mg/day: 23.5-57.1 mg/kg/day). The body mass index (BMI) decreased by 7.3-18.7%. Two patients were obese class I before RUF. Five patients (71%) were underweight before RUF (mild in one case, moderate in two cases, and severe in two cases). Four of these patients stopped RUF because of this adverse effect. RUF was recommenced in two patients using a lower and slower dosing strategy; one patient showed improvement in seizure control and no weight loss but RUF was re-stopped in the second patient because of continued weight loss. Despite of weight loss, RUF was continued in two other patients because it reduced seizure activity. We primarily related weight loss to reduced food intake, that is, loss of appetite and nausea, although in two patients no obvious loss of appetite was reported. RUF can cause clinically significant weight loss in adult patients, even at low dose. This AE can affect patients who are already underweight. There is a possibility that lower starting doses and slower escalation might minimize weight loss, but further information is required to determine whether this is the case. PMID:22780580

  13. Equivalent Circuits as Related to Ionic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Alan; Mauro, Alexander

    1963-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between certain “equivalent circuits” and the fundamental flux equations of Nernst and Planck. It is shown that as a direct algebraic consequence of these equations one may construct two types of equivalent circuits for a homogeneous (charged or uncharged) membrane. The one, which we term the “pure electrical equivalent circuit,” correctly predicts all of the electrical properties of the membrane for both steady and transient states. The other, which we call the “mixed equivalent circuit,” predicts the steady state I, Ψ characteristics of the membrane and the steady state ionic fluxes; it is not applicable to non-steady state properties or measurements. We emphasize that with regard to the portrayal of the physical basis of the properties of a homogeneous membrane, the mixed equivalent circuit can be misleading. This is particularly significant because this same circuit can also be used to depict a mosaic membrane, in which case the circuit gives a realistic pictorialization of the physical origin of the membrane properties. It is hoped that our analysis will be of aid to workers in electrophysiology who make use of equivalent circuit terminology in discussing the behavior of the plasma membrane. PMID:19431324

  14. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names rhymed. In the presence of the other color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names did not rhyme. Although, during Experiment 1, all participants demonstrated equivalence classes involving rhyming stimuli, none demonstrated the formation of nonrhyme equivalence classes. To investigate this finding, Experiment 2 evaluated whether participants would demonstrate both rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes given more extensive exposure to the experimental contingencies. All participants demonstrated contextually controlled rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes, although rhyme classes were demonstrated with greater facility than nonrhyme classes. Results indicate that visual stimuli are named, that verbal bases for stimulus classification can affect the emergence of contextually controlled equivalence classes, and that untrained contextually controlled conditional discriminations involving novel stimuli can emerge on the basis of participants' verbal behavior. PMID:17191757

  15. High School Equivalency. Part I: Theory and Design of the Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This handbook is a guide for an adult education program for the student who desires a New York State High School Equivalency Diploma. It covers areas ranging from the scope of the programs in grammar and usage, literature, social studies, mathematics, and sciences, to the background and purpose of the General Educational Development Tests. Special…

  16. The Derived Transfer and Reversal of Mood Functions through Equivalence Relations: II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Jane; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Luciano, Carmen; Smeets, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the transfer of induced mood functions through equivalence relations by means of a musical mood-induction procedure. The research described in this article replicated and extended such work, primarily with the inclusion of a baseline and two types of reversal procedures. First, 16 adult participants were trained…

  17. Testing Response-Stimulus Equivalence Relations Using Differential Responses as a Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Hirofumi

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the notion that an equivalence relation may include a response when differential responses are paired with stimuli presented during training. Eight normal adults learned three kinds of computer mouse movements as differential response topographies (R1, R2, and R3). Next, in matching-to-sample training, one of the response…

  18. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  19. Stimulus equivalence: testing Sidman's (2000) theory.

    PubMed

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Jones, Max; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D

    2006-05-01

    Sidman's (2000) theory regarding the origin of equivalence relations predicts that a reinforcing stimulus common to distinct equivalence classes must drop out of the equivalence relations. This prediction was tested in the present study by arranging class-specific reinforcers, R1 and R2, following correct responding on the prerequisite conditional discriminations (Ax-Bx, Cx-Bx) for two stimulus classes, A1B1C1 and A2B2C2. A class-common reinforcer, R3, was presented following correct responding on the prerequisite conditional discriminations for a further two stimulus classes, A3B3C3 and A4B4C4. Sidman's theory predicts reinforcer inclusion within Classes 1 and 2 only, given this training arrangement. Experiment 1 tested for the emergence of four equivalence classes and of stimulus-reinforcer and reinforcer-stimulus relations in each class. Four of the 6 subjects demonstrated the reinforcer-based relations in all four equivalence classes, rather than in only those classes with a class-specific reinforcer, as Sidman's theory predicts. One of the remaining 2 subjects showed the reinforcer-based relations in three of the four classes. Experiment 2 extended these findings to document the emergence of interclass matching relations based on the common reinforcer R3, in 5 of 6 subjects, such that a Class 3 sample occasioned the selection of a Class 4 sample when the Class 3 comparison was absent, and similarly, a Class 4 sample occasioned the selection of a Class 3 comparison when the Class 4 comparison was absent. These interclass relations emerged despite the simultaneous maintenance of Class 3 and 4 baseline conditional discriminations, so that the Class 3 and 4 stimuli and reinforcer simultaneously were, and were not, part of a single larger equivalence class. These data are irreconcilable with Sidman's theory, and question the utility of the application of the equivalence relation in describing derived stimulus relations.

  20. Hair loss in children.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rubina; Grimalt, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Hair diseases represent frequent complaints in dermatology clinics, and they can be caused by a number of conditions reflected by specific diagnoses. Hair loss is not uncommon in the pediatric group, but its patterns in this group are different from those seen in adults. Additionally, in children, these disorders can have psychological effects that can interfere with growth and development. Hair is easily accessible for examination, and dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders using simple diagnostic techniques. To fully understand hair loss during childhood, a basic comprehension of normal hair growth is necessary. Knowledge of the normal range and variation observed in the hair of children further enhances its assessment. This chapter has been written in an attempt to facilitate the diagnostic process during daily practice by helping to distinguish between acquired and congenital hair diseases. It can sometimes be difficult to differentiate between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. Management of hair disorders can be quite a daunting task for the attending physician and mandates a holistic approach to the patient. Some hair disturbances have no effective treatment, and for others, no single treatment is 100% successful. If no effective treatment for a hair loss disease exists, a cosmetic approach is important. PMID:26370644

  1. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  2. Equivalent magnetization over the World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Choi, Y.; Thebault, E.; Quesnel, Y.; Roest, W. R.; Lesur, V.

    2012-12-01

    In another presentation (Hamoudi et al., this meeting), we present the construction of a new candidate for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) over oceanic areas. This map is based on: (a) a more realistic forward modeling of the marine magnetic anomalies which includes remanent magnetization vectors taking into account the age and motion of the oceanic lithosphere; (b) evaluation of the equivalent magnetization by comparison of the synthetic and observed anomalies along ship tracks; and (c) adjustment of the synthetic anomaly maps using this equivalent magnetization prior to merging with the observed anomalies. A by-product of this approach is a global distribution of equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean. Note that, because no global basement map exists for the oceanic areas, we assume a uniform, 5 km-deep and 1 km-thick magnetized layer for the forward model. The resulting equivalent magnetization is therefore relative to this over-simplistic magnetic source. A first observation is that, within the hypotheses of the forward model, the average equivalent magnetization is about 3 A/m, a value which compares well with the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) measured on ancient basalt samples. As expected, the mid-ocean ridges are marked by stronger equivalent magnetizations, an observation which reflects both the stronger NRM measured at ridge axes and their shallower bathymetry (not taken into account in our forward model). More interesting is the observation of significant along-axis variations. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the Kolbeinsey and Reykjanes ridges around Iceland are marked by a very strong equivalent magnetization and the Azores Plateau by a strong one as well.. Again this may reflect the combined effect of shallower seafloor, thicker and/or more magnetized basaltic layer at hotspots. In contrast, the areas between 45 and 55°N and between 0 and 10°N (Equatorial FZ) correspond to a weak equivalent magnetization. Further south

  3. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  4. Loss and Disorganization from an Attachment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Paula

    2010-01-01

    In this article, it is hypothesized that disorganizing, disorienting, and unresolved states of mind about loss experiences, as classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) coding system, may offer insight into the bereaved mind and may guide clinical treatment approaches. This article discusses pre-loss attachment organizations and the…

  5. Equivalence between XY and dimerized models

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Roncaglia, Marco

    2010-06-15

    The spin-1/2 chain with XY anisotropic coupling in the plane and the XX isotropic dimerized chain are shown to be equivalent in the bulk. For finite systems, we prove that the equivalence is exact in given parity sectors, after taking care of the precise boundary conditions. The proof is given constructively by finding unitary transformations that map the models onto each other. Moreover, we considerably generalized our mapping and showed that even in the case of fully site-dependent couplings the XY chain can be mapped onto an XX model. This result has potential application in the study of disordered systems.

  6. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... beta radiation attenuation. The newly designated equivalent methods are identified as follows: EQPM-0912-204, ``Teledyne Model 602 Beta\\PLUS\\ Particle Measurement System'' and ``SWAM 5a Dual...

  7. Pseudo-Equivalent Groups and Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment by minimum discriminant information provides an approach to linking test forms in the case of a nonequivalent groups design with no satisfactory common items. This approach employs background information on individual examinees in each administration so that weighted samples of examinees form pseudo-equivalent groups in the sense that…

  8. Procedures for Determining the Equivalence of Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunivant, Noel

    Eight different methods are reviewed for determining whether two or more tests are equivalent measures. These methods vary in restrictiveness from the Wilks-Votaw test of compound symmetry (which requires that all means, variances, and covariances are equal), to Joreskog's theory of congeneric tests (which requires only that the tests are measures…

  9. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  10. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  11. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  12. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  13. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  14. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  15. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  16. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  17. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  18. AN UPDATE ON TECHNOLOGIES SEEKING PFRP EQUIVALENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will: 1) Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC), 2) Review the PEC's current membership (of 10), 3) Discuss how a typical application is evaluated, 4) Note where information can be found by those interested in applying to the PEC, 5) List...

  19. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for…

  20. HOW TO PASS HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAGSBRUN, FRANCINE, ED.

    ORGANIZED INTO A FIVE-DAY STUDY PLAN, ALLOWING ONE DAY'S STUDY TO EACH PART OF THE EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION (SPELLING AND GRAMMAR, SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND MATHEMATICS), THIS BOOK PROVIDES SAMPLE TESTS AND ANSWER SHEETS, A TEST SCORE RECORD AND SELF EVALUATION PROFILE, AND SUPPLEMENTARY TESTS FOR EACH SUBJECT. THE EXAMINEE CAN ORDER…

  1. Spin-Gravity Interactions and Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yu. N.; Silenko, A. J.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    The spin-gravity interactions imply the new manifestation of the equivalence principle leading to the absence of gravitoelectric and anomalous gravitomagnetic moments for fermions. This property is still valid in the presence of the space-time torsion due to the covariance arguments. The experimental bounds for the torsion, which may be extracted from modern co-magnetometer experiments, are discussed.

  2. The equivalent fundamental-mode source

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G.D.; Busch, R.D.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Okajima, Shigeaki

    1997-02-01

    In 1960, Hansen analyzed the problem of assembling fissionable material in the presence of a weak neutron source. Using point kinetics, he defined the weak source condition and analyzed the consequences of delayed initiation during ramp reactivity additions. Although not clearly stated in Hansen`s work, the neutron source strength that appears in the weak source condition corresponds to the equivalent fundamental-mode source. In this work, we describe the concept of an equivalent fundamental-mode source and we derive a deterministic expression for a factor, g*, that converts any arbitrary source distribution to an equivalent fundamental-mode source. We also demonstrate a simplified method for calculating g* in subcritical systems. And finally, we present a new experimental method that can be employed to measure the equivalent fundamental-mode source strength in a multiplying assembly. We demonstrate the method on the zero-power, XIX-1 assembly at the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  3. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  8. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  9. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  10. A quality index for equivalent uniform dose

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez, Francisco Cutanda; Castrillón, Silvia Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) is the absorbed dose that, when homogeneously given to a tumor, yields the same mean surviving clonogen number as the given non-homogeneous irradiation. EUD is used as an evaluation tool under the assumption that two plans with the same value of EUD are equivalent, and their biological effect on the tumor (clonogen survival) would be the same as the one of a homogeneous irradiation of absorbed dose EUD. In this work, this assumption has been studied, and a figure of merit of its applicability has been obtained. Distributions of surviving clonogen number for homogeneous and non-homogeneous irradiations are found to be different even if their mean values are the same, the figure of merit being greater when there is a wider difference, and the equivalence assumption being less valid. Therefore, EUD can be closer to a uniform dose for some cases than for other ones (high α values, extreme heterogeneity), and the accuracy of the radiobiological indices obtained for evaluation, could be affected. Results show that the equivalence is very sensitive to the choice of radiobiological parameters, and this conclusion has been derived from mathematical properties of EUD. PMID:21897557

  11. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION... inspection reports), joint training, and joint inspections for the purpose of assessing regulatory...

  12. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dezhong; He, Bin

    2003-11-01

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping.

  13. Losses as modulators of attention: review and analysis of the unique effects of losses over gains.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown that in certain situations losses exert a stronger effect on behavior than respective gains, and this has been commonly explained by the argument that losses are given more weight in people's decisions than respective gains. However, although much is understood about the effect of losses on cognitive processes and behavior, 2 major inconsistencies remain. First, recent empirical evidence fails to demonstrate that people avoid incentive structures that carry equivalent gains and losses. Second, findings in experience-based decision tasks indicate that following losses, increased arousal is observed simultaneously with no behavioral loss aversion. To account for these findings, we developed an attention-allocation model as a comprehensive framework for the effect of losses. According to this model losses increase on-task attention, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to the reinforcement structure. In the current article we examine whether this model can account for a broad range of empirical phenomena involving losses. We show that as predicted by the attentional model, asymmetric effects of losses on behavior emerge where gains and losses are presented separately but not concurrently. Yet, even in the absence of loss aversion, losses have distinct effects on performance, arousal, frontal cortical activation, and behavioral consistency. The attentional model of losses thus explains some of the main inconsistencies in previous studies of the effect of losses. PMID:22823738

  14. Losses as modulators of attention: review and analysis of the unique effects of losses over gains.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown that in certain situations losses exert a stronger effect on behavior than respective gains, and this has been commonly explained by the argument that losses are given more weight in people's decisions than respective gains. However, although much is understood about the effect of losses on cognitive processes and behavior, 2 major inconsistencies remain. First, recent empirical evidence fails to demonstrate that people avoid incentive structures that carry equivalent gains and losses. Second, findings in experience-based decision tasks indicate that following losses, increased arousal is observed simultaneously with no behavioral loss aversion. To account for these findings, we developed an attention-allocation model as a comprehensive framework for the effect of losses. According to this model losses increase on-task attention, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to the reinforcement structure. In the current article we examine whether this model can account for a broad range of empirical phenomena involving losses. We show that as predicted by the attentional model, asymmetric effects of losses on behavior emerge where gains and losses are presented separately but not concurrently. Yet, even in the absence of loss aversion, losses have distinct effects on performance, arousal, frontal cortical activation, and behavioral consistency. The attentional model of losses thus explains some of the main inconsistencies in previous studies of the effect of losses.

  15. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute.

  16. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute. PMID:26357814

  17. Lowered Humidity Produces Human Epidermal Equivalents with Enhanced Barrier Properties

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Richard; Celli, Anna; Crumrine, Debra; Hupe, Melanie; Adame, Lillian C.; Pennypacker, Sally D.; Park, Kyungho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.; Ilic, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Multilayered human keratinocyte cultures increasingly are used to model human epidermis. Until now, studies utilizing human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) have been limited because previous preparations do not establish a normal epidermal permeability barrier. In this report, we show that reducing environmental humidity to 50% relative humidity yields HEEs that closely match human postnatal epidermis and have enhanced repair of the permeability barrier. These cultures display low transepidermal water loss and possess a calcium and pH gradient that resembles those seen in human epidermis. These cultures upregulate glucosylceramide synthase and make normal-appearing lipid lamellar bilayers. The epidermal permeability barrier of these cultures can be perturbed, using the identical tools previously described for human skin, and recover in the same time course seen during in vivo barrier recovery. These cultures will be useful for basic and applied studies on epidermal barrier function. PMID:24803151

  18. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  19. Performance of low pressure tissue equivalent chambers and a new method for parameterizing the dose equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, Y.; Vasilik, D.G.; Brake, R.J.; Erkkila, B.H.; Littlejohn, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    The performance of spherical tissue equivalent chambers with equivalent diameters between 0.5 and 2..mu.. was tested experimentally using monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron sources in the energy region of 10 keV to 14.5 MeV. Theoretical calculations were performed in order to obtain a simple algorithm for deriving the dose equivalent from the measured data. The algorithm relates the number of recoil particles to the dose equivalent, rather than having a one-to-one correspondence between the lineal energy and the linear energy transfer of the recoil particles. The calculations took into account neutron interactions with hydrogen atoms in the chamber wall as well as in the gas, and also the finite energy resolution determined by both the detector and the electronic system. Qualitatively, the calculations well dscribe the experimental results. The algorithm that was developed determines the neutron dose equivalent, from the data of the 0.5..mu.. chamber, to better than +-20% over the energy range of 30 keV to 14.5 MeV. The same algorithm also determines the dose equivalent from the data of the 2..mu.. chamber to better than +-20% over the energy of 70 keV to 14.5 MeV. The efficiency of the chambers is low and has an average value of 330 counts per mrem, or equivalently about 0.2 c/s per mrem/h. This efficiency enables the measurement of dose equivalent rates only above 100 mrem/h for an integration period of 3 seconds. However, integrated dose equivalents can be mesured as low as 0.1 mrem.

  20. Bereavement in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James P.

    1994-01-01

    Factors that place older adults at risk for problems associated with the bereavement process are identified and discussed. Provides guidelines for distinguishing between normal bereavement depression and clinical depression, discusses the impact of different types of loss, describes three types of intervention, and explores countertransference.…