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Sample records for adult female mosquitoes

  1. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  2. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  3. Temporal gene expression profiles of pre blood-fed adult females Immediately following eclosion in the southern house mosquito culex quinquefasciatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to iden...

  4. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021

  5. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown and in vivo diuresis assay in adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Aguirre, Sarah E; Hansen, Immo A

    2012-07-14

    This video protocol demonstrates an effective technique to knockdown a particular gene in an insect and conduct a novel bioassay to measure excretion rate. This method can be used to obtain a better understanding of the process of diuresis in insects and is especially useful in the study of diuresis in blood-feeding arthropods that are able to take up huge amounts of liquid in a single blood meal. This RNAi-mediated gene knockdown combined with an in vivo diuresis assay was developed by the Hansen lab to study the effects of RNAi-mediated knockdown of aquaporin genes on Aedes aegypti mosquito diuresis. The protocol is setup in two parts: the first demonstration illustrates how to construct a simple mosquito injection device and how to prepare and inject dsRNA into the thorax of mosquitoes for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The second demonstration illustrates how to determine excretion rates in mosquitoes using an in vivo bioassay.

  6. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Reid, William R.; Zhang, Lee; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to identify genes that may be necessary for both taking of the blood meal, and processing of the blood meal in adult female mosquitoes Cx. quinquefasciatus. We examined temporal expression of genes for the periods of post eclosion and prior to the female freely taking a blood meal. We further evaluated the temporal expression of certain genes for the periods after the taking of a blood meal to identify genes that may be necessary for both the taking of the blood meal, and the processing of the blood meal. We found that adult females required a minimum of 48 h post-eclosion before they freely took their first blood meal. We hypothesized that gene expression signatures were altered in the mosquitoes before blood feeding in preparation for the acquisition of the blood meal through changes in multiple gene expression. To identify the genes involved in the acquisition of blood feeding, we quantified the gene expression levels of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus using RNA Seq throughout a pre-blooding period from 2 to 72 h post eclosion at 12 h intervals. A total of 325 genes were determined to be differentially-expressed throughout the pre-blooding period, with the majority of differentially-expressed genes occurring between the 2 h and 12 h post-eclosion time points. Among the up-regulated genes were salivary proteins, cytochrome P450s, odorant-binding proteins, and proteases, while the majority of the down-regulated genes were hypothetical or cuticular genes. In addition, Trypsin was found to be up-regulated immediately following blood feeding, while trypsin and chymotrypsin were up-regulated at 48h and 60h post blood-feeding, respectively, suggesting that these proteases are

  7. Effect of collection method on estimates of adult mosquito density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We made simultaneous comparison of the number of female mosquitoes captured by suction traps and portable light traps (augmented with CO2) in a Florida swamp with the landing rate of female mosquitoes on a human subject. Depending on the mosquito species, capture rates in light traps ranged between...

  8. Preference of female mosquitoes for natural and artificial resting sites.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Eubanks, Micky D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    At a wetland study site in Tuskegee National Forest, AL, resting female mosquitoes were collected from natural and artificial resting sites to identify species-specific resting sites and to evaluate various artificial resting sites for their utility in collecting resting mosquitoes. Natural resting sites included small tree cavities, large tree cavities, and understory vegetation. Artificial resting sites included resting boxes, fiber pots, and plastic trash cans. We collected 12,888 female mosquitoes, representing 23 species in 8 genera, during the 6-month study. Each mosquito species demonstrated a preference for a particular type of resting site. Resting Aedes vexans females were collected almost exclusively from understory vegetation, while the great majority of Anopheles quadrimaculatus females were aspirated from large tree cavities. Culex erraticus and Cx. peccator females preferred trash cans over other available resting sites. Females of Cx. territans, although collected most commonly in large tree cavities, were also collected frequently from understory vegetation and trash cans. A multiple regression of resting-site parameters (excluding vegetation), including volume, surface area, and opening size, indicated that 50% and 20% of the variability associated with An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. territans collections, respectively, could be explained by opening size. Inner surface area and volume accounted for 33% and 12% of variation in Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator collections, respectively. Thus, female mosquitoes generally preferred larger resting sites over smaller resting sites. Similarly shaped artificial resting sites (fiber pots and trash cans) yielded comparable numbers of females per unit of volume (for those species that preferred artificial resting sites), indicating that shape of the resting site is an important factor in resting-site preference. In addition, trash cans proved to be a valuable novel tool for collecting resting female mosquitoes.

  9. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes “eavesdrop” on the chemical discussions occurring

  10. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L; Coates, Craig J; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions occurring between

  11. Evaluation of a Stable Isotope Method to Mark Naturally-Breeding Larval Mosquitoes for Adult Dispersal Studies

    PubMed Central

    HAMER, GABRIEL L.; DONOVAN, DANIELLE J.; HOOD-NOWOTNY, REBECCA; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.; GOLDBERG, TONY L.; WALKER, EDWARD D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. Mark–release–recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. However, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. Here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. Culexpipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were provisioned as larvae in laboratory experiments with 15N-labeled potassium nitrate and 13C-labeled glucose. Larval enrichment was sufficient to differentiate marked adult mosquitoes from unmarked control mosquitoes and the natural source population from Chicago Illinois, using either δ15N or δ13C. Isotopic retention lasted for at least 55 d for adult male and females mosquitoes. There were no consistent effects of isotopic enrichment on immature mosquito survival or adult mosquito body size. We then applied this marking technique to naturally breeding Culex pipiens mosquitoes in suburban Chicago, IL, and for the first time, report successful isotopic enrichment of mosquitoes in the field. This stable isotope marking technique will facilitate studies of mosquito dispersal. PMID:22308772

  12. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  13. Reduced productivity in adult yellowfever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, P.H.; Hamm, W.J.; Garcia, F.; Garcia, M.; Schirf, V.

    1989-04-01

    Male and female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes of the laboratory strain ROCK were irradiated with 130 mw of argon 514.5 nm laser microbeams for 0.04, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s, respectively. Egg production, percentage hatch, and productivity (average number of adults surviving after 3 wk) were used to assess mutagenic effects. Mortality was high for males in all laser radiation groups and increased with time of exposure. Except for the group treated for 0.25 s, significant reductions in total F1 progeny also were demonstrated for all other experimentals when male parents were exposed to laser radiation. Females showed a high mortality when subjected to 0.4- and 0.5-s laser radiation. No F1 progeny were produced when parental females were exposed for 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s. Numbers of F1 progeny from females exposed to 0.04 s of laser radiation were significantly reduced. A comparison of weekly mean number of progeny showed that the important differences in productivity occurred during the first and second week, respectively, when either male or female adult parents were subjected to laser radiation.

  14. Mosquito-Borne Diseases and Omics: Salivary Gland Proteome of the Female Aedes aegypti Mosquito.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Rakhi; Kumar, Manish; Mohanty, Ajeet Kumar; Dey, Gourav; Advani, Jayshree; Prasad, T S Keshava; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-01-01

    The female Aedes aegypti mosquito is an important vector for several tropical and subtropical diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika and yellow fever. The disease viruses infect the mosquito and subsequently spread to the salivary glands after which the viruses can be transmitted to humans with probing or feeding by the mosquito. Omics systems sciences offer the opportunity to characterize vectors and can inform disease surveillance, vector control and development of innovative diagnostics, personalized medicines, vaccines, and insecticide targets. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we performed an analysis of the A. aegypti salivary gland proteome. The A. aegypti proteome resulted in acquisition of 83,836 spectra. Upon searches against the protein database of the A. aegypti, these spectra were assigned to 5417 unique peptides, belonging to 1208 proteins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest set of proteins identified in the A. aegypti salivary gland. Of note, 29 proteins were involved in immunity-related pathways in salivary glands. A subset of these proteins is known to interact with disease viruses. Another 15 proteins with signal cleavage site were found to be secretory in nature, and thus possibly playing critical roles in blood meal ingestion. These findings provide a baseline to advance our understanding of vector-borne diseases and vector-pathogen interactions before virus transmission in global health, and might therefore enable future design and development of virus-blocking strategies and novel molecular targets in the mosquito vector A. aegypti.

  15. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models. PMID:27074252

  16. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-04-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models.

  17. Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are many different species of mosquito, which can carry some of the world's most common and significant infectious diseases, including West Nile, Malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, and ...

  18. Methoprene effects on survival and reproductive performance of adult female and male Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Brabant, Peter Joseph; Dobson, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    Methoprene is a juvenile hormone analog commonly used for the control of mosquito larvae. It acts through interference with normal metamorphosis, resulting in mortality prior to and during adult emergence. Methoprene is not commonly used for the control of adult mosquitoes, due to an absence of acute effects. Here, we have evaluated for chronic effects caused by the exposure of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to methoprene. We applied methoprene to adults, both through 1) topical application to the abdomen and 2) as an aerosol, examining for treatment effects on ovary development, adult longevity, and fecundity. The results demonstrate that relatively high doses are required to affect adult survivorship. In contrast, significant impacts on both fecundity and egg hatch were observed in females treated at the lower dosages. We discuss the results in relation to autocidal strategies for mosquito control in which the release of fecund females is to be avoided.

  19. The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Kelly; Swamidoss, Isabel; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Lenhart, Audrey; Dowell, Floyd; Wirtz, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (≥ 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water ± blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or ≥ 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

  20. siRNA-Mediated Silencing of doublesex during Female Development of the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Mysore, Keshava; Sun, Longhua; Tomchaney, Michael; Sullivan, Gwyneth; Adams, Haley; Piscoya, Andres S.; Severson, David W.; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The development of sex-specific traits, including the female-specific ability to bite humans and vector disease, is critical for vector mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Doublesex (Dsx), a terminal transcription factor in the sex determination pathway, is known to regulate sex-specific gene expression during development of the dengue fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here, the effects of developmental siRNA-mediated dsx silencing were assessed in adult females. Targeting of dsx during A. aegypti development resulted in decreased female wing size, a correlate for body size, which is typically larger in females. siRNA-mediated targeting of dsx also resulted in decreased length of the adult female proboscis. Although dsx silencing did not impact female membrane blood feeding or mating behavior in the laboratory, decreased fecundity and fertility correlated with decreased ovary length, ovariole length, and ovariole number in dsx knockdown females. Dsx silencing also resulted in disruption of olfactory system development, as evidenced by reduced length of the female antenna and maxillary palp and the sensilla present on these structures, as well as disrupted odorant receptor expression. Female lifespan, a critical component of the ability of A. aegypti to transmit pathogens, was also significantly reduced in adult females following developmental targeting of dsx. The results of this investigation demonstrate that silencing of dsx during A. aegypti development disrupts multiple sex-specific morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits of adult females, a number of which are directly or indirectly linked to mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Moreover, the olfactory phenotypes observed connect Dsx to development of the olfactory system, suggesting that A. aegypti will be an excellent system in which to further assess the developmental genetics of sex-specific chemosensation. PMID:26544686

  1. siRNA-Mediated Silencing of doublesex during Female Development of the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Keshava; Sun, Longhua; Tomchaney, Michael; Sullivan, Gwyneth; Adams, Haley; Piscoya, Andres S; Severson, David W; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2015-11-01

    The development of sex-specific traits, including the female-specific ability to bite humans and vector disease, is critical for vector mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Doublesex (Dsx), a terminal transcription factor in the sex determination pathway, is known to regulate sex-specific gene expression during development of the dengue fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here, the effects of developmental siRNA-mediated dsx silencing were assessed in adult females. Targeting of dsx during A. aegypti development resulted in decreased female wing size, a correlate for body size, which is typically larger in females. siRNA-mediated targeting of dsx also resulted in decreased length of the adult female proboscis. Although dsx silencing did not impact female membrane blood feeding or mating behavior in the laboratory, decreased fecundity and fertility correlated with decreased ovary length, ovariole length, and ovariole number in dsx knockdown females. Dsx silencing also resulted in disruption of olfactory system development, as evidenced by reduced length of the female antenna and maxillary palp and the sensilla present on these structures, as well as disrupted odorant receptor expression. Female lifespan, a critical component of the ability of A. aegypti to transmit pathogens, was also significantly reduced in adult females following developmental targeting of dsx. The results of this investigation demonstrate that silencing of dsx during A. aegypti development disrupts multiple sex-specific morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits of adult females, a number of which are directly or indirectly linked to mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Moreover, the olfactory phenotypes observed connect Dsx to development of the olfactory system, suggesting that A. aegypti will be an excellent system in which to further assess the developmental genetics of sex-specific chemosensation.

  2. Effects of natal habitat odour, reinforced by adult experience, on choice of oviposition site in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C E; Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2011-12-01

    The effects of natal experience on the oviposition behaviour of adult female mosquitoes were investigated in the laboratory using Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). 'Treatment' mosquitoes were exposed to a dilute repellent (inducing stimulus) in their breeding water (aquatic stages) and/or in the air (adults) during various combinations of life stages [larval only (L regime); larval and pupal (LP regime); larval, pupal and emergent adult (LPE regime); larval, pupal, emergent adult and adult (LPEA regime); pupal, emergent adult and adult (PEA regime); adult only (A regime)]. 'Control' mosquitoes were raised in an identical manner, but were not exposed to the inducing stimulus. The oviposition behaviour of treatment and control females was assessed in an oviposition assay that presented a choice of water with or without the inducing stimulus. Of the 435 mosquitoes tested in the experiment, 176 were non-distributors (i.e. laid all of their eggs in only one of the choices). Treatment females (distributors plus non-distributors) reared in the presence of the inducing stimulus throughout their lives (LPEA regime) showed a significant preference for the oviposition option containing the inducing stimulus (24/36 females) compared with corresponding controls (5/39 females). Distributors reared under the LPEA and PEA regimes also showed this preference (6/6 treatment vs. 2/29 control females, and 13/18 treatment vs. 7/23 control females, respectively). Females that had been exposed to the inducing stimulus as either immatures or adults only showed no preference for, and some showed an aversion to, the treatment oviposition option. This is interpreted as evidence for a natal habitat preference induction (NHPI) in this species, albeit one that requires extensive reinforcement in the adult stage. This adult experience-reinforced NHPI (AER-NHPI) is discussed in terms of its adaptive significance for container breeders, the possible timing mechanism and sensory basis of

  3. Sampling of adult mosquito vectors with Mosquito Magnet Pro in Panaji, Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P

    2008-12-01

    For mosquito vector population monitoring, a new commercial trap, Mosquito Magnet Pro (MM-PRO), was tested for its usefulness in Goa, India. Anopheles stephensi was tested for the presence of Plasmodium sporozoite infection in the salivary glands. Using the MM-PRO 24 h a day for 34 days, 2,329 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected. These included 6 species each of the genera Anopheles and Culex, 2 species of Aedes, and 1 each of Mansonia and Armigeres. Most (91%) of the mosquitoes caught were females. Among these the number and percentage of each species were Anopheles stephensi 59 (2.78%), Culex quinquefasciatus 1013 (47.78%), Culex vishnui 551 (26.0%), Mansonia uniformis 216 (10.19%), and Aedes albopictus 1 (0.04%). Of the 54 An. stephensi females tested for the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by an ELISA technique, 1 was found to be Plasmodium falciparum CSP positive. The MM-PRO device was found useful for mosquito population sampling in the urban setting of Goa.

  4. Thorsellia anophelis is the dominant bacterium in a Kenyan population of adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Briones, Aurelio M; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John; Novak, Robert; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are not known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria. Here we show, using nucleic acid-based methods, that 16S rRNA gene sequences specific to a recently described mosquito midgut bacterium, Thorsellia anophelis, is predominant in the midgut of adult An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes captured in residences in central Kenya, and also occurs in the aquatic rice paddy environment nearby. PCR consistently detected T. anophelis in the surface microlayer of rice paddies, which is also consistent with the surface-feeding behavior of A. gambiae s.l. larvae. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned environmental 16S rRNA genes identified four major Thorsellia lineages, which are closely affiliated to an insect endosymbiont of the genus Arsenophonus. Physiological characterizations support the hypothesis that T. anophelis is well adapted to the female anopheline midgut by utilizing blood and tolerating the alkaline conditions in this environment. The results suggest that aquatically derived bacteria such as T. anophelis can persist through mosquito metamorphosis and become well-established in the adult mosquito midgut.

  5. Toxicity Comparison of Eight Repellents Against Four Species of Female Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    TOXICITY COMPARISON OF EIGHT REPELLENTS AGAINST FOUR SPECIES OF FEMALE MOSQUITOES JULIA W. PRIDGEON, ULRICH R. BERNIER AND JAMES J. BECNEL Center for...repellents (DMP, Rutgers 612, DEET, IR3535, Picardin, PMD, AI3-35765, and AI3-37220) were evaluated by topical application against females of Aedes aegypti...repellent toxicity, topical application INTRODUCTION Females of the mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.) transmit viral pathogens to humans, resulting in

  6. Larval and adult nutrition effects on blood/nectar choice of Culex nigripalpus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hancock, R G; Foster, W A

    1997-04-01

    The impact of nutritional variables on the development of host-seeking and biting behaviours after emergence by female Culex nigripalpus mosquitoes were studied using air-flow olfactometer and close-range biting assays, respectively. Unfed females failed to develop resting stage ovarian follicles. When offered a bird host in the absence of competing stimuli, sugar-fed mosquitoes were significantly more responsive in both host-seeking and biting than unfed controls. In a choice olfactometer assay using nectar odours (honey scented with artificial apple-blossom oil) versus host odours (a bird), unfed females preferred honey over bird odours except when honey odour was weak. After sucrose feeding, females switched from honey to bird preference. This change in behaviour was accompanied by significant accumulation of lipid and by follicular growth to the resting stage. Elevation of host responsiveness after sugar feeding was reversible; starvation ultimately resulted in females preferring honey over bird odours. When the larval diet was restricted by crowding, the wing-length and total lipid of resultant adult females were reduced. Although differences were subtle, unfed bird-responding females tended to have longer wings and more lipid than their honey-responding counterparts.

  7. Susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to insecticides in aqueous sucrose baits.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sandra A

    2011-06-01

    Mosquitoes characteristically feed on plant-derived carbohydrates and honeydew just after emergence and intermittently during their lives. Development of toxic baits focusing on this carbohydrate-seeking behavior may potentially contribute to localized control. In the present study, ten insecticides were fed to female Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Aedes taeniorhynchus in a 10% sucrose solution. Active ingredients representative of five classes of insecticides (pyrethroids, phenylpyroles, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and macrocyclic lactones) were selected for comparison with commercial formulations used to facilitate incorporation of active ingredients into aqueous sucrose solutions. Sucrose as a phagostimulant significantly enhanced mortality to toxicants. In general, the most effective active ingredients were fipronil, deltamethrin and imidacloprid, followed by spinosad, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, permethrin, and cyfluthrin. The least effective ingredients were chlorfenapyr and ivermectin. For some of the ingredients tested, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the least susceptible species. One-day-old male Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible than females; however, no differences existed between one- and seven-day-old mosquitoes. There were no differences in susceptibility between unfed and gravid ten-day-old female Cx. quinquefasciatus to bifenthrin. In conclusion, several pesticides from different classes of compounds have potential for use in development of toxic baits for mosquitoes.

  8. Biodistribution and Trafficking of Hydrogel Nanoparticles in Adult Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Cynthia C. H.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Perry, Jillian L.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Airs, Paul M.; Dunphy, Brendan M.; Xu, Jing; Carlson, Jonathan O.; Luft, J. Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Beaty, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nanotechnology offers great potential for molecular genetic investigations and potential control of medically important arthropods. Major advances have been made in mammalian systems to define nanoparticle (NP) characteristics that condition trafficking and biodistribution of NPs in the host. Such information is critical for effective delivery of therapeutics and molecules to cells and organs, but little is known about biodistribution of NPs in mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings PRINT technology was used to construct a library of fluorescently labeled hydrogel NPs of defined size, shape, and surface charge. The biodistribution (organ, tissue, and cell tropisms and trafficking kinetics) of positively and negatively charged 200 nm x 200 nm, 80 nm x 320 nm, and 80 nm x 5000 nm NPs was determined in adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes as a function of the route of challenge (ingestion, injection or contact) using whole body imaging and fluorescence microscopy. Mosquitoes readily ingested NPs in sugar solution. Whole body fluorescence imaging revealed substantial NP accumulation (load) in the alimentary tracts of the adult mosquitoes, with the greatest loads in the diverticula, cardia and foregut. Positively and negatively charged NPs differed in their biodistribution and trafficking. Following oral challenge, negatively charged NPs transited the alimentary tract more rapidly than positively charged NPs. Following contact challenge, negatively charged NPs trafficked more efficiently in alimentary tract tissues. Following parenteral challenge, positively and negatively charged NPs differed in tissue tropisms and trafficking in the hemocoel. Injected NPs were also detected in cardia/foregut, suggesting trafficking of NPs from the hemocoel into the alimentary tract. Conclusions/Significance Herein we have developed a tool box of NPs with the biodistribution and tissue tropism characteristics for gene structure/function studies and for delivery of vector

  9. Larval nutritional stress affects vector immune traits in adult yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).

    PubMed

    Telang, A; Qayum, A A; Parker, A; Sacchetta, B R; Byrnes, G R

    2012-09-01

    We report key physiological traits that link larval nutritional experience to adult immune status in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae). Many lines of defence make up the innate immune system of mosquitoes. Among defences, the epithelium-lined midgut is the first barrier, circulating haemocytes are cellular components of innate immunity and, when triggered, the Toll and Imd pathways signal production of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as part of humoral defences. We quantified three lines of defence in Ae. aegypti in response to larval nutritional stress, and our data show that important female immune functions are modified by the larval rearing environment. Adult midgut basal lamina thickness was not affected by larval nutrient stress as has been observed in another Aedes sp. However, nutrient stresses experienced by larvae lead to a reduced number of haemocytes in females. Transcripts of Spaetzle (upstream regulator of Toll pathway that leads to induction of AMPs) and some immune-related genes were less abundant in stressed larvae but showed increased expression in females derived from stressed larvae. Results indicate a potential for compensation by the humoral branch for a reduced cellular branch of innate immunity in adults in response to larval nutrient stress.

  10. A Deep Insight into the Sialome of Male and Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José M. C.; Martin-Martin, Ines; Arcà, Bruno; Calvo, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Only adult female mosquitoes feed on blood, while both genders take sugar meals. Accordingly, several compounds associated with blood feeding (i.e. vasodilators, anti-clotting, anti-platelets) are found only in female glands, while enzymes associated with sugar feeding or antimicrobials (such as lysozyme) are found in the glands of both sexes. We performed de novo assembly of reads from adult Aedes aegypti female and male salivary gland libraries (285 and 90 million reads, respectively). By mapping back the reads to the assembled contigs, plus mapping the reads from a publicly available Ae. aegypti library from adult whole bodies, we identified 360 transcripts (including splice variants and alleles) overexpressed tenfold or more in the glands when compared to whole bodies. Moreover, among these, 207 were overexpressed fivefold or more in female vs. male salivary glands, 85 were near equally expressed and 68 were overexpressed in male glands. We call in particular the attention to C-type lectins, angiopoietins, female-specific Antigen 5, the 9.7 kDa, 12–14 kDa, 23.5 kDa, 62/34 kDa, 4.2 kDa, proline-rich peptide, SG8, 8.7 kDa family and SGS fragments: these polypeptides are all of unknown function, but due to their overexpression in female salivary glands and putative secretory nature they are expected to affect host physiology. We have also found many transposons (some of which novel) and several endogenous viral transcripts (probably acquired by horizontal transfer) which are overexpressed in the salivary glands and may play some role in tissue-specific gene regulation or represent a mechanism of virus interference. This work contributes to a near definitive catalog of male and female salivary gland transcripts from Ae. aegypti, which will help to direct further studies aiming at the functional characterization of the many transcripts with unknown function and the understanding of their role in vector-host interaction and pathogen transmission. PMID:26999592

  11. Dispersal of male and female Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes using stable isotope enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Roark, E. Brendan; Hamer, Gabriel L.

    2017-01-01

    The dispersal patterns of mosquito vectors are important drivers of vector-borne infectious disease dynamics and understanding movement patterns is pivotal to devise successful intervention strategies. Here, we investigate the dispersal patterns of two globally important mosquito vectors, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, by marking naturally-occurring larvae with stable isotopes (13C or 15N). Marked individuals were captured with 32 CDC light trap, 32 gravid trap, and 16 BG Sentinel at different locations within two-kilometer radii of six larval habitats enriched with either 13C or 15N. In total, 720 trap nights from July to August 2013 yielded a total of 32,140 Cx. quinquefasciatus and 7,722 Ae. albopictus. Overall, 69 marked female mosquitoes and 24 marked male mosquitoes were captured throughout the study period. The distance that Cx. quinquefasciatus females traveled differed for host-seeking and oviposition-seeking traps, with females seeking oviposition sites traveling further than those seeking hosts. Our analysis suggests that 41% of Cx. quinquefasciatus females that were host-seeking occurred 1–2 kilometer from their respective natal site, while 59% remained within a kilometer of their natal site. In contrast, 59% of Cx. quinquefasciatus females that were seeking oviposition sites occurred between 1–2 kilometer away from their larval habitat, while 15% occurred > 2 kilometer away from their natal site. Our analysis estimated that approximately 100% of Ae. albopictus females remained within 1 km of their respective natal site, with 79% occurring within 250m. In addition, we found that male Ae. albopictus dispersed farther than females, suggesting male-biased dispersal in this Ae. albopictus population. This study provides important insights on the dispersal patterns of two globally relevant vector species, and will be important in planning next generation vector control strategies that mitigate mosquito-borne disease through sterile insect

  12. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet.

  13. Pyriproxyfen for mosquito control: female sterilization or horizontal transfer to oviposition substrates by Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of gravid mosquitoes as vehicles to auto-disseminate larvicides was recently demonstrated for the transfer of pyriproxyfen (PPF) by container-breeding Aedes mosquitoes and presents an appealing idea to explore for other disease vectors. The success of this approach depends on the female’s behaviour, the time of exposure and the amount of PPF that can be carried by an individual. We explore the effect of PPF exposure at seven time points around blood feeding on individual Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus fecundity and ability to transfer in laboratory assays. Method Mosquitoes were exposed to 2.6 mg PPF per m2 at 48, 24 and 0.5 hours before and after a blood meal and on the day of egg-laying. The proportion of exposed females (N = 80-100) laying eggs, the number of eggs laid and hatched was studied. Transfer of PPF to oviposition cups was assessed by introducing 10 late instar insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. larvae into all the cups and monitored for adult emergence inhibition. Results Exposure to PPF between 24 hours before and after a blood meal had significant sterilizing effects: females of both species were 6 times less likely (Odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.26) to lay eggs than unexposed females. Of the few eggs laid, the odds of an egg hatching was reduced 17 times (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.08) in Anopheles but only 1.2 times (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.93) in Culex. Adult emergence inhibition from larvae introduced in the oviposition cups was observed only from cups in which eggs were laid. When females were exposed to PPF close to egg laying they transferred enough PPF to reduce emergence by 65-71% (95% CI 62-74%). Conclusion PPF exposure within a day before and after blood feeding affects egg-development in An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus and presents a promising opportunity for integrated control of vectors and nuisance mosquitoes. However, sterilized females are

  14. Reduced size and starvation resistance in adult mosquitoes, Aedes notoscriptus, exposed to predation cues as larvae.

    PubMed

    van Uitregt, Vincent O; Hurst, Timothy P; Wilson, Robbie S

    2012-01-01

    1. Many prey organisms exhibit adaptive phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits that facilitate a better chance of survival in the presence of predators. The evolution of such plastic traits requires that the defensive phenotype incurs a cost in the absence of predation. 2. Model systems that are used to examine predator-induced defences are often organisms with complex life histories that only induce defences during the larval stage. While many studies have detected costs of inducible defences during the larval stage, detecting the costs of larval defences after metamorphosis is also important. 3. We examine the benefits and costs of inducible larval defences in the urban mosquito, Aedes notoscriptus, by rearing them in the presence and absence of predation cues. We compared survival of larvae inducing behavioural defences, when exposed to predation cues, in predation trials with predatory fish Hypseleotris galii to that of larvae reared in the absence predation cues. We also compared life-history traits of predator-exposed larvae to larvae reared in control conditions. 4. Larvae exposed to chemical predation cues limited activity and were able to avoid predation for longer in trials with H. galii. However, predator-exposed larvae suffered retarded larval growth and development, were smaller at metamorphosis and less resistant to starvation as adults. 5. While it is difficult to understand the 'fitness costs' that poorer starvation resistance might confer to adult mosquitoes, it is likely that smaller adult size of predator-exposed individuals would reduce fitness, particularly for females where body size limits the size of blood meal they could take to facilitate egg production. We suggest that the demonstrable costs of inducible defences in mosquito larvae make this a good system for testing theoretical models for the evolutionary maintenance of adaptive phenotypic plasticity.

  15. Field evaluation of boric acid and fipronil based bait stations against adult mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of boric acid (1%) and fipronil (0.1%) bait stations in reducing the number of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes released in outdoor screened cages was evaluated. Both toxicants reduced landing rates of the two mosquito species on a ...

  16. Susceptibility of Adult Mosquitoes to Insecticides in Aqueous Sucrose Baits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    2010 ABSTRACT: Mosquitoes characteristically feed on plant-derived carbohydrates and honeydew just after emergence and intermittently during their...bait, Culex, Aedes, Anopheles. INTRODUCTION Plant-derived sugars and honeydew provide important components of mosquito nutrition and contribute to...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Mosquitoes characteristically feed on plant-derived carbohydrates and honeydew just after emergence

  17. Measurement, analysis, and depiction of activity in adult mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globalization, open trading practices, and climate change increase the likelihood of introduction of exotic mosquito species. These mosquitoes may harbor disease agents that threaten public and animal health. Successful containment and eradication of exotic mosquito species and (in the case of exo...

  18. The role of male harassment on female fitness for the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Helinski, Michelle E H; Harrington, Laura C

    2012-08-01

    Sexual harassment studies in insects suggest that females can incur several kinds of costs from male harassment and mating. Here, we examined direct and indirect costs of male harassment on components of female fitness in the predominantly monandrous mosquito Aedes aegypti. To disentangle the costs of harassment versus the costs of mating, we held females at a low or high density with males whose claspers were modified to prevent insemination, and compared these to females held with normal males and to those held with females or alone. A reduced longevity was observed when females were held under high density conditions with males or females, regardless if male claspers had been modified. There was no consistent effect of harassment on female fecundity. Net reproductive rate (R0) was higher in females held at low density with normal males compared to females held with males in the other treatments, even though only a small number of females showed direct evidence of remating. Indirect costs and benefits that were not due to harassment alone were observed. Daughters of females held with normal males at high density had reduced longevity compared to daughters from females held without conspecifics. However, their fitness (R0) was higher compared to females in all other treatments. Overall, our results indicate that A. aegypti females do not suffer a fitness cost from harassment of males when kept at moderate densities, and they suggest the potential for benefits obtained from ejaculate components.

  19. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes.

  20. The Temporal Spectrum of Adult Mosquito Population Fluctuations: Conceptual and Modeling Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yun; Silvestri, Sonia; Brown, Jeff; Hickman, Rick; Marani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks) are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month) observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month) environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual) mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the abundance of the

  1. The temporal spectrum of adult mosquito population fluctuations: conceptual and modeling implications.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yun; Silvestri, Sonia; Brown, Jeff; Hickman, Rick; Marani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks) are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month) observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month) environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual) mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the abundance of the

  2. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  3. Collective behavior quantification on human odor effects against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes-Open source development.

    PubMed

    Poh, Abdul Halim; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Leong, Cherng Shii; Lau, Yee Ling; Safdari Ghandari, Alireza; Apau, Alexlee; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2017-01-01

    Classifying and quantifying mosquito activity includes a plethora of categories, ranging from measuring flight speeds, repellency, feeding rates, and specific behaviors such as home entry, swooping and resting, among others. Entomologists have been progressing more toward using machine vision for efficiency for this endeavor. Digital methods have been used to study the behavior of insects in labs, for instance via three-dimensional tracking with specialized cameras to observe the reaction of mosquitoes towards human odor, heat and CO2, although virtually none was reported for several important fields, such as repellency studies which have a significant need for a proper response quantification. However, tracking mosquitoes individually is a challenge and only limited number of specimens can be studied. Although tracking large numbers of individual insects is hailed as one of the characteristics of an ideal automated image-based tracking system especially in 3D, it also is a costly method, often requiring specialized hardware and limited access to the algorithms used for mapping the specimens. The method proposed contributes towards (a) unlimited open source use, (b) a low-cost setup, (c) complete guide for any entomologist to adapt in terms of hardware and software, (d) simple to use, and (e) a lightweight data output for collective behavior analysis of mosquitoes. The setup is demonstrated by testing a simple response of mosquitoes in the presence of human odor versus control, one session with continuous human presence as a stimuli and the other with periodic presence. A group of female Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes are released into a white-background chamber with a transparent acrylic panel on one side. The video feed of the mosquitoes are processed using filtered contours in a threshold-adjustable video. The mosquitoes in the chamber are mapped on the raster where the coordinates of each mosquito are recorded with the corresponding timestamp. The average

  4. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

  5. Comparative effectiveness of three adult mosquito sampling methods in habitats representative of four different biomes of California.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Boyce, K; Cummings, R C; Delgado, O; Gutierrez, A; Meyer, R P; Scott, T W

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of New Jersey (NJ) light, dry ice baited, and gravid female traps for collecting adult mosquitoes was compared at representative habitats in the Coachella, San Joaquin, and Sacramento valleys and the Los Angeles basin of California. The NJ light traps effectively sampled Anopheles freeborni, Culex tarsalis, Psorophora columbiae, and several Aedes when abundance was high in rural areas with minimal competitive illumination. Dry ice-baited encephalitis virus surveillance or CDC style traps collected significantly more females of most species at most localities than did NJ light traps, regardless of background illumination. The Cummings modification of the Reiter gravid female trap baited with a bulrush (Schoenoplectus) infusion was the best method for collecting Culex pipiens complex females in most habitats. In the Los Angeles basin, gravid traps baited with bulrush infusion collected, on average, 4.5 times more Culex quinquefasciatus females than did traps baited with the Reiter infusion. The bulrush infusion in combination with the Cummings trap design seemed to provide resting site cues and collected males as well as empty and bloodfed females. Mosquito surveillance programs in California should include the systematic operation of dry ice-baited and gravid female traps to improve surveillance sensitivity for selected species in appropriate habitats.

  6. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a commercial mechanical trap to reduce abundance of adult nuisance mosquito populations.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael J; Gow, Jennifer L; Evelyn, Michelle J; McMahon, T J Scott; Howay, Tim J; Campbell, Harlan; Blancard, Jennifer; Thielman, Aynsley

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we explore the potential of a commercially available mechanical mosquito control device, the Liberty Plus Mosquito Magnet (hereafter referred to as Mosquito Magnet), to reduce the abundance of adult nuisance mosquito populations in public recreational areas. Mosquitoes were trapped on 2 replicate sites close to a campground at Brae Island Regional Park near Fort Langley, British Columbia, Canada. Each site comprised a treatment (Mosquito Magnets used) and control subsection (Mosquito Magnets not used). Mosquito numbers were assessed before and after the treatment period in both subsections at each site with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) black light traps. Although nearly 200,000 mosquitoes from 14 different species were collected over 366 trap-nights from May 31 to July 31, 2008, the majority of those identified were Aedes sticticus (68%) and Ae. vexans (22%)-2 of the most notorious nuisance mosquito species in British Columbia. The number of mosquitoes captured by CDC black light traps increased overall during the study period due to natural seasonal variation. Nevertheless, a significant treatment effect (P = 0.0389) was associated with an average decrease of about 32% in the average number of adult mosquitoes collected per day. These results strongly suggest that Mosquito Magnets can reduce the abundance of nuisance mosquitoes, potentially reducing the biting pressure on the public, and providing another tool in mosquito control operations.

  7. Elevated couch potato transcripts associated with adult diapause in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qirui; Denlinger, David L

    2011-05-01

    The couch potato (cpo) cDNA that we cloned from the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, encodes the C-terminus containing a highly conserved RNA recognition motif (RRM). Protein structure prediction indicates a canonical RRM structure with a βαββαβ topological structure. Northern blots indicate a single mRNA band over 9.49 kb, and Southern blot analysis suggests that the cpo gene contains large introns. Highest expression was noted in first instar larvae and pupae. A comparison of nondiapausing (long daylength) and diapausing (short daylength) adult females showed no difference immediately at adult eclosion, but by day 7 and thereafter, expression of cpo was much higher in diapausing adults. When 2-month old diapausing females were transferred from short daylength to diapausing-terminating conditions of long daylength and high temperature, expression of cpo declined. Similarly, when a topical application of JH III was used to terminate diapause abundance of the cpo transcript declined. Consistent with observations in Drosophila melanogaster and several other species levels of cpo in C. pipiens are influenced by the diapause program, although the direction of change is not the same in all species.

  8. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  9. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Mark E.; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as “activating” egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: 1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? 2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? 3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female’s resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle’s likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the “activating” effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  10. Monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Shirley A; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H; Mutuku, Francis M

    2013-09-01

    Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps--in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed.

  11. Monitoring Malaria Vector Control Interventions: Effectiveness of Five Different Adult Mosquito Sampling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Shirley A.; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M.; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H.; Mutuku, Francis M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods—light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps—in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed. PMID:24180120

  12. Carbon dioxide instantly sensitizes female yellow fever mosquitoes to human skin odours.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Teun; Geier, Martin; Cardé, Ring T

    2005-08-01

    Female mosquitoes are noted for their ability to use odours to locate a host for a blood meal. Two sensory organs contribute to their sense of smell: the maxillary palps, which measure the level of CO2, and the antennae, which detect other host-released odours. To establish the relative importance and interactions of CO2 and other body emissions in freely flying mosquitoes, we presented female yellow fever mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L. with broad plumes of human skin odour and CO2 at natural concentrations and dilutions thereof in a wind tunnel. 3-D video-recorded flight tracks were reconstructed. Activation, flight velocity, upwind turning and source finding waned quickly as skin odours were diluted, whereas in the presence of CO2 these parameters remained unchanged over more than a 100-fold dilution from exhaled concentrations. Although mosquitoes were behaviourally less sensitive to skin odours than to CO2, their sensitivity to skin odours increased transiently by at least fivefold immediately following a brief encounter with a filament of CO2. This sensitization was reflected in flight velocity, track angle, turning rate upon entering and exiting the broad odour plume and, ultimately, in the source-finding rate. In Ae. aegypti, CO2 thus functions as a ;releaser' for a higher sensitivity and responsiveness to skin odours. The initially low responsiveness of mosquitoes to skin odours, their high sensitivity to CO2, and the sensitization of the olfactory circuitry by CO2 are ecologically relevant, because rapidly fluctuating CO2 levels reliably signal a potential host. Possible mechanisms of the instantaneous sensitization are considered.

  13. Experimental study on the fluid mechanics of blood sucking in the proboscis of a female mosquito.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Jung Yeop

    2009-05-11

    Female mosquitoes are known to have a magnificent micro-scale pumping system that can transport small quantities of blood very effectively. To understand the dynamic characteristics of blood flow inside female mosquitoes, the measurement technique that is capable of measuring instantaneous flow fields of a biological sample at micrometer scales is required. In this study, the blood-sucking flow inside a female mosquito's food canal was measured in vivo using a micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) velocity field measurement technique with high-temporal resolution. The volumetric flow rate (Q) and the time-averaged feeding speed (V) based on the diameter of the food canal (D) was found to be 5.751 x 10(-3) mm3/s and 0.416 cm/s, respectively. Spectral analysis on the velocity waveform shows a clear peak at 6.1 Hz, indicating distinct pulsatile blood-sucking characteristics. The Womersley number (alpha) was about 0.117 and the velocity profile of the blood flow inside the proboscis has a parabolic Hagen-Poiseuille flow pattern when alpha is much smaller than 1.

  14. Effect of sampling method on the species composition and abundance of adult mosquitoes in a Florida swamp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of the adult mosquito populations in a Florida swamp (Sumter Co.) were obtained using suction traps and portable CDC light traps (augmented with CO2) and the results compared with mosquitoes captured by mechanical aspirator when landing on a human subject. Sixteen mosquito species total wer...

  15. Diel activity patterns of major species of adult mosquitoes and ULV spraying impacts in St. John's County, Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of daily activity patterns in adult mosquitoes can be used to determine the best time to apply adulticides for mosquito control. Many factors influence these activity patterns, including migration, hormonal cycles in the mosquito, hunger, and the need to lay eggs. In this study, FL scien...

  16. The influence of diet on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (>/='7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significan...

  17. Spatiotemporal investigation of adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in an eastern Iowa county, USA.

    PubMed

    DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2007-11-01

    Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that

  18. Effect of fluid viscosity on the liquid-feeding flow phenomena of a female mosquito.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Heum; Ha, Hojin; Seo, Eun Seok; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-03-15

    Liquid-sucking phenomena by the two-pump system of female mosquitoes were investigated to understand the feeding mechanism. In most previous experimental studies on liquid-feeding insects, the net increase of mass was divided by the feeding time and fluid density to evaluate the intake rate. However, this weighting method is not so precise for mosquitoes, because they are too lightweight to measure the gain of mass accurately. In this study, the intake rate of female mosquitoes feeding on various sucrose solutions was estimated using a micro-particle image velocimetry technique. As the sucrose concentration increased from 1% to 50%, the intake rate decreased from 17.3 to 5.8 nl s(-1). In addition, the temporal volume variations of the two pump chambers were estimated based on the velocity and acceleration information of the flow at the center of the food canal of the proboscis. One pumping period was divided into four elementary phases, which are related to the different operational modes of the two pumps. According to the hypothetical model established in this study, the phase shift () between the two pump chambers increases from 14 to 28 ms and the percentage of reverse flow to forward flow in a pumping period decreases from 7.6% to 1.7% with increasing viscosity. The developed analytical methodology thus aids in the study of an insect's feeding mechanism.

  19. Glass, rubber, and nylon: how to make a mouth aspirator on a budget for handling adult mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Condon, George C; Campbell, Ernest E; McCuiston, Linda

    2011-12-01

    A mouth aspirator with a bent glass tip was designed for adult mosquito collection and transportation. This aspirator has been utilized for mosquito laboratory and operational research in New Jersey for >60 years. We provide schematics and instruction for construction of this inexpensive and simple mouth aspirator, which offers improved maneuverability of handling adult mosquitoes from rearing cages in the laboratory and field application cages.

  20. Standardization of Malaysian adult female nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih Fang; Abdullah, Mohd Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females.

  1. Artificial natural selection: can supplemental feeding domesticate mosquitoes and control mosquito-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Egeth, Marc; Kurzban, Robert

    2012-08-29

    A new method is proposed for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. In particular, instead of trying to kill mosquitoes, we suggest provisioning them with food from artificial feeders. Because mosquito populations are frequently limited by ecological factors other than blood meals, such as the availability of egg-laying sites, feeding mosquitoes would not necessarily increase the total number of mosquitoes, but could reduce the number of human-drawn mosquito meals. Like mosquito traps, feeders could divert biting mosquitoes away from people by means of lures, but, after diversion, prevent subsequent human bites by satiating the mosquitoes instead of killing them. Mosquito feeders might reduce the problem of the evolution of resistance to control: in an ecology with mosquito feeders, which provide safe and abundant calories for adult female mosquitoes, there could be selection for preferring (rather than avoiding) feeders, which could eventually lead to a population of feeder-preferring mosquitoes. Artificial feeders also offer the chance to introduce novel elements into the mosquito diet, such as anti- malarial or other anti-parasitic agents. Feeders might directly reduce human bites and harnesses the power of natural selection by selectively favoring feeder-preferring (rather than trap-resistant) mosquitoes.

  2. Identification of morphological and chemical markers of dry- and wet-season conditions in female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased understanding of the dry-season survival mechanisms of Anopheles gambiae in semi-arid regions could benefit vector control efforts by identifying weak links in the transmission cycle of malaria. In this study, we examined the effect of photoperiod and relative humidity on morphologic and chemical traits known to control water loss in mosquitoes. Methods Anopheles gambiae body size (indexed by wing length), mesothoracic spiracle size, and cuticular hydrocarbon composition (both standardized by body size) were examined in mosquitoes raised from eggs exposed to short photoperiod and low relative humidity, simulating the dry season, or long photoperiod and high relative humidity, simulating the wet-season. Results Mosquitoes exposed to short photoperiod exhibited larger body size and larger mesothoracic spiracle length than mosquitoes exposed to long photoperiod. Mosquitoes exposed to short photoperiod and low relative humidity exhibited greater total cuticular hydrocarbon amount than mosquitoes exposed to long photoperiod and high relative humidity. In addition, total cuticular hydrocarbon amount increased with age and was higher in mated females. Mean n-alkane retention time (a measure of cuticular hydrocarbon chain length) was lower in mosquitoes exposed to short photoperiod and low relative humidity, and increased with age. Individual cuticular hydrocarbon peaks were examined, and several cuticular hydrocarbons were identified as potential biomarkers of dry- and wet-season conditions, age, and insemination status. Conclusions Results from this study indicate that morphological and chemical changes underlie aestivation of Anopheles gambiae and may serve as biomarkers of aestivation. PMID:24970701

  3. Emerging Issues in Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Hillary E.; Cook-Bolden, Fran E.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Friedlander, Sheila F.; Rodriguez, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris (acne) is a common affliction in adolescence and is a growing problem in adult women. Despite an increasing awareness of acne in the adult female population, there is a lack of good prospective studies assessing the severity, distribution, and differential response to treatment in this group. The long-held dogma that acne in adult women develops on the lower one-third of the face has been recently challenged, and here the authors critically review data from available literature. Moreover, while adult female acne has traditionally been defined as disease in women over age 25, it is the authors’ experience that this group is subdivided into women ages 25 to 44 years, separate from perimenopausal patients, ages 45 years and up. While there is no data specifically comparing these two groups, the authors will review the existing data and provide practical recommendations based on our experience in treating these groups of patients. Finally, while there is a lack of data on this subject, it is the group’s opinion that adherence to medication regimens is likely higher in women than men, which influences therapeutic outcomes. PMID:28210380

  4. MicroRNA-8 targets the Wingless signaling pathway in the female mosquito fat body to regulate reproductive processes.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Keira J; Roy, Sourav; Ha, Jisu; Gervaise, Amanda L; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2015-02-03

    Female mosquitoes require a blood meal for reproduction, and this blood meal provides the underlying mechanism for the spread of many important vector-borne diseases in humans. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms linked to mosquito blood meal processes and reproductive events is of particular importance for devising innovative vector control strategies. We found that the conserved microRNA miR-8 is an essential regulator of mosquito reproductive events. Two strategies to inhibit miR-8 function in vivo were used for functional characterization: systemic antagomir depletion and spatiotemporal inhibition using the miRNA sponge transgenic method in combination with the yeast transcriptional activator gal4 protein/upstream activating sequence system. Depletion of miR-8 in the female mosquito results in defects related to egg development and deposition. We used a multialgorithm approach for miRNA target prediction in mosquito 3' UTRs and experimentally verified secreted wingless-interacting molecule (swim) as an authentic target of miR-8. Our findings demonstrate that miR-8 controls the activity of the long-range Wingless (Wg) signaling by regulating Swim expression in the female fat body. We discovered that the miR-8/Wg axis is critical for the proper secretion of lipophorin and vitellogenin by the fat body and subsequent accumulation of these yolk protein precursors by developing oocytes.

  5. Aerial ULV application of permethrin against adult mosquitoes in an extreme hot-arid zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial ULV insecticide application is an established strategy for adult mosquito control in tropical, hot-humid, or temperate environments. However, not enough is known regarding the efficacy of aerial applications in hot-arid environments similar to those encountered by US military personnel, where...

  6. The Interaction between a Sexually Transferred Steroid Hormone and a Female Protein Regulates Oogenesis in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male–female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria. PMID:24204210

  7. The interaction between a sexually transferred steroid hormone and a female protein regulates oogenesis in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2013-10-01

    Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male-female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria.

  8. Mosquito-specific microRNA-1890 targets the juvenile hormone-regulated serine protease JHA15 in the female mosquito gut

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Keira J; Zhao, Bo; Roy, Sourav; Gervaise, Amanda L; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    Females of the hematophagous mosquito species require a vertebrate blood meal to supply amino acids and other nutrients necessary for egg development, serving as the driving force for the spread of many vector-borne diseases in humans. Blood digestion utilizes both early and late phase serine proteases (SPs) that are differentially regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. To uncover the regulatory complexity of SPs in the female mosquito midgut, we investigated involvement of miRNAs in regulating the juvenile hormone (JH)-controlled chymotrypsin-like SP, JHA15. We identified regulatory regions complementary to the mosquito-specific miRNA, miR-1890, within the 3′ UTR of JHA15 mRNA. The level of the JHA15 transcript is highest post eclosion and drastically declines post blood meal (PBM), exhibiting an opposite trend to miR-1890 that peaks at 24 h PBM. Depletion of miR-1890 results in defects in blood digestion, ovary development and egg deposition. JHA15 mRNA and protein levels are elevated in female mosquitoes with miR-1890 inhibition. JHA15 RNA interference in the miR-1890 depletion background alleviates miR-1890 depletion phenotypes. The miR-1890 gene is activated by the 20-hydroxyecdysone pathway that involves the ecdysone receptor and the early genes, E74B and Broad Z2. Our study suggests that miR-1890 controls JHA15 mRNA stability in a stage- and tissue- specific manner. PMID:26488481

  9. Using adult mosquitoes to transfer insecticides to Aedes aegypti larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Devine, Gregor J; Perea, Elvira Zamora; Killeen, Gerry F; Stancil, Jeffrey D; Clark, Suzanne J; Morrison, Amy C

    2009-07-14

    Vector control is a key means of combating mosquito-borne diseases and the only tool available for tackling the transmission of dengue, a disease for which no vaccine, prophylaxis, or therapeutant currently exists. The most effective mosquito control methods include a variety of insecticidal tools that target adults or juveniles. Their successful implementation depends on impacting the largest proportion of the vector population possible. We demonstrate a control strategy that dramatically improves the efficiency with which high coverage of aquatic mosquito habitats can be achieved. The method exploits adult mosquitoes as vehicles of insecticide transfer by harnessing their fundamental behaviors to disseminate a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA) between resting and oviposition sites. A series of field trials undertaken in an Amazon city (Iquitos, Peru) showed that the placement of JHA dissemination stations in just 3-5% of the available resting area resulted in almost complete coverage of sentinel aquatic habitats. More than control mortality occurred in 95-100% of the larval cohorts of Aedes aegypti developing at those sites. Overall reductions in adult emergence of 42-98% were achieved during the trials. A deterministic simulation model predicts amplifications in coverage consistent with our observations and highlights the importance of the residual activity of the insecticide for this technique.

  10. 16S rRNA gene sequences from bacteria associated with adult Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Pinheiro, Waleria Dasso; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; James, Anthony Amade; Marinotti, Osvaldo

    2008-01-01

    The microbial flora associated with Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae), a major Neotropical malaria vector, was investigated for the development of a paratransgenesis-based approach to control malaria transmission in Brazil. Female mosquitoes were collected using human land catches and captured insects provided a bloodmeal. The controlled blood feeding resulted in increased detection of mosquito bacterial population because it was possible to retrieve bacterial DNA from all blood-fed mosquitoes. The 16S sequences of bacteria recovered, include some closely related to those found in other vector mosquitoes, including Aeromonas, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species.

  11. Meteorological effects on adult mosquito (Culex) populations in metropolitan New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Degaetano, Arthur T

    2005-05-01

    For two metropolitan New Jersey counties, monthly average adult mosquito (Culex) catch from New Jersey light trap data sets covering multiple decades is related to a number of meteorological factors. From June through August climatological conditions accounted for between 40% and 50% of the variation in average catch. In general, high monthly precipitation totals both in the month corresponding to the catch and the previous month were associated with increased trap catch. However, individual heavy rainfall events tended to reduce catch. Warm temperatures exerted a positive influence on mosquito abundance in June, but were associated with a low catch in August. Linear meteorological relationships explained only a small percentage of the variations in mosquito catch during May and September. During July, and particularly August, antecedent monthly catch also explained a significant portion of the variance in the contemporaneous catch. Over 60% of the variability in August catch could be attributed to the July population.

  12. How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Donald A.; Kaufman, Michael G.; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F.

    2015-01-01

    Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar

  13. How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Kaufman, Michael G; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F

    2015-01-01

    Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar

  14. Effects of intraspecific larval competition on adult longevity in the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    LOUNIBOS, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Larval competition is common in container-breeding mosquitoes. The impact of competition on larval growth has been thoroughly examined and findings that larval competition can lead to density-dependent effects on adult body size have been documented. The effects of larval competition on adult longevity have been less well explored. The effects of intraspecific larval densities on the longevity of adults maintained under relatively harsh environmental conditions were tested in the laboratory by measuring the longevity of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) that had been reared under a range of larval densities and subsequently maintained in high- or low-humidity regimes (85% or 35% relative humidity [RH], respectively) as adults. We found significant negative effects of competition on adult longevity in Ae. aegypti, but not in Ae. albopictus. Multivariate analysis of variance suggested that the negative effect of the larval environment on the longevity of Ae. aegypti adults was most strongly associated with increased development time and decreased wing length as adults. Understanding how larval competition affects adult longevity under a range of environmental conditions is important in establishing the relationship between models of mosquito population regulation and epidemiological models of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:19239615

  15. Field comparison of Bermuda-hay infusion to infusions of emergent aquatic vegetation for collecting female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Mullen, Gary R

    2007-06-01

    Field experiments were conducted in east-central Alabama in 2003 and 2004 to compare the attractiveness of selected gravid-trap infusions to ovipositing female mosquitoes. Comparisons were made among infusions of the following plants: Bermuda hay, Cynodon dactylon, and 3 species of emergent aquatic plants typical of Culex larval habitats, i.e., soft rush, Juncus effusus; a common sedge, Rhynchospora corniculata; and broad-leaf cattail, Typha latifolia. Experiments were conducted at a site in Lee County, AL, with an abundance of common nuisance mosquitoes, including Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. Carbon dioxide-baited miniature light traps were operated concurrently with gravid traps to provide an activity index of mosquito species at the site. Gravid traps with hay infusion collected the greatest numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex restuans females (2003). The results indicate that hay infusion is highly attractive to Cx. quinquefasciatus and is the infusion of choice for collecting females of this species in gravid traps. In the case of Ae. albopictus, infusions were not determined to be significantly different from one another in their attractiveness to gravid females. In general, females of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. restuans demonstrated selectivity when choosing an oviposition site, whereas Ae. albopictus females did not. Factors associated with the oviposition biology of the latter species most likely account for their lack of preference for any single infusion type.

  16. An Efficient Method for Transferring Adult Mosquitoes during Field Tests,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CULICIDAE, *COLLECTING METHODS, REPRINTS, BLOOD SUCKING INSECTS, FIELD TESTS, HAND HELD, EFFICIENCY, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, MORTALITY RATES , ADULTS, AEDES, ASPIRATORS, CULICIDAE, TEST AND EVALUATION, REPRINTS

  17. Mosquito Infestation and Dengue Virus Infection in Aedes aegypti Females in Schools in Mérida, México

    PubMed Central

    García-Rejón, Julián E.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Flores-Flores, Luis F.; López-Uribe, Mildred P.; del Rosario Najera-Vazquez, Maria; Nuñez-Ayala, Guadalupe; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    We determined abundance of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and presence of dengue virus (DENV) in females collected from schools in Mérida, México, during 2008 and 2009. Backpack aspiration from 24 schools produced 468 females of Ae. aegypti and 1,676 females of another human biter, Culex quinquefasciatus. Ae. aegypti females were collected most commonly from classrooms followed by offices and bathrooms. Of these females, 24.7% were freshly fed. Examination of 118 pools of Ae. aegypti females (total of 415 females) for presence of DENV RNA produced 19 positive pools (16.1%). DENV-infected pools were detected from 11 (45.8%) of 24 schools and came from different room types, including classrooms, offices, and bathrooms. The overall rate of DENV infection per 100 Ae. aegypti females was 4.8. We conclude that schools in Mérida present a risk environment for students, teachers, and other personnel to be exposed to mosquitoes and bites of DENV-infected Ae. aegypti females. PMID:21363990

  18. Environmental Fate Model for Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    drift hazard (Hewitt, 2008; Teske et al., 2000). Little is currently known about the deposition and drift of small droplets such as those used during...ULV applications for adult mosquito management ( Teske et al., 2000). Droplets smaller than 50 μm have very low settling velocities, and have similar...risk and regulatory assessments have used models like ISCST3, AgDrift® (Stewart Agricultural Research Services, Macon, MO, USA) ( Teske et al., 2002), and

  19. Population Dynamics of Blood-Fed Female Mosquitoes and Comparative Efficacy of Resting Boxes in Collecting them from the Northwestern Part of Riverside County, California

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Tejbir S; Williams, Gregory W; Haynes, Bryan W; Dhillon, Major S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Testing of blood-fed mosquitoes plays an integral role in arbovirus surveillance and in understanding its interaction mechanisms between host, vector and reservoir. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two different traps (gravid and resting boxes) for collection of blood-fed mosquitoes in the northwestern part of Riverside County. Materials and Methods: Three trapping sites were selected in the Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District of Riverside County, California. At each site resting boxes and gravid traps were set; and mosquitoes were collected on a weekly basis between July-December 2009. Mosquitoes were transported over blue ice, identified up to species level on chill table, and classified as male, female and blood-fed females. Results: During this study period, 3953 mosquitoes (826 blood-fed females) belonging to three different genera and eight species were collected; resting boxes collecting maximum number (seven) of mosquito species. Overall as well as individually in each trap kind, the most abundant mosquito species collected was Cx. quinquefasciatus. The proportion of blood-fed females of the Culex species collected in resting boxes was 28.8 times more, while of blood-fed females of Cx. quinquefasciatus was 32.2 times more than the proportion collected from gravid traps. Conclusions: Overall, the proportion of blood-fed female mosquitoes collected for each species trapped was highest in resting boxes. Additionally, resting boxes showed the advantage of extremely low running and maintenance cost; generation of no hazardous waste; quick turnaround time in terms of mosquito collection per man-hour spent; and they were less prone to vandalism or thefts. PMID:23599612

  20. Larval Temperature–Food Effects on Adult Mosquito Infection and Vertical Transmission of Dengue-1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Eva A.; Alto, Barry W.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2016-01-01

    Temperature–food interactions in the larval environment can affect life history and population growth of container mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse, the primary vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses. We used Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and dengue-1 virus (DENV-1) from Florida to investigate whether larval rearing temperature can alter the effects of larval food levels on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus life history and DENV-1 infection and vertical transmission. Although we found no effect of larval treatments on survivorship to adulthood, DENV-1 titer, or DENV-1 vertical transmission, rates of vertical transmission up to 16–24% were observed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, which may contribute to maintenance of this virus in nature. Larval treatments had no effect on number of progeny and DENV-1 infection in Ae. aegypti, but the interaction between temperature and food affected number of progeny and DENV-1 infection of the female Ae. albopictus parent. The cooler temperature (24°C) yielded the most progeny and this effect was accentuated by high food relative to the other conditions. Low and high food led to the highest (∼90%) and lowest (∼65%) parental infection at the cooler temperature, respectively, whereas intermediate infection rates (∼75–80%) were observed for all food conditions at the elevated temperature. These results suggest that temperature and food availability have minimal influence on rate of vertical transmission and a stronger influence on adults of Ae. albopictus than of Ae. aegypti, which could have consequences for dengue virus epidemiology. PMID:26489999

  1. Behavioural responses of females of two anopheline mosquito species to human-occupied, insecticide-treated and untreated bed nets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), used extensively to reduce human exposure to malaria, work through physical and chemical means to block or deter host-seeking mosquitoes. Despite the importance of ITNs, very little is known about how host-seeking mosquitoes behave around occupied bed nets. As a result, evidence-based evaluations of the effects of physical damage on bed net effectiveness are not possible and there is a dearth of knowledge on which to base ITN design. Methods The dispersion of colony-raised female Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles albimanus was observed in 2-hr laboratory experiments in which up to 200 mosquitoes were released inside a mosquito-proof 3 m × 3 m tent housing a bed net arrayed with 18 30 cm × 30 cm sticky screen squares on the sides, ends and roof. Numbers of mosquitoes caught on the sticky squares were interpreted as the ‘mosquito pressure’ on that part of the net. Results Presence of a human subject in the bed net significantly increased total mosquito pressure on the net for both species and significantly re-oriented An. gambiae to the roof of the net. Anopheles albimanus pressure was greatest on the bed net roof in both host-present and no-host conditions. The effects of different human subjects in the bed net, of different ambient conditions (dry, cool conditions vs warm, humid conditions) and of bed net treatment (deltamethrin-treated or no insecticide) on mosquito pressure patterns were tested for both species. Species-specific pressure patterns did not vary greatly as a result of any of these factors though some differences were noted that may be due the size of the different human subjects. Conclusions As a result of the interaction between host-seeking responses and the convective plume from the net occupant, species-specific mosquito pressure patterns manifest more or less predictably on the bed net. This has implications for bed net design and suggests that current methods of assessing damaged

  2. Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay. Results 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012. Conclusion The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR. PMID:24060238

  3. Anopheles arabiensis egg treatment with dieldrin for sex separation leaves residues in male adult mosquitoes that can bioaccumulate in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hanano; Jandric, Zora; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Vreysen, Marc JB; Rathor, Mohammad N; Gilles, Jeremie RL; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control tactic that is used as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs. The SIT can only be applied against disease-transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released, and the blood-sucking and potentially disease-transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. For Anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminated by treating the eggs or larvae with the insecticide dieldrin. To evaluate the presence of dieldrin residues in male mosquitoes designated for SIT releases, a simple, sensitive, and accurate gas chromatography–electron capture detector (GC–ECD) method was developed. In addition, bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of these residues to fish after feeding with treated mosquitoes was demonstrated. The overall recovery from method validation studies was 77.3 ± 2.2% (mean ± relative standard deviation [RSD]) for the mosquitoes, and 99.1 ± 4.4% (mean ± RSD) for the fish. The average dieldrin concentration found in adult male An. arabiensis was 28.1 ± 2.9 µg/kg (mean ± standard deviation [SD]). A range of 23.9 ± 1.1 µg/kg to 73.9 ± 5.2 µg/kg (mean ± SD) of dieldrin was found in the fish samples. These findings indicate the need to reassess the environmental and health implications of control operations with a SIT component against An. arabiensis that involves using persistent organochlorines in the sexing process. PMID:23983078

  4. Mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology.

    PubMed

    Rozo-Lopez, Paula; Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Colombia, one of the world's megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia and to test the usefulness of DNA barcodes, mosquito species collected at different elevations in the departments of Antioquia and Caldas were identified combining adult morphology and barcode sequences. A total of 22 mosquito species from eight genera were identified using these combined techniques. We generated 77 barcode sequences with 16 species submitted as new country records for public databases. We examined the usefulness of DNA barcodes to discriminate mosquito species from the Neotropics by compiling 1,292 sequences from a total of 133 species and using the tree-based methods of neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood. Both methodologies provided similar results by resolving 105 species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. This study shows the importance of combining classic morphological methodologies with molecular tools to accurately identify mosquitoes from Colombia.

  5. Mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rozo-Lopez, Paula; Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colombia, one of the world’s megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia and to test the usefulness of DNA barcodes, mosquito species collected at different elevations in the departments of Antioquia and Caldas were identified combining adult morphology and barcode sequences. A total of 22 mosquito species from eight genera were identified using these combined techniques. We generated 77 barcode sequences with 16 species submitted as new country records for public databases. We examined the usefulness of DNA barcodes to discriminate mosquito species from the Neotropics by compiling 1,292 sequences from a total of 133 species and using the tree-based methods of neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood. Both methodologies provided similar results by resolving 105 species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. This study shows the importance of combining classic morphological methodologies with molecular tools to accurately identify mosquitoes from Colombia. PMID:26257568

  6. Psychological Sequelae in Adult Females Reporting Childhood Ritualistic Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Kathy J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 19 adult females reporting childhood ritualistic sexual abuse with 27 adult females reporting sexual abuse without ritualism found that women reporting ritualistic abuse scored significantly higher on measures of childhood sexual and physical abuse severity. Neither posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status nor PTSD…

  7. Treatment of adult female acne: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Dréno, B

    2015-06-01

    Acne is affecting an increasing number of adult females and so can no longer be considered as a disease of adolescence. The disease has a greater negative impact on the quality of life of adult females than their younger counterparts. Adult female acne may persist from adolescence or may have its first occurrence once adulthood has been reached. The clinical presentation and pathogenesis of adult female acne may be somewhat different to that of adolescent acne and this may require a different treatment approach. Genetic and hormonal factors are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of adult female acne and the disease is characterized by a chronic evolution with frequent relapses requiring long-term maintenance therapy. Fixed-dose retinoid/antimicrobial combinations may be of interest for the treatment of adult female acne given that subgroup analysis of clinical trials has indicated that they are effective against both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions in these patients. These treatments may also be of interest, given the chronic course of the disease in adult females, the high likelihood of the presence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes and the poor adherence of patients to other long-term therapies. Oral hormonal treatment or isotretinoin may be required in patients with severe acne or disease that is refractory to other treatments. Additional clinical studies of acne treatments specifically conducted in adult female patients are required to increase the evidence base on which future treatment recommendations can be based.

  8. Residual Efficacy of Field-Applied Permethrin, d-Phenothrin, and Resmethrin on Plant Foliage Against Adult Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    mortality (24 h) of mosquitoes in test cages placed within the vegetation. At 48 h and 1 wk posttreatment, insecticide treatments resulted in 70–100...reduction of adult mosquitoes caught by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps baited with 1-octen-3-ol. Insecticide residues in excised...duration of ,48 h postapplication, with residual effects dropping significantly thereafter. Average insecticide concentrations in leaves were quantified

  9. Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; Yanma; Liu, Ting; Qian, Kuen; Han, Yuhua; Xue, Suqin; Tucker, Brad; Schultz, Gretchen; Coats, Joel; Rowley, Wayne; Zhang, Aijun

    2006-09-01

    The larvicidal activity and repellency of 5 plant essential oils--thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil--were tested against 3 mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens pallens. Larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with LC50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (LC90 = 72 microg/ml) for Ae. aegypti, 78 microg/ml (LC90 = 130 microg/ml) for Ae. albopictus, and 77 microg/ml (LC90 = 123 microg/ml) for Cx. p. pallens. The topical repellency of these selected essential oils and deet against laboratory-reared female blood-starved Ae. albopictus was examined. Catnip oil seemed to be the most effective and provided 6-h protection at both concentrations tested (23 and 468 microg/ cm2). Thyme oil had the highest effectiveness in repelling this species, but the repellency duration was only 2 h. The applications using these natural product essential oils in mosquito control are discussed.

  10. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  11. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  12. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  13. Role of modified CDC miniature light-traps as an alternative method for sampling adult anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) in the National Mosquito Surveillance Programme in India.

    PubMed

    Sadanandane, C; Jambulingam, P; Subramanian, S

    2004-02-01

    The efficiency of modified CDC miniature light-traps for sampling adult mosquitoes was evaluated in comparison with indoor resting, outdoor resting, indoor man-landing and outdoor man-landing collections in the hilly district of Koraput, Orissa, India. Overall, light-traps captured 78% of adult mosquitoes collected by all methods. Of the 16 anopheline species recorded in the study area, light-traps effectively sampled 13, contributing about 72% of the total anophelines collected by all methods. Light-traps also caught a large number of female Culex vishnui Theobald (96%). As fully-fed mosquitoes were predominant (82%) and caught alive, light-traps can be used to catch large numbers of vector mosquitoes for studies on vector prevalence, distribution, vector incrimination and also for laboratory bioassays. Light-trap and indoor resting collections revealed similar seasonal trends in numbers of Anopheles culicifacies Giles, A. fluviatilis James, A. jeyporiensis James, A. vagus Doenitz, and A. splendidus Koidzumi. Age-structure of the samples did not vary significantly between the two methods. Light-traps could be used as an alternative to daytime indoor resting collections to monitor the seasonal fluctuations in the abundance and parity rates of these species. The light-trap collections correlated with indoor and outdoor man-landing collections of A. jeyporiensis and the outdoor man-landing collections of A. maculatusTheobald in measuring seasonal trends. Light-trap collections can thus be used as a substitute for man-landing collections of A. jeyporiensis and A. maculatus.

  14. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  15. The heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, GPA2/GPB5, regulates ion transport across the hindgut of the adult mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Vanderveken, Mark; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A family of evolutionarily old hormones is the glycoprotein cysteine knot-forming heterodimers consisting of alpha- (GPA) and beta-subunits (GPB), which assemble by noncovalent bonds. In mammals, a common glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPA1) pairs with unique beta-subunits that establish receptor specificity, forming thyroid stimulating hormone (GPA1/TSHβ) and the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (GPA1/LHβ), follicle stimulating hormone (GPA1/FSHβ), choriogonadotropin (GPA1/CGβ). A novel glycoprotein heterodimer was identified in vertebrates by genome analysis, called thyrostimulin, composed of two novel subunits, GPA2 and GPB5, and homologs occur in arthropods, nematodes and cnidarians, implying that this neurohormone system existed prior to the emergence of bilateral metazoans. In order to discern possible physiological roles of this hormonal signaling system in mosquitoes, we have isolated the glycoprotein hormone genes producing the alpha- and beta-subunits (AedaeGPA2 and AedaeGPB5) and assessed their temporal expression profiles in the yellow and dengue-fever vector, Aedes aegypti. We have also isolated a putative receptor for this novel mosquito hormone, AedaeLGR1, which contains features conserved with other glycoprotein leucine-rich repeating containing G protein-coupled receptors. AedaeLGR1 is expressed in tissues of the alimentary canal such as the midgut, Malpighian tubules and hindgut, suggesting that this novel mosquito glycoprotein hormone may regulate ionic and osmotic balance. Focusing on the hindgut in adult stage A. aegypti, where AedaeLGR1 was highly enriched, we utilized the Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique (SIET) to determine if AedaeGPA2/GPB5 modulated cation transport across this epithelial tissue. Our results suggest that AedaeGPA2/GPB5 does indeed participate in ionic and osmotic balance, since it appears to inhibit natriuresis and promote kaliuresis. Taken together, our findings imply this hormone may play an important

  16. Convergence between a mosquito-eating predator's natural diet and its prey-choice behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert R.; Deng, Chan

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of 1115 records of Evarcha culicivora feeding in the field, we can characterize this East African jumping spider (Salticidae) as being distinctively stenophagic. We can also, on the basis of laboratory prey-choice experiments, characterize E. culicivora as having a specialized prey-classification system and a hierarchy of innate preferences for various categories of mosquitoes and other arthropods. Prey from the field belonged to 10 arthropod orders, but 94.5% of the prey records were dipterans. Mosquitoes were the dominant prey (80.2% of the records), with the majority (82.9%) of the mosquitoes being females, and thereafter midges were the most common prey (9.2% of the records). Preference profiles that were determined from experiments showed strong convergence with natural diet in some, but not all, instances. In experiments, E. culicivora adults appeared to distinguish between six prey categories and juveniles between seven, with blood-carrying anopheline female mosquitoes being ranked highest in preference. For adults, this was followed by blood-carrying culicine female mosquitoes and then anopheline female mosquitoes not carrying blood, but these two preferences were reversed for juveniles. Moreover, for juveniles, but not for adults, anopheline male mosquitoes seem to be a distinct prey category ranked in preference after blood-carrying culicine females and, for both adults and juveniles, preference for midges is evident when the alternatives are not mosquitoes. These findings illustrate the importance of going beyond simply specifying preferred prey categories when characterizing predators as ‘specialized’ and a need to make clear conceptual distinctions between a predator's natural diet, the prey categories that are relevant to the predator, and the predator's prey-choicebehaviour. PMID:28083103

  17. Amino acids in nectar enhance longevity of female Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culex mosquitoes feed on a wide range of nectars consisting of mostly carbohydrates and amino acids, however, little is known about the utilization and effects of these different carbohydrates and their accompanying amino acids on longevity. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were reared on high and low...

  18. Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) has negligible effects on adult survival and transcriptome of its mosquito host.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoxia; Hughes, Grant L; Niu, Guodong; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Rasgon, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito densoviruses (DNVs) are candidate agents for paratransgenic control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases. Unlike other mosquito DNVs, the Anopheles gambiae DNV (AgDNV) is non-pathogenic to larval mosquitoes. However, the cost of infection upon adults and the molecular mechanisms underpinning infection in the mosquito host are unknown. Using life table analysis, we show that AgDNV infection has minimal effects on An. gambiae survival (no significant effect in 2 replicates and a slight 2 day survival decrease in the third replicate). Using microarrays, we show that AgDNV has very minimal effect on the adult mosquito transcriptome, with only 4-15 genes differentially regulated depending on the statistical criteria imposed. The minimal impact upon global transcription provides some mechanistic understanding of lack of virus pathogenicity, suggesting a long co-evolutionary history that has shifted towards avirulence. From an applied standpoint, lack of strong induced fitness costs makes AgDNV an attractive agent for paratransgenic malaria control.

  19. Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) has negligible effects on adult survival and transcriptome of its mosquito host

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Guodong; Suzuki, Yasutsugu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito densoviruses (DNVs) are candidate agents for paratransgenic control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases. Unlike other mosquito DNVs, the Anopheles gambiae DNV (AgDNV) is non-pathogenic to larval mosquitoes. However, the cost of infection upon adults and the molecular mechanisms underpinning infection in the mosquito host are unknown. Using life table analysis, we show that AgDNV infection has minimal effects on An. gambiae survival (no significant effect in 2 replicates and a slight 2 day survival decrease in the third replicate). Using microarrays, we show that AgDNV has very minimal effect on the adult mosquito transcriptome, with only 4–15 genes differentially regulated depending on the statistical criteria imposed. The minimal impact upon global transcription provides some mechanistic understanding of lack of virus pathogenicity, suggesting a long co-evolutionary history that has shifted towards avirulence. From an applied standpoint, lack of strong induced fitness costs makes AgDNV an attractive agent for paratransgenic malaria control. PMID:25279264

  20. Recruiting the Older, Adult, Female Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Dennis T.; Achtziger, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    A program for adult women reentry students at a Long Island campus of the C. W. Post Center is chronicled from the development of a rationale through formation of an advisory committee, institution of a series of workshops, addition of motivation through financial aid, and offering of child care and other needed services. (MSE)

  1. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults

    PubMed Central

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  2. Moment-to-moment flight manoeuvres of the female yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti L.) in response to plumes of carbon dioxide and human skin odour.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Teun; Cardé, Ring T

    2011-10-15

    Odours are crucial cues enabling female mosquitoes to orient to prospective hosts. However, their in-flight manoeuvres to host odours are virtually unknown. Here we analyzed in 3-D the video records of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes flying in a wind tunnel in response to host odour plumes that differed in spatial structure and composition. Following a brief (~0.03 s) encounter with CO(2), mosquitoes surged upwind and, in the absence of further encounters, counterturned without displacing upwind. These patterns resemble moth responses to encounter and loss of a filament of pheromone. Moreover, CO(2) encounters induced a highly regular pattern of counterturning across the windline in the horizontal (crosswind) and vertical planes, causing the mosquito to transect repeatedly the area where CO(2) was previously detected. However, despite the rapid changes across all three axes following an encounter with CO(2), the angular velocities remained remarkably constant. This suggests that during these CO(2)-induced surges mosquitoes stabilize flight through sensors, such as the halteres and Johnston organs, sensitive to Coriolis forces. In contrast to the instantaneous responses of the mosquito CO(2), a brief encounter with a filament of human skin odour did not induce a consistent change in mosquito flight. These differential responses were reflected in further experiments with broad plumes. A broad homogeneous plume of skin odour induced rapid upwind flight and source finding, whereas a broad filamentous plume of skin odour lowered activation rates, kinetic responses and source finding compared with homogeneous plumes. Apparently, yellow fever mosquitoes need longer continuous exposure to complex skin-odour blends to induce activation and source finding.

  3. Repellent, Irritant and Toxic Effects of 20 Plant Extracts on Adults of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  4. Bioinsecticide and leaf litter combination increases oviposition and reduces adult recruitment to create an effective ovitrap for Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Bellile, Katie G; Vonesh, James R

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito egg traps, aquatic habitats baited with oviposition attractant and insecticide, are important tools for surveillance and control efforts in integrated vector management programs. The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides and the combination of Bti with a simple oviposition attractant like leaf litter to create an effective egg trap seems appealing. However, previous research suggests that Bti may itself alter oviposition, and that leaf litter may dramatically reduce Bti toxicity. Here we present results from field experiment designed to link the effects of litter and Bti on mosquito oviposition habitat selection and post-colonization survival to production of adult mosquitoes. Tripling litter increased Culex spp. oviposition nearly nine-fold, while Bti had no effect on oviposition. Neither factor altered egg survival, thus larval abundance reflected the effects of litter on oviposition. Both Bti and litter reduced larval survival by ∼60%. We found no evidence that increased litter reduced Bti toxicity. Adult production was dependent upon both litter and Bti. In the absence of Bti, effects of litter on oviposition translated into three-fold more adults. However, in the presence of Bti, initial increases in oviposition were erased by the combined negative effects of Bti and litter on post-colonization survival. Thus, our study provides field evidence that combined litter and Bti application creates an effective ovitrap. This combined treatment had the highest oviposition and the lowest survival, and thus removed the greatest number of mosquitoes from the landscape.

  5. New tools for surveillance of adult yellow fever mosquitoes: comparison of trap catches with human landing rates in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Krockel, Ulla; Rose, Andreas; Eiras, Alvaro E; Geier, Martin

    2006-06-01

    A novel mosquito trapping system, the BG-Sentinel trap, was evaluated as a monitoring tool for adult Aedes aegypti in field tests in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Human landing/biting collections, a gas-powered CO2 trap, and a Fay-Prince trap with only visual cues serving as references to evaluate the efficacy of the new trap. The BG-Sentinel is a simple suction trap that uses upward-directed air currents as well as visual cues to attract mosquitoes. The trap was tested with a new dispenser system (BG-Lure) that releases artificial human skin odors and needs no CO2. In comparison with the two other traps, the BG-Sentinel caught significantly more Ae. aegypti. Although human landing rates were the highest, there was no significant difference between human landing rates and the capture rates of the BG-Sentinel trap. The finding indicates that the trap can be considered as an acceptable alternative to human landing/biting collections in the surveillance of adult host-seeking dengue vectors. The addition of BG-Lure to the gas-powered CO2 trap greatly increased its efficacy. This combination, however, was not significantly more effective than the BG-Sentinel without CO2. In a 6-month comparison between the BG-Sentinel and a sticky ovitrap for gravid females, the BG-Sentinel proved to be a far more efficient and sensitive tool to measure the density of Ae. aegypti populations.

  6. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery

  7. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the non-blood feeding Toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, E.; Pham, V. M.; Ribeiro, J. M. C.

    2008-01-01

    All adult mosquitoes take sugar meals, and most adult females also take blood meals to develop eggs. Salivary glands (SG) of males are thus much smaller and do not contain many of the antihemostatic and antiinflammatory compounds found in females. In the past 5 years, transcriptome analyses have identified nearly 70 different genes expressed in adult female SG. For most of these, no function can be assigned in either blood or sugar feeding. Exceptionally, Toxorhynchites mosquitoes are unusual in that they never feed on blood, and the SG of adults are identical in both sexes. Transcriptome analysis of the adult SG of this mosquito was performed to increase knowledge of the evolution of blood feeding—and to identify polypeptide families associated with sugar feeding—in mosquitoes. PMID:18405828

  8. A Tale of Two City Blocks: Differences in Immature and Adult Mosquito Abundances between Socioeconomically Different Urban Blocks in Baltimore (Maryland, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian; Leisnham, Paul T.; LaDeau, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure degradation in many post-industrial cities has increased the availability of potential mosquito habitats, including container habitats that support infestations of invasive disease-vectors. This study is unique in examining both immature and adult mosquito abundance across the fine-scale variability in socio-economic condition that occurs block-to-block in many cities. We hypothesized that abundant garbage associated with infrastructure degradation would support greater mosquito production but instead, found more mosquito larvae and host-seeking adults (86%) in parcels across the higher socio-economic, low-decay block. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens were 5.61 (p < 0.001) and 4.60 (p = 0.001) times more abundant, respectively. Most discarded (garbage) containers were dry during peak mosquito production, which occurred during the 5th hottest July on record. Containers associated with human residence were more likely to hold water and contain immature mosquitoes. We propose that mosquito production switches from rain-fed unmanaged containers early in the season to container habitats that are purposefully shaded or watered by mid-season. This study suggests that residents living in higher socioeconomic areas with low urban decay may be at greater risk of mosquito-borne disease during peak mosquito production when local container habitats are effectively decoupled from environmental constraints. PMID:24651396

  9. A critical review of ultralow-volume aerosols of insecticide applied with vehicle-mounted generators for adult mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Mount, G A

    1998-09-01

    This review of ultralow-volume (ULV) ground aerosols for adult mosquito control includes discussion on application volume, aerosol generators, droplet size, meteorology, swath, dispersal speed, assay methods, insecticide efficacy, and nontarget effects. It summarizes the efficacy of ULV insecticidal aerosols against many important pest and disease-bearing species of mosquitoes in a wide range of locations and habitats in the United States and in some countries of Asia and the Americas. Fourteen conclusions were drawn from the review. 1) ULV ground aerosol applications of insecticide are as efficacious against adult mosquitoes as high- or low-volume aerosols. 2) ULV aerosols with an optimum droplet size spectrum can be produced by several types of nozzles including vortex, pneumatic, and rotary. Droplet size of a particular insecticide formulation is dependent primarily on nozzle air pressure or rotation speed and secondarily on insecticide flow rate. 3) Label flow rates of insecticide for ULV aerosol application can be delivered accurately during routine operations with speed-correlated metering systems within a calibrated speed range, usually not exceeding 20 mph. 4) The most economical and convenient method of droplet size determination for ULV aerosols of insecticide is the waved-slide technique. 5) The efficacy of ULV ground aerosols against adult mosquitoes is related to droplet size because it governs air transport and impingement. The optimum droplet size for mosquito adulticiding is 8-15 microns volume median diameter (VMD) on the basis of laboratory wind-tunnel tests and field research with caged mosquitoes. 6) In general, ULV aerosols should be applied following sunset when mosquitoes are active and meteorological conditions are favorable for achieving maximum levels of control. Application can be made during daytime hours when conditions permit, but rates may have to be increased. The critical meteorological factors are wind velocity and direction

  10. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Jeffery, Jason A L; Trewin, Brendan J; Wockner, Leesa F; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2014-02-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  11. Changes in the Conjugal Relationships of Adult Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Susan Crum

    This study found that, prior to beginning school, the typical adult female student at Montclair State College reports moderately positive support from her spouse. However, during the first semester, she encounters mild role conflict and lack of self-confidence in her ability to meet family and academic responsibilities. During her second and third…

  12. Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ciota, Alexander T; Bialosuknia, Sean M; Ehrbar, Dylan J; Kramer, Laura D

    2017-05-15

    To determine the potential role of vertical transmission in Zika virus expansion, we evaluated larval pools of perorally infected Aedes. aegypti and Ae. albopictus adult female mosquitoes; ≈1/84 larvae tested were Zika virus-positive; and rates varied among mosquito populations. Thus, vertical transmission may play a role in Zika virus spread and maintenance.

  13. Potential for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Florida to transmit rift valley fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated 8 species of mosquitoes collected in Florida to determine which of these should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America. Female mosquitoes that had fed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV were incubated for 7-21 d at 26°C, allowed to...

  14. Acne in the adult female patient: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Faranak; Shinkai, Kanade

    2012-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common reason why adult women present to dermatologists and can be a clinical challenge to treat. It may also be an important sign of an underlying endocrine disease such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Although standard acne therapies can be successfully used to treat acne in adult female patients, hormonal treatment is a safe and effective therapeutic option that may provide an opportunity to better target acne in this population, even when other systemic therapies have failed. In this article, a practical approach to the adult female patient with acne will be reviewed to enhance the dermatologist's ability to use hormonal acne therapies and to better identify and evaluate patients with acne in the setting of a possible endocrine disorder.

  15. Effects of Biogents Sentinel Trap Field Placement on Capture Rates of Adult Asian Tiger Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Crepeau, Taryn N.; Healy, Sean P.; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Biogents® Sentinel (BGS) trap is the standard tool to monitor adult Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito. BGS traps are commonly placed in residential properties during surveillance operations, but locations within properties may have significant differences in ambient light, temperature, and humidity (e.g. between a sunlit lawn and shady underbrush). We examined the effect of BGS trap placement on Ae. albopictus capture rates in three residential properties in Monmouth County, New Jersey, USA. In each property we visually selected locations as shade, partial shade, and sun. Traps in “partial shade” locations were under vegetation and were exposed to filtered sunlight during some parts of the day while “shaded” locations were never exposed to direct sunlight. Locations defined as “sun” were exposed to direct sunlight for large parts of the day. We placed a BGS trap in each of the three location types and used small data loggers to measure temperature, relative humidity, and light exposure at each trap during a 24-hour deployment. To address temporal variability, we made seven separate measurements from 31 August to 22 September 2010. We found that “partial shade” and “full shade” locations did not differ but that “full sun” locations had significantly higher light exposure, higher temperature, and lower humidity. Importantly, Ae. albopictus catches (males, females, or both) were consistently and significantly over 3 times higher in traps located in shaded locations. To further investigate the effects of local temperature and humidity on surveillance we examined Ae. albopictus collections from 37 BGS traps fitted with data loggers and deployed weekly from August through mid October, during the 2009 season, in three urban sites in Mercer County, NJ. We confirmed that local climate influences capture rates and that Ae. albopictus surveillance projects need to monitor trap placement carefully

  16. The assessment of insecticidal impact on the malaria mosquito's vectorial capacity, from data on the proportion of parous females

    PubMed Central

    Garrett-Jones, C.; Grab, B.

    1964-01-01

    In malaria eradication the residual insecticide exerts upon the mosquito's vectorial capacity a direct insecticidal impact, the order of which may be measured by observing the decrease in the proportion of parous females. The impact is expressed as the product of the degree of reduction of the expectation of infective life (termed the longevity factor of impact) and that of the expectation of life (the density factor). To compute the factors from the proportion parous it is necessary to know also the mean difference in age between the nulliparous and the youngest parous females in the sample, and the sporogonic period of the parasite. Graphs are presented to enable the field worker, who has observed these parameters, to read off from his data the proportion surviving one day, the expectation of infective life and the expectation of life. Examples from the field are used to illustrate the manner of computing the direct insecticidal impact with the aid of the graphs. It is emphasized that this method can only measure the relative impact on vectorial capacity, and will not show whether the actual level of vectorial capacity is such that a malaria reproduction rate of <1 is indicated. PMID:14230896

  17. Persistent Infection by Wolbachia wAlbB Has No Effect on Composition of the Gut Microbiota in Adult Female Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shicheng; Zhao, Jiangchao; Joshi, Deepak; Xi, Zhiyong; Norman, Beth; Walker, Edward D

    2016-01-01

    The bacteria in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi adult females from laboratory colonies were studied by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA genes, with respect to three experimental factors: stable or cured Wolbachia infection; sugar or blood diet; and age. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the community [>90% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]; most taxa were in the classes Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, and were assigned to Elizabethkingia (46.9%), Asaia (6.4%) and Pseudomonas (6.0%), or unclassified Enterobacteriaceae (37.2%). Bacterial communities were similar between Wolbachia-cured and Wolbachia-infected mosquito lines, indicating that the gut microbiota were not dysregulated in the presence of Wolbachia. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in mosquitoes fed a blood meal compared to those provided a sugar meal. Collectively, the bacterial community had a similar structure in older Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes 8 days after the blood meal, as in younger Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes before a blood meal, except that older mosquitoes had a higher proportion of Enterobacteriaceae and lower proportion of Elizabethkingia. Consistent presence of certain predominant bacteria (Elizabethkingia, Asaia, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae) suggests they would be useful for paratransgenesis to control malaria infection, particularly when coupled to a Wolbachia-based intervention strategy.

  18. Persistent Infection by Wolbachia wAlbB Has No Effect on Composition of the Gut Microbiota in Adult Female Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shicheng; Zhao, Jiangchao; Joshi, Deepak; Xi, Zhiyong; Norman, Beth; Walker, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    The bacteria in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi adult females from laboratory colonies were studied by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA genes, with respect to three experimental factors: stable or cured Wolbachia infection; sugar or blood diet; and age. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the community [>90% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]; most taxa were in the classes Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, and were assigned to Elizabethkingia (46.9%), Asaia (6.4%) and Pseudomonas (6.0%), or unclassified Enterobacteriaceae (37.2%). Bacterial communities were similar between Wolbachia-cured and Wolbachia-infected mosquito lines, indicating that the gut microbiota were not dysregulated in the presence of Wolbachia. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in mosquitoes fed a blood meal compared to those provided a sugar meal. Collectively, the bacterial community had a similar structure in older Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes 8 days after the blood meal, as in younger Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes before a blood meal, except that older mosquitoes had a higher proportion of Enterobacteriaceae and lower proportion of Elizabethkingia. Consistent presence of certain predominant bacteria (Elizabethkingia, Asaia, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae) suggests they would be useful for paratransgenesis to control malaria infection, particularly when coupled to a Wolbachia-based intervention strategy. PMID:27708633

  19. Response of adult mosquitoes to light emitting diodes placed in resting boxes and in the field.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resting boxes are passive devices used to attract and capture mosquitoes seeking shelter. Increasing the attractiveness of these devices could improve their effectiveness. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) can be attractive to mosquitoes when used together with other trapping devices. Therefore restin...

  20. Effects of wind speed on aerosol spray penetration in adult mosquito bioassay cages.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, W Clint; Fritz, Bradley K; Farooq, Muhammad; Cooperband, Miriam F

    2008-09-01

    Bioassay cages are commonly used to assess efficacy of insecticides against adult mosquitoes in the field. To correlate adult mortality readings to insecticidal efficacy and/or spray application parameters properly, it is important to know how the cage used in the bioassay interacts with the spray cloud containing the applied insecticide. This study compared the size of droplets, wind speed, and amount of spray material penetrating cages and outside of cages in a wind tunnel at different wind speeds. Two bioassay cages, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) and Circle, were evaluated. The screen materials used on these cages reduced the size of droplets, wind speed, and amount of spray material inside the cages as compared to the spray cloud and wind velocity outside of the cages. When the wind speed in the dispersion tunnel was set at 0.6 m/sec (1.3 mph), the mean wind speed inside of the CMAVE Bioassay Cage and Circle Cage was 0.045 m/sec (0.10 mph) and 0.075 m/sec (0.17 mph), respectively. At air velocities of 2.2 m/sec (4.9 mph) in the dispersion tunnel, the mean wind speed inside of the CMAVE Bioassay Cage and Circle Cage was 0.83 m/sec (1.86 mph) and 0.71 m/sec (1.59 mph), respectively. Consequently, there was a consistent 50-70% reduction of spray material penetrating the cages compared to the spray cloud that approached the cages. These results provide a better understanding of the impact of wind speed, cage design, and construction on ultra-low-volume spray droplets.

  1. Geographic Variation in Adult Survival and Reproductive Tactics of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    LEISNHAM, P. T.; SALA, L. M.; JULIANO, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Climate differences across latitude can result in seasonal constraints and selection on life history characters. Since Aedes albopictus (Skuse) invaded North America in the mid-1980s, it has spread across a range of ≈14° latitude and populations in the north experience complete adult mortality due to cold winter temperatures that are absent in the south. Life table experiments were conducted to test for differences in the adult survival and reproductive schedules of Ae. albopictus females from two populations from the northern (Bloomington, IN [BL] and Manassas, VA [VA]; ≈39° N) and southern (Tampa, FL and Fort Myers, FL; ≈27–28° N) extremes of the species distribution in North America. Regardless of population origin, age-specific hazard rate increased with reproductive output and decreased with number of bloodmeals. Larger females took fewer bloodmeals, and they had greater hazard rates than did smaller females. There were no consistent differences between northern versus southern populations in resource allocation between reproduction and maintenance, reproduction over time, and reproductive investment among offspring, suggesting that latitudinal variation in climate is probably not a main selective factor impinging on adult mortality and reproductive schedules. One possible effect of climate on geographic differences in life history was detected. BL had lower survivorship, lower lifetime reproductive output, and lower adult reproductive rate than did all other populations. This result may be an indirect result of lower egg survivorship due to the severity of winter in BL compared with other populations, including VA at approximately the same latitude. Such a scenario may make the BL population more prone to extinction, irregularly recolonized from more favorable sites, and thus more susceptible to founder effects, genetic drift, and inbreeding, resulting in lower mean values of fitness-related traits. PMID:18402136

  2. Toxicity comparison of eight repellents against four species of female mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative toxicities of eight repellents (DMP, Rutgers 612, DEET, IR3535, Picardin, PMD, AI3-35765, and AI3-37220) were evaluated by topical application against females of Aedes aegypti (L.) Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Anopheles albimanus Weidemann. Based on 24h...

  3. Reproductive ecology of Emperor Geese: Survival of adult females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1992-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a decrease in survival with increased reproductive effort of individuals. This relationship, however, is highly variable among and within species. I studied the nesting success and survival of adult female Emperor Geese during 1982-1986 and found no direct evidence that differential reproductive effort as measured by the number of eggs laid or hatching success had a significant negative effect on survival to the next breeding season. Incubated clutch size, hatched clutch size, number of parasitic eggs, nest initiation date, hatch date, and mass at hatch were not related to subsequent survival. Of the factors I examined, only an attempt to nest the previous season was related to survival of a female. I suggest that the higher probability of survival among non-nesting adult female Emperor Geese was primarily related to hunting pressure on the nesting area between spring and fall migration. The probability of survival was increased for females with larger clutches, suggesting a positive relationship between brood size and survival.

  4. Survival of adult female elk in yellowstone following wolf restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, S.B.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival records for 85 radiocollared adult female elk 1-19 years old to estimate annual survival from March 2000 to February 2004. Weighted average annual survival rates were approximately 0.83 (95% CI = 0.77-0.89) for females 1-15 years old and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.73-0.86) for all females. Our estimates were much lower than the rate of 0.99 observed during 1969-1975 when fewer elk were harvested by hunters, wolves were not present, and other predators were less numerous. Of 33 documented deaths included in our analysis, we attributed 11 to hunter harvest, 14 to predation (10 wolf, 2 unknown, 1 cougar [Puma concolor], and 1 bear [Ursus sp.]), 6 to unknown causes, and 2 to winter-kill. Most deaths occurred from December through March. Estimates of cause-specific annual mortality rates were 0.09 (0.05-0.14) for all predators, 0.08 (0.04-0.13) for hunting, and 0.07 (0.03-0.11) for wolves specifically. Wolf-killed elk were typically older (median = 12 yr) than hunter-killed elk (median = 9 yr, P = 0.03). However, elk that winter outside the park where they were exposed to hunting were also younger (median = 7 yr) than elk that we did not observe outside the park (median = 9 yr, P < 0.01). Consequently, differences in ages of elk killed by wolves and hunters may reflect characteristics of elk exposed to various causes of mortality, as well as differences in susceptibility. Unless survival rates of adult females increase, elk numbers are likely to continue declining. Hunter harvest is the only cause of mortality that is amenable to management at the present time.

  5. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India.

    PubMed

    Niyas, Kudukkil P; Abraham, Rachy; Unnikrishnan, Ramakrishnan Nair; Mathew, Thomas; Nair, Sajith; Manakkadan, Anoop; Issac, Aneesh; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2010-08-13

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae.albopictus mosquitoes. In the study, reverse-transcription PCR (RT PCR) and virus isolation detected CHIKV in patient samples and also in adult Ae.albopictus mosquitoes that was derived from larvae collected during a chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak in Kerala in 2009. The CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak were the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype that had the E1 A226V mutation. The viral strains from the mosquitoes and CHIK patients from the same area showed a close relationship based on phylogenetic analysis. Genetic characterization by partial sequencing of non-structural protein 2 (nsP2; 378 bp), envelope E1 (505 bp) and E2 (428 bp) identified one critical mutation in the E2 protein coding region of these CHIKV strains. This novel, non-conservative mutation, L210Q, consistently present in both human and mosquito-derived samples studied, was within the region of the E2 protein (amino acids E2 200-220) that determines mosquito cell infectivity in many alpha viruses. Our results show the involvement of Ae. albopictus in this outbreak in Kerala and appearance of CHIKV with novel genetic changes. Detection of virus in adult mosquitoes, emerged in the laboratory from larvae, also points to the possibility of transovarial transmission (TOT) of mutant CHIKV strains in mosquitoes.

  6. Effects of Different Pyrethroids on Landing Behavior of Female Aedes aegypti, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    insecticides in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): an experimental reevaluation. J. Econ. Entomol. 87: 885Ð893. Hougard, J. M., S...New Jersey Mosquito Extermina- tion Association and the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association, 12 March 1963, Atlantic City

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Asaia sp. Strain SF2.1, an Important Member of the Microbiome of Anopheles Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Shane, Jackie L.; Bongio, Nicholas J.; Favia, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Asaia spp. are abundant members of the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes, the principle vectors of malaria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Asaia sp. strain SF2.1. This strain is under development as a platform to deliver antimalarial peptides and proteins to adult female Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:24407652

  8. Reproductive biology in Anophelinae mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Fine structure of the female accessory gland.

    PubMed

    Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects.

  9. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar) of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males <1-day post-emergence were released in a mesocosm. Overnight they had access to either one or six Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net). In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar

  10. Prehypertension among young adult females in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Koura, M R; Al-Dabal, B K; Rasheed, P; Al-Sowielem, L S; Makki, S M

    2012-07-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of prehypertension and associated risk factors among young adult females in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of about one-third of female students enrolled in 4 colleges of the University of Dammam. They were screened for high blood pressure and associated cardiovascular risk factors by an interview questionnaire. Weight and height, waist and hip and blood pressure measurements and random blood glucose testing were done. The results revealed that 13.5% of the 370 students were prehypertensive. The most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases was physical inactivity (53.2%), followed by overweight/obesity (29.1%); 16.3% of prehypertensive students had 3 or more risk factors. Logistic regression analysis revealed that overweight/ obesity was the strongest predictor of prehypertension. Our study indicates a need for routine blood pressure measurements and risk assessment in young adult females in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Impact of inter- and intra-specific competition among larvae on larval, adult, and life-table traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus females.

    PubMed

    Noden, Bruce H; O'Neal, Paul A; Fader, Joseph E; Juliano, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have taken a comprehensive approach of measuring the impact of inter- and intra-specific larval competition on adult mosquito traits. In this study, the impact of competition Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus was quantified over the entire life of a cohort.Competitive treatments affected hatch-to-adult survivorship and development time to adulthood of females for both species, but affected median wing length of females only for A. albopictus. Competitive treatments had no significant effect on the median adult female longevity nor were there any effects on other individual traits related to bloodfeeding and reproductive success.Analysis of life table traits revealed no effect of competitive treatment on net reproductive rate (R0) but there were significant effects on cohort generation time (Tc) and cohort rate of increase (r) for both species.Inter-specific and intra-specific competition among Aedes larvae may produce individual and population-level effects that are manifest in adults; however, benign conditions may enable resulting adults to compensate for some impacts of competition, particularly those affecting blood feeding success, fecundity, and net reproductive rate, R0. The effect of competition, therefore, affects primarily larva - to - adult survivorship and larval development time, which in turn impact the cohort generation time, Tc and ultimately cohort rate of increase, r.The lack of effects of larval rearing environment on adult longevity suggests that effects on vectorial capacity due to longevity may be limited if adults have easy access to sugar and blood meals.

  12. Acquired dorsal intraspinal epidermoid cyst in an adult female

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kulwant; Pandey, Sharad; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Sharma, Vivek; Santhosh, Deepa; Ghosh, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidermoid and dermoid cyst comprise <1% of spinal tumors and may be congenital (hamartoma) or acquired (iatrogenic) in origin. Epidermoid cysts within the neuraxis are rare benign neoplasms that are most commonly located in the intracranial region. Case Description: Here, we report the a case of an acquired intradural extramedullary epidermoid cyst involving the thoracic region in an adult female who had no associated history of an accompanying congenital spinal deformity. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention reduce patient morbidity. Near complete or subtotal excision of the cyst wall is warranted to prevent inadvertent injury to the spinal cord thus minimizing neurological morbidity. PMID:26904369

  13. Malpighian Tubules as Novel Targets for Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Piermarini, Peter M.; Esquivel, Carlos J.; Denton, Jerod S.

    2017-01-01

    The Malpighian tubules and hindgut are the renal excretory tissues of mosquitoes; they are essential to maintaining hemolymph water and solute homeostasis. Moreover, they make important contributions to detoxifying metabolic wastes and xenobiotics in the hemolymph. We have focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of Malpighian tubule function in adult female mosquitoes and developing chemical tools as prototypes for next-generation mosquitocides that would act via a novel mechanism of action (i.e., renal failure). To date, we have targeted inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels expressed in the Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Inhibition of these channels with small molecules inhibits transepithelial K+ and fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, leading to a disruption of hemolymph K+ and fluid homeostasis in adult female mosquitoes. In addition, we have used next-generation sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of Malpighian tubules in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, before and after blood meals, to reveal new molecular targets for potentially disrupting Malpighian tubule function. Within 24 h after a blood meal, the Malpighian tubules enhance the mRNA expression of genes encoding mechanisms involved with the detoxification of metabolic wastes produced during blood digestion (e.g., heme, NH3, reactive oxygen species). The development of chemical tools targeting these molecular mechanisms in Malpighian tubules may offer a promising avenue for the development of mosquitocides that are highly-selective against hematophagous females, which are the only life stage that transmits pathogens. PMID:28125032

  14. Mosquitoes of the Caatinga: 1. Adults stage survey and the emerge of seven news species endemic of a dry tropical forest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marteis, Letícia Silva; Natal, Delsio; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Oliveira, Tatiane Marques Porangaba; La Corte, Roseli

    2017-02-01

    The Caatinga is the least known Brazilian biome in terms of the diversity of Culicidae. No systematic study of the diversity or ecology of the mosquitoes of this biome is available, despite the importance of vector diseases in Brazil. The present study addressed the mosquito biodiversity in the Caatinga biome by sampling adult populations. Specimens were sampled monthly from March 2013 to September 2014 in a Caatinga conservation unit located in the Brazilian semiarid zone. Mosquito collections were carried out in Shannon traps from late afternoon to early evening, and manual aspiration was used to capture diurnal species as well. A total of 4,692 mosquitoes were collected. The most dominant and constant species were all undescribed species belonging to the genera Wyeomyia and Runchomyia, which together represented 80% of the specimens. The most abundant species of epidemiological importance was Haemagogus (Con.) leucocelaenus. The abundance of mosquitoes was positively associated with the relative humidity and temperature recorded during the month preceding the collection date. In the Caatinga, the diversity of adult mosquitoes was associated with the availability (quantity and diversity) of natural larval habitats found in the different phytophysiognomies of the biome, which vary according to temperature and humidity. The number of species unknown to science reflects the levels of endemism that exist in the study area, and reinforces the need to further taxonomic investigation in the biome.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of male and female adult Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong-Qiong; Ma, Guang-Xu; Korhonen, Pasi K; Luo, Yong-Li; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Luo, Yong-Fang; Gasser, Robin B; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-02-05

    Toxocariasis is an important, neglected zoonosis caused mainly by Toxocara canis. Although our knowledge of helminth molecular biology is improving through completed draft genome projects, there is limited detailed information on the molecular biology of Toxocara species. Here, transcriptomic sequencing of male and female adult T. canis and comparative analyses were conducted. For each sex, two-thirds (66-67%) of quality-filtered reads mapped to the gene set of T. canis, and at least five reads mapped to each of 16,196 (87.1%) of all 18,596 genes, and 321 genes were specifically transcribed in female and 1467 in male T. canis. Genes differentially transcribed between the two sexes were identified, enriched biological processes and pathways linked to these genes established, and molecules associated with reproduction and development predicted. In addition, small RNA pathways involved in reproduction were characterized, but there was no evidence for piwi RNA pathways in adult T. canis. The results of this transcriptomic study should provide a useful basis to support investigations of the reproductive biology of T. canis and related nematodes.(2).

  16. Controlling Mosquitoes at the Larval Stage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Larvicides target larvae in the breeding habitat before they can mature into adult mosquitoes and disperse. Larvicide treatment of breeding habitats help reduce the adult mosquito population in nearby areas.

  17. Anatomy of adult female common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) reproductive system.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, K H; Matthews, C D

    1994-01-01

    Better appreciation of the female reproductive anatomy of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) should improve the prospects for nonsurgical embryo transfer in this model. Vaginal measurements were performed in 8 female adult marmoset monkeys. Four monkeys were measured at laparotomy for gross internal anatomy, and 1 monkey was analysed at autopsy. The vagina of the marmoset monkey was found to be divided into a lower and upper vagina with a marked vaginal isthmus between them. The mean lengths of the lower and upper vagina were 17 mm (34 mm in total vagina). The mean uterine size was 8.4 (length) x 10.0 (width) x 6.4 (thickness) mm, with the ovary measuring 5.3 x 4.3 x 3.8 mm. The mean length of the fallopian tube was 10.5 mm with a width of 1.5 mm. Nonsurgical embryo transfer in this model appears to be feasible, but the proportionally long vagina and short uterine cavity needs to be recognised. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7649784

  18. Novel insights into the metabolic and biochemical underpinnings assisting dry-season survival in female malaria mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, K; Mouline, K; Mamai, W; Foucreau, N; Dabiré, K R; Bouchereau, A; Simard, F; Renault, D

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms by which Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes survive the desiccating conditions of the dry season in Africa and are able to readily transmit malaria soon after the rains start remain largely unknown. The desiccation tolerance and resistance of female An. gambiae M and S reared in contrasting environmental conditions reflecting the onset of dry season ("ods") and the rainy season ("rs") was determined by monitoring their survival and body water loss in response to low relative humidity. Furthermore, we investigated the degree to which the physiology of 1-h and 24-h-old females is altered at "ods" by examining and comparing their quantitative metabotypes and proteotypes with conspecifics exposed to "rs" conditions. Results showed that distinct biochemical rearrangements occurred soon after emergence in female mosquitoes that enhance survival and limit water loss under dry conditions. In particular, three amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine) playing a pivotal role in cuticle permeability decreased significantly from the 1-h to 24-h-old females, regardless of the experimental conditions. However, these amino acids were present in higher amounts in 1-h-old female An. gambiae M reared under "ods" whereas no such seasonal difference was reported in S ones. Together with the 1.28- to 2.84-fold increased expression of cuticular proteins 70 and 117, our data suggests that cuticle composition, rigidity and permeability were adjusted at "ods". Increased expression of enzymes involved in glycogenolytic and proteolytic processes were found in both forms at "ods". Moreover, 1-h-old S forms were characterised by elevated amounts of glycogen phosphorylase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase, suggesting an increase of energetic demand in these females at "ods".

  19. Natural odor ligands for olfactory receptor neurons of the female mosquito Aedes aegypti: use of gas chromatography-linked single sensillum recordings.

    PubMed

    Ghaninia, Majid; Larsson, Mattias; Hansson, Bill S; Ignell, Rickard

    2008-09-01

    Female Aedes aegypti are vectors of dengue and yellow fever. Odor volatiles are the predominant cues that drive the host-seeking behavior of Ae. aegypti. Odorant molecules are detected and discriminated by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in sensory hairs, sensilla, located on the antennae and maxillary palps. In a previous study, we used odor volatiles that are behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically active for Ae. aegypti and other mosquito species to show that antennal ORNs of female Ae. aegypti are divided into functionally different classes. In the present study, we have, for the first time, conducted gas chromatography-coupled single sensillum recordings (GC-SSR) from antennal trichoid and intermediate sensilla of female Ae. aegypti in order to screen for additional putative host attractants and repellents. We used headspace collections from biologically relevant sources, such as different human body parts (including feet, trunk regions and armpit), as well as a plant species used as a mosquito repellent, Nepeta faassenii. We found that a number of ORN types strongly responded to one or more of the biological extracts. GC-SSR recordings revealed several active components, which were subsequently identified through GC-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Electrophysiologically active volatiles from human skin included heptanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal.

  20. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  1. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  2. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  3. Aerial ULV application of permethrin against adult mosquitoes over open field and medium density canopy habitat in a hot-temperate zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although aerial ULV application of adulticides is a common adult mosquito control strategy, not enough is known about the fate of the pesticide or its efficacy over different habitats. Dye labeling of droplets is used to evaluate ULV applications, and, by inference, their efficacy. Placement of cage...

  4. Epoxide hydrolase activities and epoxy fatty acids in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Mamatha, Dadala M.

    2015-01-01

    Culex mosquitoes have emerged as important model organisms for mosquito biology, and are disease vectors for multiple mosquito-borne pathogens, including West Nile virus. We characterized epoxide hydrolase activities in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, which suggested multiple forms of epoxide hydrolases were present. We found EH activities on epoxy eicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs and other eicosanoids are well-established lipid signaling molecules in vertebrates. We showed EETs can be synthesized in vitro from arachidonic acids by mosquito lysate, and EETs were also detected in vivo both in larvae and adult mosquitoes by LC-MS/MS. The EH activities on EETs can be induced by blood feeding, and the highest activity was observed in the midgut of female mosquitoes. The enzyme activities on EETs can be inhibited by urea-based inhibitors designed for mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH). The sEH inhibitors have been shown to play diverse biological roles in mammalian systems, and they can be useful tools to study the function of EETs in mosquitoes. Besides juvenile hormone metabolism and detoxification, insect epoxide hydrolases may also play a role in regulating lipid signaling molecules, such as EETs and other epoxy fatty acids, synthesized in vivo or obtained from blood feeding by female mosquitoes. PMID:25686802

  5. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Kerri L.; Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must blood feed to produce eggs, while one, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is autogenous and produces eggs without blood feeding. Each mosquito species contained a low diversity community comprised primarily of aerobic bacteria acquired primarily from the aquatic habitat in which larvae developed. Our results suggested the communities in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae larvae share more similarities with one another than with Ge. atropalpus. Studies with Ae. aegypti also strongly suggested that adults transstadially acquired several members of the larval bacterial community, but only four genera of bacteria present in blood fed females were detected on eggs. Functional assays showed that axenic larvae of each species failed to develop beyond the first instar. Experiments with Ae. aegypti indicated several members of the microbial community and Escherichia coli successfully colonized axenic larvae and rescued development. Overall, our results provide new insights about the acquisition and structure of bacterial communities in mosquitoes. They also indicate three mosquito species spanning the breadth of the Culicidae depend on their gut microbiome for development. PMID:24766707

  6. Survival of spectacled eider adult females and ducklings during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.

    1997-01-01

    We studied survival of adult female and duckling spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) during brood rearing on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska from 1993 to 1995. Duckling survival to 30 days of age averaged 34% with a 95% confidence interval from 25 to 47%. Half (49%) of radiomarked adult females had lost all their ducklings by 30 days after hatch. Most (74%) duckling mortality occurred in the first 10 days. Adult female survival during the first 30 days of brood rearing was 93 ± 3% (SE). Females died from lead poisoning, as a result of ingesting lead shot, and predation. Mortality of adult females during brood rearing is probably higher than during other times of the year. Low adult female survival during the breeding season may be contributing to the overall population decline of spectacled eiders.

  7. Mosquito Control

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life ...

  8. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  9. Bone status of adult female butyrylcholinesterase gene-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Malte; Kauschke, Vivien; Sender, Jonas; Kampschulte, Marian; Kovtun, Anna; Dürselen, Lutz; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) degrades acetylcholine in addition to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is involved in embryonic development of limbs. Since BChE is expressed by osteoblast-like cells we asked whether it is functional in adult bone remodeling. We addressed this issue by analyzing BChE gene-deficient mice (BChE-KO). Bones were extracted from 16-week old female BChE-KO and corresponding wild type mice (WT). Femoral bones were used for biomechanical testing and μCT evaluation of cancellous and cortical bone. Also vertebrae Th12 and L1 were investigated with μCT while L3 was used for tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) histomorphometry and Th10 for gene expression analysis by means of real-time RT-PCR. BChE-KO did not reveal significant differences in biomechanical bone strength and bone mineral density determined by μCT. Microarchitecture of cancellous and cortical bone showed an increase in μCT parameters like trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and relative cortical bone area of femoral BChE-KO bone compared to WT. In vertebrae no changes of microstructure and mRNA expression were detected. However, osteoclast histomorphometry with TRAP stained sections demonstrated a significant increase in relative osteoclast number. In conclusion, in adult murine bone the role of BChE is limited to bone specific changes in microarchitecture and to an increase in relative number of bone resorbing osteoclasts whereas the main collagen resorbing enzyme Cathepsin-K (CtsK) was stably expressed. Besides, AChE might be able to compensate the lack of BChE. Thus, further analyses using bone tissue specific AChE BChE cre-lox double knockout mice would be helpful.

  10. Survival of adult female northern pintails in Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.; Newton, Wesley E.; Gilmer, David S.

    1995-01-01

    North American populations of northern pintails (Anas acuta) declined between 1979 and the early 1990s. To determine if low survival during winter contributed to declines, we estimated winter (last week of Aug-Feb 1987-90) survival for 190 adult (after hatching yr [AHY]) female radio-tagged pintails in late summer in Sacramento Valley (SACV), California. Survival rates did not vary by winter (P = 0.808), among preseason, hunting season, or postseason intervals (P = 0.579), or by body mass at time of capture (P = 0.127). Premolt (wing) pintails (n = 10) tended to survive at a lower rate (0.622, SE = 0.178) than pintails that had already replaced flight feathers (0.887, SE = 0.030) (P = 0.091). The pooled survival (all years) estimate for the 180-day winter was 0.874 (SE = 0.031). Hunting mortality rate (0.041-0.087) and nonhunting mortality rate (0.013-0.076) did not differ among years (P = 0.332) or within years (all P > 0.149). Legal hunting (n = 7), predation (n = 4), cholera (n = 2), illegal shooting (n = 2), botulism (n = 1), and unknown cause (n = 1) accounted for all mortality. Nonwintering survival (annu. survival/winter survival = 0.748) was lower than winter survival; thus, if gains in annual survival are desired for this population, managers should first examine the breeding-migration period for opportunities to achieve increases.

  11. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  12. Finding the Words That Fit: The Second Story for Females in Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Caroline S.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that young adult novels with young female characters often provide layers of insights into their growth, insights that frequently have gone unrecognized. Examines critically acclaimed young adult novels from the past three decades. Finds that many strong female protagonists do exist. (RS)

  13. An archival exploration of 19th-century American adult female offender parricides.

    PubMed

    Shon, Phillip Chong Ho; Williams, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Social and behavioral scientists have increasingly attended to the contexts and motivational dynamics underlying parricidal events. These efforts notwithstanding, most research has focused on adolescent or adult male offender populations. One largely neglected area of study is that of adult female offender parricide. The present study utilizes archival records to examine the contexts and sources of conflict that gave rise to adult female offender parricides in the late 19th century. Three general themes emerged, representing the primary contexts behind adult female offender parricide: (1) abuse and neglect; (2) instrumental, financially-motivated killings; and (3) expressive killings, often during the course of arguments. Each of these contexts is explored.

  14. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Godoy, Raquel S M; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo F

    2015-10-30

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes.

  15. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Raquel S. M.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Martins, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes. PMID:26514271

  16. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  17. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  18. Stature estimation from craniofacial anthropometry in Bangladeshi Garo adult females.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Z; Banu, L A; Alam, M M; Rahman, M F

    2012-07-01

    Estimation of stature is an important tool in forensic examination especially in unknown, highly decomposed, fragmentary and mutilated human remains. When the evidences are skeletal remains; forensic anthropology has put forward means to estimate the stature from the skeletal and even from fragmentary bones. Sometimes, craniofacial remains are brought in for forensic and postmortem examination. In such a situation, estimation of stature becomes equally important along with other parameters like age, sex, race, etc. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. It is well established that a single standard of craniofacial aesthetics is not appropriate for application to diverse racial and ethnic groups. Bangladesh is a country not only for the Bengalis; the country harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Like other ethnic groups, the Garos (study subjects) have their own set of language, social structure, cultures and economic activities and religious values. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Bangladeshi Garo adult females. The study also attempted to find out the correlation of the craniofacial dimensions with stature and to determine multiplication factors. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components. The study was carried out with a total number of one hundred Garo adult females, aged between 25-45 years. Craniofacial dimension such as head circumference, head length, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth and stature were measured using a measuring tape, spreading caliper, steel plate and steel tape and sliding caliper. The data were then statistically

  19. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  20. Impact of inter- and intra-specific competition among larvae on larval, adult, and life-table traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus females

    PubMed Central

    Noden, Bruce H.; O’Neal, Paul A.; Fader, Joseph E.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have taken a comprehensive approach of measuring the impact of inter- and intra-specific larval competition on adult mosquito traits. In this study, the impact of competition Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus was quantified over the entire life of a cohort.Competitive treatments affected hatch-to-adult survivorship and development time to adulthood of females for both species, but affected median wing length of females only for A. albopictus. Competitive treatments had no significant effect on the median adult female longevity nor were there any effects on other individual traits related to bloodfeeding and reproductive success.Analysis of life table traits revealed no effect of competitive treatment on net reproductive rate (R0) but there were significant effects on cohort generation time (Tc) and cohort rate of increase (r) for both species.Inter-specific and intra-specific competition among Aedes larvae may produce individual and population-level effects that are manifest in adults; however, benign conditions may enable resulting adults to compensate for some impacts of competition, particularly those affecting blood feeding success, fecundity, and net reproductive rate, R0. The effect of competition, therefore, affects primarily larva – to - adult survivorship and larval development time, which in turn impact the cohort generation time, Tc and ultimately cohort rate of increase, r.The lack of effects of larval rearing environment on adult longevity suggests that effects on vectorial capacity due to longevity may be limited if adults have easy access to sugar and blood meals. PMID:27141149

  1. Chronic social instability in adult female rats alters social behavior, maternal aggression and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Florent; Babb, Jessica A; Carini, Lindsay; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the consequences of chronic social instability (CSI) during adulthood on social and maternal behavior in females and social behavior of their offspring in a rat model. CSI consisted of changing the social partners of adult females every 2-3 days for 28 days, 2 weeks prior to mating. Females exposed to CSI behaved less aggressively and more pro-socially towards unfamiliar female intruders. Maternal care was not affected by CSI in a standard testing environment, but maternal behavior of CSI females was less disrupted by a male intruder. CSI females were quicker to attack prey and did not differ from control females in their saccharin consumption indicating, respectively, no stress-induced sensory-motor or reward system impairments. Offspring of CSI females exhibited slower growth and expressed more anxiety in social encounters. This study demonstrates continued adult vulnerability to social challenges with an impact specific to social situations for mothers and offspring.

  2. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (P<0.0001) and cisterns (P<0.0001) than the numbers that were not stained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management.

  3. Malaria Mosquitoes Host-Locate and Feed upon Caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts. PMID:25372720

  4. Malaria mosquitoes host-locate and feed upon caterpillars.

    PubMed

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts.

  5. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification

    PubMed Central

    Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  6. Differential proteomics analysis of female and male adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Zengmei; Huang, Huicong; Tan, Feng; Zhang, Erpeng; Hu, Jianwen; Pan, Changwang

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we identified the differentially expressed proteins of female and male adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis through differential proteomics. We extracted and purified total proteins from male and female adults, separated proteins by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in pH 4-7, analyzed the gel images by DeCyder 7.0 software, and sacrificed the infected rats to count the number of male and female adults. It was found 28 protein spots that were differentially expressed; seven protein spots were then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Five proteins were up-regulated and two proteins down-regulated in male adults compared with female adults. Three of the five up-regulated proteins with known functions ascribed to them were identified as galectin-1, proteasome alpha subunit and peroxiredoxin. The two down-regulated proteins were identified as indoleamine dioxygenase like-myoglobin and galectin. Furthermore, the female was significantly greater than male adults (P<0.01) in the rats. The findings demonstrate the differences in protein expression profiles and the ability to survive in the final host between female and male adults of A. cantonensis, and may provide a theoretical basis to study their developmental biology further.

  7. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4 µg/♀) followed by guineensine (1.9 µg/♀), retrofractamide A (2.4 µg/♀) and pipercide (3.2 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03 µg/♀. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17 µg/♀) than in retrofractamide A (1.5 µg/♀), guineensine (1.7 µg/♀), and pipercide (2.0 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014 µg/♀.

  8. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, Florida using attractive sugar baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, Flo...

  9. Serratia odorifera a Midgut Inhabitant of Aedes aegypti Mosquito Enhances Its Susceptibility to Dengue-2 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Apte-Deshpande, Anjali; Paingankar, Mandar; Gokhale, Mangesh D.; Deobagkar, Dileep N.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito midgut plays a crucial role in its vector susceptibility and pathogen interaction. Identification of the sustainable microflora of the midgut environment can therefore help in evaluating its contribution in mosquito-pathogen interaction and in turn vector competence. To understand the bacterial diversity in the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, we conducted a screening study of the gut microbes of these mosquitoes which were either collected from fields or reared in the laboratory “culture-dependent” approach. This work demonstrated that the microbial flora of larvae and adult Ae. aegypti midgut is complex and is dominated by Gram negative proteobacteria. Serratia odorifera was found to be stably associated in the midguts of field collected and laboratory reared larvae and adult females. The potential influence of this sustainable gut microbe on DENV-2 susceptibility of this vector was evaluated by co-feeding S. odorifera with DENV-2 to adult Ae. aegypti females (free of gut flora). The observations revealed that the viral susceptibility of these Aedes females enhanced significantly as compared to solely dengue-2 fed and another gut inhabitant, Microbacterium oxydans co-fed females. Based on the results of this study we proposed that the enhancement in the DENV-2 susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females was due to blocking of prohibitin molecule present on the midgut surface of these females by the polypeptide of gut inhabitant S. odorifera. PMID:22848375

  10. Depressive Symptoms in Older Female Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C-Y.; Fu, L-Y.; Kroger, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This survey study aims to examine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among primary older female family carers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In total, 350 female family carers aged 55 and older took part and completed the interview in their homes. The survey package contained…

  11. Repellency of essential oils of Cryptomeria japonica (Pinaceae) against adults of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gu, Hui-Jing; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Lin, Chun-Ya; Huang, Chin-Gi; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-12-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the repellent activities of essential oils from Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) against adults of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus . Comparison of essential oils from four different plant parts of C. japonica revealed that essential oil from its leaf exhibited the best repellent activity against mosquitoes. To understand the relationship between volatile organic compounds and repellent activity, the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was employed to analyze volatile organic compounds of leaf essential oil. The SPME fiber was coated with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS). The major volatile organic compounds in the cage were 3-carene, alpha-terpinene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, and terpinolene at 0 min. Results demonstrated that (-)-terpinen-4-ol was the major volatile organic compound adsorbed by SPME fiber during repellent assays. Furthermore, the repellent activities of six compounds against adults of the mosquitoes were evaluated, and the results revealed that (-)-terpinen-4-ol exhibited the best repellent activity against A. aegypti and A. albopictus.

  12. Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

  13. Communicative Disorders in a Group of Adult Female Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cynthia Olson; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Fifty female offenders (18 to 44 years old) were individually screened for articulation, hearing, receptive language, fluency (stuttering), and voice disorders. Results indicated that 44 percent of the women evidenced a dysfunction in one or more of these areas. (Author/CL)

  14. Maternal kin bias in affiliative behavior among wild adult female blue monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cords, Marina; Nikitopoulos, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Kin-biased cooperative and affiliative behavior is widespread in social mammals and is expected to increase fitness. However, despite evolutionary benefits of cooperating with relatives, demographic circumstances may influence the strength of kin bias. We studied the relationship between maternal kinship and affiliative behavior among 78 wild adult female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) from 8 groups monitored for 1-5 years. We compared behavior and kinship matrices, controlling for rank differences. Using multivariate models, we examined effects of demographic variables on the extent to which females groomed disproportionately with close adult female kin. Female blue monkeys, like other cercopithecine primates, generally preferred closer maternal kin for grooming and spatial association, although there was also substantial variation. Kin bias was weakest for association (at 7 m) while feeding, intermediate for closer (1 m) association while resting, and most intense for grooming. Grooming kin bias was stronger when a female had more very close relatives (either her mother or daughters), when her group contained more adult females, when she groomed with a lower percentage of group-mates, and when she had fewer total kin. Dominance rank did not predict variation in kin bias. Females generally groomed with all kin, but in larger groups they increased the number of unrelated grooming partners and total grooming time. The increased kin bias intensity in larger groups resulted from the addition of unrelated partners with whom grooming occurred less often than with kin, rather than from time constraints that drove females to select kin more strongly. In natural-sized groups, it may be common that females groom with all their adult female kin, which are present in limited numbers. The addition of grooming partners in larger groups may benefit female blue monkeys who rely on collective action in territorial defense; group-wide cooperation may thus influence grooming

  15. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    PubMed

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations.

  16. Preventing Childhood Malaria in Africa by Protecting Adults from Mosquitoes with Insecticide-Treated Nets

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Gerry F; Smith, Tom A; Ferguson, Heather M; Mshinda, Hassan; Abdulla, Salim; Lengeler, Christian; Kachur, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria prevention in Africa merits particular attention as the world strives toward a better life for the poorest. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) represent a practical means to prevent malaria in Africa, so scaling up coverage to at least 80% of young children and pregnant women by 2010 is integral to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Targeting individual protection to vulnerable groups is an accepted priority, but community-level impacts of broader population coverage are largely ignored even though they may be just as important. We therefore estimated coverage thresholds for entire populations at which individual- and community-level protection are equivalent, representing rational targets for ITN coverage beyond vulnerable groups. Methods and Findings Using field-parameterized malaria transmission models, we show that high (80% use) but exclusively targeted coverage of young children and pregnant women (representing <20% of the population) will deliver limited protection and equity for these vulnerable groups. In contrast, relatively modest coverage (35%–65% use, with this threshold depending on ecological scenario and net quality) of all adults and children, rather than just vulnerable groups, can achieve equitable community-wide benefits equivalent to or greater than personal protection. Conclusions Coverage of entire populations will be required to accomplish large reductions of the malaria burden in Africa. While coverage of vulnerable groups should still be prioritized, the equitable and communal benefits of wide-scale ITN use by older children and adults should be explicitly promoted and evaluated by national malaria control programmes. ITN use by the majority of entire populations could protect all children in such communities, even those not actually covered by achieving existing personal protection targets of the MDG, Roll Back Malaria Partnership, or the US President's Malaria Initiative. PMID:17608562

  17. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE MOSQUITO FISH IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT -CONTAMINATED FENHOLLOWAY RIVER WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AGONIST ACTIVITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fen...

  18. Effects of testosterone on sexual behavior and morphology in adult female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Rhen, T; Ross, J; Crews, D

    1999-10-01

    The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and then remains at previtellogenic levels until eggs are laid and the next follicular cycle begins. To determine the function of T in females, we manipulated both the level and the duration of T elevation using Silastic implants in intact, adult female leopard geckos. Females had low ( approximately 1 ng/ml), medium ( approximately 100 ng/ml), or high ( approximately 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1-5 in the short-duration group or on days 29-33 in the long-duration group. For both short- and long-duration groups, T treatment decreased attractivity in females with medium and high T levels compared to females with low T levels. In contrast, females with a medium T level were more receptive than females with a low T level in the short-duration group. Females in the long-duration group were unreceptive regardless of T level. Females treated for a long duration also displayed more aggression toward and evoked more aggression from males than short duration females. Short-duration T treatment had no masculinizing effect on female morphology, whereas medium and high T levels for a long duration induced development of hemipenes. Overall, these results suggest that T can both increase and decrease sexual behaviors in the female leopard gecko.

  19. Induction of maternal behavior in adult female rats following chronic morphine exposure during puberty.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Elizabeth M; Rigero, Beth A; Bridges, Robert S

    2003-12-01

    The peripubertal period in the female rat is the time when the stimulatory effects of opioids on prolactin (PRL) secretion develop. In the adult rat, the administration of chronic high-dose morphine has been shown to attenuate the ability of opiates to stimulate PRL secretion. One function of PRL in adult virgin rats is the induction of maternal behavior. The present study examined whether chronic high-dose morphine exposure during the peripubertal period alters PRL-mediated induction of maternal behavior in adult female rats. Two groups of juvenile female rats were administered increasing doses of morphine or vehicle (s.c.) from age 30 to 50 days. As adults, these females either remained intact, or were ovariectomized and treated with a PRL-dependent, steroid hormone regimen that stimulates a rapid onset of maternal behavior. All females were then exposed daily to rat foster pups to determine whether peripubertal morphine exposure affected their latencies to induce maternal behavior. Morphine treatment resulted in a delay in vaginal opening and a temporary reduction in the rate of weight gain; however, the rate of onset of maternal behavior was unaffected by peripubertal morphine treatment. Thus, chronic morphine exposure in the pubertal female did not impact the expression of pup-induced maternal care.

  20. Personality pathology comorbidity in adult females with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Mels, Saskia; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Guelfi, Julien Daniel; Braet, Caroline; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-03-01

    Personality pathology is examined in 100 female in-patients diagnosed with eating disorders. The Eating Disorder Inventory-II and the NEO-PI-R were self-administered and personality pathology was assessed using a structured interview. Clinicians additionally evaluated patients' global functioning. The results indicated sizeable personality disorder comorbidity, and two dimensions of personality pathology, for example, an internalizing and an externalizing factor, could be identified. Patients' global functioning was primarily associated with dimensions of personality pathology, but not with eating disorder symptoms. Assessment and therapeutic interventions should focus on this co-occurring pathology in order to improve patients' functioning.

  1. Perinatal exposure to xenoestrogens affects pain in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Ilaria; Fiorenzani, Paolo; Della Seta, Daniele; Massafra, Cosimo; Cinci, Giuliano; Bocci, Anna; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2009-01-01

    Estrogens have a variety of effects in addition to their action on reproductive structures, including permanent effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS). Therefore environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity (xenoestrogens) can potentially affect a number of CNS functions. In the present experiment, female rats receiving ethynylestradiol (EE) or methoxychlor (MXC) via the mothers during pregnancy (pre) or lactation (post) were tested in comparison with females born from mothers treated with OIL. The Object Recognition, Plantar and Formalin tests were carried out to evaluate the effects of these compounds on integrated functions such as memory and pain. Testosterone and estradiol plasma levels were determined by RIA. The results of the Object Recognition and Plantar tests did not differ among groups. However the groups differed in the Formalin test since flexing duration was higher in the EE- and MXC-pre groups than in the EE- and MXC-post and OIL groups. Estradiol plasma levels were higher in EE-pre than in the other groups. These results confirm the possibility that estrogen-like compounds (EE and MXC) can affect complex neural processes like pain when taken during critical stages of CNS development.

  2. Field Comparison of Cyclopentanone Versus Carbon Dioxide as an Attractant for Adult Mosquitoes in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Philippe-Janon, J C D; van den Hurk, A F; Francis, D P; Shivas, M A; Jansen, C C

    2015-05-01

    Cyclopentanone is a saturated monoketone typically used as an intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, biologicals, insecticides, and rubber chemicals. Recently, it has been demonstrated that cyclopentanone activates the cpA CO2 receptor neuron on the maxillary palp of mosquitoes, suggesting that it may be a viable alternative to CO2 as an attractant for mosquitoes. Furthermore, semifield experiments showed that traps baited with cyclopentanone attract Culex quinquefasciatus Say at a similar rate to those baited with CO2. We evaluated the field efficacy of cyclopentanone as an alternative to CO2 in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and counterflow geometry (CFG) traps commonly used to collect mosquitoes in surveillance programs. Three pairwise trials and four Latin square trials were conducted across three peri-urban sites, comprising two saltwater sites and one freshwater site, in southeast Queensland, Australia. In all trials, CO2-baited traps outperformed traps baited with cyclopentanone. Carbon dioxide-baited CDC traps collected significantly more total mosquitoes, Aedes vigilax (Skuse), Culex sitiens Weidemann, and Culex annulirostris Skuse, than those baited with ≥99% cyclopentanone in pairwise trials. Similarly, in almost all Latin square trials, CO2-baited CDC and CFG traps collected significantly greater numbers of total mosquitoes, Ae. vigilax, Cx. annulirostris, Culex orbostiensis Dobrotworsky, and Cx. sitiens when compared with CFG traps baited with 20% cyclopentanone. Our trials indicate that cyclopentanone is not effective as a mosquito attractant in the field and cannot be used as a simple substitute for CO2 in commonly used mosquito surveillance traps.

  3. Major depressive disorder symptoms in male and female young adults.

    PubMed

    Lopez Molina, Mariane Acosta; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24 years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n = 1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n = 137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women.

  4. Asthma in an Adult Female Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Liza S; Simon, Bradley; Rawlins, Gilda; Beierschmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    A 9-y-old, colony-bred, female vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) presented with a 6-y history of open-mouth breathing, tachypnea, and sibilant wheezing. These symptoms did not significantly affect her activity or quality of life. Thoracic radiographs and results of bronchoalveolar lavage supported the diagnosis of asthma. Treatment comprising intramuscular prednisolone (tapered over 2 mo from twice daily to every other day), inhaled salmeterol–fluticasone (25 µg–250 µg per actuation twice daily) by mask, and a metered dose inhaler was successful in restoring a normal respiratory pattern. Despite the availability of several primate models of human asthma, this case represents the first report of spontaneous asthma in a NHP. PMID:26884413

  5. Morphological studies on adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and first report of the potential Zika virus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) unilineatus (Theobald, 1906) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Doosti, S; Schaffner, F; Moosa-Kazemi, S H; Akbarzadeh, K; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, N

    2016-12-27

    Beside numerous extensive studies on Anophelinae mosquitoes of Iran, little is known on Aedes species in the country and existing reports are dispersed. The objective of this study was to identify adults of Culicinae species occurring in the Sistan and Baluchestan Province, southeast of Iran, during 2012-2014. Mosquito collections were carried out three times (May-June, September, October-November) in four counties by Centers for Diseases Control (CDC) light traps and human landing catches outdoors and under bed nets baited with carbon dioxide. These trapping were carried out two consecutive nights during the field studies. Several mosquito collections were also conducted with aspirator and pyrethrum spray space catches during the day. A total of 1885 mosquitoes were collected, belonging to 10 species of genus Culex including Cx. pipiens Complex, Cx. laticinctus, Cx. sinaiticus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, one species of the genus Culiseta, Cs. longiareolata, and five species of the genus Aedes, Ae. caspius, Ae. vexans, Ae. detritus, Ae. albopictus, and Ae. unilineatus. Ae. vexans was the dominant species in the area (77.7%). During the study, seven Ae. unilineatus were collected in two villages near the city of Chabahar located in a coastal area; this is the first record for Iran and identification was confirmed by Cytochrome oxidase (COI) sequences analysis. Confirmation of the presence of Ae. unilineatus in the country raises the number of species of the genus Aedes to 12. The detection of this species reveals its probable establishment in the southeast of the country, which has implications for public health such as dengue and Zika infections and requires active entomological surveillance and implementation of adapted vector control measures in the area.

  6. Complete Dosage Compensation in Anopheles stephensi and the Evolution of Sex-Biased Genes in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaofang; Biedler, James K.; Qi, Yumin; Hall, Andrew Brantley; Tu, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Complete dosage compensation refers to hyperexpression of the entire X or Z chromosome in organisms with heterogametic sex chromosomes (XY male or ZW female) in order to compensate for having only one copy of the X or Z chromosome. Recent analyses suggest that complete dosage compensation, as in Drosophila melanogaster, may not be the norm. There has been no systematic study focusing on dosage compensation in mosquitoes. However, analysis of dosage compensation in Anopheles mosquitoes provides opportunities for evolutionary insights, as the X chromosome of Anopheles and that of its Dipteran relative, D. melanogaster formed independently from the same ancestral chromosome. Furthermore, Culicinae mosquitoes, including the Aedes genus, have homomorphic sex-determining chromosomes, negating the need for dosage compensation. Thus, Culicinae genes provide a rare phylogenetic context to investigate dosage compensation in Anopheles mosquitoes. Here, we performed RNA-seq analysis of male and female samples of the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Autosomal and X-linked genes in An. stephensi showed very similar levels of expression in both males and females, indicating complete dosage compensation. The uniformity of average expression levels of autosomal and X-linked genes remained when An. stephensi gene expression was normalized by that of their Ae. aegypti orthologs, strengthening the finding of complete dosage compensation in Anopheles. In addition, we comparatively analyzed the differentially expressed genes between adult males and adult females in both species, investigated sex-biased gene chromosomal distribution patterns in An. stephensi and provided three examples where gene duplications may have enabled the acquisition of sex-specific expression during mosquito evolution. PMID:26078263

  7. Isolation of Undifferentiated Female Germline Cells from Adult Drosophila Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Robyn Su May; Osato, Motomi; Kai, Toshie

    2015-08-03

    This unit describes a method for isolating undifferentiated, stem cell-like germline cells from adult Drosophila ovaries. Here, we demonstrate that this population of cells can be effectively purified from hand-dissected ovaries in considerably large quantities. Tumor ovaries with expanded populations of undifferentiated germline cells are first removed from fly abdomens and dissociated into a cell suspension with the aid of protease treatment. The target cells, which express Vasa-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein under the control of the germline-specific vasa promoter, are specifically selected from the suspension via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). These protocols can be adapted to isolate other cell types from fly ovaries, such as somatic follicle cells or escort cells, by driving GFP expression in the respective target cells.

  8. Bioefficacy of crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (Family: Cyperaceae ) cultured cells, against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Kamiabi, Fatemeh; Jaal, Zairi; Keng, Chan Lai

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the growth inhibition activity of the crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (C. aromaticus) cultured cells against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Ae. albopictus) under laboratory conditions, and determine the sublethal effects (EI50) of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells on some biological and morphological parameters of both Aedes mosquito species during two generations as well. Methods The cell suspension cultures of C. aromaticus were activated from five callus lines (P4, Pa, Z1, Z6 and Ml) derived from the root explants of in vitro plantlets. The cultured cells were extracted in chloroform and used as plant material for the present study. For detection of juvenile hormone III, the crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Then the crude extracts of the three C. aromaticus cultured cell lines which contained varied amounts of juvenile hormone III [high level (P4 cell line), medium level (Z1 cell line) and low level (Ml cell line)] were tested against Aedes mosquito species. Laboratory evaluation was performed against late third instar larvae of the Vector Control Research Unit strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using the standard WHO method. The effects of EI50 of the C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells on fecundity, fertility, growth period, sex ratio, adult size and longevity of Aedes mosquitoes were assessed. Results Bioassay tests presented the remarkable growth inhibition activity of the crude extracts of C. aromaticus cultured cells against the two Aedes mosquitoes. Between the two mosquito species, Ae. albopictus was more susceptible to the crude extracts with lower EI50 values. EI50 of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells (P4) increased the sterility indices in the parental generation females in both Aedes mosquito species. A significant delay in the pupal formation and adult emergence were observed in the parental generation of the both mosquito species. The sex

  9. Mosquito control insecticides: a probabilistic ecological risk assessment on drift exposures of naled, dichlorvos (naled metabolite) and permethrin to adult butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive probabilistic terrestrial ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to characterize the potential risk of mosquito control insecticide (i.e., naled, it's metabolite dichlorvos, and permethrin) usage to adult butterflies in south Florida by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations following actual mosquito control applications at labeled rates from ten field monitoring studies with the probability distributions of butterfly species response (effects) data from our laboratory acute toxicity studies. The overlap of these distributions was used as a measure of risk to butterflies. The long-term viability (survival) of adult butterflies, following topical (thorax/wings) exposures was the environmental value we wanted to protect. Laboratory acute toxicity studies (24-h LD50) included topical exposures (thorax and wings) to five adult butterfly species and preparation of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). The ERA indicated that the assessment endpoint of protection, of at least 90% of the species, 90% of the time (or the 10th percentile from the acute SSDs) from acute naled and permethrin exposures, is most likely not occurring when considering topical exposures to adults. Although the surface areas for adulticide exposures are greater for the wings, exposures to the thorax provide the highest potential for risk (i.e., SSD 10th percentile is lowest) for adult butterflies. Dichlorvos appeared to present no risk. The results of this ERA can be applied to other areas of the world, where these insecticides are used and where butterflies may be exposed. Since there are other sources (e.g., agriculture) of pesticides in the environment, where butterfly exposures will occur, the ERA may under-estimate the potential risks under real-world conditions.

  10. Differential Effects of Family Structure on Religion and Spirituality of Emerging Adult Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Handal, Paul J; Lace, John W

    2016-12-23

    This study examined measures of religion and spirituality in a sample of male and female emerging adult college students whose parents were either divorced or intact using the Personal Religious Inventory, the Duke University Religion Index, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Data were collected online, and 66% of participants received extra credit for participating. A main effect of sex was found, as females reported significantly higher scores than men on all but one measure of religion and spirituality, and the dataset was separated by sex. No differences were found between males from divorced and intact families. However, females from intact families scored significantly higher on all religion and spirituality measures than females from divorced families. This study suggests that females may respond differently than males to their parents' divorce in the context of religion and spirituality, and discusses possible reasons.

  11. Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

  12. Mosquito attractant blends to trap host seeking Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nisha; Ayyanar, Elango; Shanmugavelu, Sabesan; Muthuswamy, Kalyanasundaram

    2013-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases -dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. To identify volatile chemicals which could be used in odour based traps for Aedes mosquito surveillance, a few synthetic compounds and compound blends have been evaluated in an indigenously designed olfactometer. A total of 24 compounds and seven compound blends were screened against unfed adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes for attraction and compared with control group. The attractancy or repellency index of the test material to mosquitoes was calculated and rated them as class-1, class-2 and class-3 with rating values ranging 1-15, 16-33 and 34-100 respectively. Out of the 24 compounds tested, six were showing significant attractancy (P < 0.05) and among that 1-octene-3-ol showed maximum attractancy with a rating value of 57.81. Sixteen compounds showed significant repellency (P < 0.05) and among that with a rating value of 72.47, 1-hexene-3-ol showed strong repellent action against Ae. aegypti. All the seven blends showed significant mosquito attractancy (P < 0.05) and among that with a rating of 62.08 Myristic acid, Lactic acid and CO(2) blend exhibited first-rate mosquito attractancy.

  13. Toxicity of white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) compounds to adult and larval lifestages of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increasing insecticide resistance, new pesticides are needed. Flowering plants have been the source of useful pesticides in the past. We studied 15 chemicals isolated from a poisonous pasture plant for activity against the yellow fever mosquito. We found that dehydrotremetone was effectiv...

  14. The Experiences and Needs of Female Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-01-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data from n = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health,…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…

  16. Infants Discriminate between Adult Directed and Infant Directed Talk in Both Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Judith E.; And Others

    A total of 60 infants of 7 weeks of age were tested in a habituation-dishabituation looking procedure to determine if they could discriminate between infant-directed talk (IDT) and adult-directed talk (ADT) uttered by the same speaker. One group of 12 infants was habituated to a female speaker's ADT and dishabituated to the same speaker's IDT,…

  17. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial shipments of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. To determine whether alternative dietary conditions for young adult females might improve predation, O. in...

  18. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  19. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  20. Balancing Work, Family, and Student Roles: A Phenomenological Study of the Adult Female Graduate Online Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Charlene X.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of female adult learners pursuing graduate degrees online. As online graduate programs have become increasingly popular and more readily available in the last decade, more women than men are enrolling in online graduate programs in addition to…

  1. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  2. Barriers and Challenges of Female Adult Students Enrolled in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The present study is a review of the literature concerning the barriers and challenges of female adult students enrolled in colleges and universities in the United States. Findings indicated that the commitments of multiple roles, lower level of self-confidence, and insufficient family and social support were the most significant variables related…

  3. Prevalence of tobacco use among adult and adolescent females in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Awa, F; Fouad, H; El Naga, R A; Emam, A H; Labib, S

    2013-08-01

    Egypt assessed tobacco use among young people and adults through implementation in 2009 of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) among school students aged 13-15 years and the nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) among adults aged 15+ years. Both surveys employed cluster sampling to produce nationally representative samples and used standard core questionnaires with optional, country-specific questions. The results indicated that a higher percentage of adolescent girls in Egypt used tobacco than did adult females. Overall, 3.8% of girls aged 13-15 years used some form of tobacco compared with 0.6% of women aged 15+ years. Adolescents were over 14 times more likely than adult women to currently smoke cigarettes and 11 times more likely to smoke waterpipes. Moreover, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent girls had increased from 1.4% in the 2005 GYTS to 2.8% in 2009, indicating that social and cultural norms may be changing.

  4. Species Composition and WNV Screening of Mosquitoes from Lagoons in a Wetland Area of the Algarve, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ferdinando B.; Novo, Maria Teresa; Esteves, Aida; de Almeida, A. Paulo G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mosquito abundance, species diversity, larval and adult population dynamics in seven lagoons integrated in the wetland coastal system of the Algarve, Portugal, in the summer of 2007, as well as the screening of these for West Nile virus (WNV). WNV has been isolated from mosquitoes in this region, in the summer of 2004, next to the putative area of infection of two linked human WN cases. Adult mosquitoes were collected with CDC traps baited with CO2, and potential breeding sites were surveyed for immature stages. Morphological identification of 1,432 adult mosquitoes and 85 larvae revealed the presence of 10 species: Anopheles atroparvus, Anopheles algeriensis, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens, Culex theileri, Culex univittatus, Culiseta longiareolata, Aedes caspius, and Aedes detritus. Adult mosquito peak densities were recorded in July, contrasting with null larval breeding in the same month in the surveyed biotopes. Most abundant species were C. pipiens (52%), C. theileri (29%), and A. caspius (11%). Lagoon Salgados and Quinta das Salinas, exhibited the highest similarity of culicid fauna, despite being most distant from each other, Female mosquitoes (1,249 specimens) screened by RT-PCR, did not reveal WNV products. However, previous detection of WNV activity in this area, susceptible to re-introductions, demands for continued vigilance. PMID:22347862

  5. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-11-09

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility.

  6. Effect of amphetamine on adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, Romana; Macúchová, Eva; Nohejlová, Kateryna; Štofková, Andrea; Jurčovičová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP) treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed) were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg) in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras), active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP), spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), and levels of corticosterone (CORT) were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled) regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing) only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  7. SEXUAL INTERACTIONS WITH UNFAMILIAR FEMALES REDUCE HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AMONG ADULT MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Curtis, Molly G.; DeLoach, Julia P.; Maher, Jack; Shulman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of BrdU (200 mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30 min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohisotchemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. There were no differences in the amount of sexual behavior (mounts, intromissions, ejaculations, or contact time) that the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in, indicating that the differences in neurogenesis were not due to the relative amounts of sexual activity. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect

  8. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  9. Triflumuron Effects on the Physiology and Reproduction of Rhodnius prolixus Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Bianca Santos; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Silva, Lucas Rangel; Codogno, Thaís Franco; Oliveira, Alyne F. R.; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Feder, Denise; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Azambuja, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the growth regulator triflumuron (TFM) in inducing mortality and disrupting both oviposition and egg hatching in Rhodnius prolixus adult females. TFM was administered via feeding, topically or by continuous contact with impregnated surfaces. Feeding resulted in mild biological effects compared with topical and impregnated surfaces. One day after treatment, the highest mortality levels were observed with topical surface and 30 days later both topical and impregnated surfaces induced higher mortalities than feeding. Oral treatment inhibited oviposition even at lower doses, and hatching of eggs deposited by treated females was similarly affected by the three delivery modes. Topical treatment of eggs deposited by nontreated females significantly reduced hatching. However, treatment per contact of eggs oviposited by untreated females did not disrupt eclosion. Additionally, oral treatment increased the number of immature oocytes per female, and topical treatment reduced the mean size of oocytes. TFM also affected carcass chitin content, diuresis, and innate immunity of treated insects. These results suggest that TFM acts as a potent growth inhibitor of R. prolixus adult females and has the potential to be used in integrated vector control programs against hematophagous triatomine species. PMID:27822479

  10. Mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Ute; Becker, Norbert

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) could be introduced into Germany via migratory birds originating from Africa or southern Europe and subsequently transmitted to indigenous birds, humans, or horses by mosquitoes. Neither the virus itself nor antibodies against WNV have yet to be found in mosquitoes and horses, whereas antibodies have been detected in migrating birds and in humans that were in close contact with birds. At present, the West Nile virus itself has yet to be detected in Germany. This investigation was conducted primarily in major bird breeding, resting, and roosting habitats (hotspots) in the Upper Rhine Valley. Adult mosquitoes were trapped using CO2-baited Encephalitis Vector Surveillance (EVS)-traps and were tested for WNV by the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay. In 2007 and 2008, a total of 11,073 host-seeking adult female mosquitoes (13 species) were tested, and all tests were negative for WNV. Statistical calculations could be performed only where sufficient numbers of mosquitoes were trapped. For these sites, WNV infection among mosquitoes could be ruled out with 80% certainty. For the evaluation of the WNV situation in Germany, the results of this investigation are a further indication that the virus has not yet arrived.

  11. The diapause program impacts renal excretion and molecular expression of aquaporins in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Denlinger, David L; Piermarini, Peter M

    2016-12-27

    Adult females of the mosquito Culex pipiens entering diapause increase sugar water ingestion and reduce evaporative water loss, but how these attributes of the diapause program impact activity of the renal excretory system remains unknown. Here we compared the renal excretory capacity of diapausing and non-diapausing females, as well as the molecular expression of aquaporin (AQP) genes that encode channels involved in transporting water and/or small metabolites. Baseline urine excretion rates in diapausing mosquitoes were higher than in those of their non-diapausing counterparts, possibly a consequence of the intense sugar feeding associated with diapause. But, diapausing mosquitoes exhibited a much lower capacity for diuresis than non-diapausing mosquitoes. The suppressed diuretic capacity likely reflects reduced investment in the energetically-expensive post-prandial diuresis, an event not observed in diapausing mosquitoes. The mRNA expression levels of two genes encoding AQPs, Eglp1 and Aqp12L, in diapausing mosquitoes were down-regulated (on day 14) and up-regulated (on both days 3 and 14), respectively, in whole body samples. These changes were not evident in the excretory system (i.e., Malpighian tubules and hindgut), which showed no differential expression of AQPs as a function of diapause. Several AQP mRNAs were, however, differentially expressed in the midgut, ovaries, and abdominal body wall of diapausing mosquitoes, suggesting that AQPs in these tissues may be playing important non-excretory roles that are unique to diapause physiology.

  12. Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things.

  13. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, John; Misra, Raghunath P; Langford, Marlyn P; Byrd, William A; Ditta, Lauren; Vekovius, Bryan; Texada, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a “starry sky” appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients. PMID:21573040

  14. Genetic elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wise de Valdez, Megan R; Nimmo, Derric; Betz, John; Gong, Hong-Fei; James, Anthony A; Alphey, Luke; Black, William C

    2011-03-22

    An approach based on mosquitoes carrying a conditional dominant lethal gene (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal, RIDL) is being developed to control the transmission of dengue viruses by vector population suppression. A transgenic strain, designated OX3604C, of the major dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, was engineered to have a repressible female-specific flightless phenotype. This strain circumvents the need for radiation-induced sterilization, allows genetic sexing resulting in male-only releases, and permits the release of eggs instead of adult mosquitoes. OX3604C males introduced weekly into large laboratory cages containing stable target mosquito populations at initial ratios of 8.5-101 OX3604Ctarget eliminated the populations within 10-20 weeks. These data support the further testing of this strain in contained or confined field trials to evaluate mating competitiveness and environmental and other effects. Successful completion of the field trials should facilitate incorporation of this approach into area-wide dengue control or elimination efforts as a component of an integrated vector management strategy.

  15. Forkhead transcription factors regulate mosquito reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Immo A.; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Munro, James B.; Shiao, Shin-Hong; Cruz, Josefa; Lee, Iris W.; Heraty, John M.; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2007-01-01

    Forkhead box (Fox) genes encode a family of transcription factors defined by a ‘winged helix’ DNA-binding domain. In this study we aimed to identify Fox factors that are expressed within the fat body of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, and determine whether any of these are involved in the regulation of mosquito yolk protein gene expression. The Ae. aegypti genome contains eighteen loci that encode putative Fox factors. Our stringent cladistic analysis has profound implications for the use of Fox genes as phylogenetic markers. Twelve Ae. aegypti Fox genes are expressed within various tissues of adult females, six of which are expressed within the fat body. All six Fox genes expressed in the fat body displayed dynamic expression profiles following a blood meal. We knocked down the ’fat body Foxes’ through RNAi to determine whether these “knockdowns” hindered amino acid-induced vitellogenin gene expression. We also determined the effect of these knockdowns on the number of eggs deposited following a blood meal. Knockdown of FoxN1, FoxN2, FoxL, and FoxO, had a negative effect on amino acid- induced vitellogenin gene expression and resulted in significantly fewer eggs laid. Our analysis stresses the importance of Fox transcription factors in regulating mosquito reproduction. PMID:17681238

  16. Isolation of Jamestown Canyon virus (California serogroup) from Aedes mosquitoes in an enzootic focus in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Heard, P B; Zhang, M B; Grimstad, P R

    1990-09-01

    Twenty isolates of Jamestown Canyon virus were obtained from adult females of 5 Aedes species collected at the Houghton Lake Wildlife Research Area, Missaukee County, in north-central Michigan between 1985 and 1989. Fourteen were from Aedes provocans, and 6 were from 4 other snowmelt Aedes species. One isolate of trivittatus virus and one Cache Valley-like virus were also obtained. Seasonal succession patterns for numerous mosquito species were recorded over 4 years. The temporal association of adult mosquito emergence, virus isolations, and infection and seroconversion of sentinel deer suggest that Ae. provocans is a primary enzootic vector of Jamestown Canyon virus in that focus. We hypothesize that Ae. provocans provides an overwintering reservoir for Jamestown Canyon virus at the study site. A large dry ice-baited "tent trap" was the most productive method for collecting numerous aedine and other mosquito species.

  17. Spatial and temporal distribution of mosquitoes in underground storm drain systems in Orange County, California.

    PubMed

    Su, Tianyun; Webb, James P; Meyer, Richard P; Mulla, Mir S

    2003-06-01

    Underground storm drain systems in urban areas of Orange County include thousands of miles of gutters and underground pipelines, plus hundreds of thousands of catch basins and manhole chambers, all of which drain runoff water from residential, business and commercial establishments as well as highways and streets. These systems serve as major developmental and resting sites for anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes. Investigations on spatial and temporal distribution of mosquitoes in these systems were conducted during November 1999 to October 2001. Immature mosquitoes were sampled by dipper or dipping net and adult mosquitoes by non-attractive CDC traps in manhole chambers, catch basins and a large drain. Culex quinquefasciatus Say prevailed at all 15 structures of the study in 4 cities of Orange County as the predominant species (> 99.9%). Larvae and pupae were present from April to October, peaking from May to September. The population density of adults was the lowest in February with 2 peaks of abundance occurring from May to July and from September to October. Manhole chambers and catch basins harbored more mosquitoes than did the large drain. Minimum and maximum temperatures during a 24 h sampling period was an important factor influencing adult mosquito activity and catches; more mosquitoes were caught in traps when it was warmer, especially when the minimum temperatures were higher. The proportion of females to males in general increased during winter and early spring an ddeclined during summer. The proportion of gravid females to empty females was higher during the winter than in summer. Other dipteran taxa such as psychodid moth flies and chironomid midges exhibited somewhat similar seasonal patterns as did mosquito populations. Average water temperature was relatively stable throughout the year, and water quality in underground drain systems was characterized by low dissolved oxygen, coupled with above normal electrical conductivity and salinity levels

  18. The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17β-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success.

  19. Mosquitoes, models, and dengue.

    PubMed

    Lifson, A R

    1996-05-04

    In the last 10 years dengue has spread markedly through Latin America and the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil). The mosquito Aedes aegypti has taken advantage of increased urbanization and crowding to transmit the dengue virus. The mosquito infests tires, cans, and water jars near dwellings. The female mosquito practices multiple, interrupted feeding. Thus, mosquito infesting and feeding practices facilitate dengue transmission in crowded conditions. Factors contributing to the spread of dengue include numbers of infected and susceptible human hosts, strain of dengue virus, size of mosquito population, feeding habits, time from infection to ability to transmit virus for both vector and host, likelihood of virus transmission from human to mosquito to human, and temperature (which affects vector distribution, size, feeding habits, and extrinsic incubation period). Public health models may use simulation models to help them plan or evaluate the potential impact of different intervention strategies and/or of environmental changes (e.g., global warming). Other factors contributing to the dengue epidemic are international travel, urbanization, population growth, crowding, poverty, a weakened public health infrastructure, and limited support for sustained disease control programs. Molecular epidemiology by nucleic acid sequence analysis is another sophisticated technique used to study infectious diseases. It showed that dengue type 3 isolated from Panama and Nicaragua in 1994 was identical to that responsible for the major dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Sri Lanka and India in the 1980s. Public health officials must remember three priorities relevant to dengue and other emerging infections: the need to strengthen surveillance efforts, dedicated and sustained involvement in prevention and control needs at the local level, and a strong

  20. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart.

  1. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M.; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well

  2. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-07-03

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3μg/L as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1928, 89, and 435 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

  3. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  4. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Weber, Gregory J.; Sepúlveda, Maria S.; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3 µg/L as defined by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 µg/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7 dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1853, 84, and 419 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30 µg/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis. PMID:25929836

  5. Role of juvenile hormone and allatotropin on nutrient allocation, ovarian development and survivorship in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Mayoral, Jaime G.; Li, Yiping; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2009-01-01

    Teneral reserves are utilized to initiate previtellogenic ovarian development in mosquitoes. Females having emerged with low teneral reserves have reduced juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and previtellogenic development. We investigated what role JH, allatotropin (AT) and other head-factors play in the regulation of previtellogenic ovarian development and adult survivorship. Factors from the head are essential for corpora allata (CA) activation and reproductive maturation. We have shown that decapitation of females within 9–12 h after adult ecdysis prevented normal development of the previtellogenic follicles; however maximum previtellogenic ovarian development could be induced in decapitated females by topically applying a JH analog. When females were decapitated 12 or more hours after emergence nutritional resources had been committed to ovarian development and survivorship was significantly reduced. To study if allatotropin levels correlated with teneral reserves, we measured AT titers in the heads of two adult phenotypes (large and small females) generated by raising larvae under different nutritional diets. In large mosquitoes AT levels increased to a maximum of 45 fmol in day 4; in contrast, the levels of allatotropin in the heads of small mosquitoes remained below 9 fmol during the 7 days evaluated. These results suggest that only when nutrients are appropriate, factors released from the brain induce the CA to synthesize enough JH to activate reproductive maturation. PMID:17070832

  6. Role of juvenile hormone and allatotropin on nutrient allocation, ovarian development and survivorship in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Mayoral, Jaime G; Li, Yiping; Noriega, Fernando G

    2007-03-01

    Teneral reserves are utilized to initiate previtellogenic ovarian development in mosquitoes. Females having emerged with low teneral reserves have reduced juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and previtellogenic development. We investigated what role JH, allatotropin (AT) and other head-factors play in the regulation of previtellogenic ovarian development and adult survivorship. Factors from the head are essential for corpora allata (CA) activation and reproductive maturation. We have shown that decapitation of females within 9-12h after adult ecdysis prevented normal development of the previtellogenic follicles; however maximum previtellogenic ovarian development could be induced in decapitated females by topically applying a JH analog. When females were decapitated 12 or more hours after emergence nutritional resources had been committed to ovarian development and survivorship was significantly reduced. To study if allatotropin levels correlated with teneral reserves, we measured AT titers in the heads of two adult phenotypes (large and small females) generated by raising larvae under different nutritional diets. In large mosquitoes AT levels increased to a maximum of 45 fmol in day 4; in contrast, the levels of allatotropin in the heads of small mosquitoes remained below 9 fmol during the 7 days evaluated. These results suggest that only when nutrients are appropriate, factors released from the brain induce the CA to synthesize enough JH to activate reproductive maturation.

  7. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection.

  8. Winter biology of wetland mosquitoes at a focus of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus transmission in Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Eubanks, Micky D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2011-09-01

    At temperate latitudes, vectors and pathogens must possess biological mechanisms for coping with cold temperatures and surviving from one transmission season to the next. Mosquitoes that overwinter in the adult stage have been proposed as winter maintenance hosts for certain arboviruses. In the cases of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), discovery of infected overwintering females lends support to this hypothesis, but for other arboviruses, in particular Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, EEEV), overwintering of the virus in mosquito hosts as not been demonstrated. In the current study, we collected overwintering mosquitoes from a focus of EEEV transmission in the southeastern United States to determine whether mosquitoes serve as winter maintenance hosts for EEEV and to document overwintering biologies of suspected vectors. No virus was detected via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of > 500 female mosquitoes collected during three winters. Investigation into the winter biologies indicated that Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab), Culex peccator Dyar & Knab, and Uranotaenia sapphirina (Osten Sacken) overwinter as females. Females of these species were collected from hollow trees and emergence traps placed over ground holes. Southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora L., trees were preferred overwintering sites of culicine mosquitoes. Emergence from underground overwintering sites peaked in mid-March, when air temperatures reached 18-22 degrees C, and the first blood-engorged females of Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator were collected during this same period. Blood-fed Culex territans Walker females were collected as early as mid-February. This work provides insight into the overwintering biologies of suspected virus vectors at a site of active EEEV transmission and provides limited evidence

  9. Barriers, Motivations, and Preferences for Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gothe, Neha P.; Kendall, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults. PMID:28138500

  10. The Reference Transcriptome of the Adult Female Biting Midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and Differential Gene Expression Profiling during Teneral, Blood, and Sucrose Feeding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nayduch, Dana; Lee, Matthew B.; Saski, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoides sonorensis midges are important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), orbiviruses that cause significant disease in livestock and wildlife. Libraries of tissue-specific transcripts expressed in response to feeding and oral orbivirus challenge in C. sonorensis have previously been reported, but extensive genome-wide expression profiling in the midge has not. Here, we successfully used deep sequencing technologies to construct the first adult female C. sonorensis reference transcriptome, and utilized genome-wide expression profiling to elucidate the genetic response to blood and sucrose feeding over time. The adult female midge unigene consists of 19,041 genes, of which less than 7% are differentially expressed during the course of a sucrose meal, while up to 52% of the genes respond significantly in blood-fed midges, indicating hematophagy induces complex physiological processes. Many genes that were differentially expressed during blood feeding were associated with digestion (e.g. proteases, lipases), hematophagy (e.g., salivary proteins), and vitellogenesis, revealing many major metabolic and biological factors underlying these critical processes. Additionally, key genes in the vitellogenesis pathway were identified, which provides the first glimpse into the molecular basis of anautogeny for C. sonorensis. This is the first extensive transcriptome for this genus, which will serve as a framework for future expression studies, RNAi, and provide a rich dataset contributing to the ultimate goal of informing a reference genome assembly and annotation. Moreover, this study will serve as a foundation for subsequent studies of

  11. Filarial abscess: Aspiration of adult gravid female worm from submandibular region, an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site. PMID:28182103

  12. Filarial abscess: Aspiration of adult gravid female worm from submandibular region, an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site.

  13. Mosquito-Disseminated Insecticide for Citywide Vector Control and Its Potential to Block Arbovirus Epidemics: Entomological Observations and Modeling Results from Amazonian Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne viruses threaten public health worldwide. When the ratio of competent vectors to susceptible humans is low enough, the virus’s basic reproductive number (R0) falls below 1.0 (each case generating, on average, <1.0 additional case) and the infection fades out from the population. Conventional mosquito control tactics, however, seldom yield R0 < 1.0. A promising alternative uses mosquitoes to disseminate a potent growth-regulator larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), to aquatic larval habitats; this kills most mosquito juveniles and substantially reduces adult mosquito emergence. We tested mosquito-disseminated PPF in Manacapuru, a 60,000-inhabitant city (~650 ha) in Amazonian Brazil. Methods and Findings We sampled juvenile mosquitoes monthly in 100 dwellings over four periods in February 2014–January 2016: 12 baseline months, 5 mo of citywide PPF dissemination, 3 mo of focal PPF dissemination around Aedes-infested dwellings, and 3 mo after dissemination ended. We caught 19,434 juvenile mosquitoes (66% Aedes albopictus, 28% Ae. aegypti) in 8,271 trap-months. Using generalized linear mixed models, we estimated intervention effects on juvenile catch and adult emergence while adjusting for dwelling-level clustering, unequal sampling effort, and weather-related confounders. Following PPF dissemination, Aedes juvenile catch decreased by 79%–92% and juvenile mortality increased from 2%–7% to 80%–90%. Mean adult Aedes emergence fell from 1,077 per month (range 653–1,635) at baseline to 50.4 per month during PPF dissemination (range 2–117). Female Aedes emergence dropped by 96%–98%, such that the number of females emerging per person decreased to 0.06 females per person-month (range 0.002–0.129). Deterministic models predict, under plausible biological-epidemiological scenarios, that the R0 of typical Aedes-borne viruses would fall from 3–45 at baseline to 0.004–0.06 during PPF dissemination. The main limitations of our study were

  14. Malaria parasite development in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Beier, J C

    1998-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles transmit malaria parasites to humans. Anopheles mosquito species vary in their vector potential because of environmental conditions and factors affecting their abundance, blood-feeding behavior, survival, and ability to support malaria parasite development. In the complex life cycle of the parasite in female mosquitoes, a process termed sporogony, mosquitoes acquire gametocyte-stage parasites from blood-feeding on an infected host. The parasites carry out fertilization in the midgut, transform to ookinetes, then oocysts, which produce sporozoites. Sporozoites invade the salivary glands and are transmitted when the mosquito feeds on another host. Most individual mosquitoes that ingest gametocytes do not support development to the sporozoite stage. Bottle-necks occur at every stage of the cycle in the mosquito. Powerful new techniques and approaches exist for evaluating malaria parasite development and for identifying mechanisms regulating malaria parasite-vector interactions. This review focuses on those interactions that are important for the development of new approaches for evaluating and blocking transmission in nature.

  15. Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.

  16. A Case of Strangulated Urethral Prolapse in a Premenopausal Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Morris L.; Al-Omar, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Urethral prolapse in a premenopausal adult female is exceedingly rare. This paper describes a case of strangulated urethral prolapse presenting as a urethral mass in an unusual demographic and reviews the literature on etiology and management. Only a few cases have occurred in women of reproductive age. The etiology is likely multifactorial. Treatment with surgical excision provides good results in the majority of cases. PMID:27413572

  17. Female mice lack adult germ-line stem cells but sustain oogenesis using stable primordial follicles.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Spradling, Allan C

    2013-05-21

    Whether or not mammalian females generate new oocytes during adulthood from germ-line stem cells to sustain the ovarian follicle pool has recently generated controversy. We used a sensitive lineage-labeling system to determine whether stem cells are needed in female adult mice to compensate for follicular losses and to directly identify active germ-line stem cells. Primordial follicles generated during fetal life are highly stable, with a half-life during adulthood of 10 mo, and thus are sufficient to sustain adult oogenesis without a source of renewal. Moreover, in normal mice or following germ-cell depletion with Busulfan, only stable, single oocytes are lineage-labeled, rather than cell clusters indicative of new oocyte formation. Even one germ-line stem cell division per 2 wk would have been detected by our method, based on the kinetics of fetal follicle formation. Thus, adult female mice neither require nor contain active germ-line stem cells or produce new oocytes in vivo.

  18. Neonatal Androgen Exposure Causes Persistent Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Related to Metabolic Disease in Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Martín-Núñez, Gracia María; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Alterations of gut microbiome have been proposed to play a role in metabolic disease, but the major determinants of microbiota composition remain ill defined. Nutritional and sex hormone challenges, especially during early development, have been shown to permanently alter adult female phenotype and contribute to metabolic disturbances. In this study, we implemented large-scale microbiome analyses to fecal samples from groups of female rats sequentially subjected to various obesogenic manipulations, including sex hormone perturbations by means of neonatal androgenization or adult ovariectomy (OVX), as a model of menopause, to establish whether these phenomena are related to changes in gut microbiota. Basic metabolic profiles concerning glucose/insulin homeostasis were also explored. The effects of the sex hormonal perturbations, either developmentally (androgenization) or in adulthood (OVX), clearly outshone the impact of nutritional interventions, especially concerning the gut microbiota profile. Notably, we observed a lower diversity in the androgenized group, with the highest Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, supporting the occurrence of durable alterations in gut microbiota composition, even in adulthood. Moreover, the elimination of adult ovarian secretions by OVX affected the richness of gut microbiota. Our data are the first to document the durable impact of sex steroid manipulations, and particularly early androgenization, on gut microbiota composition. Such dysbiosis is likely to contribute to the metabolic perturbations of conditions of obesity linked to gonadal dysfunction in the female.

  19. Establishment of the Detailed Breast Model of Chinese Adult Female and Application in External Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Rui; Jiang, Chenxing; Ren, Li; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli

    2016-05-03

    Breast is one of the most sensitive organs to radiation. In 2007, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) increased the tissue weighting factor for the breast from 0.05 to 0.12, which made the accurate evaluation of breast dose more important. But in the existing human voxel phantom, the structure of breast is not elaborate enough because of the limitation of image resolution used for phantom modeling. This will probably affect the accuracy of breast dose calculated in simulation. Some researches on detailed breast modeling have been carried out, but there is no such research in this field in China. A detailed breast model for Chinese adult female is established in this article using the mathematical modeling method. It is voxelized and merged with the Chinese reference adult female voxel model for breast dosimetry. Dose conversion coefficients of breast gland for external photon exposures in antero-posterior geometry are calculated as an example of the application and the results are compared with those calculated by the old voxel phantom and ICRP reference adult female voxel phantom.

  20. Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

  1. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Luna, Ana C; Salazar, Stephanie; Aspajo, Norma J; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i) Reproductive indexes group, ii) Implantation sites group and iii) Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW) or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO) day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to enhance female fertility. PMID

  2. Adult diet and male-female contact effects on female reproductive potential in Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) (Diptera tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    Wild strains of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) placed into laboratory rearing conditions are subjected to selection pressures caused by the diet, cages, density of flies, and other factors. Selection that changes mating behavior of the strain may result in less effective males released in sterile insect programs. Tests were performed to examine the effects of protein in diet and adult interactions on egg production and mating during sexual maturation of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) in laboratory cages. Flies were offspring of wild flies collected from Chiapas or Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and reared on Valencia oranges. Experiments demonstrated effects of yeast hydrolysate protein in adult diet and pairing with males on production of mature and immature eggs, numbers of females producing eggs, and mating with females aged 15 d. Addition of protein to 4% fructose in the adult diet approximately tripled mature egg production in females maintained for the total maturation period with an equal number of males. Females that matured without males produced approximately 33% more-mature eggs when fed protein than those fed no protein. Total egg production of females matured without males and fed sugar only or sugar with protein was more than twice that of females matured with males. Tests to examine the effects of male and female diet separately on female egg production showed slightly higher egg production in females fed protein, or females paired with males fed protein, but these differences were not significant. The most definitive effects were that combining wild strain females and males in cages during maturation reduced egg production. This effect was greatest when flies were not fed protein.

  3. Adapalene-benzoyl Peroxide Gel is Efficacious and Safe in Adult Female Acne, with a Profile Comparable to that Seen in Teen-aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Hilary; Rueda, Maria Jose; Kerrouche, Nabil; DrÉno, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel in women aged 25 years or older via subgroup analysis of existing Phase 2 and 3 study data. Methods: Meta-analysis of pooled data from three multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trials compared results of treatment with either adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel or vehicle gel in adult females and teen-aged females. Efficacy assessments included investigator’s global assessment and median percent change in acne lesions. Safety assessments included skin tolerability and adverse events. Results: Two hundred fifty-four adult females and 488 teen-aged females were included in the analyses, and baseline characteristics were comparable between subjects receiving adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% or vehicle. Both adult females and teen-aged females in the adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% arm were significantly more often rated clear/almost clear compared with those in the vehicle arm at Weeks 8 (P=0.016) and 12 (P<0.001); at endpoint, success was achieved in 39.2 percent with adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% and 18.5 percent with vehicle. Comparison of the amount of difference between active and vehicle reductions in investigator’s global assessment showed that efficacy was similar for adult females versus teen-aged females (20.7% vs. 19.9%, respectively). Adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% had a rapid onset of action, with statistically significant reductions in all acne lesion types versus vehicle observed by Week 1. Adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% was safe and well-tolerated by adult females with a tolerability profile consistent with that seen in teen-aged females. Conclusions: The once-daily fixed-dose combination product adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% is an efficacious, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for adult female acne, with a profile similar to that in teen-aged females. PMID:28331557

  4. Adapalene-benzoyl Peroxide Gel is Efficacious and Safe in Adult Female Acne, with a Profile Comparable to that Seen in Teen-aged Females.

    PubMed

    Gold, Linda Stein; Baldwin, Hilary; Rueda, Maria Jose; Kerrouche, Nabil; DrÉno, Brigitte

    2016-07-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel in women aged 25 years or older via subgroup analysis of existing Phase 2 and 3 study data. Methods: Meta-analysis of pooled data from three multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trials compared results of treatment with either adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel or vehicle gel in adult females and teen-aged females. Efficacy assessments included investigator's global assessment and median percent change in acne lesions. Safety assessments included skin tolerability and adverse events. Results: Two hundred fifty-four adult females and 488 teen-aged females were included in the analyses, and baseline characteristics were comparable between subjects receiving adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% or vehicle. Both adult females and teen-aged females in the adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% arm were significantly more often rated clear/almost clear compared with those in the vehicle arm at Weeks 8 (P=0.016) and 12 (P<0.001); at endpoint, success was achieved in 39.2 percent with adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% and 18.5 percent with vehicle. Comparison of the amount of difference between active and vehicle reductions in investigator's global assessment showed that efficacy was similar for adult females versus teen-aged females (20.7% vs. 19.9%, respectively). Adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% had a rapid onset of action, with statistically significant reductions in all acne lesion types versus vehicle observed by Week 1. Adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% was safe and well-tolerated by adult females with a tolerability profile consistent with that seen in teen-aged females. Conclusions: The once-daily fixed-dose combination product adapalene 0.1% benzoyl peroxide 2.5% is an efficacious, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for adult female acne, with a profile similar to that in teen-aged females.

  5. Mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (Apium graveolens L.).

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Rattanachanpichai, E; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2004-06-01

    When the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of Apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult Aedes aegypti. The hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ED50) and ED95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. Only this fraction, which was also found to provide protection against mosquito bites for 3.5 h when applied, in the laboratory, at a concentration of 250 mg/ml, was then investigated for its repellency in the field and its stability. In storage, it was found to retain its repellency for at least 2 months, although significant reductions in its repellency were observed (in terms of shortened complete-protection times) after 3 months, whatever the temperature of storage (-20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, or room temperature). When applied to the skin of volunteers under field conditions, the hexane fraction showed strong repellent activity against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera (Ae. gardnerii, Ae. lineatopennis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis). It appeared not to cause dermal irritation or any other adverse effect, either during 6 months of use or in the following 3 months of follow-up. Mosquito repellents based on extracts of Ap. graveolens seeds could be developed commercially, as an effective personal-protection measure against mosquito bites and the diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  6. Juvenile Rank Can Predict Male-Typical Adult Mating Behavior in Female Sheep Treated Prenatally with Testosterone1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eila K.; Flak, Jonathan N.; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30–90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60–90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

  7. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  8. Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  9. Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in the Alimentary Canal of Aedes aegypti and Its Relationship to Homologous Mosquito Carbonic Anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Daniel P.; Van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the

  10. Characterization of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in the Alimentary Canal of Aedes aegypti and Its Relationship to Homologous Mosquito Carbonic Anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Daniel P; Van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J

    2017-02-21

    In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, Aedes aegypti carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the

  11. Different forms of oestrogen rapidly upregulate cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Barha, C K; Lieblich, S E; Galea, L A M

    2009-03-01

    Oestrogens are known to exert significant structural and functional effects in the hippocampus of adult rodents. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus retains the ability to produce neurones throughout adulthood and 17beta-oestradiol has been shown to influence hippocampal neurogenesis in adult female rats. The effects of other oestrogens, such as oestrone and 17alpha-oestradiol, on neurogenesis have not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 17beta-oestradiol, oestradiol benzoate, oestrone, and 17alpha-oestradiol on cell proliferation in ovariectomised adult female rats at two different time points. Young ovariectomised female rats were injected with one of the oestrogens at one of three doses. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to the hormone for 4 h and, in Experiment 2, rats were exposed to the hormone for 30 min prior to 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injection to label proliferating cells and their progeny. We found that young ovariectomised females responded with increased cell proliferation to most oestrogens, except oestradiol benzoate, after 30 min of exposure. However, administration of oestrogens for a longer time interval was ineffective at increasing cell proliferation. After 30 min, 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone increased cell proliferation at low (0.3 microg) and high (10 microg) doses, whereas 17alpha-oestradiol increased cell proliferation at medium (1 microg) and high doses. The results of the present study indicate that different oestrogens rapidly increase cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, possibly through a nonclassical, nongenomic mechanism. Future experiments should focus on further elucidating the specific pathways utilised by each oestrogen. These results have important therapeutic implications because it may be possible to use 17alpha-oestradiol and lower doses of oestrogens in hormone replacement therapies.

  12. Energetic cost of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rivero, A; Magaud, A; Nicot, A; Vézilier, J

    2011-05-01

    The extensive use of insecticides to control vector populations has lead to the widespread development of different mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Mutations that confer insecticide resistance are often associated to fitness costs that prevent them from spreading to fixation. In vectors, such fitness costs include reductions in preimaginal survival, adult size, longevity, and fecundity. The most commonly invoked explanation for the nature of such pleiotropic effects of insecticide resistance is the existence of resource-based trade-offs. According to this hypothesis, insecticide resistance would deplete the energetic stores of vectors, reducing the energy available for other biological functions and generating trade-offs between insecticide resistance and key life history traits. Here we test this hypothesis by quantifying the energetic resources (lipids, glycogen, and glucose) of larvae and adult females of the mosquito Culex pipiens L. resistant to insecticides through two different mechanisms: esterase overproduction and acetylcholinesterase modification. We find that, as expected from trade-off theory, insecticide resistant mosquitoes through the overproduction of esterases contain on average 30% less energetic reserves than their susceptible counterparts. Acetylcholinesterase-modified mosquitoes, however, also showed a significant reduction in energetic resources (20% less). We suggest that, in acetylcholinesterase-modified mosquitoes, resource depletion may not be the result of resource-based trade-offs but a consequence of the hyperactivation of the nervous system. We argue that these results not only provide a mechanistic explanation for the negative pleiotropic effects of insecticide resistance on mosquito life history traits but also can have a direct effect on the development of parasites that depend on the vector's energetic reserves to fulfil their own metabolic needs.

  13. Seasonal population density and daily survival of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, E-Hyun; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Hee Il; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Klein, Terry A

    2005-06-01

    Mosquito surveillance was conducted near the Korean Demilitarized Zone (Paju County, Gyeonggi Province) from April to October, 1999, where malaria cases were reported. Adult mosquito surveillance, using black light and CDC UV light traps, was conducted at five and two sites, respectively. Weekly larval collections were made at five rice paddies located adjacent to the adult collection sites. Anopheles sinensis was the most abundant mosquito of 11 species collected throughout the surveillance period in 1999, comprising 47 - 48% of the total number of mosquitoes collected at cow sheds and residence. At all five sites surveyed by CDC UV light traps, anophelines appeared early in the year (May 3) and were most abundant in the cow sheds followed by the hillside forest, residence, stream/river bank, and were least abundant in rice fields. The population density of the larvae and the adults of An. sinensis increased steadily in June and reached their peaks during the second week of July (mean 112 females/trap/night). The parity rates were higher in July and September, when populations were highest. The probabilities of daily survival of An. sinensis were 0.804 in June to 0.895 in July. Cross-correlation showed a significant relationship between the number of adult anopheline mosquitoes and the number of larvae collected on the previous day, the same day, and also three and seven days later, which may be useful for determining treatment thresholds.

  14. The effect of arm action on the vertical jump performance in children and adult females.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the use of arm swing in the vertical jump. Countermovement jumps with arms (CMJA) and without arms (CMJ) performed by 36 girls and 20 adult females were examined using force platform analysis. The data were analyzed to determine differences between groups and between types of jump. The analysis of the data indicated that the arm action increased the jump height in both groups, although the increase was greater in children than adults (22.6% and 18.7% respectively; P < .05). This difference in jump height was due to a combination of a greater increase of the height at take-off in children compared with adults (40.6% and 21.6% respectively; P < .05) with no differences in the increase of the flight height. This increase in height of take-off was accompanied by an increase in the distance of propulsion in CMJA compared with CMJ (0.25 m and 0.23 m respectively; P < .05). The results suggested that children take advantage of the action of the arms in vertical jump differently than adults. The children improved their jump height by increasing height at take-off whereas the adults improved by increasing the flight height.

  15. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

    2015-01-15

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91 kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work

  16. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

    2010-11-01

    To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.

  18. Copulating with multiple mates enhances female fecundity but not egg-to-adult survival in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Eady, P E; Wilson, N; Jackson, M

    2000-12-01

    Postcopulatory sexual selection theory has come a long way since the evolutionary implications of sperm competition were first spelled out by Parker (1970). However, one of the most enduring questions remains: why do females copulate with multiple males? Here we show that females copulating with multiple males lay more eggs than those copulating repeatedly with the same male. We also show egg-to-adult survival to be more variable when females copulate multiply with different males and less variable when they copulate multiply with the same male. This supports the notion that egg-to-adult survival may depend on the genetic compatibility of males and females. However, pre-adult survival was highest when females copulated repeatedly with the same male rather than with different males. Thus, it would appear that polyandry in this species does not function to reduce the risk of embryo failure resulting from fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm.

  19. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  20. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas

  1. A study of population changes in adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) during a mosquito control programme in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Holmes, P R

    1986-02-01

    The effectiveness of insecticidal control measures on adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, was examined. Direct treatment of the study site with cypermethrin applied as a fog caused a temporary reduction both in total numbers (males and females) and in the proportion of older females. When cypermethrin was applied as an ultra low volume formulation at dusk and dawn numbers of males were greatly reduced, but numbers of females were not affected. It appears that the adulticiding operations had little overall effect on the total numbers or survival rate of females, or breeding success. The oviposition cycle duration was estimated to be two days, with the survival rate per oviposition cycle calculated as 30%. With these values it is thought unlikely that filariasis would be transmitted in Dubai.

  2. Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p = 0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

  3. Neonatal stress alters LTP in freely moving male and female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, P; Bronzino, J D

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that neonatal isolation stress significantly changes measures of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in male and female juvenile rats, i.e., at 30 days of age. The changes in dentate granule population measures, i.e., excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and population spike amplitude (PSA), evoked by tetanization of the medial perforant pathway, indicated that juvenile rats exposed to neonatal isolation exhibit different enhancement profiles with respect to both the magnitude and duration of LTP in a sex-specific manner. Isolated males showed a significantly greater enhancement of LTP, while female "isolates" showed significantly longer LTP duration when compared to all other groups. The present study was designed to determine whether the effects of the neonatal isolation stress paradigm endures into adulthood. Rats isolated from their mothers for 1 h per day during postnatal days 2-9 were surgically prepared at 70-90 days of age, with stimulating and recording electrodes placed in the medial perforant pathway and the hippocampal dentate gyrus, respectively. Prior to tetanization, no significant effect of sex or treatment was obtained for baseline measures of EPSP slope or PSA. In order to rule out baseline differences in hippocampal cell excitability in female adult rats, we measured the response of dentate granule cells for one estrus cycle and found no pretetanization enhancement in the evoked response in either controls or previously stressed rats. Following tetanization, there was a significant treatment and sex effect. During the induction of LTP, PSA values were significantly enhanced in both isolated males and females and had significantly longer LTP duration when compared to the unhandled control group. Additionally, we observed that females took longer to reach baseline levels than males. Taken together, these results indicate that repeated infant isolation stress enhances LTP induction and duration in both males and

  4. A novel hormone is required for the development of reproductive phenotypes in adult female crabs.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Chung, J Sook

    2014-01-01

    The crustacean male-specific androgenic hormone is widely accepted as a key factor in sexual differentiation and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. However, the mechanism by which the plethora of different reproductive strategies are controlled and executed in crustaceans is not known. We discovered in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, a hitherto unknown neurohormone, named crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), in distinct neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk ganglia. CFSH is highly expressed in females but weakly in males, and its crucial role in developing adult female phenotypes has now been established. CFSH cDNA encodes a 225-amino acid (aa) novel protein composed of a 23-aa predicted signal peptide, 33-aa precursor-related peptide and 167-aa mature protein that did not match any other sequence in GenBank. CFSH RNA interference knockdown by multiple administrations of double-stranded RNA at the prepubertal stage causes abnormal development of brooding and mating systems upon puberty. These systems include a pair of gonopores and an egg attachment system for brooding, comprised of an enlarged semicircular abdomen and ovigerous setae. The ovigerous setae in CFSH knocked-down females were fewer and 50% shorter and the gonopores were either significantly smaller than those of controls, misplaced, or absent. We also identified CFSH in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, a species that shares a similar reproductive strategy with C. sapidus. Together, our data provide the first evidence for the presence of a female hormone in crustaceans and its importance in positively controlling anatomic features associated with brooding and mating systems. From an evolutionary standpoint, the endocrine control supporting a female-specific reproductive strategy, as previously described for many vertebrate species, has now been demonstrated for the first time in crustaceans.

  5. Chronic morphine exposure during puberty decreases postpartum prolactin secretion in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2005-03-01

    Opiate use in teenage populations has been increasing in recent years. The potential impact of exposure to high levels of opiates at a time when reproductive systems are maturing has not been well studied, especially in females. The present study used an animal model of adolescent opiate abuse in females to examine the potential impact of high levels of opiates during puberty on several reproductive parameters, including suckling-induced prolactin secretion. Two groups of juvenile female rats were administered increasing doses of morphine sulfate or saline (s.c.) from age 30-50 days, beginning with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg and achieving a maximal dose of 50 mg/kg. As adults, these females were mated and reared either their own or foster pups. On either postpartum day 5 or 10, following a 4 h separation, suckling-induced prolactin secretion was measured. In addition, on postpartum day 5 maternal behavior latencies were determined. The results demonstrate reduced suckling-induced prolactin secretion on postpartum day 5 in females previously exposed to morphine during pubertal development. These effects were observed in females rearing either their own or fostered pups. These effects were not due to any differences in maternal behavior latencies, as retrieval or crouching latencies were unaffected. In summary, chronic morphine exposure during puberty results in changes in the regulation of prolactin secretion during early lactation, which are observed several weeks after cessation of drug treatment. These data suggest that prior opiate use during puberty can continue to affect the regulation of prolactin secretion into adulthood.

  6. Mosquito and sand fly gregarines of the genus Ascogregarina and Psychodiella (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida, Aseptatorina)--overview of their taxonomy, life cycle, host specificity and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lantova, Lucie; Volf, Petr

    2014-12-01

    Mosquitoes and sand flies are important blood-sucking vectors of human diseases such as malaria or leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, these insects also carry their own parasites, such as gregarines; these monoxenous pathogens are found exclusively in invertebrates, and some of them have been considered useful in biological control. Mosquito and sand fly gregarines originally belonging to a single genus Ascogregarina were recently divided into two genera, Ascogregarina comprising parasites of mosquitoes, bat flies, hump-backed flies and fleas and Psychodiella parasitizing sand flies. Currently, nine mosquito Ascogregarina and five Psychodiella species are described. These gregarines go through an extraordinarily interesting life cycle; the mosquito and sand fly larvae become infected by oocysts, the development continues transtadially through the larval and pupal stages to adults and is followed by transmission to the offspring by genus specific mechanisms. In adult mosquitoes, ascogregarines develop in the Malpighian tubules, and oocysts are defecated, while in the sand flies, the gregarines are located in the body cavity, their oocysts are injected into the accessory glands of females and released during oviposition. These life history differences are strongly supported by phylogenetical study of SSU rDNA proving disparate position of Ascogregarina and Psychodiella gregarines. This work reviews the current knowledge about Ascogregarina and Psychodiella gregarines parasitizing mosquitoes and sand flies, respectively. It gives a comprehensive insight into their taxonomy, life cycle, host specificity and pathogenicity, showing a very close relationship of gregarines with their hosts, which suggests a long and strong parasite-host coevolution.

  7. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  8. Condition and mass impact oxygen stores and dive duration in adult female northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Hassrick, J L; Crocker, D E; Teutschel, N M; McDonald, B I; Robinson, P W; Simmons, S E; Costa, D P

    2010-02-15

    The range of foraging behaviors available to deep-diving, air-breathing marine vertebrates is constrained by their physiological capacity to breath-hold dive. We measured body oxygen stores (blood volume and muscle myoglobin) and diving behavior in adult female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, to investigate age-related effects on diving performance. Blood volume averaged 74.4+/-17.0 liters in female elephant seals or 20.2+/-2.0% of body mass. Plasma volume averaged 32.2+/-7.8 liters or 8.7+/-0.7% of body mass. Absolute plasma volume and blood volume increased independently with mass and age. Hematocrit decreased weakly with mass but did not vary with age. Muscle myoglobin concentration, while higher than previously reported (7.4+/-0.7 g%), did not vary with mass or age. Pregnancy status did not influence blood volume. Mean dive duration, a proxy for physiological demand, increased as a function of how long seals had been at sea, followed by mass and hematocrit. Strong effects of female body mass (range, 218-600 kg) on dive duration, which were independent of oxygen stores, suggest that larger females had lower diving metabolic rates. A tendency for dives to exceed calculated aerobic limits occurred more frequently later in the at-sea migration. Our data suggest that individual physiological state variables and condition interact to determine breath-hold ability and that both should be considered in life-history studies of foraging behavior.

  9. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  10. MECP2 regulates cortical plasticity underlying a learned behaviour in adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Keerthi; Lau, Billy Y. B.; Ewall, Gabrielle; Huang, Z. Josh; Shea, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders are marked by inappropriate synaptic connectivity early in life, but how disruption of experience-dependent plasticity contributes to cognitive and behavioural decline in adulthood is unclear. Here we show that pup gathering behaviour and associated auditory cortical plasticity are impaired in female Mecp2het mice, a model of Rett syndrome. In response to learned maternal experience, Mecp2het females exhibited transient changes to cortical inhibitory networks typically associated with limited plasticity. Averting these changes in Mecp2het through genetic or pharmacological manipulations targeting the GABAergic network restored gathering behaviour. We propose that pup gathering learning triggers a transient epoch of inhibitory plasticity in auditory cortex that is dysregulated in Mecp2het. In this window of heightened sensitivity to sensory and social cues, Mecp2 mutations suppress adult plasticity independently from their effects on early development. PMID:28098153

  11. Morphometric study of the lumbosacral spine and some of its related angles in Lebanese adult females.

    PubMed

    Atta-Alla, El Sayed S; Saab, Ibtissam M; El Shishtawy, Mohamed; Hassan, Khodor Haidar

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the morphometric characteristics of lumbar vertebrae, lumbar intervertebral discs and some important related angles in Lebanese adult females. The subjects of this study were thirty Lebanese adult females aged between 18-22 years. The subjects were selected among students of the faculty of health sciences, Beirut Arab University. Two plain radiographic views for the lumbosacral spine were taken for each subject, an anteroposterior view and a lateral view. Measurements were made directly on the X-ray films using Vernier calliper and were recorded to the nearest tenth of a millimetre. The following measurements were taken for each lumbar vertebra: the anterior height of the body, the posterior height of the body, the horizontal diameter of the pedicle, the vertical diameter of the pedicle, the interpedicular distance, the width (transverse diameter) of the body. Also the anterior height, the posterior height and the anteroposterior diameter (disc depth) of the intervertebral disc were measured. In addition, the following angles were measured: the angle of lumbar lordosis, the lumbosacral angle and the angle of sacral inclination. The mean and standard deviation were calculated and recorded. The results offer a base line reference for normal Lebanese adult females and a guidance to clinicians for the evaluation and management of subjects complaining of low back pain, in order to propose specific preventive or rehabilitation protocols to prevent low back pain as a function of spinal alignment. Moreover, these normal figures could also be of forensic importance because of the observed racial, ethnic and regional variations.

  12. Post-parturition habitat selection by elk calves and adult female elk in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, J.; Cain, James W.; Liley, Stewart; Gould, William R.; Quintana, Nichole T.; Ballard, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal survival and juvenile recruitment are crucial to maintaining viable elk (Cervus elaphus) populations. Neonate survival is known to be influenced by many factors, including bed-site selection. Although neonates select the actual bed-site location, they must do so within the larger calf-rearing area selected by the mother. As calves age, habitat selection should change to meet the changing needs of the growing calf. Our main objectives were to characterize habitat selection at 2 spatial scales and in areas with different predator assemblages in New Mexico. We evaluated bed-site selection by calves and calf-rearing area selection by adult females. We captured 108 elk calves by hand and fitted them with ear tag transmitters in two areas in New Mexico: the Valle Vidal and Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area. In both study areas, we found that concealing cover structure and distance to that cover influenced bed-site selection of young calves (i.e., <2 weeks of age). Older calves (i.e., 3–10 weeks of age) still selected areas in relation to distance to cover, but also preferred areas with higher visibility. At the larger spatial scale of calf-rearing habitat selection by the adult female, concealing cover (e.g., rocks, shrubs, and logs) and other variables important to the hiding calves were still in the most supported models, but selection was also influenced by forage availability and indices of forage quality. Studies that seek to obtain insight into microhabitat selection of ungulate neonates should consider selection by the neonate and selection by the adult female, changes in selection as neonates age, and potential selection differences in areas of differing predation risk. By considering these influences together and at multiple scales, studies can achieve a broader understanding of neonatal ungulate habitat requirements. 

  13. Wyeomyia exallos, a new species of sylvatic mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Glauber Pereira; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Motta, Monique de Albuquerque

    2012-11-01

    Wyeomyia exallos, a new mosquito species from Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, is described based on morphological characters of the adult female, male, male genitalia, pupa and fourth-instar larva. The morphological characters of Wy. exallos sp. nov. are compared with those of different subgenera of Wyeomyia as well as of species without subgeneric position. It is proposed that the new species should be placed in genus Wyeomyia Theobald without subgeneric assignment.

  14. Fitness consequences of larval exposure to Beauveria bassiana on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Vogels, Chantal B F; Bukhari, Tullu; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have shown to be effective in biological control of both larval and adult stages of malaria mosquitoes. However, a small fraction of mosquitoes is still able to emerge after treatment with fungus during the larval stage. It remains unclear whether fitness of these adults is affected by the treatment during the larval stage and whether they are still susceptible for another treatment during the adult stage. Therefore, we tested the effects of larval exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on fitness of surviving Anopheles stephensi females. Furthermore, we tested whether larval exposed females were still susceptible to re-exposure to the fungus during the adult stage. Sex ratio, survival and reproductive success were compared between non-exposed and larval exposed A. stephensi. Comparisons were also made between survival of non-exposed and larval exposed females that were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage. Larval treatment did not affect sex ratio of emerging mosquitoes. Larval exposed females that were infected died significantly faster and laid equal numbers of eggs from which equal numbers of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females that were uninfected had equal survival, but laid a significantly larger number of eggs from which a significantly higher number of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females which were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage had equal survival as females exposed only during the adult stage. Our results suggest that individual consequences for fitness of larval exposed females depended on whether a fungal infection was acquired during the larval stage. Larval exposed females remained susceptible to re-exposure with B. bassiana during the adult stage, indicating that larval and adult control of malaria mosquitoes with EF are compatible.

  15. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  16. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  17. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A

    2003-11-11

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.

  18. Distribution of Culex species in vegetation bands of a constructed wetland undergoing integrated mosquito management.

    PubMed

    Walton, William E; Popko, David A; Van Dam, Alex R; Merrill, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    The distribution and abundance of emerging Culex spp. were assessed within narrow (width: 3 m) and wide (width: 20 m) bands of California bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus) and in the open water adjacent to emergent vegetation in 2 marshes of an ammonia-dominated wastewater treatment wetland in southern California. Emerging mosquitoes were collected along transects perpendicular to the path of water flow at 3 distances (1.5, 5, and 10 m) from the vegetation-open water interface in the wide bands of emergent vegetation, at the center of narrow bands of emergent vegetation, and at 1.5 m from the edge of emergent vegetation in the open water. The width of vegetation bands (3 vs. 20 m) influenced the effectiveness of integrated mosquito management practices, especially the application of mosquito control agents. Mosquito production from the 2 marshes also differed up to 14-fold, suggesting that the distance between the shorelines (62 vs. 74 m) of each marsh also influenced the efficacy of mosquito control agents applied from the shore and boats. Hot spots of mosquito production (75424 female Culex/m2/day) were found within the wide bands of bulrush. During summer, the relative abundance of Culex stigmatosoma among emerging mosquitoes increased from the periphery to the center of wide bands of emergent vegetation. Culex erythrothorax emergence rates were comparatively similar among the transects in the wide bands of emergent vegetation. Culex tarsalis adults increased in number from the periphery to the center of wide bands of bulrush and, in May, were > 95% of emerged mosquitoes.

  19. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.; Rees, Alan F.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  20. Elevation of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the hair of adult black female hypertensives

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Pellum, L.K.

    1984-05-01

    The southern portion of the United States has the highest mortality due to cardiovascular disease of any region of the country. The prevalence of hypertension in the South is also higher. Dietary intake of sodium, an overweight condition, and genetic factors may contribute to the problem. The role of trace elements is also a factor in producing hypertension. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship of selected trace elements with tensive status using hair as a biopsy material. The study examined the differences in hair elemental concentrations between adult black female hypertensives and normotensives from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

  1. Neuroendocrine function in adult female transgenic mice expressing the human growth hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, V; Bartke, A; Wagner, T E

    1992-04-01

    Adult female transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene with mouse metallothionein-I promoter are sterile. To evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary function in these animals, adult female transgenic mice and nontransgenic normal littermates were ovariectomized. On days 7 and 8 after ovariectomy, mice were injected with either oil or primed with 0.5 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) in oil, 24 h later treated with 10 micrograms EB/100 g body wt and a day later bled for measurements of FSH, LH, and PRL levels. Plasma gonadotropin and PRL levels were also measured in ovary-intact transgenic and normal siblings at estrus. Additional ovariectomized EB-treated transgenic mice and normal siblings were injected with either saline or GnRH in saline (1 ng/g body wt) and were bled 15 min later for determination of circulating hormone levels. At estrus, in transgenic mice, circulating FSH and PRL levels were significantly lower (FSH:P less than 0.001; PRL:P less than 0.025), but plasma LH concentrations were higher (P less than 0.001) than those in nontransgenic mice. As expected, ovariectomy significantly increased (P less than 0.001) circulating FSH and LH levels in both groups of mice relative to ovary-intact animals, but the increase in plasma LH levels was attenuated in transgenic mice. The suppressive effect of estrogen on circulating FSH and LH levels were similar in transgenic and nontransgenic mice. Treatment with GnRH significantly increased plasma FSH and LH levels in both transgenic and normal mice. However, the plasma FSH and LH responses to GnRH administration were significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) in transgenic mice. The results of these studies indicate that adult female transgenic mice expressing the hGH gene are hypoprolactinemic. Yet due to PRL-like activity of hGH, the gonadotropin secretion is altered. Thus, endogenously secreted hGH modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary function of adult female transgenic mice bearing the hGH gene.

  2. Isoflurane to prolong medetomidine/ ketamine anaesthesia in six adult female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Adams, W A; Robinson, K J; Jones, R S; Sanderson, S

    2003-01-04

    Six adult female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were anaesthetised for the placement of intrauterine contraceptive devices, microchips for identification, routine blood sampling, and physical measurements. Anaesthesia was induced with medetomidine in combination with ketamine administered by intramuscular injection with a projectile syringe. Induction was smooth and rapid, but five of the animals were insufficiently relaxed for orotracheal intubation. The plane of anaesthesia was deepened by administering isoflurane delivered in oxygen and nitrous oxide, and general anaesthesia was maintained for up to 74 minutes. The action of medetomidine was reversed at the end of each procedure with atipamezole, and the animals recovered smoothly and uneventfully.

  3. Nutrient limitation results in juvenile hormone-mediated resorption of previtellogenic ovarian follicles in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Noriega, Fernando G

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a central hormonal regulator of previtellogenic development in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. JH levels are low at eclosion and increase during the first day after adult emergence. This initial rise in JH is essential for female reproductive maturation. After previtellogenic maturation is complete, the mosquito enters a 'state-of-arrest' during which JH synthesis continues at a slower pace and further ovary development is repressed until a blood meal is taken. By examining the relationships between juvenile hormone, follicular resorption and nutrition in A. aegypti, we were able to define a critical role of JH during the previtellogenic resting stage. The rate of follicular resorption in resting stage mosquitoes is dependent on nutritional quality. Feeding water alone caused the rate of follicular resorption to reach over 20% by day 7 after emergence. Conversely, feeding a 20% sucrose solution caused resorption to remain below 5% during the entire experimental period. Mosquitoes fed 3% sucrose show rates of resorption intermediate between water and 20% sucrose and only reached 10% by day 7 after emergence. Follicular resorption is related to JH levels. Ligated abdomens separated from a source of JH (the corpora allata) showed an increase in resorption comparable to similarly aged starved mosquitoes (16%). Resorption in ligated abdomens was reduced to 6% by application of methoprene. The application of methoprene was also sufficient to prevent resorption in intact mosquitoes starved for 48 h (14% starved vs. 4% starved with methoprene). Additionally, active caspases were localized to resorbing follicles indicating that an apoptotic cell-death mechanism is responsible for follicular resorption during the previtellogenic resting stage. Taken together, these results indicate that JH mediates reproductive trade-offs in resting stage mosquitoes in response to nutrition.

  4. Nutrient limitation results in juvenile hormone-mediated resorption of previtellogenic ovarian follicles in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Mark E.; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a central hormonal regulator of previtellogenic development in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. JH levels are low at eclosion and increase during the first day after adult emergence. This initial rise in JH is essential for female reproductive maturation. After previtellogenic maturation is complete, the mosquito enters a ‘state-of-arrest’ during which JH synthesis continues at a slower pace and further ovary development is repressed until a blood meal is taken. By examining the relationships between juvenile hormone, follicular resorption and nutrition in A. aegypti, we were able to define a critical role of JH during the previtellogenic resting stage. The rate of follicular resorption in resting stage mosquitoes is dependent on nutritional quality. Feeding water alone caused the rate of follicular resorption to reach over 20% by day 7 after emergence. Conversely, feeding a 20% sucrose solution caused resorption to remain below 5% during the entire experimental period. Mosquitoes fed 3% sucrose show rates of resorption intermediate between water and 20% sucrose and only reached 10% by day 7 after emergence. Follicular resorption is related to JH levels. Ligated abdomens separated from a source of JH (the corpora allata) showed an increase in resorption comparable to similarly aged starved mosquitoes (16%). Resorption in ligated abdomens was reduced to 6% by application of methoprene. The application of methoprene was also sufficient to prevent resorption in intact mosquitoes starved for 48 hours (14% starved vs. 4% starved with methoprene). Additionally, active caspases were localized to resorbing follicles indicating that an apoptotic cell-death mechanism is responsible for follicular resorption during the previtellogenic resting stage. Taken together, these results indicate that JH mediates reproductive trade-offs in resting stage mosquitoes in response to nutrition. PMID:21708165

  5. Self-characterizations of adult female informal caregivers: gender identity and the bearing of burden.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Maeona K

    2005-01-01

    Gender identity is a powerful aspect of self that shapes values, attitudes, and conduct. Family caregivers, particularly women, tend to forgo institutionalization of care recipients even when care demands are overwhelming. The reluctance of women to relinquish care raises questions about the relationship between gender identity and the bearing of burden. To illuminate the relationship between gender and burden, 36 adult women caring for highly dependent adults were asked to describe the nature of "self"; that is, how they characterized themselves as a person. Results were tabulated and critically examined in relation to stereotypical gender traits, as well as social and political processes that create gender dichotomies. Overall, self-characterizations indicated caregivers had internalized stereotypical female gender traits that support and facilitate the enduring of burden.

  6. A study on the resting preference of mosquito species in wells in Vellore in Tamilnadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, V; Elango, S; Jeykumar, K; Madhavan, J; Alamelu, M; Shanthi, S

    2010-03-01

    The resting preferences of mosquito species was investigated in domestic wells. In addition to the routine adult surveys in human dwellings, adult collections were also made in domestic wells using an innovated equipment operating on the principles of spray sheet collections. Above the water surface, wells provide humid and dark microclimate along the inner walls. It has been observed that this microclimate provides very congenial resting place for few mosquito species; specially for the males and for the females between their gonotropic cycles. Larval collections in the wells did not reveal breeding of majority of the mosquito species collected by this technique. Investigations were conducted in 87 wells in 11 localities during 2005. A total of 4969 mosquitos were collected of which 69.1% (3441) were males and 30.9% (1528) were females. From among the mosquitos collected 96.5% were Cu. quinquifasciatus, 0.26% All stephensi, 3.0% Aedes agypti and 0.24% Armegeres sp. The results of the analysis of the physical and chemical parameter of water samples of the study wells before and after the surveys endorsed the utility of this technique for entomological investigations in outbreak situations, for monitoring the liquidation of outbreak foci and for other research purposes.

  7. Oestradiol and Diet Modulate Energy Homeostasis and Hypothalamic Neurogenesis in the Adult Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bless, E. P.; Reddy, T.; Acharya, K. D.; Beltz, B. S.; Tetel, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin and oestradiol have overlapping functions in energy homeostasis and fertility, and receptors for these hormones are localised in the same hypothalamic regions. Although, historically, it was assumed that mammalian adult neurogenesis was confined to the olfactory bulbs and the hippocampus, recent research has found new neurones in the male rodent hypothalamus. Furthermore, some of these new neurones are leptin-sensitive and affected by diet. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that diet and hormonal status modulate hypothalamic neurogenesis in the adult female mouse. Adult mice were ovariectomised and implanted with capsules containing oestradiol (E2) or oil. Within each group, mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or maintained on standard chow (STND). All animals were administered i.c.v. 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for 9 days and sacrificed 34 days later after an injection of leptin to induce phosphorylation of signal transducer of activation and transcription 3 (pSTAT3). Brain tissue was immunohistochemically labelled for BrdU (newly born cells), Hu (neuronal marker) and pSTAT3 (leptin sensitive). Although mice on a HFD became obese, oestradiol protected against obesity. There was a strong interaction between diet and hormone on new cells (BrdU+) in the arcuate, ventromedial hypothalamus and dorsomedial hypothalamus. HFD increased the number of new cells, whereas E2 inhibited this effect. Conversely, E2 increased the number of new cells in mice on a STND diet in all hypothalamic regions studied. Although the total number of new leptin-sensitive neurones (BrdU-Hu-pSTAT3) found in the hypothalamus was low, HFD increased these new cells in the arcuate, whereas E2 attenuated this induction. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the hypothalamic neurogenic niche is modulated by diet and hormonal status and is related to energy homeostasis in female mice. PMID:25182179

  8. Impact characteristics of female children running in adult versus youth shoes of the same size.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Dana; Dufek, Janet S; Mercer, John A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if ground reaction forces were influenced by shoe design (adult vs. youth) for female children when running. Subjects (n = 10, 12.0 ± 1.1 years old; 154 ± 4.9 cm; 46.2 ± 14.3 kg; shoe size 3.5-7 youth) were fit with a shoe model available in youth and adult sizes. Subjects ran 10 trials per shoe condition across a force platform placed in the middle of a 9-m runway. Impact force, second maximum force, loading rate, stance time and average vertical ground reaction forces were recorded for each trial. Shoes underwent a mechanical impact test with peak force, peak acceleration, and percent energy returned recorded. Each variable was compared between shoe conditions. From the impact testing, it was determined that peak force, peak acceleration and percent energy return were 7.1%, 7.1%, and 18.9% greater, respectively, for the youth vs. adult shoe (p < .001). From the running tests, it was determined that loading rate was different (p = .009) between shoe conditions whereas impact force, second maximum force, average force and stance time were not different between shoes (p > .01). Young girls had a greater loading rate when running in youth vs. adult shoes even though the shoe size was the same.

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  10. Identification of wild collected mosquito vectors of diseases using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine; Al Othman, Zeid A; Sallam, Mohamed F

    2013-11-01

    Thirty-three species of mosquitoes have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several of these mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l., Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedimorphus vexans arabiensis (Patton) are known vectors of human and animal diseases. In this study, the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of eight mosquito species using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were analyzed. Wild collected fourth-instar larvae were reared, and single, newly emerged, unfed adult females were used for the analysis. A total of 146-160 peaks were detected from the cuticular extracts by gas chromatography. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD Post Hoc test was used to test for quantitative differences in relative hydrocarbon quantity. In addition, a linear regression model was applied using Enter method to determine the diagnostic peaks for the eight mosquito specimens. The ANOVA test indicated that relative peaks were significant (P < 0.05) when selected pairs of peaks were compared. Also, seven compounds showed qualitative differences among the five mosquito vectors tested. The classes of constituents present were n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, trimethylalkanes, alkenes, branched aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and esters. These compounds have a carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 18 carbons. The most abundant compound in all adult mosquito specimens was n-hexylacrylate [retention time (RT) 6.73 min], which was not detected in Cx. pipiens. In Cx. pipiens, the most abundant peak was benzaldehyde (RT 2.98 min). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a suitable method to identify adult mosquitoes, especially from focal areas of public health concern such as Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. This method allows a wide range of adult collected material to be identified with high accuracy.

  11. Serum adipocytokine profile and metabolic syndrome in young adult female dermatomyositis patients

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marilda Guimarães; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira; de Mello, Suzana Beatriz Veríssimo; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the frequency of metabolic syndrome in young adult female dermatomyositis patients and its possible association with clinical and laboratory dermatomyositis-related features and serum adipocytokines. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 35 dermatomyositis patients and 48 healthy controls. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. RESULTS: Patient age was comparable in the dermatomyositis and control groups, and the median disease duration was 1.0 year. An increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was detected in the dermatomyositis group (34.3% vs. 6.3%; p=0.001). In addition, increased serum adiponectin and resistin levels were noted in contrast to lower leptin levels. In dermatomyositis patients, adipocytokine levels were correlated with the levels of total cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, triglycerides and muscle enzymes. A comparison of dermatomyositis patients with (n=12) and without (n=23) syndrome metabolic revealed that adipocytokine levels were also correlated with age, and that dermatomyositis patients with metabolic syndrome tended to have more disease activity despite similar adipocytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in young adult female dermatomyositis patients and is related to age and disease activity. Moreover, increased serum adiponectin and resistin levels were detected in dermatomyositis patients, but lower serum leptin levels were observed. PMID:28076515

  12. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  13. Autonomic activation associated with ethanol self-administration in adult female P rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Toalston, Jamie E; McKinzie, David L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai; McBride, William J; Murphy, James M

    2008-12-01

    The present study examined changes in heart rate (HR) prior to and during limited access ethanol drinking in adult female P rats. P rats were implanted with radio-telemetric transmitters to measure HR. Daily testing involved a 90-min pre-test period (water only available) and a subsequent 90-min test period [either water (W) or ethanol available]. After a week of habituation, one ethanol group had access to ethanol for 7 weeks (CE), and another ethanol group had access for 4 weeks, was deprived for 2 weeks and then had access for a final week (DEP). Analyses of HR revealed that CE and DEP rats had significantly higher HR than W rats during test periods that ethanol was present and that DEP rats displayed higher HR during the early test period of the ethanol deprivation interval, as well. These data indicate that ethanol drinking induces HR activation in adult female P rats, and that this activation can be conditioned to the test cage environment, paralleling reports on contextual conditioning and cue-reactivity in alcoholics exposed to alcohol-associated stimuli. Therefore, this behavioral test may prove advantageous in screening pharmacotherapies for reducing craving and relapse, which are associated with cue-reactivity in abstinent alcoholics.

  14. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  15. Antenatal betamethasone alters vascular reactivity in adult female ovine cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Eckman, Delrae M; Kerr, Brady A; Fuloria, Mamta; Simandle, Steve A; Watt, Suzanne E; Rose, James C; Figueroa, Jorge P

    2010-10-01

    Although the use of antenatal glucocorticoids has resulted in decreased neonatal morbidity/mortality, recent animal studies have raised concerns regarding adverse effects of these medications on postnatal cardiovascular function. We hypothesized that antenatal betamethasone (Beta) exposure alters cerebral vascular reactivity in adult female sheep. We observed that K-induced constriction was comparable in middle cerebral artery (MCA) from Beta-exposed animals and age-matched controls. Pressure-induced constriction was significantly attenuated in MCA from Beta-exposed compared with control sheep. Inhibition of NOS significantly augmented pressure-induced constriction in MCA from both Beta-exposed and control sheep, whereas cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition augmented pressure-induced constriction only in MCA from Beta-exposed sheep. Furthermore, NOS and COX inhibition significantly attenuated bradykinin (BK)-induced dilation in MCA from both Beta-exposed and control sheep. However, there seemed to be a greater contribution of both NOS and COX to BK-induced dilation in Beta-exposed compared with control MCA. Our findings demonstrate that fetal exposure to a clinically relevant course of Beta alters cerebral vascular tone and reactivity in adult female sheep.

  16. Maternal separation exaggerates spontaneous recovery of extinguished contextual fear in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2014-08-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Patients with PTSD show impaired extinction of traumatic memory, and in women, this occurs more often when PTSD is preceded by child trauma. However, it is still unclear how early life stress accounts for extinction impairment. Here, we studied the effects of maternal separation (MS, postnatal day 2 to 14) on contextual fear extinction in adult female rats. Additionally, to examine changes in synaptic function affected by MS, we measured long-term potentiation (LTP) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in vitro, both of which have been implicated in fear extinction. We found that adult female rats had been subjected to MS exhibited significant spontaneous recovery of fear to the extinguished context. Furthermore, MS exposure resulted in LTP impairment in both infralimbic prefrontal cortex layer 2/3-layer 5 and hippocampal SC-CA1 pathways. Interestingly, no obvious effects of MS on contextual fear conditioning, fear recall as well as extinction training and recall were observed. Innate fear in the elevated plus maze or open field test remained nearly unaffected. These findings provided the first evidence that MS may exaggerate spontaneous recovery after contextual fear extinction, for which LTP impairment in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be responsible, thereby possibly leading to impaired extinction associated with PTSD.

  17. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Marta I; Rodriguez, David A; Kawata, Ariane K; Degboe, Arnold N; Wilcox, Teresa K; Burk, Caroline T; Daniels, Selena R; Roberts, Wendy E

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years), comprising black (30.8%), Hispanic (17.6%), Asian/other (17.3%), and white (34.3%). More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%). Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC) (47.4%) versus prescription medications (16.6%). OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05). The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA) (34.3%) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) (32.1%). Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05), Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0.05), and Asian/other (57.0±32.4 vs 46.9±37.2 days, P>0.05) subjects. Most subjects expected OTC (73.7%) and prescription (74.7%) treatments to work quickly. Fewer than half of the subjects were satisfied with OTC treatment (BP, 47.0%; SA, 43.0%), often due to skin dryness (BP, 26.3%; SA, 44.3%) and flakiness (BP, 12.3%; SA, 31.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups in their level of satisfaction with OTC or

  18. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Fortune, Eric S.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female Starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for three weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  19. Production and Partial Characterization of Stylet Exudate from Adult Females of Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Veech, J. A.; Starr, J. L.; Nordgren, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    Adult females of Meloidogyne incognita were excised from tomato roots and incubated in 0.04 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4 for 18-72 hours to allow accumulation of stylet exudate. Twenty-four percent of the females produced exudate during the initial 18-hour incubation period; 70% of those females producing exudate initially produced additional exudate during the subsequent 54-hour incubation period. Analysis of exudate by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of at least nine major protein bands. Differential staining with silver and Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 stains indicated that three of the bands were glycoproteins. Upon acid hydrolysis, 14 amino acids were detected in the stylet exudate. The basic amino acids lysine, histidine, and arginine comprised 21.8% of the total amino acids detected. No peroxidase activity was detected in the stylet exudates. Data presented extend and generally confirm prior work on the chemical composition of stylet exudate. PMID:19290172

  20. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284–0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202–0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  1. Differential effects of diethylcarbamazine, tetracycline and the combination on Brugia pahangi adult females in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Nipul Kithsiri; Fujimaki, Yasunori; Aoki, Yoshiki; Mishima, Noriko; Ezaki, Takayuki; Uni, Shigehiko; Kimura, Eisaku

    2005-12-01

    Anti-filarial effects of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), tetracycline (TC) and the combination on Brugia pahangi adult females were studied in 7-day cell-free culture, in terms of microfilaria release, parasite motility, MTT assay for parasite viability and embryogram. TC 50 microg/ml (TC50) effectively reduced microfilaria release from day 1 of culture. Combined with DEC 100 microg/ml (DEC100) or DEC 500 microg/ml (DEC500), microfilaria release reduced further and synergistically. TC50 also reduced motility, but DEC100 and DEC500 did not. The combination of TC50 and DEC500 reduced motility synergistically. The MTT assay supported the results of motility study in general. The embryogram showed that only DEC500 reduced the total number of intrauterine embryos, especially ova, indicating that DEC500 inhibited early embryogenesis. TC50 did not affect the total number of embryos, but resulted in apparent accumulation of microfilariae in the uterus, suggesting that the drug inhibited release of microfilariae in this in vitro system. These results clarified different anti-female mechanisms between DEC and TC. A PCR-based study showed that endosymbiont bacteria, Wolbachia, in B. pahangi females decreased significantly after TC treatment. However, this study could not determine whether the effects of TC were direct or Wolbachia-mediated.

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    PubMed Central

    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Knols, Bart G.J.; Samson, Robert A.; Takken, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. PMID:15861235

  3. Amphetamine-induced incentive sensitization of sign-tracking behavior in adolescent and adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Age-specific behavioral and neural characteristics may predispose adolescents to initiate and escalate use of alcohol and drugs. Adolescents may avidly seek novel experiences, including drugs of abuse, because of enhanced incentive motivation for drugs and natural rewards, perhaps especially when that incentive motivation is sensitized by prior drug exposure. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure, sign-tracking (ST) and goal-tracking (GT) behavior was examined in amphetamine-sensitized and control adolescent and adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with expression of elevated ST behavior used to index enhanced incentive motivation for reward-associated cues. Rats were first exposed to a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine injections (3.0 mg/kg/ml d-amphetamine per day) or given saline (0.9% wt/vol) once daily for 4 days. Expression of ST and GT was then examined over 8 days of PCA training consisting of 25 pairings of an 8-s presentation of an illuminated lever immediately followed by response-independent delivery of a banana-flavored food pellet. Results showed that adults clearly displayed more ST behavior than adolescents, reflected via both more contacts with, and shorter latencies to approach, the lever. Prior amphetamine sensitization increased ST (but not GT) behaviors regardless of age. Thus, when indexed via ST, incentive motivation was found to be greater in adults than adolescents, with a prior history of amphetamine exposure generally sensitizing incentive motivation for cues predicting a food reward regardless of age.

  4. Anaerobic cycling performance characteristics in prepubescent, adolescent and young adult females.

    PubMed

    Doré, E; Bedu, M; França, N M; Van Praagh, E

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between short-term power and body dimensions in young females were similar whatever the age of the individuals. A cohort of 189 prepubescent (mean age 9.5 years), adolescent (mean age 14.4 years) and young adult (mean age 18.2 years) females performed three all-out sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer against three braking forces corresponding to applied loads of 25, 50 and 75 g.kg-1 body mass (BM). For each sprint, peak power including flywheel inertia was calculated. Results showed that a braking load of 75 g.kg-1 BM was too high for prepubescent and adolescent girls. Therefore, when measuring short-term cycling performance in heterogeneous female populations, a braking load of 50 g.kg-1 BM (0.495 N.kg-1 BM) is recommended. During growth, cycling peak power (CPP; defined as the highest peak power obtained during the three sprints) increased, as did total BM, fat-free mass (FFM) and lean leg volume (LLV) (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed that the slopes of the linear relationships between CPP and biometric characteristics were similar in the three groups (P > 0.7 for the CPP/BM and CPP/FFM relationships, and P > 0.2 for the CPP/LLV relationship). However, the adjusted means were always significantly higher in young women (P < 0.001) compared with both of the other groups. Although differences in performance during anaerobic cycling in growing females are primarily dependent upon body dimensions, other as yet undetermined factors may be involved during late adolescence.

  5. Estrogen normalizes perinatal nicotine-induced hypertensive responses in adult female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Daliao; Huang, Xiaohui; Yang, Shumei; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-06-01

    Perinatal nicotine exposure caused a sex-dependent heightened vascular response to angiotensin II (Ang II) and increased blood pressure in adult male but not in female rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen normalizes perinatal nicotine-induced hypertensive response to Ang II in female offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth. Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol replacement were performed on 8-week-old female offspring. At 5 months of age, Ang II-induced blood pressure responses were not changed by nicotine treatment in the sham groups. In contrast, nicotine significantly enhanced Ang II-induced blood pressure responses as compared with saline control in the ovariectomy groups, which was associated with increased Ang II-induced vascular contractions. These heightened responses were abrogated by 17β-estradiol replacement. In addition, nicotine enhanced Ang II receptor type I, NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase type 2 protein expressions, and reactive oxygen species production of aortas as compared with saline control in the ovariectomy groups. Antioxidative agents, both apocynin and tempol, inhibited Ang II-induced vascular contraction and eliminated the differences of contractions between nicotine-treated and control ovariectomy rats. These findings support a key role of estrogen in the sex difference of perinatal nicotine-induced programming of vascular dysfunction, and suggest that estrogen may counteract heightened reactive oxygen species production, leading to protection of females from development programming of hypertensive phenotype in adulthood.

  6. Predatory efficiency of the water bug Sphaerodema annulatum on mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus) and its effect on the adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Aditya, G; Bhattacharyya, S; Kundu, N; Saha, G K; Raut, S K

    2004-11-01

    The daily number of IV instar larva of Culex quinquefasciatus killed, rate of pupation and adult emergence was noted in presence of the predatory water bug Sphaerodema annulatum for a period of seven consecutive days, experimentally, in the laboratory. The rate of IV instar larva killed by the water bugs on an average was 65.17 per day. The rate of pupation ranged between 7.6 and 48 in control while in presence of water bugs it ranged between 6 and 35. The rate of adult emergence in control experiments varied between 1.4 and 4.8 per day, which was reduced to only 0.4-28.8 per day in case of the water bugs. The results clearly indicate that the water bugs on its way of predation reduces the rate of pupation and adult emergence of Cx. quinquefasciatus significantly which calls for an extensive field trials.

  7. The discerning predator: decision rules underlying prey classification by a mosquito-eating jumping spider

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes as prey. Previous studies have shown that this predator can identify its preferred prey even when restricted to using only visual cues. Here, we used lures and virtual mosquitoes to investigate the optical cues underlying this predator's prey-choice behaviour. We made lures by dissecting and then reconstructing dead mosquitoes, combining the head plus thorax with different abdomens. Depending on the experiment, lures were either moving or motionless. Findings from the lure experiments suggested that, for E. culicivora, seeing a blood-fed female mosquito's abdomen on a lure was a necessary, but not sufficient, cue by which preferred prey was identified, as cues from the abdomen needed to be paired with cues from the head and thorax of a mosquito. Conversely, when abdomens were not visible or were identical, spiders based their decisions on the appearance of the head plus thorax of mosquitoes, choosing prey with female characteristics. Findings from a subsequent experiment using animated 3D virtual mosquitoes suggest that it is specifically the mosquito's antennae that influence E. culicivora's prey-choice decisions. Our results show that E. culicivora uses a complex process for prey classification. PMID:22675186

  8. Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari

    2004-03-01

    Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.

  9. Spatial and temporal characterization of mosquito distribution and arbovirus transmission activity in St. Johns County, Florida. St. Augustine, FL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global information technology (GIT) (including Global Positioning System [GPS], Geographic Information Systems [GIS], and image analysis) can be used to develop adult mosquito sampling methods and to characterize adult mosquito distributions and disease transmission patterns. At this meeting of v...

  10. 20-hydroxyecdysone mediates non-canonical regulation of mosquito vitellogenins through alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Provost-Javier, K N; Rasgon, J L

    2014-08-01

    Vitellogenesis is one of the most well-studied physiological processes in mosquitoes. Expression of mosquito vitellogenin genes is classically described as being restricted to female adult reproduction. We report premature vitellogenin transcript expression in three vector mosquitoes: Culex tarsalis, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. Vitellogenins expressed during non-reproductive stages are alternatively spliced to retain their first intron and encode premature termination codons. We show that intron retention results in transcript degradation by translation-dependent nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This is probably an example of regulated unproductive splicing and translation (RUST), a mechanism known to regulate gene expression in numerous organisms but which has never been described in mosquitoes. We demonstrate that the hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is responsible for regulating post-transcriptional splicing of vitellogenin. After exposure of previtellogenic fat bodies to 20E, vitellogenin expression switches from a non-productive intron-retaining transcript to a spliced protein-coding transcript. This effect is independent of factors classically known to influence transcription, such as juvenile hormone-mediated competence and amino acid signalling through the target of rapamycin pathway. Non-canonical regulation of vitellogenesis through RUST is a novel role for the multifunctional hormone 20E, and may have important implications for general patterns of gene regulation in mosquitoes.

  11. Aestivation of the African Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae in the Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Tovi; Dao, Adama; Yaro, Alpha Seydou; Adamou, Abdoulaye; Kassogue, Yaya; Diallo, Moussa; Sékou, Traoré; Coscaron-Arias, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, inhabits diverse environments including dry savannas, where surface waters required for larval development are absent for 4–8 months per year. Under such conditions, An. gambiae virtually disappears. Whether populations survive the long dry season by aestivation (a dormant state promoting extended longevity during the summer) or are reestablished by migrants from distant locations where larval sites persist has remained an enigma for over 60 years. Resolving this question is important, because fragile dry season populations may be more susceptible to control. Here, we show unequivocally that An. gambiae aestivates based on a demographic study and a mark release–recapture experiment spanning the period from the end of one wet season to the beginning of the next. During the dry season, An. gambiae was barely detectable in Sahelian villages of Mali. Five days after the first rain, before a new generation of adults could be produced, mosquito abundance surged 10-fold, implying that most mosquitoes were concealed locally until the rain. Four days after the first rain, a marked female An. gambiae s.s. was recaptured. Initially captured, marked, and released at the end of the previous wet season, she has survived the 7-month-long dry season. These results provide evidence that An. gambiae persists throughout the dry season by aestivation and open new questions for mosquito and parasite research. Improved malaria control by targeting aestivating mosquitoes using existing or novel strategies may be possible. PMID:20810827

  12. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the thiamin status of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Basu, T K; Aksoy, M; Dickerson, J W

    1979-01-01

    The effect of 5-fluorouracil on the thiamin status of normal female adult rats has been investigated. Pre-treatment of the animals with the cytotoxic drug daily for 3 successive days resulted in a significant decrease in hepatic concentrations of thiamin concomitant with a decrease in thiamin-dependent transketolase enzyme activity and an increase in thiamin-pyrophosphate-(TPP-)stimulating effect in whole blood when compared with those of pair-fed control animals. The TPP effect of transketolase enzyme activity was also increased by 5-fluorouracil in vitro. Furthermore, the treatment with 5-fluorouracil resulted in decreased liver and spleen concentrations without affecting the urinary excretory levels of thiamin in animals supplemented with large doses of the vitamin. Giving a dose comparable to a human therapeutic dose caused a similar increase in the TPP effect. These results indicate that treatment with 5-fluorouracil may be associated with thiamin deficiency by increasing either the utilization or the breakdown of thiamin.

  13. Cyproterone acetate in the treatment of acne vulgaris in adult females.

    PubMed

    Hansted, B; Reymann, F

    1982-02-01

    22 adult females with therapy-resistant acne vulgaris were treated for 12 months with Diane, a drug containing cyproterone acetate and ethinylestradiol. Treatment was withdrawn in 7 patients because of side-effects of lack of of effect. In the remaining 15 patients, the treatment had extremely promising results, from 70 to 90% improvement of the acne. In a remarkably high number of patients, the androgen production, measured by the urinary excretion of fractional 17-ketosteroids, was elevated. None of these patients had signs of endocrinological diseases, in particular no cases of hirsutism of Stein-Leventhal syndrome were found. The current concept of the course of acne is that the conversion in the skin of testosterone to dehydrotestosterone is increased. The finding of an elevated urinary excretion of androgenic substances in this group of acne patients indicates that the pathogenesis is far more complicated.

  14. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, Thomas C.; Mondragon, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

  15. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  16. Association between hair mineral and age, BMI and nutrient intakes among Korean female adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  18. Sexually dimorphic body size and development time plasticity in Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wormington, Jillian D.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). Goal To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Organisms Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Results Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD. PMID:25663826

  19. Specific detection of the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans DNA in predatory diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Vinnersten, Thomas Z Persson; Halvarsson, Peter; Lundström, Jan O

    2015-08-01

    Floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are associated with periodically flooded wet meadows, marshes, and swamps in floodplains of major rivers worldwide, and their larvae are abundant in the shallow parts of flooded areas. The nuisance caused by the blood-seeking adult female mosquitoes motivates mosquito control. Larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is considered the most environmentally safe method. However, some concern has been raised whether aquatic predatory insects could be indirectly affected by this reduction in a potential vital prey. Top predators in the temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains are diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Aedes sticticus and Ae. vexans are the target species for mosquito control. For detailed studies on this aquatic predator-prey system, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of mosquito DNA in the guts of medium-sized diving beetles. Primers were designed for amplifying short mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans, respectively. Primer specificity was confirmed and half-life detectability of Ae. sticticus DNA in diving beetle guts was derived from a feeding and digestion experiment. The Ae. sticticus DNA within diving beetle guts was detected up to 12 h postfeeding, and half-life detectability was estimated to 5.6 h. In addition, field caught diving beetles were screened for Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans DNA and in 14% of the diving beetles one or both mosquito species were detected, showing that these mosquito species are utilized as food by the diving beetles.

  20. Descriptions of the final stadium larva and female adult of Coeliccia mingxiensis Xu (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-han

    2013-01-01

    The final stadium larva of Coeliccia mingxiensis Xu is described and illustrated. The female adult is also described for the first time. The larva can be easily separated from all known Coeliccia larvae by the following distinct morphological characters: (1) prementum longest in all known Coeliccia larvae; median lobe with 4 pairs of premental setae and palpal lobe with 6 palpal setae; (2) caudal gills shortest of all known Coeliccia larvae when compared with body length; median gill rounded at apex and lateral gill with a small median projection at apex. The female is similar to the male in many respects, differing chiefly in several respects as follows: the transverse yellow band on vertex of head broader and straighter than in male; antehumeral stripe on mesepisternum somewhat incurved basally, not forming a strong hook, which is present in male; distal abdomen with obviously different colour pattern; anal appendages brownish-black, shorter than S10; vulvar scales robust, brownish-yellow, projecting well beyond end of abdomen.

  1. Social experience modulates ocular dominance plasticity differentially in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Balog, Jenny; Matthies, Ulrike; Naumann, Lisa; Voget, Mareike; Winter, Christine; Lehmann, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to regulate brain plasticity. We investigated the potential influence of social experience on ocular dominance plasticity. Fully adult female or male mice were monocularly deprived for four days and kept a) either alone or in pairs of the same sex and b) either in a small cage or a large, featureless arena. While mice kept alone did not show ocular dominance plasticity, no matter whether in a cage or in an arena, paired female mice in both environmental conditions displayed a shift of ocular dominance towards the open eye. Paired male mice, in contrast, showed no plasticity in the cage, but a very strong ocular dominance shift in the arena. This effect was not due to increased locomotion, since the covered distance was similar in single and paired male mice in the arena, and furnishing cages with a running wheel did not enable ocular dominance plasticity in cage-housed mice. Confirming recent results in rats, the plasticity-enhancing effect of the social environment was shown to be mediated by serotonin. Our results demonstrate that social experience has a strong effect on cortical plasticity that is sex-dependent. This has potential consequences both for animal research and for human education and rehabilitation.

  2. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  3. Estradiol, progesterone and prolactin modulate mammary gland morphogenesis in adult female plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    PubMed

    Halperin, Julia; Dorfman, Veronica B; Fraunhoffer, Nicolas; Vitullo, Alfredo D

    2013-06-01

    We studied for the first time the mammary gland morphogenesis and its hormonal modulation by immunolocalizing estradiol, progesterone and prolactin receptors (ER, PR and PRLR) in adult females of Lagostomus maximus, a caviomorph rodent which shows a pseudo-ovulatory process at mid-gestation. Mammary ductal system of non-pregnant females lacks expression of both ERα and ERβ. Yet throughout pregnancy, ERα and ERβ levels increase as well as the expression of PR. These increments are concomitant with ductal branching and alveolar differentiation. Even though mammary gland morphology is quite similar to that described for other rodents, alveolar proliferation and differentiation are accelerated towards the second half of pregnancy, once pseudo-ovulation had occurred. Moreover, this exponential growth correlates with an increment of both progesterone and estradiol serum-induced pseudo-ovulation. As expected, PR and PRLR are strongly expressed in the alveolar epithelium during pregnancy and lactation. Strikingly, PRLR is also present in ductal epithelia of cycling glands suggesting that prolactin function may not be restricted to its trophic effect on mammary glands of pregnant and lactating females, but it also regulates other physiological processes in mammary glands of non-pregnant animals. In conclusion, this report suggests that pseudo-ovulation at mid-gestation may be associated to L. maximus mammary gland growth and differentiation. The rise in P and E2-induced pseudo-ovulation as well as the increased expression of their receptors, all events that correlate with the development of a more elaborated and differentiated ductal network, pinpoint a possible relation between this peculiar physiological event and mammary gland morphogenesis.

  4. Young adult donor bone marrow infusions into female mice postpone age-related reproductive failure and improve offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Selesniemi, Kaisa; Lee, Ho-Joon; Niikura, Teruko; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2008-11-14

    The female reproductive axis is the first major organ system of the body to fail with advancing age. In addition to a permanent cessation of fertile potential, the loss of cyclic ovarian function in humans heralds the onset of menopause, which in turn underlies the emergence of a diverse spectrum of health issues in aging women. Recently, it was reported that bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) into adult female mice conditioned a week earlier with highly cytotoxic drugs rescues ovarian function and fertility. Herein we show in mice receiving no prior conditioning regimen that once-monthly infusions of BM-derived cells retrieved from young adult female donors bearing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene sustain the fertile potential of aging wild-type females long past their time of normal reproductive senescence. The fertility-promoting effects of female donor BM are observed regardless whether the infusions are initiated in young adult or middle-aged females. Although the mechanism by which BM infusions benefit the reproductive performance of aging females remains to be elucidated, the absence of EGFP-expressing offspring suggests that it does not depend on development of mature eggs derived from germline-committed cells in the donor marrow. However, donor BM-derived somatic cells accumulate in the recipients, indicating efficient donor cell engraftment without prior conditioning. These findings provide a strong impetus to further explore development of adult stem cell-based technologies to safely extend function of the female reproductive axis into advanced age without the need for toxic pre-conditioning protocols routinely used in other models of stem cell delivery.

  5. Prenatal stress affects placental cytokines and neurotrophins, commensal microbes, and anxiety-like behavior in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Gur, Tamar L; Shay, Lena; Palkar, Aditi Vadodkar; Fisher, Sydney; Varaljay, Vanessa A; Dowd, Scot; Bailey, Michael T

    2016-12-24

    Recent studies demonstrate that exposure to stress changes the composition of the intestinal microbiota, which is associated with development of stress-induced changes to social behavior, anxiety, and depression. Stress during pregnancy has also been related to the emergence of these disorders; whether commensal microbes are part of a maternal intrauterine environment during prenatal stress is not known. Here, we demonstrate that microbiome changes are manifested in the mother, and also found in female offspring in adulthood, with a correlation between stressed mothers and female offspring. Alterations in the microbiome have been shown to alter immune responses, thus we examined cytokines in utero. IL-1β was increased in placenta and fetal brain from offspring exposed to the prenatal stressor. Because IL-1β has been shown to prevent induction of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we examined BDNF and found a reduction in female placenta and adult amygdala, suggesting in utero impact on neurodevelopment extending into adulthood. Furthermore, gastrointestinal microbial communities were different in adult females born from stressed vs. non-stressed pregnancies. Adult female offspring also demonstrated increased anxiety-like behavior and alterations in cognition, suggesting a critical window where stress is able to influence the microbiome and the intrauterine environment in a deleterious manner with lasting behavioral consequences. The microbiome may be a key link between the intrauterine environment and adult behavioral changes.

  6. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently.

  7. Distribution and posttranslational modification of synaptic ERα in the adult female rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza; Woolley, Catherine S

    2013-02-01

    Acute 17β-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat hippocampus. We find that ERα is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ERα is associated with both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ERα in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ERα runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ERα from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ERα on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ERα in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain.

  8. Differences in Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae) hemolymph proteome between subadult and adult females.

    PubMed

    Trabalon, Marie; Carapito, Christine; Voinot, Florian; Martrette, Jean-Marc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Gilbert, Caroline; Bertile, Fabrice

    2010-12-01

    The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a combination of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The different structures determined along with possible post-translational modifications may reflect a role of hemocyanin in molting, immunity, and reproduction. In addition, despite no precise identification, additional peptide sequences from eight protein bands (four bands >200 kDa and four bands in the 95-200 kDa mass range) were determined. As reported in other spider species, the putative corresponding structures are the coagulogen protein and/or lipoproteins (HDL-1, HDL-2, VHDL) for which quantitative differences between adult and subadult individuals could be related to the molting process and/or cuticle lipid and protein composition according to the developmental stage.

  9. Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne in adult females: case reports.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Diez, E; Hofmann, M A; Bravo, B; Malgazhdarova, G; Katkhanova, O A; Yutskovskaya, Y

    2014-01-01

    Acne, one of the most common skin problems in dermatological practice, is a condition that affects not only adolescents but also adults. While approximately 80% of cases occurring in adulthood are persistent from teenage years, around 20% are described as 'late-onset' disease, appearing for the first time in adulthood. The disease can be triggered by hormonal changes (including a change from one contraceptive to another), or it can be induced by certain nonhormonal medications, emotional stress, and various underlying diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. In many cases acne becomes a chronic skin condition with undulating activity, including improvement and relapse phases, and is often experienced as a major psychological burden. It is, therefore, even more important to provide an effective as well as a safe and tolerable treatment. The spectrum of topical acne treatments has expanded substantially in recent years and various topical medications are available, ranging from azelaic acid, antibiotics, retinoids and benzoyl peroxide to several fixed combinations of these active compounds. The following case collection illustrates how 15% azelaic acid gel, as a well-established monotherapy, can be successfully employed to treat mild-to-moderate forms of adult female acne.

  10. Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen to Mark Wild Populations of Anopheles and Aedes Mosquitoes in South-Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Mercy A.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Auckland, Lisa D.; Majambere, Silas; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marking wild mosquitoes is important for understanding their ecology, behaviours and role in disease transmission. Traditional insect marking techniques include using fluorescent dyes, protein labels, radioactive labels and tags, but such techniques have various limitations; notably low marker retention and inability to mark wild mosquitoes at source. Stable isotopes are gaining wide spread use for non-invasive marking of arthropods, permitting greater understanding of mosquito dispersal and responses to interventions. We describe here a simple technique for marking naturally-breeding malaria and dengue vectors using stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N) and carbon (13C), and describe potential field applications. Methods We created man-made aquatic mosquito habitats and added either 15N-labelled potassium nitrate or 13C-labelled glucose, leaving non-adulterated habitats as controls. We then allowed wild mosquitoes to lay eggs in these habitats and monitored their development in situ. Pupae were collected promptly as they appeared and kept in netting cages. Emergent adults (in pools of ~4 mosquitoes/pool) and individually stored pupae were desiccated and analysed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS). Findings Anopheles gambiae s.l and Aedes spp. from enriched 13C and enriched 15N larval habitats had significantly higher isotopic levels than controls (P = 0.005), and both isotopes produced sufficient distinction between marked and unmarked mosquitoes. Mean δ15N for enriched females and males were 275.6±65.1 and 248.0±54.6, while mean δ15N in controls were 2.1±0.1 and 3.9±1.7 respectively. Similarly, mean δ13C for enriched females and males were 36.08±5.28 and 38.5±6.86, compared to -4.3±0.2 and -7.9±3.6 in controls respectively. Mean δ15N and δ13C was significantly higher in any pool containing at least one enriched mosquito compared to pools with all unenriched mosquitoes, P<0.001. In all cases, there were variations in standardized

  11. Mosquito Oviposition Behavior and Vector Control.

    PubMed

    Day, Jonathan F

    2016-11-18

    The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation. An understanding of mosquito oviposition behavior is necessary for the development of surveillance and control opportunities directed against specific disease vectors. For example, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is the vector of viruses causing important human diseases including yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. The preference of this species to oviposit in natural and artificial containers has facilitated the development of Ae. aegypti-specific surveillance and toxic oviposition traps designed to detect and control this important vector species in and around disease foci. A better understanding of the wide diversity of mosquito oviposition behavior will allow the development of new and innovative surveillance and control devices directed against other important mosquito vectors of human and animal disease.

  12. Mosquito Oviposition Behavior and Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation. An understanding of mosquito oviposition behavior is necessary for the development of surveillance and control opportunities directed against specific disease vectors. For example, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is the vector of viruses causing important human diseases including yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. The preference of this species to oviposit in natural and artificial containers has facilitated the development of Ae. aegypti-specific surveillance and toxic oviposition traps designed to detect and control this important vector species in and around disease foci. A better understanding of the wide diversity of mosquito oviposition behavior will allow the development of new and innovative surveillance and control devices directed against other important mosquito vectors of human and animal disease. PMID:27869724

  13. Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Narayanan, Raman; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2017-04-01

    Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. They increased repellency (maximum repellency at 100 ppm) in host-seeking adult females using the "arm-in cage assay." Histopathological examination showed the extracts led to serious midgut cell damage. Justicia adhatoda extracts led to reduced fecundity and oviposition of gravid females compared to controls. The extracts led to substantially reduced A. aegypti survival. We infer that the extracts have potential to reduce pathogen transmission by suppressing population growth of A. aegypti, and possibly other mosquito species.

  14. Coordinated changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. A decrease in JH titer during the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa once again synthesizes JH, which plays an essential role in orchestrating reproductive maturation. In spite of the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector, a detailed study of the changes of JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle has never been performed. In the present studies, using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FD) method, we measured changes in JH levels in the hemolymph of female mosquitoes during the pupal and adult stages. Our results revealed tightly concomitant changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle of female mosquito. Feeding high sugar diets resulted in an increase of JH titers, and mating also modified JH titers in hemolymph. In addition these studies confirmed that JH titer in mosquitoes is fundamentally determined by the rate of biosynthesis in the CA.

  15. Blood pressure in rural and urban adult healthy females of Jat Sikh community in Punjab, North India: an epidemiologic profile.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, S; Badaruddoza; Kaur, A

    2004-06-01

    Blood pressure readings were collected from 1042 adult females of rural and urban Jat Sikh community of Punjab, a north Indian State. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight and skinfold thickness were also collected. The difference between rural and urban females in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure was found to be statistically significant. All anthropometric variables and age have a significant positive association with blood pressure. The effects of anthropometric variables on blood pressure were assessed simultaneously through stepwise multiple regression analysis. All 'F' ratios have been found highly significant (p < 0.001) among both rural and urban female population.

  16. DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Scaife, Sarah; Alphey, Luke; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2013-06-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. The expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.

  17. Genetically Modified (GM) Mosquito Use to Reduce Mosquito-Transmitted Disease in the US: A Community Opinion Survey

    PubMed Central

    Adalja, Amesh; Sell, Tara Kirk; McGinty, Meghan; Boddie, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika, pose a public health threat to the US, particularly Florida, the Gulf Coast states, and Hawaii. Recent autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya in Florida, the recent dengue outbreak in Hawaii, and the potential for future local spread of Zika in the US, has led to the consideration of novel approaches to mosquito management. One such novel approach, the release of sterile genetically modified mosquitoes, has been proposed as a possible intervention, and a trial release of GM mosquitoes is being considered in one Florida community. However, this proposal has been controversial. The objective of this research was to increase understanding of community knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mosquito control and GM mosquitoes.   Methods: An 18-question self-administered survey was mailed to all households in the identified Key West, Florida neighborhood where a GM mosquito trial has been proposed. This survey was fielded between July 20, 2015 and November 1, 2015. The main outcome variable was opposition to the use of GM mosquitoes. Measures included demographic information and opinions on mosquitoes, mosquito control, and vector-borne diseases.   Results: A majority of survey respondents did not support use of GM mosquitoes as a mosquito control method. Discussion: Reasons for opposition included general fears about possible harmful impacts of this intervention, specific worries about human and animal health impacts from the GM mosquitoes, and environmental concerns about potential negative effects on the ecosystem. Residents were more likely to oppose GM mosquito use if they had a low perception of the potential risks posed by diseases like dengue and chikungunya, if they were female, and if they were less concerned about the need to control mosquitoes in general. These findings suggest a need for new approaches to risk communication, including

  18. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti ) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg).

    PubMed

    Jones, A Maxwell P; Klun, Jerome A; Cantrell, Charles L; Ragone, Diane; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Brown, Paula N; Murch, Susan J

    2012-04-18

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis , Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most active, the hydrodistillate, was used for bioassay-guided fractionation. The hydrodistillate and all fractions displayed significant deterrent activity. Exploratory GC-MS analysis revealed more than 100 distinctive peaks, and more than 30 compounds were putatively identified, including a mixture of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, and aromatics. A systematic bioassay-directed study using adult Aedes aegypti females identified capric, undecanoic, and lauric acid as primary deterrent constituents. A synthetic mixture of fatty acids present in the most active fraction and individual fatty acids were all significantly more active than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). These results provide support for this traditional practice and indicate the potential of male breadfruit flowers and fatty acids as mosquito repellents.

  19. Coetzeemyia, a new subgenus of Aedes, and a Redescription of the Holotype Female of Aedes (Coetzeemyia) fryeri (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-06

    abbreviations M (= male), F (= female), P (= pupa ), and L (= larva) indicates that all or some portion of that sex or stage is illustrated. Sixteen species...Verteneuil, Brussels. Fascicle, 194, 258 pp., 5 pl. Edwards, F.W. (1941) Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian region. III. Culicine adults and pupae . British Museum

  20. Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Saravanan; Huang, Jing; Hart, Charles E.; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that a number of mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens are vertically transmitted in their insect vectors, providing a mechanism for these arboviruses to persist during adverse climatic conditions or in the absence of a susceptible vertebrate host. In this study, designed to test whether Zika virus (ZIKV) could be vertically transmitted, female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were injected with ZIKV, and their F1 adult progeny were tested for ZIKV infection. Six of 69 Ae. aegypti pools, comprised of a total of 1,738 F1 adults, yielded ZIKV upon culture, giving a minimum filial infection rate of 1:290. In contrast, none of 803 F1 Ae. albopictus adults (32 pools) yielded ZIKV. The MFIR for Ae. aegypti was comparable to MFIRs reported for other flaviviruses in mosquitoes, including dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. The results suggest that vertical transmission may provide a potential mechanism for the virus to survive during adverse conditions. PMID:27573623

  1. Analysis of Factors Causing Adult Female Learners to Drop out of E-Learning Courses in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Park, Soon-Shin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adult female learners' dropout in e-learning courses, and to suggest possible solutions to problem of high dropout rates in Korea. To identify the factors, we analyzed the literature and developed a questionnaire consisting of 9 possible factors and 16 items. Data gathered…

  2. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo-yong; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients. PMID:26981099

  3. Female Adult Learners in Rural Community Colleges: A Case Study of Role Perception and Navigation for Student Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tara Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Female adult learners, the fastest growing subpopulation in community colleges, face challenges navigating domestic, professional, and academic roles and take time off from school to reconcile issues with multiple role navigation; thus, their education is disjointed and staggered, creating barriers to persistence. This interpretive design…

  4. Mosquito Surveillance Revealed Lagged Effects of Mosquito Abundance on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission: A Retrospective Study in Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008–2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008–2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0–2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008–2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008–2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0–2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

  5. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Suman, Devi S; Wang, Yi; Gaugler, Randy

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9%) and fully embryonated (74.7%) eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days) compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days). The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations.

  6. Effects of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) on Oocyte and Fertility of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Ghasemi, Aazam; Alaee, Sanaz; Aliabadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background Our previous studies revealed Anethum graveolens L. caused some changes in female reproductive system that induced infertility. Therefore, in this study, oocyte changes as one of probable reasons of infertility were investigated. Methods In this study, 59 adult female rats were divided into 3 groups of control, low dose (0.5 g/kg) and high dose (5 g/kg) of dill seed aqueous extract (LDE and HDE) treated groups that were gavaged with 1 ml of each dose for 10 days (2 estrous cycles). Vaginal smears were prepared daily. Oocytes of superovulated animals were extracted and their morphometrical changes were measured (n = 5). Oocyte cell membrane glycoconjugates were stained with UEA, PNA, and DBA-FITC lectins (n = 5). Ultrastructural studies of oocytes were performed using TEM (n = 5). The number, weight, and crown-rump length of newborns were examined in three groups after mating with untreated males (n = 5). Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Results demonstrated that the duration of the estrous cycle, the diestrus phase and progesterone concentration in the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Granulosa cells of corpus luteum in HDE-treated group were larger and clearer. The intensity reactions of galactose/Nacetylgalactoseamine terminal sugar of oocyte decreased insignificantly in experimental groups compared to the control group p > 0.05. Duration of mating to pregnancy increased and the weight and crown-rump length of newborns decreased in experimental groups significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusion Dill seed aqueous extract can induce infertility without any effect on oocyte structure. PMID:25717430

  7. Adult Female Rats Altered Diurnal Locomotor Activity Pattern Following Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T.; Kohllepin, S; Yang, P.B.; Burau, K.D.; Dafny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed pharmacological agents and also used as cognitive enhancement and for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the repetitive dose-response effects of MPD on rhythm locomotor activity pattern of female WKY rats and compare to prior study done on male. The hypothesis is that change in the circadian activity pattern indicates a long-lasting effect of the drug. Four animal groups (saline control, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD dose groups) were housed in a sound-controlled room at 12:12 light/dark cycle. All received saline injections on experimental day 1 (ED 1). On EDs 2-7, the control group received saline injection; the other groups received 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg MPD, respectively. On ED 8-10, injections were withheld. On ED 11, each group received the same dose as EDs 2-7. Hourly histograms and cosine statistical analyses calculating the acrophase (ϕ), amplitude (A), and MESOR (M) were applied to assess the 24-hour circadian activity pattern. The 0.6 and 2.5 mg/kg MPD groups exhibited significant (p<0.05) change in their circadian activity pattern on ED 11. The 10.0 mg/kg MPD group exhibited tolerance on ED 11 and also a significant change in activity pattern on ED 8 compared to ED 1, consistent with withdrawal behavior (p<0.007). In conclusion, chronic MPD administration alters circadian locomotor activity of adult female WKY rats and confirms that chronic MPD use elicits long lasting effects PMID:23893293

  8. Physical activity of adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Hunnell, Nathan A; Rockcastle, Nathan J; McCormick, Kristen N; Sinko, Laurel K; Sullivan, Elinor L; Cameron, Judy L

    2007-06-01

    Physical activity is an important physiological variable impacting on a number of systems in the body. In rodents and several species of domestic animals, levels of physical activity have been reported to vary across the estrous cycle; however, it is unclear whether such changes in activity occur in women and other primates across the menstrual cycle. To determine whether significant changes in activity occur over the menstrual cycle, we continuously measured physical activity in seven adult female rhesus monkeys by accelerometry over the course of one menstrual cycle. Monkeys were checked daily for menses, and daily blood samples were collected for measurement of reproductive hormones. All monkeys displayed ovulatory menstrual cycles, ranging from 23 to 31 days in length. There was a significant increase in estradiol from the early follicular phase to the day of ovulation (F(1.005,5.023) = 40.060, P = 0.001). However, there was no significant change in physical activity across the menstrual cycle (F(2,12) = 0.225, P = 0.802), with activity levels being similar in the early follicular phase, on the day of the preovulatory rise in estradiol and during the midluteal phase. Moreover, the physical activity of these monkeys was not outside the range of physical activity that we measured in 15 ovariectomized monkeys. We conclude that, in primates, physical activity does not change across the menstrual cycle and is not influenced by physiological changes in circulating estradiol. This finding will allow investigators to record physical activity in female primates without the concern of controlling for the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  9. Isolations of Jamestown canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: California serogroup) from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the western United States, 1990-1992.

    PubMed

    Hardy, J L; Eldridge, B F; Reeves, W C; Schutz, S J; Presser, S B

    1993-11-01

    Nearly 80,000 immature and adult mosquitoes in three genera were collected in high-elevation (> 1,000 m) areas of California (68,229), Nevada (3,721), Oregon (5,918), and Washington (1,629) during 1990-1992 and tested for virus as adult males or females in 1,799 pools. Collections comprised primarily alpine Aedes in the Aedes communis (De Geer) group of the subgenus Ochlerotatus. Thirteen strains of Jamestown Canyon (JC) virus were recovered by plaque assay in Vero cell culture from three members of the Ae. communis group: 10 from Aedes tahoensis Dyar, 2 from Aedes cataphylla Dyar, and 1 from Aedes hexodontus Dyar. All isolates came from collections made in Alpine, Sierra, Tulare, or Tuolumne counties in the Sierra Nevada of California. Vertical transmission of JC virus in all three mosquito species was demonstrated by the isolation of virus from adult males or females reared from field-collected larvae or pupae. The prevalence of infected Ae. tahoensis was significantly higher in field-collected adult females than in reared adult males and females in Alpine County, which indicated that JC virus was being amplified by horizontal transmission. This study further incriminated Ae. tahoensis, Ae. cataphylla, and Ae. hexodontus as natural vectors of JC virus in California and greatly extended the known geographical range of this virus in the Sierra Nevada.

  10. Effects of combined traditional Chinese exercises on blood pressure and arterial function of adult female hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihong; Li, Ning; Sun, Junzhi; Su, Quansheng

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of combined traditional Chinese physical and mental exercises on the blood pressure of adult female hypertensive patients. Twenty female hypertensive patients aged between 50 and 60 years voluntarily participated in the study. The participants performed the combined exercises for 24 weeks, twice a week, and 60 min each time in low-to-moderate intensity. After the 24-week training, the participants showed significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.000), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.006), pulse pressure (p = 0.001), and right ankle brachial pressure index (p = 0.041). The combined Chinese traditional physical and mental exercises were found to have beneficial effects on adult female hypertensive patients.

  11. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    It is generally believed that butterflies (and other holometabolous insects) rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction, whereas the carbohydrate-rich adult diet is thought to mainly cover energy requirements. In at least some species though, realization of the full reproductive potential is extensively affected by post-eclosion nutrition. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of adult-derived amino acids and micronutrients is controversial and largely unknown, respectively. We here focus on the effects of different adult diets on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). Carbohydrates were the most important adult-derived nutrients affecting reproduction. Adding amino acids, vitamins or minerals to sucrose-based solutions did not yield a reproductive output equivalent to that of fruit-fed females, which showed the highest performance throughout. This suggests that either not yet identified compounds of fruit substantially contribute to reproduction, or that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance. Apart from adult income, realized fecundity depended on egg size and longevity, with the former dominating when dietary quality was low, but the latter when quality was high. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off seems to be affected by female nutrition.

  12. Topically Applied AaeIAP1 Double-Stranded RNA Kills Female Adults of Aedes aegypti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    down speciÞc gene expression by RNAi (Araujo et al. 2006). Topical application using dsRNA directly against an insect has never been reported. Herein...control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control in recent years. As a part of our... insects have developed resis- tance to insecticides, resulting in signiÞcant loss of efÞcacy to commonly used insecticides. Therefore, there is

  13. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  14. The Effect of Resistant Soybean on Male and Female Development and Adult Sex Ratios of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Colgrove, A. L.; Niblack, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether currently used sources of resistance (soybean Plant Introductions [PI] 548402, 88788, 90763, 437654, 209332, 89772, and 548316) influence sex ratios in H. glycines, four inbred lines of the nematode characterized by zero or high numbers of females on resistant soybean were used to observe the number of adult males produced. Nematodes were allowed to infect soybean roots for 5 days in pasteurized sand. Infected plants were washed and transferred to hydroponic culture tubes. Males were collected every 2 to 3 days up to 30 days after infestation (DAI), and females were collected at 30 DAI. Resistance that suppressed adult females also altered adult male numbers. On PI 548402, 90763, and 437654, male numbers were low and close to zero, whereas on PI 88788, male numbers were higher (α = 0.05). In a separate experiment, the same PIs were infected by an inbred line that tested as an HG Type 0 (i.e., the numbers of females that developed on each PI were less than 10% of the number that developed on the standard susceptible soybean cultivar Lee). In this experiment, male numbers were similar to female numbers on PI 548402, 90763, 437654, and 89772, whereas male numbers on PI 88788, 209332, and 548316 were higher than those of females (α = 0.05). In all experiments, the total number of adults that developed to maturity relative to the number of second-stage juveniles that initially penetrated the root was less on resistant than on susceptible soybean (P ≤ 0.05), indicating that resistance influenced H. glycines survival and not sexual development. PMID:19262856

  15. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kevin; Lawry, S. Terese; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle. PMID:27642754

  16. Bloodmeal host congregation and landscape structure impact the estimation of female mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance using dry ice-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Tara; Nelms, Brittany; Reisen, William K

    2011-05-01

    Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency.

  17. Bloodmeal Host Congregation and Landscape Structure Impact the Estimation of Female Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Using Dry Ice-Baited Traps

    PubMed Central

    THIEMANN, TARA; NELMS, BRITTANY; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency. PMID:21661310

  18. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English

    PubMed Central

    Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17 500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [ɹ] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

  19. Effect of an Eight-Week Ballroom Dancing Program on Muscle Architecture in Older Adults Females.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Christina C P; Lodovico, Angélica; Fowler, Neil; Rodacki, André L F

    2015-10-01

    Aging is related to a progressive remodeling of the neuromuscular system, which includes muscle mass, strength, and power reductions. This study investigated the effect of an eight-week dance program on fascicle pennation angle, fascicle length, and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles using ultrasound images. Thirty-four healthy older women were randomly assigned to either a dancing (DG: n = 19, 69.1 ± 6.5 years, 72.5 ± 11.7 kg) or control group (CG: n = 15, 71.5 ± 7.4 years, 70.9 ± 9.3 kg). After training, the DG showed greater (p < .05) thickness for VL (16%), TA (17%), BF (19%), and GM (15%); pennation angle for VL (21%), TA (23%), BF (21%), and GM (17%); and fascicle length for VL (11%), TA (12%), BF (10%), and GM (10%). These findings suggest that dance training was effective to change the lower limb muscle architecture in older female adults.

  20. Survival and other observations of adult female northern pintails molting in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Fleskes, J.P.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Survival rates of nine adult female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) that became flightless after being radio-marked in the Sacramento Valley, California in August 1987-1989 were estimated. Seven of the radio-marked pintails molted in the Sacramento Valley, a nontraditional molting region, and two flew 280 km north to the Klamath Basin to molt. Molting marshes were dominated by emergent vegetation in both locations. Two ducks, while flightless in the Sacramento Valley, were killed by predators. Molting pintails remained sedentary (did not fly) for an average of 36 d, and the daily survival rate during this period was 0.9934. The resulting sedentary-period survival rate was 0.79. Primary feather 9 on two captive ducks grew an average of 4.2 mm per day. Mean body mass of molting ducks that died was lower than that for molting ducks that survived (P < 0.10). The number of pintails molting on Sacramento Valley refuges is probably <200.

  1. Round and Round and Round We Go: Behavior of Adult Female Mice on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011) emphasized the importance of long duration rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at Ames Research Center. Here we present a video-based behavioral analysis of ten C57BL6 female adult mice exposed to a total of 37 days in space compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight and Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including feeding, drinking, exploratory behavior, grooming, and social interactions. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice. Spontaneous, organized circling or race-tracking behavior emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. I will summarize qualitative observations and quantitative comparisons of mice in microgravity and 1g conditions. Behavioral phenotyping revealed important insights into the overall health and adaptation of mice to the space environment, and identified unique behaviors that can guide future habitat development and research on rodents in space.

  2. Morphometric analysis of corpus allatum cells in adult females of three cockroach species.

    PubMed

    Chiang, A S; Gadot, M; Schal, C

    1989-12-01

    The number of cells and their sizes in the corpus allatum (CA) of adult female Blattella germanica, Supella longipalpa and Diploptera punctata were determined during oocyte maturation. Cell number and size were directly measured in cell suspensions following enzymatic dissociation of freshly excised CA. Cell numbers were verified by total cell counts in whole-mount CA monolayers and by hemocytometric sampling. In all three species, cell number did not change during the period of CA activation, averaging ca. 2000 cells per gland in B. germanica, 3500 cells per gland in S. longipalpa and 11,000 cells per gland in D. punctata. Cell diameter increased significantly in all three species during this period from a mean value of 8.9 microns to 11.7 microns in B. germanica, from 9.2 microns to 14.6 microns in S. longipalpa and from 10.0 microns to 15.6 microns in D. punctata. During a 4 h incubation period, dissociated CA cells incorporated L-[methyl-3H]-methionine into juvenile hormone-III at rates comparable to intact glands. These data suggest that CA activation in the first ovarian cycle of these species is associated mainly with an increase in cell size with minor changes in cell number.

  3. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Female Sexual Orientation, Childhood Gender Typicality and Adult Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Cherkas, Lynn; Spector, Timothy; Rahman, Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Background Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%), AGI (11%) and CGT (31%). For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. Conclusions/Significance This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation. PMID:21760939

  4. Sertraline inhibits increases in body fat and carbohydrate dysregulation in adult female cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein-Metzler, Marnie G.; Shively, Carol A.; Clarkson, Thomas B.; Appt, Susan E.; Carr, J.Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Jones, Sara R.; Register, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed for depression and other disorders. SSRIs have become one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, particularly by women. Acute effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism have been reported, but little is known regarding the effects of chronic SSRI use. We evaluated the effects of chronic administration of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl, on body weight and composition, fat distribution, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as activity, in adult female depressed and nondepressed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; n = 42) using a placebo-controlled, longitudinal, randomized study design. Phenotypes were evaluated prior to and after 18 months of oral sertraline (20 mg/kg) or placebo. Over the 18 month treatment period, the placebo group experienced increases in body weight, body fat (visceral and subcutaneous) fasting insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR). Sertraline treatment prevented increases in body weight, fat, insulin, and HOMA-IR (all p < 0.05), without significantly altering activity levels. Sertraline treatment altered adiponectin in an unusual way — reducing circulating adiponectin in depressed monkeys without affecting fat mass or body weight. Deleterious effects on adiponectin, a potentially insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective protein, may result in adverse effects on cardiovascular health despite otherwise beneficial effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:26939086

  5. Hemispheric differences in dichaptic scanning of verbal and spatial material by adult males and females.

    PubMed

    Borgo, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo; Puntin, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    An experimental design based on the combination of dichaptic presentation associated to the Posner's paradigm was adopted to investigate laterality effects for verbal and spatial non-linguistic stimuli in male and female adult normal subjects. In a grapheme similarity judgment task based on "Name Identity" a right hand/left hemisphere advantage was found. Conversely, laterality effects were neither observed when the task involved "Perceptually Identical" or "Different" letter pairs. In a further experiment, the same methodology was adopted to verify hemispheric effects with spatial non-linguistic material, and a significant advantage for the left hand/right hemisphere was observed. Contrary to many previous studies, no gender or gender x task effects have been detected in both experiments. The present results suggest the existence, also in the tactile domain, of a direct link between input type and the linguistic or non-linguistic processing to which the two hemispheres are devoted. The overall pattern of data seriously hampers Witelson's original hypothesis that letter stimuli presented in the tactile modality are primarily processed as spatial stimuli, and are therefore dependent on the right hemisphere functioning.

  6. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C.; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3–4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12–22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  7. Isolation of Jamestown Canyon virus from boreal Aedes mosquitoes from the Sierra Nevada of California.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G L; Eldridge, B F; Reeves, W C; Hardy, J L

    1991-03-01

    More than 28,000 mosquitoes in four genera were collected from high elevation (greater than or equal to 1,000 m) areas of California during 1988-89 and tested for virus by plaque assay in Vero cells. Viruses were serogrouped by enzyme immunoassay and serotyped by cross-neutralization. Six strains of Jamestown Canyon virus in the California serogroup were isolated from three species of boreal Aedes in the Aedes communis group of the subgenus Ochlerotatus. All isolates were from mosquitoes collected in Alpine County at approximately 2,300 m elevation in the Sierra Nevada. These included one virus from a pool of male Aedes cataphylla collected in immature stages, which is evidence for vertical transmission; four viruses from adult female Ae. communis (sens. lat.); and one virus from adult female Aedes hexodontus. These are the first isolations of viruses from boreal Aedes mosquitoes in California and the first reported isolations of Jamestown Canyon virus from Ae. cataphylla or Ae. hexodontus.

  8. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  9. Perinatal exposure of mice to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R; Newman, John W; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring.

  10. Reactions to First Postpubertal Female Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors with Peers, Minors with Adults, and Adults with Adults.

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce

    2016-10-25

    This study examined reactions to first postpubertal same-sex sexual experience in the Kinsey female same-sex sample (consisting of females with extensive postpubertal same-sex experience) as a function of participant and partner ages. As such, it complemented the Rind and Welter (2016) study, which examined the same in the Kinsey male same-sex sample. Data were collected by Kinsey interviewers between 1939 and 1961 (M year = 1947). Girls under 18 (M age = 14.9), whose sexual experience was with a woman (M age = 26.3), reacted positively just as often as girls under 18 (M age = 14.1) with peers (M age = 15.0) and women (M age = 22.7) with women (M age = 26.3). The positive-reaction rates were, respectively, 85, 82, and 79 %. In a finer-graded analysis, younger adolescent girls (≤14) (M age = 12.8) with women (M age = 27.4) had a high positive-reaction rate (91 %), a rate reached by no other group. For women (M age = 22.2) with same-aged peers (M age = 22.3), this rate was 86 %. Girls with peers or women had no emotionally negative reactions (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret); women with women rarely did. Results contradicted prevailing clinical, legal, and lay beliefs that minor-adult sex is inherently traumatic and would be distinguished as such compared to age-concordant sex. The findings are discussed in terms of the time period in which the sexual experiences occurred.

  11. Expression Profiles and RNAi Silencing of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Transcripts in Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Puglise, Jason M; Estep, Alden S; Becnel, James J

    2016-03-01

    Effective mosquito control is vital to curtail the devastating health effects of many vectored diseases. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated control of mosquitoes is an attractive alternative to conventional chemical pesticides. Previous studies have suggested that transcripts for inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) may be good RNAi targets. To revisit and extend previous reports, we examined the expression of Aedes aegypti (L.) IAPs (AaeIAPs) 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, and a viral IAP-associated factor (vIAF) as well as Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Culex quinquefasciatus Say IAP1 homologs (AquIAP1 and CquIAP1) in adult females. Expression profiles of IAPs suggested that some older female mosquitoes had significantly higher IAP mRNA levels when compared to the youngest ones. Minor differences in expression of AaeIAPs were observed in mosquitoes that imbibed a bloodmeal, but the majority of the time points (up to 48 h) were not significantly different. Although in vitro experiments with the Ae. aegypti Aag-2 cell line demonstrated that the various AaeIAPs could be effectively knocked down within one day after dsRNA treatment, only Aag-2 cells treated with dsIAP1 displayed apoptotic morphology. Gene silencing and mortality were also evaluated after topical application and microinjection of the same dsRNAs into female Ae. aegypti. In contrast to previous reports, topical administration of dsRNA against AaeIAP1 did not yield a significant reduction in gene expression or increased mortality. Knockdown of IAP1 and other IAPs by microinjection did not result in significant mortality. In toto, our findings suggest that IAPs may not be suitable RNAi targets for controlling adult mosquito populations.

  12. Galanin synaptic input to gonadotropin-releasing hormone perikarya in juvenile and adult female mice: implications for sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Rajendren, G; Li, X

    2001-11-26

    Changes in connectivity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system are believed to occur during the transition from juvenile to adulthood in females. Experiments were designed to investigate whether there is any difference in the number of galanin inputs to GnRH cells located in the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis-rostral preoptic area (OVLT-rPOA) between juvenile (2 weeks old) and adult (10 weeks old) female mice. Triple label immunofluorescence staining of brain sections for galanin, GnRH and the presynaptic vesicle marker synaptophysin coupled with confocal microscopy was employed to identify galanin synapses to GnRH perikarya. The number of galanin synapses to GnRH cells and the proportion of GnRH cells with galanin input were significantly higher in adults than in juvenile mice. In adult mice, the proportions of GnRH cells with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 galanin synapses/cell were comparable to each other whereas in the juveniles the vast majority of them received no galanin synaptic input. A greater number of galanin synapses in adult as compared with juvenile female mice suggests a functional role for galanin in the maturation of the GnRH system.

  13. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  14. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  15. Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models.

  16. Conditioning Individual Mosquitoes to an Odor: Sex, Source, and Time

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Michelle R.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory conditioning of mosquitoes may have important implications for vector-pathogen-host dynamics. If mosquitoes learn about specific host attributes associated with pathogen infection, it may help to explain the heterogeneity of biting and disease patterns observed in the field. Sugar-feeding is a requirement for survival in both male and female mosquitoes. It provides a starting point for learning research in mosquitoes that avoids the confounding factors associated with the observer being a potential blood-host and has the capability to address certain areas of close-range mosquito learning behavior that have not previously been described. This study was designed to investigate the ability of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say to associate odor with a sugar-meal with emphasis on important experimental considerations of mosquito age (1.2 d old and 3–5 d old), sex (male and female), source (laboratory and wild), and the time between conditioning and testing (<5 min, 1 hr, 2.5 hr, 5 hr, 10 hr, and 24 hr). Mosquitoes were individually conditioned to an odor across these different experimental conditions. Details of the conditioning protocol are presented as well as the use of binary logistic regression to analyze the complex dataset generated from this experimental design. The results suggest that each of the experimental factors may be important in different ways. Both the source of the mosquitoes and sex of the mosquitoes had significant effects on conditioned responses. The largest effect on conditioning was observed in the lack of positive response following conditioning for females aged 3–5 d derived from a long established colony. Overall, this study provides a method for conditioning experiments involving individual mosquitoes at close range and provides for future discussion of the relevance and broader questions that can be asked of olfactory conditioning in mosquitoes. PMID:21887384

  17. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in adolescent and adult, male and female, high alcohol drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking.

  18. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  19. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy.

    PubMed

    Cassola, V F; Lima, V J de Melo; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  20. MAN, MOSQUITOES AND MICROBES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

    THE CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES IS A MATTER OF INCREASING CONCERN IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE, VARIOUS SPECIES, CONTROL, AND DESCRIPTION OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY THE MOSQUITO WAS PRESENTED. THE ARTICLE CONCLUDED THAT MOSQUITO CONTROL IS NOT ONLY A HEALTH PROBLEM, BUT ALSO A MATTER OF IMPROVED ECONOMICS IN RELATION TO…

  1. [Progress on transgenic mosquitoes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pin

    2011-04-30

    The genetically modified mosquitoes have been developed aiming to control mosquito-borne diseases by either reducing population sizes or replacing existing populations with vectors unable to transmit the disease. introduces some progress on the generation of transgenic mosquitoes and their fitness in wild population. This paper

  2. Mosquito Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  3. Seasonal Dynamics, Longevity, and Biting Activity of Anopheline Mosquitoes in Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lelisa, Kidane; Emana, Daniel; Asale, Abebe; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2016-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of vector species composition, abundance, dynamics, feeding pattern, and host finding strategy is the base to determine when, what, and how control should be implemented. Thus, this study was conducted to assess entomological parameters of anopheline mosquitoes in nine villages in Seka district, southwestern Ethiopia, from June to December 2012. Mosquito collection was carried out from selected households in each of the nine study villages using light trap catches from June to December 2012. Differences in mean mosquito density, parity rates before, and after indoor residual spraying (IRS) operation were compared. In total, 1,136 adult female anopheline mosquitoes were collected during the study period. All anopheline mosquitoes collected belong to three species. Anopheles gambiae senso lato Giles was the most predominant (69.7%) followed by Anopheles coustani s.l. Laveran (22.7%) and Anopheles pharoensis Theobald (7.6%). There was significant variation in mean mosquito density among An. gambiae s.l., An. coustani s.l., and An. pharoensis. Parity rate of An. gambiae s.l. before spray operation was significantly higher than after spray operation. The highest peak biting activity of An. gambiae s.l. was between 1800 and 2100 hours. The longevity of An. gambiae s.l. ranged from 3.4 to 12.5 d. The highest vector abundance and parity rate were recorded in July and August. In conclusion, the behavioral plasticity and early biting activity of An. gambiae s.l. could affect current vector control tools (IRS and long lasting insecticidal nets). Hence, it is imperative to explore intervention tools for outdoor malaria vector control in addition to the existing IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets. PMID:26798142

  4. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  5. Bionomics and Vector Potential of Culex thriambus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Lake County, California

    PubMed Central

    Nelms, Brittany M.; Thiemann, Tara C.; Bridges, Danielle N.; Williams, Alan E.; Koschik, Michelle L.; Ryan, Bonnie M.; Scott, Jamesina J.

    2016-01-01

    California statewide West Nile virus (WNV) minimum infection rates in Culex thriambus Dyar mosquitoes are high; however, few specimens are submitted and tested each year, as their distribution seems limited to larval habitats along riparian systems. To evaluate the role of Cx. thriambus in the amplification, maintenance, and overwintering of WNV in Lake County, CA, the bionomics and vector potential of the species was investigated during 2014 and 2015. Culex thriambus was the most abundant mosquito species, with 1,153 adults and 7,624 immatures collected by vacuum aspiration and dip sampling, respectively, at the primary study site. Detection of WNV in four mosquito pools during September through November coincided with peak seasonality. Females entered and maintained a reproductive diapause during winter under field and seminatural conditions. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. thriambus females by October and was terminated by 30 March. Some parous females (7.1%) and those in host-seeking arrest (7.1%) were collected throughout the winter period. An accrual of 679.51 degree-days (°D) was necessary for diapause termination under seminatural conditions. Culex thriambus females fed on 16 different avian species during spring and summer, and no mammalian feeds were detected. West Nile viral RNA was detected in four of 42 Cx. thriambus pools tested during June through November and infection rates ranged from 3.53–28.15/1,000 tested. In summary, WNV transmission may be increased along riparian corridors throughout California where Cx. thriambus mosquitoes remain relatively abundant. PMID:27493251

  6. Functional characterization of an allatotropin receptor expressed in the corpora allata of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nouzova, Marcela; Brockhoff, Anne; Mayoral, Jaime G; Goodwin, Marianne; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Noriega, Fernando G

    2012-03-01

    Allatotropin is an insect neuropeptide with pleiotropic actions on a variety of different tissues. In the present work we describe the identification, cloning and functional and molecular characterization of an Aedes aegypti allatotropin receptor (AeATr) and provide a detailed quantitative study of the expression of the AeATr gene in the adult mosquito. Analysis of the tissue distribution of AeATr mRNA in adult female revealed high transcript levels in the nervous system (brain, abdominal, thoracic and ventral ganglia), corpora allata-corpora cardiaca complex and ovary. The receptor is also expressed in heart, hindgut and male testis and accessory glands. Separation of the corpora allata (CA) and corpora cardiaca followed by analysis of gene expression in the isolated glands revealed expression of the AeATr primarily in the CA. In the female CA, the AeATr mRNA levels were low in the early pupae, started increasing 6h before adult eclosion and reached a maximum 24h after female emergence. Blood feeding resulted in a decrease in transcript levels. The pattern of changes of AeATr mRNA resembles the changes in JH biosynthesis. Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader recordings of calcium transients in HEK293 cells expressing the AeATr showed a selective response to A. aegypti allatotropin stimulation in the low nanomolar concentration range. Our studies suggest that the AeATr play a role in the regulation of JH synthesis in mosquitoes.

  7. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms.

  8. Antidiabetic-drug combination treatment for glucose intolerance in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Boyda, Heidi N; Procyshyn, Ric M; Asiri, Yahya; Wu, Claire; Wang, Cathy K; Lo, Ryan; Pang, Catherine C Y; Honer, William G; Barr, Alasdair M

    2014-01-03

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs are routinely used as treatment for psychotic disorders. Many of these compounds, including olanzapine, cause metabolic side-effects such as impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Individual antidiabetic drugs can help control elevated glucose levels in patients treated with antipsychotics, but the effects of combining antidiabetics, which routinely occurs with Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, have never been studied. Presently, we compared the effects of the three different antidiabetics metformin (500mg/kg, p.o.), rosiglitazone (30mg/kg, p.o.) and glyburide (10mg/kg, p.o.) on metabolic dysregulation in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine. In addition, dual combinations of each of these antidiabetics were compared head-to-head against each other and the individual drugs. The animals received two daily treatments with antidiabetics and were then treated acutely with olanzapine (10mg/kg, i.p.). Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured, followed by a 2h glucose tolerance test. Olanzapine caused a large and highly significant glucose intolerance compared to vehicle treated rats. Rosiglitazone decreased glucose levels non-significantly, while both metformin and glyburide significantly decreased glucose levels compared to olanzapine-only treated animals. For antidiabetic dual-drug combinations, the rosiglitazone-metformin group showed an unexpected increase in glucose levels compared to all of the single antidiabetic drugs. However, both the metformin-glyburide and rosiglitazone-glyburide groups showed significantly greater reductions in glucose levels following olanzapine than with single drug treatment alone for metformin or rosiglitazone, bringing glucose levels down to values equivalent to vehicle-only treated animals. These findings indicate that further study of antidiabetic dual-drug combinations in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs is warranted.

  9. Molecular basis of aromatase deficiency in an adult female with sexual infantilism and polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Y; Fisher, C R; Conte, F A; Grumbach, M M; Simpson, E R

    1993-01-01

    We identified two mutations in the CYP19 gene responsible for aromatase deficiency in an 18-year-old 46,XX female with ambiguous external genitalia at birth, primary amenorrhea and sexual infantilism, and polycystic ovaries. The coding exons, namely exons II-X, of the CYP19 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced directly. Direct sequencing of the amplified DNA from the patient revealed two single-base changes, at bp 1303 (C-->T) and bp 1310 (G-->A) in exon X, which were newly found missense mutations and resulted in codon changes of R435C and C437Y, respectively. Subcloning followed by sequencing confirmed that the patient is a compound heterozygote. The results of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the amplified exon X DNA from the patient's mother indicate maternal inheritance of the R435C mutation. Transient expression experiments showed that the R435C mutant protein had approximately 1.1% of the activity of the wild type, whereas C437Y was totally inactive. Cysteine-437 is the conserved cysteine in the heme-binding region believed to serve as the fifth coordinating ligand of the heme iron. To our knowledge, this patient is the first adult to have described the cardinal features of a syndrome of aromatase deficiency. Recognition that such defects exist will lead to a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in human development and disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8265607

  10. Cytokine profiling of young overweight and obese female African American adults with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Rudolf; Parikh, Samip J; Sridhar, Supriya; Guo, De-Huang; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Dong, Yutong; Caldwell, Ruth; Mellor, Andrew; Caldwell, William; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-10-01

    Approximately 5-10% of subjects with prediabetes become diabetic every year. Inflammation is involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to date, the relationship between inflammation and prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥5.7 and <6.5%, remains largely unexplored, especially in African Americans. Therefore, in this study we examined a comprehensive panel of 13 cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in overweight/obese subjects with prediabetes. A total of 21 otherwise healthy, overweight/obese, young adult African American females with prediabetes, together with 20 matched overweight/obese controls, were selected for this study. Plasma cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-7, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly higher in the prediabetic group, as compared to the control group (all p<0.05). Plasma concentrations of all the other cytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-13, seemed to be elevated in the prediabetic group, but failed to reach statistical significances. Upon merging both groups, HbA1c was found to be positively correlated with IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF. This study demonstrates elevated levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese young subjects with prediabetes, which place them at higher risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular diseases. Our data also call for further investigations in animal models and population cohorts to establish the roles of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the early development of obesity-related T2D.

  11. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  12. Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study.

  13. Raloxifene prevents skeletal fragility in adult female Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Gallant, Maxime A; Brown, Drew M; Sato, Amy Y; Williams, Justin N; Burr, David B

    2014-01-01

    Fracture risk in type 2 diabetes is increased despite normal or high bone mineral density, implicating poor bone quality as a risk factor. Raloxifene improves bone material and mechanical properties independent of bone mineral density. This study aimed to determine if raloxifene prevents the negative effects of diabetes on skeletal fragility in diabetes-prone rats. Adult Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) female rats (20-week-old, n = 24) were fed a diabetogenic high-fat diet and were randomized to receive daily subcutaneous injections of raloxifene or vehicle for 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured weekly and glycated hemoglobin was measured at baseline and 12 weeks. At sacrifice, femora and lumbar vertebrae were harvested for imaging and mechanical testing. Raloxifene-treated rats had a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with vehicle-treated rats. In addition, raloxifene-treated rats had blood glucose levels significantly lower than both diabetic vehicle-treated rats as well as vehicle-treated rats that did not become diabetic. Femoral toughness was greater in raloxifene-treated rats compared with both diabetic and non-diabetic vehicle-treated ZDSD rats, due to greater energy absorption in the post-yield region of the stress-strain curve. Similar differences between groups were observed for the structural (extrinsic) mechanical properties of energy-to-failure, post-yield energy-to-failure, and post-yield displacement. These results show that raloxifene is beneficial in preventing the onset of diabetes and improving bone material properties in the diabetes-prone ZDSD rat. This presents unique therapeutic potential for raloxifene in preserving bone quality in diabetes as well as in diabetes prevention, if these results can be supported by future experimental and clinical studies.

  14. Dynamic expression of genes encoding subunits of inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongxia; Statler, Bethanie-Michelle; Calkins, Travis L; Alfaro, Edna; Esquivel, Carlos J; Rouhier, Matthew F; Denton, Jerod S; Piermarini, Peter M

    2017-02-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play fundamental roles in neuromuscular, epithelial, and endocrine function in mammals. Recent research in insects suggests that Kir channels play critical roles in the development, immune function, and excretory physiology of fruit flies and/or mosquitoes. Moreover, our group has demonstrated that mosquito Kir channels may serve as valuable targets for the development of novel insecticides. Here we characterize the molecular expression of 5 mRNAs encoding Kir channel subunits in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Kir1, Kir2A-c, Kir2B, Kir2B', and Kir3. We demonstrate that 1) Kir mRNA expression is dynamic in whole mosquitoes, Malpighian tubules, and the midgut during development from 4th instar larvae to adult females, 2) Kir2B and Kir3 mRNA levels are reduced in 4th instar larvae when reared in water containing an elevated concentration (50mM) of KCl, but not NaCl, and 3) Kir mRNAs are differentially expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut, and ovaries within 24h after blood feeding. Furthermore, we provide the first characterization of Kir mRNA expression in the anal papillae of 4th instar larval mosquitoes, which indicates that Kir2A-c is the most abundant. Altogether, the data provide the first comprehensive characterization of Kir mRNA expression in Ae. aegypti and offer insights into the putative physiological roles of Kir subunits in this important disease vector.

  15. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors.

  16. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult mosquito traps of four types that are marketed for homeowner use in residential settings were compared with a standard CDC light trap for efficacy in collecting phlebotomine sand flies. We evaluated the Mosquito MagnetTM Pro (MMP), the SentinelTM 360 mosquito trap (S360), the BG-SentinelTM mo...

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  18. The influence of range of motion versus application of force on vertical jump performance in prepubescent girls and adult females.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether during childhood, the parameters for the range of motion had more influence on vertical jump height than parameters for application of force. Counter-movement jumps performed by 36 girls aged between 5 and 8 years and 20 adult females were examined using force platform analysis. Multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that the parameters for the range of motion had more influence on jump height than the parameters for application of force. This was demonstrated by standardised coefficients for range of motion which were higher than the standardised coefficients for application of force. Although this trend was observed in both groups, the influence of the range of motion was relatively greater in prepubescent girls than in adult females. The present results suggest that prepubescent girls increased their jump height by increasing the range of motion over which force is applied.

  19. Comparative estimates of density and species diversity in adult mosquito populations landing on a human subject and captured using light and suction traps.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative responses of 21 species of mosquitoes to light traps (LT) and suction traps (ST) and captured using the human landing collection method (HL) varied in accordance with collection technique but data analyses for most species revealed significant interaction between collection method and th...

  20. Metabolomic and ecdysteroid variations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes exposed to the stressful conditions of the dry season in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamai, W; Mouline, K; Blais, C; Larvor, V; Dabiré, K R; Ouedraogo, G A; Simard, F; Renault, D

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the metabolic adjustments prompted by a switch between the rainy and dry season conditions in the African malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae (M and S molecular forms) and Anopheles arabiensis. Mosquitoes were reared in contrasted experimental conditions reflecting environmental variation in Burkina Faso. Thirty-five metabolites (including sugars, polyols, and amino acids) were monitored in newly emerged males and females, and their ecdysteroid titers were determined. Metabolomic signatures were remarkably similar across species, when specimens of same age and sex were reared under identical experimental conditions. In males and females, amino acids (including glycine, leucine, phenylanine, serine, threonine, and valine) were accumulated in 1-h-old mosquitoes, then decreased 24 h after emergence, probably reflecting adult maturation and the amino acid-consuming process of cuticle sclerotisation. In turn, elevated amounts of alanine and proline in 24-h-old mosquitoes may assist the development of flight ability. Lower concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and isoleucine characterized older females reared under dry season conditions, suggesting metabolic and reproduction depression. In all cases, ecdysteroid concentration was much higher in males than in females, with significant seasonal variation in males. This might reflect a unique role of these hormones in shaping reproductive strategies and population demography in the An. gambiae s.l. species complex, further contributing to local adaptation in a highly fluctuating environment.

  1. miRNA genes of an invasive vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinbao; Hu, Wanqi; Wu, Jinya; Zheng, Peiming; Chen, Maoshan; James, Anthony A; Chen, Xiaoguang; Tu, Zhijian

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a vector of Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, is a robust invasive species in both tropical and temperate environments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and biological processes including embryonic development, innate immunity and infection. While a number of miRNAs have been discovered in some mosquitoes, no comprehensive effort has been made to characterize them from different developmental stages from a single species. Systematic analysis of miRNAs in Ae. albopictus will improve our understanding of its basic biology and inform novel strategies to prevent virus transmission. Between 10-14 million Illumina sequencing reads per sample were obtained from embryos, larvae, pupae, adult males, sugar-fed and blood-fed adult females. A total of 119 miRNA genes represented by 215 miRNA or miRNA star (miRNA*) sequences were identified, 15 of which are novel. Eleven, two, and two of the newly-discovered miRNA genes appear specific to Aedes, Culicinae, and Culicidae, respectively. A number of miRNAs accumulate predominantly in one or two developmental stages and the large number that showed differences in abundance following a blood meal likely are important in blood-induced mosquito biology. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the targets of all Ae. albopictus miRNAs provides a useful starting point for the study of their functions in mosquitoes. This study is the first systematic analysis of miRNAs based on deep-sequencing of small RNA samples of all developmental stages of a mosquito species. A number of miRNAs are related to specific physiological states, most notably, pre- and post-blood feeding. The distribution of lineage-specific miRNAs is consistent with mosquito phylogeny and the presence of a number of Aedes-specific miRNAs likely reflects the divergence between the Aedes and Culex genera.

  2. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  3. Evaluation of Mosquito Breeding on Corps of Engineers Properties Adjacent to Williston, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    12 4 Dipper used for collecting samples of mosquito larvae ............. .13 5 Center for Disease Control light traps used to collect adult...floodplain environment. 3. Recent control efforts by the Williston Vector Control District No. 1 (WVCD) have centered on the adults. This type of treatment...short-term control method and is usually a reaction to ex- cessive levels of adult mosquitoes or a mosquito-related medical emergency situation. 4

  4. Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-11-19

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  5. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days.

  6. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

  7. A de novo transcriptome of the Malpighian tubules in non-blood-fed and blood-fed Asian tiger mosquitoes Aedes albopictus: insights into diuresis, detoxification, and blood meal processing

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel, Carlos J.; Cassone, Bryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In adult female mosquitoes, the renal (Malpighian) tubules play an important role in the post-prandial diuresis, which removes excess ions and water from the hemolymph of mosquitoes following a blood meal. After the post-prandial diuresis, the roles that Malpighian tubules play in the processing of blood meals are not well described. Methods. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing (paired-end RNA sequencing) and physiological/biochemical assays in adult female Asian tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus) to generate molecular and functional insights into the Malpighian tubules and how they may contribute to blood meal processing (3–24 h after blood ingestion). Results/Discussion. Using RNA sequencing, we sequenced and assembled the first de novo transcriptome of Malpighian tubules from non-blood-fed (NBF) and blood-fed (BF) mosquitoes. We identified a total of 8,232 non-redundant transcripts. The Malpighian tubules of NBF mosquitoes were characterized by the expression of transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis (e.g., ion transporters, water channels, V-type H+-ATPase subunits), xenobiotic detoxification (e.g., cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters), and purine metabolism (e.g., xanthine dehydrogenase). We also detected the expression of transcripts encoding sodium calcium exchangers, G protein coupled-receptors, and septate junctional proteins not previously described in mosquito Malpighian tubules. Within 24 h after a blood meal, transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis exhibited a general downregulation, whereas those associated with xenobiotic detoxification and purine catabolism exhibited a general upregulation, suggesting a reinvestment of the Malpighian tubules’ molecular resources from diuresis to detoxification. Physiological and biochemical assays were conducted in mosquitoes and isolated Malpighian

  8. A de novo transcriptome of the Malpighian tubules in non-blood-fed and blood-fed Asian tiger mosquitoes Aedes albopictus: insights into diuresis, detoxification, and blood meal processing.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, Carlos J; Cassone, Bryan J; Piermarini, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background. In adult female mosquitoes, the renal (Malpighian) tubules play an important role in the post-prandial diuresis, which removes excess ions and water from the hemolymph of mosquitoes following a blood meal. After the post-prandial diuresis, the roles that Malpighian tubules play in the processing of blood meals are not well described. Methods. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing (paired-end RNA sequencing) and physiological/biochemical assays in adult female Asian tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus) to generate molecular and functional insights into the Malpighian tubules and how they may contribute to blood meal processing (3-24 h after blood ingestion). Results/Discussion. Using RNA sequencing, we sequenced and assembled the first de novo transcriptome of Malpighian tubules from non-blood-fed (NBF) and blood-fed (BF) mosquitoes. We identified a total of 8,232 non-redundant transcripts. The Malpighian tubules of NBF mosquitoes were characterized by the expression of transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis (e.g., ion transporters, water channels, V-type H(+)-ATPase subunits), xenobiotic detoxification (e.g., cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters), and purine metabolism (e.g., xanthine dehydrogenase). We also detected the expression of transcripts encoding sodium calcium exchangers, G protein coupled-receptors, and septate junctional proteins not previously described in mosquito Malpighian tubules. Within 24 h after a blood meal, transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis exhibited a general downregulation, whereas those associated with xenobiotic detoxification and purine catabolism exhibited a general upregulation, suggesting a reinvestment of the Malpighian tubules' molecular resources from diuresis to detoxification. Physiological and biochemical assays were conducted in mosquitoes and isolated Malpighian tubules

  9. Detection of West Nile virus RNA in mosquitoes and identification of mosquito blood meals collected at alligator farms in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Isik; Kramer, Wayne L; Roy, Alma F; Foil, Lane D

    2010-07-01

    Since 2001, alligator farms in the United States have sustained substantial economic losses because of West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Once an initial infection is introduced into captive alligators, WNV can spread among animals by contaminative transmission. Some outbreaks have been linked to feeding on infected meat or the introduction of infected hatchlings, but the initial source of WNV infection has been uncertain in other outbreaks. We conducted a study to identify species composition and presence of WNV in mosquito populations associated with alligator farms in Louisiana. A second objective of this study was to identify the origin of mosquito blood meals collected at commercial alligator farms. Mosquitoes were collected from 2004 to 2006, using Centers for Disease Control light traps, gravid traps, backpack aspirators, and resting boxes. We collected a total of 58,975 mosquitoes representing 24 species. WNV was detected in 41 pools of females from 11 mosquito species: Anopheles crucians, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex coronator, Culex erraticus, Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mansonia titillans, Aedes sollicitans, Psorophora columbiae, and Uranotaenia lowii. The blood meal origins of 213 field-collected mosquitoes were identified based on cytochrome B sequence identity. Alligator blood was detected in 21 mosquitoes representing six species of mosquitoes, including Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus. Our results showed that mosquitoes of species that are known to be competent vectors of WNV fed regularly on captive alligators. Therefore, mosquitoes probably are important in the role of transmission of WNV at alligator farms.

  10. Effects of environmental variables on surface temperature of breeding adult female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, and pups.

    PubMed

    Codde, Sarah A; Allen, Sarah G; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2016-10-01

    Pinnipeds spend extended periods of time on shore during breeding, and some temperate species retreat to the water if exposed to high ambient temperatures. However, female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) with pups generally avoid the water, presumably to minimize risks to pups or male harassment. Little is known about how ambient temperature affects thermoregulation of well insulated females while on shore. We used a thermographic camera to measure surface temperature (Ts) of 100 adult female elephant seals and their pups during the breeding season at Point Reyes National Seashore, yielding 782 thermograms. Environmental variables were measured by an onsite weather station. Environmental variables, especially solar radiation and ambient temperature, were the main determinants of mean and maximum Ts of both females and pups. An average of 16% of the visible surface of both females and pups was used as thermal windows to facilitate heat loss and, for pups, this area increased with solar radiation. Thermal window area of females increased with mean Ts until approximately 26°C and then declined. The Ts of both age classes were warmer than ambient temperature and had a large thermal gradient with the environment (female mean 11.2±0.2°C; pup mean 14.2±0.2°C). This large gradient suggests that circulatory adjustments to bypass blubber layers were sufficient to allow seals to dissipate heat under most environmental conditions. We observed the previously undescribed behavior of females and pups in the water and determined that solar radiation affected this behavior. This may have been possible due to the calm waters at the study site, which reduced the risk of neonates drowning. These results may predict important breeding habitat features for elephant seals as solar radiation and ambient temperatures change in response to changing climate.

  11. Adult Gli2+/–;Gli3Δ699/+ Male and Female Mice Display a Spectrum of Genital Malformation

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Akbari, Pedram; Mo, Rong; Zhang, Jennifer J.; Hui, Chi-Chung; Kim, Peter C.; Farhat, Walid A.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD) encompass a broad spectrum of urogenital malformations and are amongst the most common congenital birth defects. Although key genetic factors such as the hedgehog (Hh) family have been identified, a unifying postnatally viable model displaying the spectrum of male and female urogenital malformations has not yet been reported. Since human cases are diagnosed and treated at various stages postnatally, equivalent mouse models enabling analysis at similar stages are of significant interest. Additionally, all non-Hh based genetic models investigating DSD display normal females, leaving female urogenital development largely unknown. Here, we generated compound mutant mice, Gli2+/–;Gli3Δ699/+, which exhibit a spectrum of urogenital malformations in both males and females upon birth, and also carried them well into adulthood. Analysis of embryonic day (E)18.5 and adult mice revealed shortened anogenital distance (AGD), open ventral urethral groove, incomplete fusion of scrotal sac, abnormal penile size and structure, and incomplete testicular descent with hypoplasia in male mice, whereas female mutant mice displayed reduced AGD, urinary incontinence, and a number of uterine anomalies such as vaginal duplication. Male and female fertility was also investigated via breeding cages, and it was identified that male mice were infertile while females were unable to deliver despite becoming impregnated. We propose that Gli2+/–;Gli3Δ699/+ mice can serve as a genetic mouse model for common DSD such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and incomplete fusion of the scrotal sac in males, and a spectrum of uterine and vaginal abnormalities along with urinary incontinence in females, which could prove essential in revealing new insights into their equivalent diseases in humans. PMID:27814383

  12. Diversity of Cultivable Midgut Microbiota at Different Stages of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus from Tezpur, India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kamlesh K; Datta, Sibnarayan; Naglot, Ashok; Bora, Ajitabh; Hmuaka, Vanlal; Bhagyawant, Sameer; Gogoi, Hemanta K; Veer, Vijay; Raju, P Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are among the most important vectors of arboviral diseases, worldwide. Recent studies indicate that diverse midgut microbiota of mosquitoes significantly affect development, digestion, metabolism, and immunity of their hosts. Midgut microbiota has also been suggested to modulate the competency of mosquitoes to transmit arboviruses, malaria parasites etc. Interestingly, the midgut microbial flora is dynamic and the diversity changes with the development of vectors, in addition to other factors such as species, sex, life-stage, feeding behavior and geographical origin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the midgut bacterial diversity among larva, adult male, sugar fed female and blood fed female Ae. albopictus collected from Tezpur, Northeastern India. Based on colony morphological characteristics, we selected 113 cultivable bacterial isolates for 16S rRNA gene sequence based molecular identification. Of the 113 isolates, we could identify 35 bacterial species belonging to 18 distinct genera under four major phyla, namely Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes accounted for majority (80%) of the species, while phylum Actinobacteria constituted 17% of the species. Bacteroidetes was the least represented phylum, characterized by a single species- Chryseobacterium rhizoplanae, isolated from blood fed individuals. Dissection of midgut microbiota diversity at different developmental stages of Ae. albopictus will be helpful in better understanding mosquito-borne diseases, and for designing effective strategies to manage mosquito-borne diseases.

  13. Diversity of Cultivable Midgut Microbiota at Different Stages of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus from Tezpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sibnarayan; Naglot, Ashok; Bora, Ajitabh; Hmuaka, Vanlal; Bhagyawant, Sameer; Gogoi, Hemanta K.; Veer, Vijay; Raju, P. Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are among the most important vectors of arboviral diseases, worldwide. Recent studies indicate that diverse midgut microbiota of mosquitoes significantly affect development, digestion, metabolism, and immunity of their hosts. Midgut microbiota has also been suggested to modulate the competency of mosquitoes to transmit arboviruses, malaria parasites etc. Interestingly, the midgut microbial flora is dynamic and the diversity changes with the development of vectors, in addition to other factors such as species, sex, life-stage, feeding behavior and geographical origin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the midgut bacterial diversity among larva, adult male, sugar fed female and blood fed female Ae. albopictus collected from Tezpur, Northeastern India. Based on colony morphological characteristics, we selected 113 cultivable bacterial isolates for 16S rRNA gene sequence based molecular identification. Of the 113 isolates, we could identify 35 bacterial species belonging to 18 distinct genera under four major phyla, namely Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes accounted for majority (80%) of the species, while phylum Actinobacteria constituted 17% of the species. Bacteroidetes was the least represented phylum, characterized by a single species- Chryseobacterium rhizoplanae, isolated from blood fed individuals. Dissection of midgut microbiota diversity at different developmental stages of Ae. albopictus will be helpful in better understanding mosquito-borne diseases, and for designing effective strategies to manage mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:27941985

  14. Efficacy of female Culex quinquefasciatus with entomopathogenic fungus Fusarium pallidoroseum.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Suman Sundar; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Rai, Usha; Dash, Aditya Prasad

    2008-06-01

    This study was conducted to isolate and identify natural entomopathogenic fungi from female Culex quinquefasciatus and to test their adulticidal activity. Field-collected female C. quinquefasciatus died early and were placed on a Saboraud's dextrose agar plates for growth and isolation of natural entomopathogenic fungi. The plates were maintained in an incubator at 24+/-2 degrees C for 3 days. Four fungal species were isolated in two genera namely, Aspergillus and Fusarium. The identified fungal species were A. niger, A. flavus, A. nidulans var acristatus (ITCC-6327.04), and F. pallidoroseum (ITCC-6324.06). Adult bioassays were carried out using spore-impregnated paper in WHO-holding tubes. F. pallidoroseum was found to be more effective than the others. Exposure of C. quinquefasciatus to spores of A. flavus and A. niger for 4 h caused 5.53% and 5.51% mortality in the mosquitoes within a week, respectively. All the female C. quinquefasciatus were killed within 4 days of exposure to F. pallidoroseum at a concentration of 1.11 x 10(10) conidia per m2. Significant difference of longevity was observed between the F. pallidoroseum-treated C. quinquefasciatus and control mosquitoes. The LT50 of F. pallidoroseum was 2.08 days for 4 h exposure to C. quinquefasciatus. Results of the present study confirm that F. pallidoroseum is one of the alternative biological control agents of adult mosquitoes.

  15. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  16. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and < 0.01, respectively) and moist ( < 0.01) foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML, and LAL in the dry foods ( < 0.01, < 0.01, and = 0.08, respectively) and for CML and LAL in the moist foods ( < 0.01). The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism

  17. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  18. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  19. Time-of-day specific changes in metabolic detoxification and insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Balmert, Nathaniel J; Rund, Samuel S C; Ghazi, John P; Zhou, Peng; Duffield, Giles E

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes exhibit ∼24 h rhythms in physiology and behavior, regulated by the cooperative action of an endogenous circadian clock and the environmental light:dark cycle. Here, we characterize diel (observed under light:dark conditions) time-of-day changes in metabolic detoxification and resistance to insecticide challenge in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. A better understanding of mosquito chronobiology will yield insights into developing novel control strategies for this important disease vector. We have previously identified >2000 rhythmically expressed An. gambiae genes. These include metabolic detoxification enzymes peaking at various times throughout the day. Especially interesting was the identification of rhythmic genes encoding enzymes capable of pyrethroid and/or DDT metabolism (CYP6M2, CYP6P3, CYP6Z1, and GSTE2). We hypothesized that these temporal changes in gene expression would confer time-of-day specific changes in metabolic detoxification and responses to insecticide challenge. An. gambiae mosquitoes (adult female Pimperena and Mali-NIH strains) were tested by gene expression analysis for diel rhythms in key genes associated with insecticidal resistance. Biochemical assays for total GST, esterase, and oxidase enzymatic activities were undertaken on time-specific mosquito head and body protein lysates. To determine for rhythmic susceptibility to insecticides by survivorship, mosquitoes were exposed to DDT or deltamethrin across the diel cycle. We report the occurrence of temporal changes in GST activity in samples extracted from the body and head with a single peak at late-night to dawn, but no rhythms were detected in oxidase or esterase activity. The Pimperena strain was found to be resistant to insecticidal challenge, and subsequent genomic analysis revealed the presence of the resistance-conferring kdr mutation. We observed diel rhythmicity in key insecticide detoxification genes in the Mali-NIH strain, with peak phases as previously reported in

  20. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  1. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  2. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  3. Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB/c mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude

    In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.

  4. Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  5. Characteristic features of reproductive hormone profiles in late adolescent and adult females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doehnert, Ulla; Bertelloni, Silvano; Werner, Ralf; Dati, Eleonora; Hiort, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about gonadotropins and sex steroid levels in postpubertal women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). In order to define reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS and intact gonads, 42 postpubertal females with proven CAIS (age range 14-50 years) with testes in situ were examined. Reproductive hormone values [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] were assessed by commercially available immunoassays. In women with CAIS, LH levels (median 18.5 IU/l, range 5.5-51.1 IU/l) were elevated above the usual adult reference ranges, whereas FSH values (3.5 IU/l, 0.4-16.3 IU/l) were not. Basal T (20 nmol/l, 6-52 nmol/l) and E2 values (113 pmol/l; 18-257 pmol/l) were found in the usual adult male reference ranges; SHBG levels (53 nmol/l, 15-180 nmol/l) were in the adult female reference range. Calculated free androgen indices (Tx10³/SHBG: 380, 114-863) and aromatization indices (E2/T: 0.052, 0.020-0.196) did not differ from the reference ranges for adult men given in the literature (Tx10³/SHBG: 315-936; E2/T: 0.03-0.07). Reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS do not follow the usual male/female pattern, suggesting a specific postpubertal hormone milieu. Albeit calculation of CAIS-specific reference ranges requires larger series and standardization of laboratory methods, these results may be a prerequisite for the identification of pathologic hormone patterns in women with CAIS and gonads in situ. The present data will also be useful to monitor hormone replacement therapy in individuals with removed gonads.

  6. Field performance of engineered male mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Angela F; Nimmo, Derric; McKemey, Andrew R; Kelly, Nick; Scaife, Sarah; Donnelly, Christl A; Beech, Camilla; Petrie, William D; Alphey, Luke

    2011-10-30

    Dengue is the most medically important arthropod-borne viral disease, with 50-100 million cases reported annually worldwide. As no licensed vaccine or dedicated therapy exists for dengue, the most promising strategies to control the disease involve targeting the predominant mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. However, the current methods to do this are inadequate. Various approaches involving genetically engineered mosquitoes have been proposed, including the release of transgenic sterile males. However, the ability of laboratory-reared, engineered male mosquitoes to effectively compete with wild males in terms of finding and mating with wild females, which is critical to the success of these strategies, has remained untested. We report data from the first open-field trial involving a strain of engineered mosquito. We demonstrated that genetically modified male mosquitoes, released across 10 hectares for a 4-week period, mated successfully with wild females and fertilized their eggs. These findings suggest the feasibility of this technology to control dengue by suppressing field populations of A. aegypti.

  7. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  8. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  9. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Kristina K.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. PMID:28009851

  10. Comparing the executive attention of adult females with ADHD to that of females with sensory modulation disorder (SMD) under aversive and non-aversive auditory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mazor-Karsenty, Tal; Parush, Shula; Bonneh, Yoram; Shalev, Lilach

    2015-02-01

    Certain behavioral expressions of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) such as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are often similar to those of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric and adult populations. There is also a high comorbidity rate between these two diagnoses and absence of research regarding the objective neuropsychological differentiation between them. In the present study we employed a factorial design which enabled us to: (a) systematically examine the effects of SMD and ADHD on executive attention in a sample of adult females using a Stroop-like task, and (b) measure the effect of aversive conditions (sounds) on executive attention. The experimental measures used were the Stroop-like Location-Direction Task (SLDT) to assess executive attention and the battery of aversiveness to sounds (BAS), a standardized measure of aversive sounds that was developed for this study and enabled individual customization of aversive auditory sounds. Results revealed, as expected, a specific core deficit in executive attention for the ADHD factor. In addition to that, the present study provides an important, pioneering finding of SMD impairment in a unique combination of a cognitively demanding task with aversive sounds, providing preliminary objective evidence differentiating SMD from ADHD.

  11. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage mosquitoes from landing on you. Tips include removing mosquito habitats such as standing water, minimizing exposed skin, and staying indoors while mosquitoes are most active.

  12. Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Moreau, J; Rahme, J; Benrey, B; Thiery, D

    2008-04-01

    According to the 'natal habitat preference induction' (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This 'naive' preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis "Hopkins host selection principle" and "chemical legacy" may thus be relevant in this system.

  13. Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

    2008-04-01

    According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

  14. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Marshall, D.; Gehlen, M.K.

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  15. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  16. Metabolic fate of [14C]-labeled meal protein amino acids in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoli; Flowers, Matthew; Friedrich, Kenneth; Horton, James; Pennington, James; Wells, Michael A

    2004-04-01

    We developed a method to follow the metabolic fate of [(14)C]-labeled Euglena gracilis protein amino acids in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes under three different adult nutritional regimes. Quantitative analysis of blood meal protein amino acid metabolism showed that most of the carbon of the amino acids was either oxidized to CO(2) or excreted as waste. Under the three different adult nutritional regimes, no significant differences in the metabolism of amino acids were found, which indicated that the female A. aegypti mosquitoes possess a substantial capacity of maintaining metabolic homeostasis during a gonotrophic cycle. The amount of maternal glycogen and lipid after egg laying were significantly lower in the mosquitoes that underwent a partial starvation before a blood meal and/or starvation after the blood meal. The content of egg lipid or protein or the number of eggs laid did not show a significant difference among the three different regimes, which indicates that stable fecundity of A. aegypti under the partial starvation before a blood meal and/or starvation after the blood meal seemed to result from a trade-off between current fecundity and future survival after the eggs laid. The methods described in this paper can be applied to a wide range of questions about the effects of environmental conditions on the utilization of blood meal amino acids.

  17. Juvenile Hormone Titer Versus Juvenile Hormone Synthesis in Female Nymphs and Adults of the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica

    PubMed Central

    Treiblmayr, Karl; Pascual, Nuria; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Keller, Thomas; Belles, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of juvenile hormone have been intensively studied in the cockroach Blattella germanica under different physiological situations. However, data have been mainly obtained in vitro, and refer to hormone synthesized by isolated corpora allata, whereas information available on hormone concentration in the hemolymph is restricted to adult females. In order to complement our studies in vitro, we have measured juvenile hormone titer in the hemolymph of B. germanica females in four characteristic physiological situations: penultimate and last instar nymphs, adults during the first vitellogenic cycle, and adults transporting egg cases (ootheca). In general, a significant positive correlation between rates of hormone synthesis and concentration in the hemolymph is observed. The main disparities appear in the penultimate day of the period of ootheca transport, where titer is high whereas synthesis is low, and on day 6 of the first vitellogenic cycle, where synthesis increases whereas titer decreases. At these stages, the observed disparities between synthesis and titer might be explained by differential action of degradation enzymes. PMID:20233097

  18. Alcohol and pregnancy: effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous females. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1 – 21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  19. Stegomyia mosquitoes in Mayotte, taxonomic study and description of Stegomyia pia n. sp.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Brengues, Cécile; Robert, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Four mosquito species, including a new species of the genus Stegomyia, are reported from Mayotte in the western Indian Ocean. The most abundant species were Stegomyia aegypti and St. albopicta. Only one species of the St. simpsoni group was observed, St. bromeliae. The fourth species is Stegomyia pia Le Goff & Robert n. sp. of which the larva, pupa, male and female are here described. The larval stages of St. pia n. sp. are morphologically similar to St. aegypti but differ in the number of branches of the seta 1-X; the adult is morphologically distinct for a number of characters, for instance the scutal ornamentation. Stegomyia pia n. sp. is uncommon but not rare, and largely distributed across Mayotte. Its larval habitats are natural and diverse including rock pools, tree holes, and cut and severed bamboos. The biology of adults remains unknown, especially female biting behaviour. Both morphological characters and nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 and COI genes indicate that this species is best placed in the genus Stegomyia. Dichotomous keys to the four species of Mayotte Stegomyia are presented for adults and fourth-instar larvae. The potential vector role of these mosquitoes is hypothesised. This paper underlines advances in knowledge of the biodiversity in the French overseas departments and territories.

  20. Stegomyia mosquitoes in Mayotte, taxonomic study and description of Stegomyia pia n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Four mosquito species, including a new species of the genus Stegomyia, are reported from Mayotte in the western Indian Ocean. The most abundant species were Stegomyia aegypti and St. albopicta. Only one species of the St. simpsoni group was observed, St. bromeliae. The fourth species is Stegomyia pia Le Goff & Robert n. sp. of which the larva, pupa, male and female are here described. The larval stages of St. pia n. sp. are morphologically similar to St. aegypti but differ in the number of branches of the seta 1-X; the adult is morphologically distinct for a number of characters, for instance the scutal ornamentation. Stegomyia pia n. sp. is uncommon but not rare, and largely distributed across Mayotte. Its larval habitats are natural and diverse including rock pools, tree holes, and cut and severed bamboos. The biology of adults remains unknown, especially female biting behaviour. Both morphological characters and nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 and COI genes indicate that this species is best placed in the genus Stegomyia. Dichotomous keys to the four species of Mayotte Stegomyia are presented for adults and fourth-instar larvae. The potential vector role of these mosquitoes is hypothesised. This paper underlines advances in knowledge of the biodiversity in the French overseas departments and territories. PMID:24025625

  1. Commensal Viruses of Mosquitoes: Host Restriction, Transmission, and Interaction with Arboviral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; McLean, Breeanna J.; O’Brien, Caitlin A.; Colmant, Agathe M.G.; Piyasena, Thisun B.H.; Harrison, Jessica J.; Newton, Natalee D.; Barnard, Ross T.; Prow, Natalie A.; Deerain, Joshua M.; Mah, Marcus G.K.Y.; Hobson-Peters, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in virus detection strategies and deep sequencing technologies have enabled the identification of a multitude of new viruses that persistently infect mosquitoes but do not infect vertebrates. These are usually referred to as insect-specific viruses (ISVs). These novel viruses have generated considerable interest in their modes of transmission, persistence in mosquito populations, the mechanisms that restrict their host range to mosquitoes, and their interactions with pathogens transmissible by the same mosquito. In this article, we discuss studies in our laboratory and others that demonstrate that many ISVs are efficiently transmitted directly from the female mosquito to their progeny via infected eggs, and, moreover, that persistent infection of mosquito cell cultures or whole mosquitoes with ISVs can restrict subsequent infection, replication, and transmission of some mosquito-borne viral pathogens. This suggests that some ISVs may act as natural regulators of arboviral transmission. We also discuss viral and host factors that may be responsible for their host restriction. PMID:28096646

  2. MosqTent: An individual portable protective double-chamber mosquito trap for anthropophilic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lima, José Bento Pereira; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Lima, Arthur Weiss da Silva; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti

    2017-03-01

    Here, we describe the development of the MosqTent, an innovative double-chamber mosquito trap in which a human being attracts mosquitoes while is protected from being bitten within the inner chamber of the trap, while mosquitoes are lured to enter an outer chamber where they are trapped. The MosqTent previously collected an average of 3,000 anophelines/man-hour compared to 240 anophelines/man-hour for the human landing catch (HLC), thereby providing high numbers of human host-seeking mosquitoes while protecting the collector from mosquito bites. The MosqTent performed well by collecting a high number of specimens of Anopheles marajoara, a local vector and anthropophilic mosquito species present in high density, but not so well in collecting An. darlingi, an anthropophilic mosquito species considered the main vector in Brazil but is present in low-density conditions in the area. The HLC showed a higher efficiency in collecting An. darlingi in these low-density conditions. The MosqTent is light (<1 kg), portable (comes as a bag with two handles), flexible (can be used with other attractants), adaptable (can be deployed in a variety of environmental settings and weather conditions), and it can be used in the intra-, peri-, and in the extradomicile. Also, the MosqTent collected similar portions of parous females and anthropophilic mosquito species and collects specimens suitable for downstream analysis. Further developments may include testing for other fabric colors, different mesh sizes and dimensions for other hematophagous insects and conditions, additional chemical mosquito attractants, and even the replacement of the human attractant in favor of other attractants. MosqTent modifications that would allow the trap to be applied as a vector control tool with killing action could also be explored.

  3. Species differences in behavior and cell proliferation/survival in the adult brains of female meadow and prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Zhang, Z; Wang, Z

    2016-02-19

    Microtine rodents display diverse patterns of social organization and behaviors, and thus provide a useful model for studying the effects of the social environment on physiology and behavior. The current study compared the species differences and the effects of oxytocin (OT) on anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Furthermore, cell proliferation and survival in the brains of adult female meadow and prairie voles were compared. We found that female meadow voles displayed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior but lower levels of social affiliation and social recognition compared to female prairie voles. In addition, meadow voles showed lower levels of cell proliferation (measured by Ki67 staining) and cell survival (measured by BrdU staining) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG), than prairie voles. Interestingly, the numbers of new cells in the VMH and AMY, but not DG, also correlated with anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in a brain region-specific manner. Finally, central OT treatment (200 ng/kg, icv) did not lead to changes in behavior or cell proliferation/survival in the brain. Together, these data indicate a potential role of cell proliferation/survival in selected brain areas on different behaviors between vole species with distinct life strategies.

  4. Species differences in behavior and cell proliferation/survival in the adult brains of female meadow and prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Lieberwirth, Claudia; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Microtine rodents display diverse patterns of social organization and behaviors, and thus provide a useful model for studying the effects of the social environment on physiology and behavior. The current study compared the species differences and the effects of oxytocin (OT) on anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and prairie voles (M. ochrogaster). Furthermore, cell proliferation and survival in the brains of adult female meadow and prairie voles were compared. We found that female meadow voles displayed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior but lower levels of social affiliation and social recognition compared to female prairie voles. In addition, meadow voles showed lower levels of cell proliferation (measured by Ki67 staining) and cell survival (measured by BrdU staining) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG), than prairie voles. Interestingly, the numbers of new cells in the VMH and AMY, but not DG, also correlated with anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in a brain region-specific manner. Finally, central OT treatment (200 ng/kg, icv) did not lead to changes in behavior or cell proliferation/survival in the brain. Together, these data indicate a potential role of cell proliferation/survival in selected brain areas on different behaviors between vole species with distinct life strategies. PMID:26708743

  5. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time.

  6. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Wulsin, Aynara C.; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45–58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  7. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  8. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood.

  9. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use.

  10. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Kowalski, Gabriele J.; Voigt, Christian C.; Orben, Rachael A.; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J.; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use. PMID:27304855

  11. Differential responses to salt supplementation in adult male and female rat adrenal glands following intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Karine; Otis, Mélissa; St-Louis, Jean; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Brochu, Michèle

    2011-04-01

    In low sodium-induced intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) rat, foetal adrenal steroidogenesis as well as the adult renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is altered. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo) and of angiotensin II receptor subtypes 1 (AT(1)R) and 2 (AT(2)R) in adult adrenal glands and whether this expression could be influenced by IUGR and by high-salt intake in a sex-specific manner. After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT(2)R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR.

  12. Parenting Stress as a Mediator between Childhood ADHD and Early Adult Female Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Chanelle T.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the mediating role of parenting stress (both parental distress and stress due to dysfunctional interactions in the mother-daughter relationship [PSDI]) in the link between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) status and several important young-adult outcomes. Methods The diverse sample comprised 140 girls with ADHD and 88 age- and ethnicity-matched comparisons, evaluated at ages 6–12 years and followed prospectively for 5 years (mean age = 14.2) and 10 years (mean age = 19.6). Results (a) The PSDI experienced by a mother during her daughter’s adolescence mediated the link between her daughter’s childhood ADHD status and adult externalizing and internalizing symptoms. (b) PSDI also mediated the link between ADHD status and young adult non-suicidal self-injury and had an indirect effect in the relation between childhood ADHD and young-adult depressive symptoms. (c) The mediating role of PSDI with respect to internalizing symptoms and depressive symptoms remained in place even when covarying adolescent internalizing/depressive symptoms. Conclusion Parenting stress, particularly related to maternal perceptions of dysfunctional interactions with adolescent daughters, serves as a key mediator in the association between childhood ADHD status and important domains of young-adult functioning. Minimizing parenting stress and dysfunctional mother-daughter interactions during adolescence might reduce the risk of adverse adult outcomes for girls with ADHD. PMID:26042524

  13. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), f