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Sample records for adult female patient

  1. Acne in the adult female patient: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Faranak; Shinkai, Kanade

    2012-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common reason why adult women present to dermatologists and can be a clinical challenge to treat. It may also be an important sign of an underlying endocrine disease such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Although standard acne therapies can be successfully used to treat acne in adult female patients, hormonal treatment is a safe and effective therapeutic option that may provide an opportunity to better target acne in this population, even when other systemic therapies have failed. In this article, a practical approach to the adult female patient with acne will be reviewed to enhance the dermatologist's ability to use hormonal acne therapies and to better identify and evaluate patients with acne in the setting of a possible endocrine disorder. PMID:22994662

  2. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  3. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  4. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo-yong; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients. PMID:26981099

  5. Bladder augmentation in a young adult female exstrophy patient with associated omphalocele: an extremely unusual case.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Guerrero, Javier; Badillo, Marco; Muñoz, Norberto; Anaya, Jorge; Rico, Gazpar; Maldonado-Valadez, Rafael

    2009-08-01

    We present the case of a 20-year-old woman with uncorrected bladder exstrophy and omphalocele treated with ileocystoplasty and continent urinary stoma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a young adult patient presenting with both congenital anomalies. The treatment result suggests that bladder preservation is a safe and feasible therapeutic option in bladder exstrophy. PMID:19375388

  6. Management of acne vulgaris with hormonal therapies in adult female patients.

    PubMed

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common condition affecting up of 93% of adolescents. Although rare, this disease may persist in adulthood. In adult women with acne (those older than 25 years old), this condition is particularly relevant because of the refractory to conventional therapies, which makes acne a challenge for dermatologists in this group of patients. In order to its potential risk for chronicity and the involvement of visible anatomical sites such as face and upper torso, acne has been associated with a wide spectrum of psychological and social dysfunction such as depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and social inhibition. In particular, adult women with acne have been shown to be adversely impacted by the effect of acne on their quality of life. For the last four decades, dermatologists have used hormonal therapies for the management of acne vulgaris in adult women, which are considered a rational choice given the severity and chronicity of this condition in this group of patients. The aim of this work is to review the hormonal drugs for management of acne. PMID:25845307

  7. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779

  8. Griseofulvin and/or Terbinafine Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in an Adult Female Patient - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, Dharamvirsinh; Jaiswal, Chandra S; Panchasra, Ashwin; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu B

    2016-01-01

    An 18 years old female patient, who was taking treatment for tinea cruris developed Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) due to therapeutic dose of griseofulvin with concomitant use of terbinafine. Both the drugs were stopped; patient's condition was gradually improved after starting the treatment. As per WHO-UMC causality assessment criteria, association between reaction and drug was possible (for both griseofulvin and terbinafine). Griseofulvin and terbinafine, both are widely used as an oral antifungal agent to treat fungal infections, careful monitoring is required in the initial periods of the treatment to prevent such type of serious adverse drug reaction. We report a case of TEN possibly caused by griseofulvin with concomitant use of terbinafine resulting in diagnostic difficulty. PMID:26695069

  9. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  10. Emotion recognition in depression: An investigation of performance and response confidence in adult female patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Fieker, Martina; Moritz, Steffen; Köther, Ulf; Jelinek, Lena

    2016-08-30

    Abnormalities in emotion recognition are frequently reported in depression. However, emotion recognition is not compromised in some studies, and confidence judgments, which are essential for social interaction, have not been considered to date. Due to the high prevalence rate of depression in women, and sex differences in emotion recognition, the aim of the present study was to investigate emotion recognition and confidence judgments in women with depression. A sample of female patients with depressive disorders (n=45) was compared with female healthy controls (n=30) in their ability to correctly identify facial emotion expressions along with confidence judgments. Groups performed similarly on emotional face recognition and showed no difference regarding confidence ratings. A negative correlation between self-assessed depression and response confidence was found. While some limitations of the study must be taken in consideration (e.g., small number of items per emotion category, low severity of depression), abnormalities in emotion recognition do not seem to be a major feature of depression. As self-assessed depression is accompanied by low response confidence for emotional faces, it is crucial to further examine the role of confidence judgments in emotion recognition, as underconfidence may foster interpersonal insecurity in depression. PMID:27294796

  11. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Angela K; Klock, Susan C; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N; Kazer, Ralph R

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues that arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: (1) preexisting psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, (2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, (3) decision making regarding use of third-party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), (4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, (5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and (6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  12. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  13. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Angela K.; Klock, Susan C.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N.; Kazer, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues which arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population patient. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: 1) pre-existing psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, 2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, 3) decision making regarding use of third party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), 4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, 5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and 6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  14. The Spiritual Journey: Black Female Adult Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones Tinner, LaShanta Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the experience of Black female adult learners and how spirituality influenced their academic journeys. Research concerning Black female adult learners in higher education is ostensibly partial. These data offered an extended understanding of Black female adult learners' academic experiences, while also investigating common…

  15. Extension of RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms to obese patients and a Monte Carlo study of the effect on CT imaging dose

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Aiping; Mille, Matthew M; Liu, Tianyu; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2012-01-01

    Although it is known that obesity has a profound effect on x-ray computed tomography (CT) image quality and patient organ dose, quantitative data describing this relationship are not currently available. This study examines the effect of obesity on the calculated radiation dose to organs and tissues from CT using newly developed phantoms representing overweight and obese patients. These phantoms were derived from the previously developed RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms. The result was a set of ten phantoms (five males, five females) with body mass indexes ranging from 23.5 (normal body weight) to 46.4 kg m−2 (morbidly obese). The phantoms were modeled using triangular mesh geometry and include specified amounts of the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. The mesh-based phantoms were then voxelized and defined in the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code to calculate organ doses from CT imaging. Chest–abdomen–pelvis scanning protocols for a GE LightSpeed 16 scanner operating at 120 and 140 kVp were considered. It was found that for the same scanner operating parameters, radiation doses to organs deep in the abdomen (e.g., colon) can be up to 59% smaller for obese individuals compared to those of normal body weight. This effect was found to be less significant for shallow organs. On the other hand, increasing the tube potential from 120 to 140 kVp for the same obese individual resulted in increased organ doses by as much as 56% for organs within the scan field (e.g., stomach) and 62% for those out of the scan field (e.g., thyroid), respectively. As higher tube currents are often used for larger patients to maintain image quality, it was of interest to quantify the associated effective dose. It was found from this study that when the mAs was doubled for the obese level-I, obese level-II and morbidly-obese phantoms, the effective dose relative to that of the normal weight phantom increased by 57%, 42% and 23%, respectively

  16. Extension of RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms to obese patients and a Monte Carlo study of the effect on CT imaging dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Aiping; Mille, Matthew M.; Liu, Tianyu; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2012-05-01

    Although it is known that obesity has a profound effect on x-ray computed tomography (CT) image quality and patient organ dose, quantitative data describing this relationship are not currently available. This study examines the effect of obesity on the calculated radiation dose to organs and tissues from CT using newly developed phantoms representing overweight and obese patients. These phantoms were derived from the previously developed RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms. The result was a set of ten phantoms (five males, five females) with body mass indexes ranging from 23.5 (normal body weight) to 46.4 kg m-2 (morbidly obese). The phantoms were modeled using triangular mesh geometry and include specified amounts of the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. The mesh-based phantoms were then voxelized and defined in the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code to calculate organ doses from CT imaging. Chest-abdomen-pelvis scanning protocols for a GE LightSpeed 16 scanner operating at 120 and 140 kVp were considered. It was found that for the same scanner operating parameters, radiation doses to organs deep in the abdomen (e.g., colon) can be up to 59% smaller for obese individuals compared to those of normal body weight. This effect was found to be less significant for shallow organs. On the other hand, increasing the tube potential from 120 to 140 kVp for the same obese individual resulted in increased organ doses by as much as 56% for organs within the scan field (e.g., stomach) and 62% for those out of the scan field (e.g., thyroid), respectively. As higher tube currents are often used for larger patients to maintain image quality, it was of interest to quantify the associated effective dose. It was found from this study that when the mAs was doubled for the obese level-I, obese level-II and morbidly-obese phantoms, the effective dose relative to that of the normal weight phantom increased by 57%, 42% and 23%, respectively. This set

  17. Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Bava Amadeo Javier; Cecilia, Domínguez; Alcides, Troncoso

    2013-01-01

    Objective To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1 500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient. PMID:23620857

  18. A randomized comparative trial of a combined oral contraceptive and azelaic acid to assess their effect on sleep quality in adult female acne patients.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rachel Gimenes; da Rocha, Marco Alexandre Dias; Hirotsu, Camila; Hachul, Helena; Bagatin, Edileia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of adult female acne. This subtype of acne presents particular characteristics, and can be triggered by several factors such as smoking, stress, the use of oily cosmetics and even by poor sleep. Sleep quality is related to well-being and the maintenance of body homeostasis. In addition, several skin diseases present a bidirectional relationship with sleep, demonstrating an important connection between skin and the central nervous system. With this in mind, we aimed to compare the effect of two types of treatment for adult female acne (azelaic acid or a combined oral contraceptive) on sleep quality and on concentrations of stress hormones. Also, we proposed to assess the correlation of sleep and hormonal parameters with acne severity. In order to do this, 32 women underwent a clinical evaluation, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and had their blood collected for hormone assays. These procedures were performed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. At baseline there were no differences between the groups in terms of body mass index, age, acne severity and hormone concentrations. Results showed that both treatments demonstrated effectiveness but that women treated with azelaic acid presented a better sleep quality after the treatment compared to baseline and to the group treated with the combined oral contraceptive. The combined oral contraceptive group presented an increase in cortisol and a decrease in free testosterone concentration in relation to baseline. These data suggest that both azelaic acid and combined oral contraceptive are effective in the treatment of adult female acne but, azelaic acid seems to be a more suitable option for those women who may benefit from a better subjective sleep quality. PMID:26472098

  19. Extensive ameloblastic fibroma of the mandibula in a female adult patient: A case report with a follow-up of 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Mukerrem; Aytekin, Zeliha; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is rare benign odontogenic tumour which usually occurs in the first two decades of life. It can occur either the mandible or maxilla but it is most frequently found in the posterior region of the mandible. Treatment of AF in usual is a conservative approach, such as enucleation and curettage but the aggressive lesions require a radical approach. A more radical approach should be considered in older patients who have likely high recurrence tendency. This report describes a case of AF in a 38-year-old female patient identified during a routine radiographic exam. Tomographic examination through three-dimensional reconstruction indicated vestibular fenestration of the cortical bone, with involvement of lingual cortical bone as the lession extended to the posterior region. We removed the tumor under local anesthesia. In this case patient has continued to be followed frequently and has been disease-free for 3 years. PMID:27011753

  20. Nutrition for optimal predatory performance of adult female Orius insidiosus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction in a female predator, Orius insidiosus, is a nutritionally stringent process. Adult females acquire the nutrition needed for egg development from their prey, and rates of egg development are dependent on nutrients acquired in that life stage. When released as a biological control agen...

  1. Differences in dentofacial characteristics of Class I malocclusion between Saudi and Japanese adult females

    PubMed Central

    Abbassy, Mona A; Abushal, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to compare dentofacial characteristics of Class I malocclusion in Saudi and Japanese adult females. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 50 Saudi adult female and 50 Japanese adult female (18–35-year-old) were obtained. All patients were skeletal Class I, angle Class I malocclusion, arch length discrepancy (−10–10 mm), overjet (1–5 mm), overbite (1–5 mm), absence of congenital anomalies, or significant facial asymmetries or congenitally missing tooth other than the 3rd molar and absence of temporomandibular joint problems. Patient cephalograms were traced and digitized. 16 angular measurements and 13 linear measurements of facial form were used. Results: A comparison of the vertical dimension showed that the Saudi females had a significantly larger gonial angle, a significantly larger facial angle and longer lower face height compared to the Japanese females. Dentally, Saudi females had more protruded incisors with increased distances of the posterior teeth to the palatal plane. For the soft tissue dimension, the Saudi subjects had a significantly more prominent nose, retruded lip and a more protruded chin compared with Japanese. Conclusions: There were significant differences in dentofacial morphology between Saudi and Japanese adult females. Both Asian countries have distinct cephalometric features, which should be considered as a reference in treating patients of varying ethnic backgrounds to optimize the final results. PMID:26229950

  2. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  3. Separation-Individuation in Female Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Deborah

    This study examined separation-individuation development issues for young adult women, from the perspective of object-relations theory. Its purpose was to explore a woman's perception of her relationship with mother as it is affected by age and request for psychotherapy as well as the relationship between mother-daughter bond and personality…

  4. Ovarian function in female patients with multibacillary leprosy.

    PubMed

    Neena, Khanna; Ammini, A C; Singh, Manjula; Pandhi, Ravindra Kumar

    2003-06-01

    Eighty six adult female patients with multibacillary leprosy were included to study the sex hormone profile LH, FSH, and prolactin, as well as their gynecological events like menstrual function and fertility status. A third of the patients gave a history of irregularity of periods. The mean levels of LH and FSH were significantly higher in patients with multibacilary leprosy vis-à-vis the controls. Of the 24 married women with irregularity of periods, 12 (50%) were infertile. Seven of these patients had elevated levels of FSH and LH, almost reaching castration levels. PMID:12914132

  5. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults

    PubMed Central

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  6. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  7. Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Saritha, Mohanan; Gupta, Divya; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder M; Rajesh, Nachiappa G

    2012-01-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn's disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient. PMID:23248371

  8. The prolonged clotting time in two female patients with thromboangiitis obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yiping; Xia, Yin; Li, Yiqing; Yu, DannyCW

    2013-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), also known as Buerger's disease, is segmental non-atherosclerotic inflammatory disease, which affects the small and medium-sized peripheral arteries, veins and nerves of young adult smokers. The paper reports two TAO female patients, 26-year-old and 42-year-old, with prolonged clotting time. We compared 13 male patients and 2 female patients with TAO. The prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were normal in the male patients, whereas the clotting times were prolonged in the female patients. Coagulation tests including PT, APTT and TT evaluation could be the potential markers to female patients with TAO. PMID:23749821

  9. Spironolactone for 
Adult Female Acne.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Adam J

    2015-10-01

    Many cases of acne are hormonal in nature, meaning that 
they occur in adolescent girls and women and are aggravated 
by hormonal fluctuations such as those that occur during the menstrual cycle or in the setting of underlying hormonal imbalances as seen in polycystic ovary syndrome. For these patients, antihormonal therapy such as spironolactone is a valid and efficacious option. Herein, initiation and utilization of this medication is reviewed. PMID:27141564

  10. Sexuality of Deviant Females: Adolescent and Adult Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter Paul; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Suggests an association between negative sexual experiences in adolescents, low self-image, and subsequent deviant adult life styles. Results of a survey of prostitutes and a corresponding sample of female offenders showed that the prostitutes reported significantly more negative sexual experiences in adolescence. (Author/JAC)

  11. Malignant syphilis in an immunocompetent female patient.

    PubMed

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Orasmo, Cínthia Rosane; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartore; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response. Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. PMID:25387504

  12. Childhood maltreatment in adult female psychiatric outpatients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Fosse, Gunilla Klensmeden; Holen, Are

    2006-11-01

    To explore possible relations between maltreatment in childhood and subsequent eating disorders in adult life, 107 consecutive adult psychiatric female outpatients were screened for eating disorders. They also completed questionnaires about harassment by adults and bullying by peers in childhood. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire measured childhood abuse by parents or other adults, and the Parental Bonding Instrument captured parental coldness and overprotection. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Outpatients who met the criteria for bulimia nervosa reported far more bullying by peers, more coldness and overprotection from fathers, and more childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse. The findings suggest associations between childhood maltreatment, especially bullying by peers, and bulimia nervosa. PMID:17056418

  13. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients. PMID:26711274

  14. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  15. Comparative Efficacy and Tolerability of Dapsone 5% Gel in Adult Versus Adolescent Females with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Kircik, Leon; Gallagher, Conor J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the response to dapsone 5% gel was similar in adolescent girls and adult women with facial acne vulgaris. Design and setting: Subgroup analysis of female subjects with acne vulgaris receiving active treatment enrolled in two randomized, double-blind Phase 3 clinical trials. Treatment: Twice-daily applications of dapsone 5% gel over 12 weeks. Participants: Adolescent (12-17 years of age) and adult (≥18 years of age) females. Measurements: At baseline and at Weeks 2,4,6,8, and 12, subjects were evaluated using the global acne assessment score and by counts of inflammatory, noninflammatory, and total acne vulgaris lesions. Adverse events were monitored. Results: A total of 347 adolescent and 434 adult women were included in the subgroup analysis. At Week 12, dapsone 5% gel significantly reduced mean global acne assessment score in both subgroups (p<0.001); however, the proportion of subjects with clinical success (no or minimal acne based on global acne assessment score) at Week 12 was greater in adult women (53.5%) versus adolescent females (45.3%, p=0.022). Significantly greater percentage reductions in both noninflammatory (p<0.0001) and total lesion counts (p=0.0008) were observed in the adult group as compared to the adolescent group. Percentage reductions from baseline in inflammatory lesions were similar in both groups. No major safety issues and no previously unrecognized safety signals were noted. Conclusion: This subgroup analysis of female patients indicates that dapsone 5% gel twice daily is effective in reducing inflammatory and noninflammatory acne vulgaris lesions in both adolescent and adult women, and is safe in these subgroups. Overall, these data suggest that efficacy of dapsone 5% gel twice daily for facial acne vulgaris may be greater in the adult female population. PMID:25610522

  16. Female Adult Mouse Cardiomyocytes Are Protected Against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangfei; He, Quan; Sun, Ying; Dai, Xiangguo; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Premenopausal women have less cardiovascular disease and lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than men the same age. Our previous studies showed that female mice have lower mortality and better preserved cardiac function after myocardial infarction. However, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for such a sex difference are not well established. Using cultured adult mouse cardiomyocytes (ACMs), we tested the hypothesis that the survival advantage of females stems from activated estrogen receptors (ER) and Akt survival signaling pathways. ACMs were isolated from male and female C57BL/6J mice and treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 100 μM) for 30 min. Cell survival was indicated by rod ratio (rod shaped cells/total cells) and cell death by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and positive staining of Annexin-V (AV+, a marker for apoptosis) and propidium iodide (PI+, a marker for necrosis). In response to H2O2, female ACMs exhibited a higher rod ratio, lower LDH release and fewer AV+ and PI+ cells compared to males. Phospho-Akt was greater in females both at baseline and after H2O2 stimulation. The downstream molecule of Akt, phosphor-GSK-3β (inactivation), was also higher while caspase-3 activity was lower in females in response to H2O2. Bcl-2 did not differ between genders. ERα was the dominant isoform in females, whereas ERβ was low but similar in both genders. Our findings demonstrate that female ACMs have a greater survival advantage when challenged with oxidative stress-induced cell death. This may be attributable to activation of Akt and inhibition of GSK-3β and caspase-3 through an ERα-mediated mechanism. PMID:20212261

  17. Survival of adult female elk in yellowstone following wolf restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, S.B.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival records for 85 radiocollared adult female elk 1-19 years old to estimate annual survival from March 2000 to February 2004. Weighted average annual survival rates were approximately 0.83 (95% CI = 0.77-0.89) for females 1-15 years old and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.73-0.86) for all females. Our estimates were much lower than the rate of 0.99 observed during 1969-1975 when fewer elk were harvested by hunters, wolves were not present, and other predators were less numerous. Of 33 documented deaths included in our analysis, we attributed 11 to hunter harvest, 14 to predation (10 wolf, 2 unknown, 1 cougar [Puma concolor], and 1 bear [Ursus sp.]), 6 to unknown causes, and 2 to winter-kill. Most deaths occurred from December through March. Estimates of cause-specific annual mortality rates were 0.09 (0.05-0.14) for all predators, 0.08 (0.04-0.13) for hunting, and 0.07 (0.03-0.11) for wolves specifically. Wolf-killed elk were typically older (median = 12 yr) than hunter-killed elk (median = 9 yr, P = 0.03). However, elk that winter outside the park where they were exposed to hunting were also younger (median = 7 yr) than elk that we did not observe outside the park (median = 9 yr, P < 0.01). Consequently, differences in ages of elk killed by wolves and hunters may reflect characteristics of elk exposed to various causes of mortality, as well as differences in susceptibility. Unless survival rates of adult females increase, elk numbers are likely to continue declining. Hunter harvest is the only cause of mortality that is amenable to management at the present time.

  18. Heightened airway responsiveness in normal female children compared with adults.

    PubMed

    Tepper, R S; Stevens, J; Eigen, H

    1994-03-01

    Studies have suggested that airway responsiveness declines with maturation; however, studies comparing infants, children, and adults are confounded by differences in size as well as maturation. Therefore, to determine whether maturation has a significant affect on airway responsiveness, we compared normal female children (n = 9; mean age = 13.6 yr) and adults (n = 7; mean age = 42.4 yr) who were matched for body size. Bronchial challenge tests were performed with increasing methacholine concentrations to a maximum of 30 mg/ml. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the two groups in lung volumes (TGV, RV, TLC) or flow-volume curves (FEV1, average forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of the vital capacity [FEF25-75], FVC). All subjects but one adolescent completed the challenge (30 mg/ml). The children had a greater percentage decline from baseline in FEV1 than the adults (17 versus 7%, p < 0.03). The percentage decline in FEF25-75 was greater for the children than for the adults, but the difference was not statistically significant (35 versus 20%, p < 0.10). Compared with the children, the adults more often demonstrated a plateau in their dose-response curves for FEV1 (22 versus 86%) and for FEF25-75 (33 versus 100%). We conclude that normal female children have a greater airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine than do adults, and that this difference is not related to baseline lung size, airway caliber, or delivered methacholine dose. PMID:8118636

  19. Cystosarcoma phylloides in adolescent female patients.

    PubMed

    Briggs, R M; Walters, M; Rosenthal, D

    1983-12-01

    Nine cases of cystosarcoma phylloides in adolescent female patients are reported along with an additional 35 cases collected from the literature. Analysis of these 44 cases revealed 37 (84.1 percent) benign lesions, 6 (13.6 percent) malignant tumors, and 1 borderline lesion. Excision was the most common operative procedure and was performed in 35 patients. Nine patients underwent mastectomy. There were three recurrent lesions (one benign and two malignant) for a recurrence rate of 6.8 percent. Wide excision was successful in the treatment of recurrent lesions. On the basis of these data, excision is the preferred initial therapy of cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent patient regardless of the histologic classification of the lesion. Malignant cystosarcoma is more likely to recur than a benign lesion but a recurrence can be managed with reexcision. Sacrifice of the adolescent breast at the initial procedure is strongly discouraged. PMID:6316797

  20. Motivational and mindfulness intervention for young adult female marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Herman, Debra S.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Hagerty, Claire E.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult female. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18–29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of 2 sessions of MI-MM or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). Participants’ marijuana use was assessed at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months post-treatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = −2.42, p=.015), 7.81 (z = −2.78, p=.005), and 6.83 (z = −2.23, p=.026) fewer days at months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136

  1. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Jeon, Gyun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    With improved survival rates among cancer patients, fertility preservation is now being recognized as an issue of great importance. There are currently several methods of fertility preservation available in female cancer patients and the options and techniques via assisted reproduction and cryopreservation are increasing, but some are still experimental and continues to be evaluated. The established means of preserving fertility include embryo cryopreservation, gonadal shielding during radiation therapy, ovarian transposition, conservative gynecologic surgery such as radical trachelectomy, donor embryos/oocytes, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The experimental methods include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation, in vitro maturation, and ovarian suppression. With advances in methods for the preservation of fertility, providing information about risk of infertility and possible options of fertility preservation to all young patients with cancer, and discussing future fertility with them should be also considered as one of the important parts of consultation at the time of cancer diagnosis. PMID:22462006

  2. Female Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Female Reproductive Complications

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Monika L.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Patterson, Briana; Casillas, Jacqueline S.; Constine, Louis S.; Hijiya, Nobuko; Kenney, Lisa B.; Leonard, Marcia; Lockart, Barbara A.; Likes, Wendy; Green, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As more young female patients with cancer survive their primary disease, concerns about reproductive health related to primary therapy gain relevance. Cancer therapy can often affect reproductive organs, leading to impaired pubertal development, hormonal regulation, fertility, and sexual function, affecting quality of life. Methods The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) are evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of late effects of therapeutic exposures. The guidelines are updated every 2 years by a multidisciplinary panel based on current literature review and expert consensus. Results This review summarizes the current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of female reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Experimental pretreatment as well as post-treatment fertility preservation strategies, including barriers and ethical considerations, which are not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Conclusion Ongoing research will continue to inform COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care of female survivors of childhood cancer to improve their health and quality of life. PMID:23382474

  3. Litter Size Predicts Adult Stereotypic Behavior in Female Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice. PMID:23043805

  4. Could adult female acne be associated with modern life?

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, R G R; Rocha, M A D; Bagatin, E; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of adult female acne has increased, but the reason for this increase remains unclear. Acne is one of the most common skin disorders. It can be triggered or worsened by endogenous and exogenous factors, including genetic predisposition, hormone concentrations, diet, smoke and stress; although the interaction with this last factor is not well understood. Modern life presents many stresses including urban noises, socioeconomic pressures and light stimuli. Women are especially affected by stress during daily routine. The recent insertion in the labor market is added to the duties of the mother and wife. Women also have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Sleep restriction is added to these factors, with several negative consequences on health, including on hormonal secretion and the immune system. This is further complicated by the natural variation in sleep architecture across the menstrual cycle. Recent studies have brought new data about the mechanisms and possible factors involved. This review aims to establish a connection between stress, sleep deprivation and adult female acne. PMID:24952024

  5. [Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

    2014-01-01

    A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

  6. Habitual use of vocal fry in young adult female speakers.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Lesley; Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Slavin, Dianne

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of vocal fry in young adult Standard American-English (SAE) speakers. This was a preliminary attempt (1) to determine the prevalence of the use of this register in young adult college-aged American speakers and (2) to describe the acoustic characteristics of vocal fry in these speakers. Subjects were 34 female college students. They were native SAE speakers aged 18-25 years. Data collection procedures included high quality recordings of two speaking conditions, (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) sentence reading task. Data analyses included both perceptual and acoustic evaluations. Results showed that approximately two-thirds of this population used vocal fry and that it was most likely to occur at the end of sentences. In addition, statistically significant differences between vocal fry and normal register were found for mean F(0) minimum, F(0) maximum, F(0) range, and jitter local. Preliminary findings were taken to suggest that use of the vocal fry register may be common in some adult SAE speakers. PMID:21917418

  7. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients.

    PubMed

    van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

  8. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

  9. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  10. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females.

    PubMed

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  11. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Jane A; Shafer, Martin M; Hampton, John M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration. PMID:17544058

  12. Hybrid Computational Phantoms Representing the Reference Adult Male and Adult Female: Construction and Applications for Retrospective Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Jorge L.; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-year Korean volunteer and a 25-year U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images for the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of 8 anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from

  13. Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-03-01

    Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms

  14. A spontaneous depressive pattern in adult female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Chu, Xunxun; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Lü, Longbao; Yang, Lichuan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Chen, Lin; Feng, Xiaoli; Hu, Xintian

    2015-01-01

    Non-human primates offer unique opportunities to study the development of depression rooted in behavioral and physiological abnormalities. This study observed adult female rhesus macaques within social hierarchies and aimed to characterize the physiological and brain abnormalities accompanying depressive-like behavior. The behaviors of 31 female rhesus macaques from 14 different breeding groups were video recorded, and the footage was analyzed using the focal animal technique. There were 13 monkeys who never displayed huddling behavior (non-huddlers). The remaining 18 monkeys were divided into two groups according the mean time spent in the huddle posture. Four monkeys were designated as high huddlers, whereas the other 14 monkeys were low huddlers. An inverse relationship was discovered between social rank and depression. High huddlers spent more time engaging in physical contact and in close proximity to other monkeys, as well as less time spontaneously and reactively locomoting, than low huddlers and/or non-huddlers. Cortisol levels measured from the hair were elevated significantly in high huddlers compared with low huddlers and non-huddlers, and the measured cortisol levels were specifically higher in high huddlers than subordinate or dominant control monkeys. Regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant and widespread decreases in high huddlers compared with non-huddlers. PMID:26059851

  15. A spontaneous depressive pattern in adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Chu, Xunxun; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Lü, Longbao; Yang, Lichuan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Chen, Lin; Feng, Xiaoli; Hu, Xintian

    2015-01-01

    Non-human primates offer unique opportunities to study the development of depression rooted in behavioral and physiological abnormalities. This study observed adult female rhesus macaques within social hierarchies and aimed to characterize the physiological and brain abnormalities accompanying depressive-like behavior. The behaviors of 31 female rhesus macaques from 14 different breeding groups were video recorded, and the footage was analyzed using the focal animal technique. There were 13 monkeys who never displayed huddling behavior (non-huddlers). The remaining 18 monkeys were divided into two groups according the mean time spent in the huddle posture. Four monkeys were designated as high huddlers, whereas the other 14 monkeys were low huddlers. An inverse relationship was discovered between social rank and depression. High huddlers spent more time engaging in physical contact and in close proximity to other monkeys, as well as less time spontaneously and reactively locomoting, than low huddlers and/or non-huddlers. Cortisol levels measured from the hair were elevated significantly in high huddlers compared with low huddlers and non-huddlers, and the measured cortisol levels were specifically higher in high huddlers than subordinate or dominant control monkeys. Regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant and widespread decreases in high huddlers compared with non-huddlers. PMID:26059851

  16. Evidence of Uncultivated Bacteria in the Adult Female Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.; Toh, Evelyn; Shibata, Noriko; Rong, Ruichen; Kenton, Kimberly; FitzGerald, MaryPat; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Schreckenberger, Paul; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical urine specimens are usually considered to be sterile when they do not yield uropathogens using standard clinical cultivation procedures. Our aim was to test if the adult female bladder might contain bacteria that are not identified by these routine procedures. An additional aim was to identify and recommend the appropriate urine collection method for the study of bacterial communities in the female bladder. Consenting participants who were free of known urinary tract infection provided urine samples by voided, transurethral, and/or suprapubic collection methods. The presence of bacteria in these samples was assessed by bacterial culture, light microscopy, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria that are not or cannot be routinely cultivated (hereinafter called uncultivated bacteria) were common in voided urine, urine collected by transurethral catheter (TUC), and urine collected by suprapubic aspirate (SPA), regardless of whether the subjects had urinary symptoms. Voided urine samples contained mixtures of urinary and genital tract bacteria. Communities identified in parallel urine samples collected by TUC and SPA were similar. Uncultivated bacteria are clearly present in the bladders of some women. It remains unclear if these bacteria are viable and/or if their presence is relevant to idiopathic urinary tract conditions. PMID:22278835

  17. Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting Online, except for the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) that was completed over the telephone. Subjects Participants were 306 female university students aged 18–25 years. Measures MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

  18. How patient-centered do female physicians need to be? Analogue patients' satisfaction with male and female physicians' identical behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith A; Roter, Debra L; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Pitegoff, Curtis A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that female physicians may not receive appropriate credit in patients' eyes for their patient-centered skills compared to their male counterparts. An experiment was conducted to determine whether a performance of higher (versus lower) verbal patient-centeredness would result in a greater difference in analogue patient satisfaction for male than female physicians. Two male and two female actors portrayed physicians speaking to a patient using high or low patient-centered scripts while not varying their nonverbal cues. One hundred ninety-two students served as analogue patients by assuming the patient role while watching one of the videos and rating their satisfaction and other evaluative responses to the physician. Greater verbal patient-centeredness had a stronger positive effect on satisfaction and evaluations for male than for female physicians. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that the different associations between patient-centeredness and patients' satisfaction for male versus female physicians occur because of the overlap between stereotypical female behavior and behaviors that comprise patient-centered medical care. If this is the case, high verbal patient-centered behavior by female physicians is not recognized as a marker of clinical competence, as it is for male physicians, but is rather seen as expected female behavior. PMID:25175277

  19. Choroidoretinal granuloma in a young female patient

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Horace F; Gatzioufas, Zisis; Mangioris, Georgios; Panos, Georgios D

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old Brazilian female patient presented with blurring of vision in the right eye. Corrected visual acuity was OD 2/20, OS 20/20. Afferent pupillary defect was absent and anterior segment examination revealed anterior uveitis. Fundus examination showed light vitritis and a raised grey–white granuloma located at posterior pole with focal serous retinal detachment on optical coherence. Indocyacnine green angiography disclosed a complete mask effect in granuloma's area. Differential diagnoses were infectious (bacterial, viral, fungal and parasites) diseases, systemic inflammatory diseases, tumours. Blood serologies (HIV, toxoplasma, Borrelia, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubeola) showed positive results for IgM and IgG for toxoplasma, and anterior chamber tap (PCR for toxoplasma, CMV, HSV, VZV) revealed toxoplasma DNA. Anti-toxoplasma therapy, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and calcium folinate, was administered immediately. On follow-up granuloma regression was observed, with complete visual restoration. This case demonstrates a clinically challenging posterior pole granuloma. PMID:24744062

  20. Choroidoretinal granuloma in a young female patient.

    PubMed

    Massa, Horace F; Gatzioufas, Zisis; Mangioris, Georgios; Panos, Georgios D

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old Brazilian female patient presented with blurring of vision in the right eye. Corrected visual acuity was OD 2/20, OS 20/20. Afferent pupillary defect was absent and anterior segment examination revealed anterior uveitis. Fundus examination showed light vitritis and a raised grey-white granuloma located at posterior pole with focal serous retinal detachment on optical coherence. Indocyacnine green angiography disclosed a complete mask effect in granuloma's area. Differential diagnoses were infectious (bacterial, viral, fungal and parasites) diseases, systemic inflammatory diseases, tumours. Blood serologies (HIV, toxoplasma, Borrelia, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubeola) showed positive results for IgM and IgG for toxoplasma, and anterior chamber tap (PCR for toxoplasma, CMV, HSV, VZV) revealed toxoplasma DNA. Anti-toxoplasma therapy, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and calcium folinate, was administered immediately. On follow-up granuloma regression was observed, with complete visual restoration. This case demonstrates a clinically challenging posterior pole granuloma. PMID:24744062

  1. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation. PMID:27262980

  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Female Patients.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lucinda A; Umar, Sarah B; Baffy, Noemi; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is probably the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder and is characterized by abdominal pain along with altered bowel function. It is a disorder of female predominance. This article focuses on how being female influences the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment of this common disorder and discusses the evidence and important controversies related to these areas. PMID:27261893

  3. Transcriptome of the adult female malaria mosquito vector Anopheles albimanus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Transmission is a complex phenomenon involving biological and environmental factors of humans, parasites and mosquitoes. Among more than 500 anopheline species, only a few species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting that their vectorial capacity has evolved independently. Anopheles albimanus (subgenus Nyssorhynchus) is an important malaria vector in the Americas. The divergence time between Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Africa, and the Neotropical vectors has been estimated to be 100 My. To better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to explore the mosquito biology beyond the An. gambiae complex. Results We sequenced the transcriptome of the An. albimanus adult female. By combining Sanger, 454 and Illumina sequences from cDNA libraries derived from the midgut, cuticular fat body, dorsal vessel, salivary gland and whole body, we generated a single, high-quality assembly containing 16,669 transcripts, 92% of which mapped to the An. darlingi genome and covered 90% of the core eukaryotic genome. Bidirectional comparisons between the An. gambiae, An. darlingi and An. albimanus predicted proteomes allowed the identification of 3,772 putative orthologs. More than half of the transcripts had a match to proteins in other insect vectors and had an InterPro annotation. We identified several protein families that may be relevant to the study of Plasmodium-mosquito interaction. An open source transcript annotation browser called GDAV (Genome-Delinked Annotation Viewer) was developed to facilitate public access to the data generated by this and future transcriptome projects. Conclusions We have explored the adult female transcriptome of one important New World malaria vector, An. albimanus. We identified protein-coding transcripts involved in

  4. Delayed Recognition of an Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in a Young Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Ariel; Wuilleumier, Jean Paul; Teper, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    A percentage of ureteropelvic junction obstruction cases are clinically silent in childhood and manifest symptoms in adults. Herein we present a 25-year-old female with several years of intermittent flank pain and abdominal symptoms with prior inconclusive diagnostic workup including abdominal imaging without hydronephrosis. Ultimately, a CT scan performed during an acute pain crisis clearly identified right-sided hydronephrosis. The keys to diagnosis are awareness of this entity, a detailed history, and obtaining imaging studies during a crisis. The patient subsequently underwent a right robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty with preservation of a lower pole crossing vessel. We highlight noteworthy features of the clinical presentation and surgical repair. PMID:26221562

  5. Delayed Recognition of an Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in a Young Adult Female.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Ariel; Wuilleumier, Jean Paul; Teper, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    A percentage of ureteropelvic junction obstruction cases are clinically silent in childhood and manifest symptoms in adults. Herein we present a 25-year-old female with several years of intermittent flank pain and abdominal symptoms with prior inconclusive diagnostic workup including abdominal imaging without hydronephrosis. Ultimately, a CT scan performed during an acute pain crisis clearly identified right-sided hydronephrosis. The keys to diagnosis are awareness of this entity, a detailed history, and obtaining imaging studies during a crisis. The patient subsequently underwent a right robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty with preservation of a lower pole crossing vessel. We highlight noteworthy features of the clinical presentation and surgical repair. PMID:26221562

  6. Bone status of adult female butyrylcholinesterase gene-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Malte; Kauschke, Vivien; Sender, Jonas; Kampschulte, Marian; Kovtun, Anna; Dürselen, Lutz; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) degrades acetylcholine in addition to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is involved in embryonic development of limbs. Since BChE is expressed by osteoblast-like cells we asked whether it is functional in adult bone remodeling. We addressed this issue by analyzing BChE gene-deficient mice (BChE-KO). Bones were extracted from 16-week old female BChE-KO and corresponding wild type mice (WT). Femoral bones were used for biomechanical testing and μCT evaluation of cancellous and cortical bone. Also vertebrae Th12 and L1 were investigated with μCT while L3 was used for tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) histomorphometry and Th10 for gene expression analysis by means of real-time RT-PCR. BChE-KO did not reveal significant differences in biomechanical bone strength and bone mineral density determined by μCT. Microarchitecture of cancellous and cortical bone showed an increase in μCT parameters like trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and relative cortical bone area of femoral BChE-KO bone compared to WT. In vertebrae no changes of microstructure and mRNA expression were detected. However, osteoclast histomorphometry with TRAP stained sections demonstrated a significant increase in relative osteoclast number. In conclusion, in adult murine bone the role of BChE is limited to bone specific changes in microarchitecture and to an increase in relative number of bone resorbing osteoclasts whereas the main collagen resorbing enzyme Cathepsin-K (CtsK) was stably expressed. Besides, AChE might be able to compensate the lack of BChE. Thus, further analyses using bone tissue specific AChE BChE cre-lox double knockout mice would be helpful. PMID:26138460

  7. The Child's Expectations of Differences in Adult Male and Female Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagot, Beverly I.

    1984-01-01

    Two-year-olds and four-year-olds were placed with male and female adults in a play situation where the children were forced to control the choice of toys and mode of interaction. The four-year-olds elicited different types of play behaviors from male and female adults; the younger children did not. (Author/KH)

  8. Adult female hamsters avoid interspecific mating after exposure to heterospecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; McPhee, M. E.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    When females mate with a heterospecific male, they do not usually produce viable offspring. Thus, there is a selective pressure for females to avoid interspecific mating. In many species, females innately avoid heterospecific males; females can also imprint on their parents to avoid later sexual interactions with heterospecific males. However, it was previously unknown whether adult females can learn to discriminate against heterospecific males. We tested the hypothesis that adult females previously unable to avoid interspecific mating learn to avoid such mating after being exposed to heterospecific males. Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females not previously exposed to Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) males can discriminate between odors of conspecific and heterospecific males, but they mate with either type of male. However, when we exposed adult females to both a conspecific male and a heterospecific male through wire-mesh barriers for 8 days, and then paired them sequentially with the two males, females were more receptive to conspecific males and more aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the heterospecific male first and the conspecific male second, no female was receptive and all were aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the conspecific male first, only 43% of females were then aggressive toward the heterospecific male. That is, interactions with conspecific males may decrease a female’s ability to properly avoid heterospecific males. Our study clearly shows for the first time that females can learn during adulthood to avoid interspecific mating just by being exposed to stimuli from heterospecific males. PMID:20676390

  9. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  10. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  11. Design considerations for adult patient education.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P L

    1982-01-01

    A variety of factors require attention in the design of patient education programs for adults. Andragogy, the art and science of helping adults learn, describes certain conditions of learning that are more conducive to growth and development for adults and prescribes practices in the learning-teaching transaction to meet them. Stigma, a special discrepancy between virtual and actual social identity, reduces a patient's self-esteem and fosters a feeling of dependence on others for care. Anxiety related to diagnosis and illness creates a situation in which patients cannot productively learn. The stages in acceptance of diagnosis provide a roadmap for understanding a patient's feelings/psychological processes and insight into opportunities to intervene with patient education. The specific disease a patient has effects his ability to learn. Each of these factors is considered with implications described for designing and implementing patient education activities for adults. PMID:10258421

  12. Stature estimation from craniofacial anthropometry in Bangladeshi Garo adult females.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Z; Banu, L A; Alam, M M; Rahman, M F

    2012-07-01

    Estimation of stature is an important tool in forensic examination especially in unknown, highly decomposed, fragmentary and mutilated human remains. When the evidences are skeletal remains; forensic anthropology has put forward means to estimate the stature from the skeletal and even from fragmentary bones. Sometimes, craniofacial remains are brought in for forensic and postmortem examination. In such a situation, estimation of stature becomes equally important along with other parameters like age, sex, race, etc. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. It is well established that a single standard of craniofacial aesthetics is not appropriate for application to diverse racial and ethnic groups. Bangladesh is a country not only for the Bengalis; the country harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Like other ethnic groups, the Garos (study subjects) have their own set of language, social structure, cultures and economic activities and religious values. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Bangladeshi Garo adult females. The study also attempted to find out the correlation of the craniofacial dimensions with stature and to determine multiplication factors. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components. The study was carried out with a total number of one hundred Garo adult females, aged between 25-45 years. Craniofacial dimension such as head circumference, head length, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth and stature were measured using a measuring tape, spreading caliper, steel plate and steel tape and sliding caliper. The data were then statistically

  13. Oestradiol modulation of cognition in adult female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Chang, Jeemin; Metevier, Christina M.; LaClair, Matthew; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Ferris, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) provides many advantages over traditional rodent and macaque species as a model for human aging and may be very valuable to study the effects of sex steroids on cognitive and brain aging. We present the first study examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function in female marmosets. Adult monkeys (3-5 years of age) were trained to a specific learning criterion on a battery of cognitive tasks preoperatively (object discrimination, delayed response with increasing delays and detour reaching with opaque box) and tested on different versions of these tasks (object reversals, delayed response with randomised delays and detour reaching with clear box) following ovariectomy and simultaneous implantation with 17β-oestradiol (E2, n=6) or blank (n=6) Silastic capsules. Acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position task with a 1s delay was also administered following completion of these tests. E2-treated monkeys were significantly impaired on the second Reversal and showed an increase in perseverative responding from Reversals 1 to 3. Their performance also tended to be worse than that of control monkeys on the Delayed Response task. Performance acquisition on the DMP tended to be better in E2-treated relative to control monkeys, but the group difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect of treatment was detected for Detour Reaching or affiliative behaviours. Overall, the findings indicate that E2 compromises performance on prefrontally-mediated tasks. The suggestion that E2 may improve acquisition on tasks dependent on the hippocampus will require further validation. These results are discussed in the context of dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling. We conclude that the marmoset is a useful new primate model to examine the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function. PMID:24617856

  14. Meat-eating by adult female Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii).

    PubMed

    Utami, S S; Van Hooff, J A

    1997-01-01

    Information about meat-eating behavior by wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) is scant. The first article about such a case dates from 1981. Since 1989, seven incidents of adult female Sumatran orangutans eating slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang) have been witnessed. Three females from two study sites were involved. In three cases the females were seen catching the prey. There are too few cases to conclude whether this behavior is typically female. PMID:9327098

  15. Urethral cavernous hemangioma in a female patient: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Yüzüncü, Kubilay; Akdeniz, Ekrem; Demirdoven, Ayse Nurten

    2015-01-01

    Genitourinary hemangiomas are rare entities of the urinary system. We reported a female patient who suffered dyspareunia and intermitant hematuria that was proved as urethral cavernous hemangioma. Despite its benign nature, hemangiomas may recur due to incomplet excision. PMID:26985270

  16. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for lifelong neurological decline.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99 (60%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their life-span. PMID:26788781

  17. Hospital Patients Are Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    Patient education is recognized by health care providers and patients themselves as an important component of adequate health care for hospital patients. Through this informational process, patients receive information about specific health problems, learn the necessary competencies to deal with them, and develop accepting attitudes toward the…

  18. Juvenile play conditions sexual partner preference in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2011-10-24

    Rats can display a conditioned partner preference for individuals that bear an odor previously associated with sexual reward. Herein we tested the possibility that odors associated with the reward induced by social play in prepubescent rats would induce a conditioned partner preference in adulthood. Two groups of 31-day-old, single-housed female rats were formed, and were given daily 30-min periods of social play with scented females. In one group, almond scent was paired with juvenile play during conditioning trials, whereas lemon scent functioned as a novel odor in the final test. The counterbalanced group received the opposite association. At age 42, females were tested for play partner preference with two males, one almond-scented and one lemon-scented. In both groups females displayed a play partner preference only for males scented with the paired odor. They were ovariectomized, hormone-primed, and at age 55 were tested for sexual partner preference with two scented stud males. Females displayed a sexual preference towards males scented with the paired odor as observed with more visits, solicitations, hops and darts, intromissions and ejaculations. These results indicate that olfactory stimuli paired with juvenile play affects later partner choice for play as well as for sex in female rats. PMID:21777597

  19. A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

    To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

  20. Depressive Symptoms in Older Female Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C-Y.; Fu, L-Y.; Kroger, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This survey study aims to examine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among primary older female family carers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In total, 350 female family carers aged 55 and older took part and completed the interview in their homes. The survey package contained…

  1. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  2. Diagnosis of Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jerry A; Nichols, David P

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is being made with increasing frequency in adults. Patients with CF diagnosed in adulthood typically present with respiratory complaints, and often have recurrent or chronic airway infection. At the time of initial presentation individuals may appear to have clinical manifestation limited to a single organ, but with subclinical involvement of the respiratory tract. Adult-diagnosed patients have a good response to CF center care, and newly available cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor-modulating therapies are promising for the treatment of residual function mutation, thus increasing the importance of the diagnosis in adults with unexplained bronchiectasis. PMID:26857767

  3. Ileo-Colic Burkitt Lymphoma in a Young Adult Female- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sangma, Mima Maychet B; Dasiah, Simon D; Ashok, Aju James

    2016-04-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an uncommon and aggressive type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and is one of the fastest growing cancer tumour in humans; growth fraction close to 100%. We report a case of a young adult female presented with acute pain abdomen with ileo-caecal mass. On clinical presentation, initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis with lump formation. Ultrasound reported as diffuse inflammatory changes and later CECT was done which reported as Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST). On laparotomy, a huge hard mass was found on ileo-caecal region and right hemicolectomy was done. Diagnosis was confirmed as Non-Hodgkins Burkitt's Lymphoma by HPE and immunohistochemistry testing. So, careful workup is the key to initiate early treatment. This patient had complete remission after the right hemicolectomy followed by multiagent chemotherapy. PMID:27190885

  4. Ileo-Colic Burkitt Lymphoma in a Young Adult Female- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dasiah, Simon D; Ashok, Aju James

    2016-01-01

    Burkitt’s lymphoma is an uncommon and aggressive type of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and is one of the fastest growing cancer tumour in humans; growth fraction close to 100%. We report a case of a young adult female presented with acute pain abdomen with ileo-caecal mass. On clinical presentation, initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis with lump formation. Ultrasound reported as diffuse inflammatory changes and later CECT was done which reported as Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST). On laparotomy, a huge hard mass was found on ileo-caecal region and right hemicolectomy was done. Diagnosis was confirmed as Non-Hodgkins Burkitt’s Lymphoma by HPE and immunohistochemistry testing. So, careful workup is the key to initiate early treatment. This patient had complete remission after the right hemicolectomy followed by multiagent chemotherapy. PMID:27190885

  5. Capsaicin cough sensitivity is related to the older female predominant feature in chronic cough patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Ju-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to examine the age and gender distributions among chronic cough patients referred to a tertiary cough clinic in Korea, and to investigate clinical factors related to the demographic findings. Methods Study participants were unselectively recruited from adult chronic cough patients who attended the cough clinic for the first time during one year. To validate their representativeness, their age and gender distributions were compared to the entire chronic cough population, or with those presenting with other chronic disease. Data from the baseline investigations were analyzed to identify clinical factors related to the demographic findings. Results A total of 272 chronic cough patients were included. They had a middle-aged female predominant feature (mean age: 52.8±15.7 years and female 69.1%). Their age and gender distributions were almost identical to the entire chronic cough population, but were distinct from patients with hypertension. Among clinical factors, the older female predominance was associated with enhanced capsaicin cough sensitivity, and also with the presence of 'cough by cold air' symptom. Allotussia and laryngeal paresthesia were highly common in chronic cough patients, affecting 94.8% and 86.8% of them, respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrated older female predominance among adult chronic cough patients attending a referral cough clinic in Korea. The demographic features were significantly associated with the capsaicin cough responses and also potentially with allotussia (particularly cold air as the trigger). These findings suggest a role of cough reflex sensitization in the pathophysiology of chronic cough in adults. PMID:25228996

  6. Sleep Disorders in Adult Sickle Cell Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Efird, Jimmy T.; Knupp, Charles; Kadali, Renuka; Liles, Darla; Shiue, Kristin; Boettger, Peter; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: While sleep apnea has been studied in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), little is known about sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate sleep disordered breathing and its polysomnographic characteristics in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Methods: The analysis cohort included 32 consecutive adult SCD patients who underwent a comprehensive sleep evaluation and overnight polysomnography in an accredited sleep center after reporting symptoms suggesting disordered sleep or an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 10. Epworth score, sleep parameters, comorbid conditions, and narcotic use were reviewed and compared in patients with and without sleep disordered breathing. SCD complication rates in the two groups also were compared. Results: In adult SCD patients who underwent overnight polysomnography, we report a high prevalence (44%) of sleep disordered breathing. Disease severity was mild to moderate (mean apnea-hypopnea index = 17/h (95% CI: 10–24/h). Concomitant sleep disorders, including insomnia complaints (57%) and delayed sleep-phase syndrome (57%), also were common in this population. In this limited cohort, we did not find increased SCD complications associated with sleep disordered breathing in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Conclusions: A high burden of sleep disordered breathing and other sleep-related complaints were identified in the adult sickle cell population. Our results provide important information on this unique population. Citation: Sharma S, Efird JT, Knupp C, Kadali R, Liles D, Shiue K, Boettger P, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):219–223. PMID:25515282

  7. Revision Stapedectomy in a Female Patient with Inner Ear Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tirth R.; Moberly, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an unusual case of surgical management of congenital mixed hearing loss in a female patient with inner ear malformation. This report outlines the role of temporal bone imaging and previous surgical history in evaluating a patient's risk of perilymph gusher during stapes surgery. Methods. A 68-year-old female patient with a history of profound bilateral mixed hearing loss due to ossicular and cochlear malformation presented to our otology clinic. She had undergone multiple unsuccessful previous ear surgeries. Computed tomography revealed bilateral inner ear malformations. She elected to proceed with revision stapedectomy. Results. The patient received modest benefit to hearing, and no operative complications occurred. Conclusions. Although stapedectomy has been shown to improve hearing in patients with stapes fixation, there is risk of perilymph gusher in patients with inner ear abnormalities. Evaluation and counseling of the risk of gusher during stapes surgery should be done on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27144044

  8. Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

  9. Gonadal malignancy in 202 female patients with disorders of sex development containing Y-chromosome material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Fa; Xue, Wei; Deng, Yan; Tian, Qin-Jie; Sun, Ai-Jun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine risks for gonadal malignancy in a large sample of adult female patients with disorders of sex development (DSD). A retrospective-observational study was conducted from July 1992 to March 2015 and 202 women with DSD were enrolled. Tumor risks for different types of DSD were measured. We found that the patients' total gonadal-malignancy risk was 18.3% (37/202). Tumors included gonadoblastoma (n = 11), seminoma (n = 8), dysgerminoma (n = 5), choriocarcinoma (n = 1), sertoli cell tumors (n = 11), and leydig cell tumors (n = 1). The incidence of gonadal malignancy in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), pure 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis, 45 X/46 XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis, 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) were 27.1% (13/48), 22.4% (15/67), 10.9% (5/46), 10% (2/20) and 9.5% (2/21), respectively. Our results suggest that the incidence of gonadal malignancy increases with age for female patients with Y-chromosome material. Upon diagnoses, immediate, prophylactic gonadectomies should be considered for adult female patients with DSD containing Y chromosome material if they cannot receive regular follow-ups. PMID:26608236

  10. Perceived Family Influence on Undergraduate Adult Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plageman, Paula M.; Sabina, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Adult women's decisions to attend college and persist toward degree attainment are likely influenced by family members from both family of origin and current family. This study was designed to examine (a) rated support of family members within the family of origin and current family to attend and persist in college, (b) specific attitudes of both…

  11. Effects of testosterone on sexual behavior and morphology in adult female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Rhen, T; Ross, J; Crews, D

    1999-10-01

    The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and then remains at previtellogenic levels until eggs are laid and the next follicular cycle begins. To determine the function of T in females, we manipulated both the level and the duration of T elevation using Silastic implants in intact, adult female leopard geckos. Females had low ( approximately 1 ng/ml), medium ( approximately 100 ng/ml), or high ( approximately 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1-5 in the short-duration group or on days 29-33 in the long-duration group. For both short- and long-duration groups, T treatment decreased attractivity in females with medium and high T levels compared to females with low T levels. In contrast, females with a medium T level were more receptive than females with a low T level in the short-duration group. Females in the long-duration group were unreceptive regardless of T level. Females treated for a long duration also displayed more aggression toward and evoked more aggression from males than short duration females. Short-duration T treatment had no masculinizing effect on female morphology, whereas medium and high T levels for a long duration induced development of hemipenes. Overall, these results suggest that T can both increase and decrease sexual behaviors in the female leopard gecko. PMID:10506536

  12. Urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction in female mice following early life and adult stress.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Angela N; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R; Eller, Olivia C; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M; Christianson, Julie A

    2016-05-15

    Early adverse events have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. Despite high clinical relevance and reports of stress-related symptom exacerbation, animal models investigating the contribution of early life stress to female urological pain are lacking. We examined the impact of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on bladder sensitivity and visceral neuroimmune status both prior-to, and following, water avoidance stress (WAS) in adult female mice. The visceromotor response to urinary bladder distension was increased at baseline and 8d post-WAS in NMS mice, while colorectal sensitivity was transiently increased 1d post-WAS only in naïve mice. Bladder micturition rate and output, but not fecal output, were also significantly increased following WAS in NMS mice. Changes in gene expression involved in regulating the stress response system were observed at baseline and following WAS in NMS mice, and WAS reduced serum corticosterone levels. Cytokine and growth factor mRNA levels in the bladder, and to a lesser extent in the colon, were significantly impacted by NMS and WAS. Peripheral mRNA levels of stress-responsive receptors were differentially influenced by early life and adult stress in bladder, but not colon, of naïve and NMS mice. Histological evidence of mast cell degranulation was increased in NMS bladder, while protein levels of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were increased by WAS. Together, this study provides new insight into mechanisms contributing to stress associated symptom onset or exacerbation in patients exposed to early life stress. PMID:26940840

  13. Clinical manifestations of neuromyelitis optica in male and female patients.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jianrui; Long, Youming; Shan, Fulan; Fan, Yongxiang; Wu, Linzhan; Zhong, Rong; Gao, Cong; Chen, Xiaohui; Gao, Qingchun; Yang, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe, idiopathic, immuno-mediated, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We examined the clinical features between male and female NMO patients, for which not much data exist. One hundred and eight Chinese Han patients with NMO were analysed retrospectively, all had been detected for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody using a cell-based assay. Of 108 NMO patients, 92 were female and 16 were male (female/male = 5.75). Ninety-four (87%) were positive for the AQP4 antibody in their serum and/or cerebral spinal fluid. Aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMO patients had a higher female/male ratio than the negative group (P = 0.001). Female NMO patients had a higher positive rate of the AQP4 antibody than male NMO patients (92.4 vs 56.3%, P = 0.001). All NMO male patients were divided according to their AQP4 antibody status. 77.8% (7/9) of patients in the seropositive group had initial optic neuritis, while only one patient (14.3%, 1/7) in the negative group had optic neuritis (P = 0.041). Limb paraesthesia was reported in only one patient in the negative group (11.1%), but it was reported in all patients in the positive group (100%) (P = 0.001). The mean length of vertebral segments of the spinal cord lesions was 3.6 ± 1.3 in the positive group, while it was 6.6 ± 2.6 in the negative group (P < 0.0001). The involvement of the cervical spinal cord was found in 88.9% (8/9) of the positive members, but only 11.1% in the negative group (P = 0.009). However, the involvement of the thoracic spinal cord was found in 22.2% of patients in the positive group and 85.7% of patients in the negative members (P = 0.041). In conclusion, male NMO is rare and has a low positive rate of AQP4 antibody. PMID:26213113

  14. Fingolimod suppresses bone resorption in female patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yusei; Niino, Masaaki; Kanazawa, Ippei; Suzuki, Masako; Mizuno, Masanori; Hisahara, Shin; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Eri; Amino, Itaru; Ochi, Ryutaro; Nakamura, Masakazu; Akimoto, Sachiko; Minami, Naoya; Fujiki, Naoto; Doi, Shizuki; Shimohama, Shun; Terayama, Yasuo; Kikuchi, Seiji

    2016-09-15

    Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist used to inhibit the inflammatory activity of multiple sclerosis (MS), and has been shown to suppress osteoporosis in mouse models. In this study, levels of bone turnover markers were quantified in serum and urine samples from MS patients treated with fingolimod. Compared with untreated MS patients and healthy controls, fingolimod-treated MS patients had a significantly lower level of the bone resorption marker type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide in urine. This finding was prominent in female but was not seen in male subjects. Our results suggest that fingolimod may have a beneficial effect on bone mass loss in female MS patients. PMID:27609272

  15. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  16. Asthma in an Adult Female Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Köster, Liza S; Simon, Bradley; Rawlins, Gilda; Beierschmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    A 9-y-old, colony-bred, female vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) presented with a 6-y history of open-mouth breathing, tachypnea, and sibilant wheezing. These symptoms did not significantly affect her activity or quality of life. Thoracic radiographs and results of bronchoalveolar lavage supported the diagnosis of asthma. Treatment comprising intramuscular prednisolone (tapered over 2 mo from twice daily to every other day), inhaled salmeterol-fluticasone (25 μg-250 μg per actuation twice daily) by mask, and a metered dose inhaler was successful in restoring a normal respiratory pattern. Despite the availability of several primate models of human asthma, this case represents the first report of spontaneous asthma in a NHP. PMID:26884413

  17. Asthma in an Adult Female Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Liza S; Simon, Bradley; Rawlins, Gilda; Beierschmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    A 9-y-old, colony-bred, female vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) presented with a 6-y history of open-mouth breathing, tachypnea, and sibilant wheezing. These symptoms did not significantly affect her activity or quality of life. Thoracic radiographs and results of bronchoalveolar lavage supported the diagnosis of asthma. Treatment comprising intramuscular prednisolone (tapered over 2 mo from twice daily to every other day), inhaled salmeterol–fluticasone (25 µg–250 µg per actuation twice daily) by mask, and a metered dose inhaler was successful in restoring a normal respiratory pattern. Despite the availability of several primate models of human asthma, this case represents the first report of spontaneous asthma in a NHP. PMID:26884413

  18. Postnatal masculinization alters the HPA axis phenotype in the adult female rat

    PubMed Central

    Seale, JV; Wood, SA; Atkinson, HC; Harbuz, MS; Lightman, SL

    2005-01-01

    The ability of postnatal testosterone propionate (TP) to masculinize both behaviour and gonadal cyclicity in the female rat is well documented. We have investigated whether postnatal androgen also has an organizational effect on another sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine system – the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Female rats were exposed to a single injection of testosterone propionate (TP) or oil within 24 h of birth. As adults, rats were either ovariectomized and given 17β-oestradiol replacement (OVXE2) or sham ovariectomized with cholesterol implants (SHOVX). An automated sampling system collected blood from unanaesthetized adult female rats every 10 min over a 24-h period, during a mild psychological stress (noise) and following an immunological lipopolysaccharide stress (LPS). Neonatal TP-treated SHOVX rats had a significant reduction in the number, height, frequency and amplitude of corticosterone pulses over the basal 24-h period, compared to both the neonatal oil-treated and TP-treated OVXE2 animals. The corticosterone response to both noise and LPS was also significantly decreased for the TP-treated SHOVX females. Three hours post-LPS administration, TP females had significantly lower values of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and anterior pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNAs and greater PVN glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression compared to the oil-treated controls. E2 replacement in adult TP rats normalized all the mRNA levels, except for PVN GR mRNA which did fall towards the levels of the oil-control animals. A single injection of TP within 24 h of birth disrupts the development of the characteristic female pattern of corticosterone secretion and the normal female HPA response to stress, resulting in a pattern similar to that seen in males. These effects can be reversed by E2 treatment in the adult TP female rat. PMID:15611026

  19. Cosmetic selection of skin incision for resection of choledochal cyst in young female patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Woo; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Open surgery for choledochal cyst has a disadvantage of skin incision scar from operative wound, which can be a definite disadvantage especially in young female patients. This study focused on the cosmetic aspect of skin incision for resection of choledochal cyst in young female patients. Methods During a 2-year study period, 11 adult female patients aged less than 40 years underwent primary resection of choledochal cyst by a single surgeon. The cosmetic effect of two types of skin incision was evaluated. Results The patients underwent mini-laparotomy through either a right subcostal incision (n=8) or an upper midline incision (n=3). The mean length of skin incision was 10 cm for right subcostal incisions and 9 cm for upper midline incisions. It took approximately 1 hour to repair the operative wound meticulously in both groups. At the 6 month to 1 year follow-up, a slight bulge on the skin scar was observed in 3 (37.5%) patients of the right subcostal incision group and 1 (33.3%) patient of the upper midline incision group. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study support the claim that cosmetic effect of the upper midline incision for CCD surgery appears to be non-inferior to that of the right subcostal incision if the incision is placed accurately and repaired very meticulously. PMID:27621750

  20. Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

  1. Early prenatal androgenization results in diminished ovarian reserve in adult female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, D.A.; Patankar, M.S.; Barnett, D.K.; Lesnick, T.G.; Hutcherson, B.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early prenatal androgenization (PA) accelerates follicle differentiation and impairs embryogenesis in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) undergoing FSH therapy for IVF. To determine whether androgen excess in utero affects follicle development over time, this study examines whether PA exposure, beginning at gestational days 40–44 (early treated) or 100–115 (late treated), alters the decline in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels with age in adult female rhesus monkeys and perturbs their ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) therapy for IVF. METHODS Thirteen normal (control), 11 early-treated and 6 late-treated PA adult female monkeys had serum AMH levels measured at random times of the menstrual cycle or anovulatory period. Using some of the same animals, basal serum AMH, gonadotrophins and steroids were also measured in six normal, five early-treated and three late-treated PA female monkeys undergoing FSH therapy for IVF during late-reproductive life (>17 years); serum AMH also was measured on day of HCG administration and at oocyte retrieval. RESULTS Serum AMH levels in early-treated PA females declined with age to levels that were significantly lower than those of normal (P ≤ 0.05) and late-treated PA females (P ≤ 0.025) by late-reproductive life. Serum AMH levels positively predicted numbers of total/mature oocytes retrieved, with early-treated PA females having the lowest serum AMH levels, fewest oocytes retrieved and lowest percentage of females with fertilized oocytes that cleaved. CONCLUSIONS Based on these animals, early PA appears to program an exaggerated decline in ovarian reserve with age, suggesting that epigenetically induced hormonal factors during fetal development may influence the cohort size of ovarian follicles after birth. PMID:19740899

  2. X-chromosome inactivation in female patients with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, L; Benistan, K; Toussaint, A; Dubourg, O; Hagege, A A; Eladari, D; Jabbour, F; Beldjord, C; De Mazancourt, P; Germain, D P

    2016-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by the deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase (α-Gal). While males are usually severely affected, clinical presentation in female patients may be more variable ranging from asymptomatic to, occasionally, as severely affected as male patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in females with FD, its concordance between tissues, and its contribution to the phenotype. Fifty-six females with FD were enrolled. Clinical and biological work-up included two global scores [Mainz Severity Score Index (MSSI) and DS3], cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, measured glomerular filtration rate, and measurement of α-Gal activity. XCI was analyzed in four tissues using DNA methylation studies. Skewed XCI was found in 29% of the study population. A correlation was found in XCI patterns between blood and the other analyzed tissues although some punctual variability was detected. Significant differences in residual α-Gal levels, severity scores, progression of cardiomyopathy and deterioration of kidney function, depending on the direction and degree of skewing of XCI were evidenced. XCI significantly impacts the phenotype and natural history of FD in females. PMID:25974833

  3. Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…

  5. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  6. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  7. When Your "Problem" Becomes Mine: Adult Female Siblings' Perspectives of Having a Brother with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompeo, Michelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study is a retrospective look at adult female siblings' perspectives of their childhoods and present identities based on having a brother with a disability. This paper focuses on siblings' experiences within educational and public domains, and how such experiences have shaped their personalities and career choices. Qualitative findings were…

  8. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  9. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial shipments of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. To determine whether alternative dietary conditions for young adult females might improve predation, O. in...

  10. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  11. The Experiences and Needs of Female Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-01-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data from n = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health,…

  12. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care. PMID:25643971

  13. [Difficult situations in radiotherapy: agitated adult patients].

    PubMed

    Noël, S; Noël, G

    2013-10-01

    The causes of agitation in adult patients are numerous. Agitation may cause difficulty or impossibility to initiate the radiotherapy technique but also can lead to accidents harmful to patients. However, the decision to not irradiate agitated patients may lead to a loss of curability chance or chance to palliate symptoms. Before taking such a decision, thinking about the possibilities available to calm the patient should be undertaken with the patient and the referring practitioners to attempt to make this therapy if it is considered major in the management of cancer. In all cases, current adaptations of radiotherapy should be used to deliver an effective radiation of a suitable time and safely. It is notable that the medical literature is extremely rare on this subject. PMID:23932645

  14. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  15. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  16. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart. PMID:26683901

  17. Prevalence of adult ADHD in an all-female prison unit.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Romana; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Keoghan, Sue; Adamou, Marios

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting a link between ADHD and criminality, including a strong association between ADHD symptoms and the likelihood of being on probation or in prison. Most studies investigating the prevalence of ADHD in prison populations have focused on adult male offenders. In the current study, 69 female prisoners were screened for both childhood and adult ADHD symptoms using the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV. The results indicate that 41 % of the prisoners met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and continued to meet criteria for ADHD as adults. More importantly, young female prisoners (aged 18-25) were significantly more likely to report symptoms of ADHD than older prisoners. Prisoners who reported symptoms of ADHD also reported high levels of impairment associated with these symptoms. A better understanding of the prevalence of ADHD in female prison units can highlight specific areas for intervention during rehabilitation, as well as the management of serious incidents within prison. PMID:26650925

  18. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M.; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well

  19. Neuronal production, migration, and differentiation in a vocal control nucleus of the adult female canary brain.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, S A; Nottebohm, F

    1983-01-01

    The vocal control nucleus designated HVc (hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudalis) of adult female canaries expands in response to systemic testosterone administration, which also induces the females to sing in a male-like manner. We became interested in the possibility of neurogenesis as a potential basis for this phenomenon. Intact adult female canaries were injected with [3H]thymidine over a 2-day period. Some birds were given testosterone implants at various times before thymidine. The birds were sacrificed 5 wk after hormone implantation, and their brains were processed for autoradiography. In parallel control experiments, some birds were given implants of cholesterol instead of testosterone. All birds showed considerable numbers of labeled neurons, glia, endothelia, and ventricular zone cells in and around HVc. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the identity of these labeled neurons. Cholesterol- and testosterone-treated birds had similar neuronal labeling indices, which ranged from 1.8% to 4.0% in HVc. Thus, neurogenesis occurred in these adults independently of exogenous hormone treatment. Conversely, both glial and endothelial proliferation rates were markedly stimulated by exogenous testosterone treatment. We determined the origin of the thymidine-incorporating neurons by sacrificing two thymidine-treated females soon after their thymidine injections, precluding any significant migration of newly labeled cells. Analysis of these brains revealed no cells of neuronal morphology present in HVc but a very heavily labeled ventricular zone overlying HVc. We conclude that neuronal precursors exist in the HVc ventricular zone that incorporate tritiated thymidine during the S phase preceding their mitosis; after division these cells migrate into, and to some extent beyond, HVc. This ventricular zone neurogenesis seems to be a normally occurring phenomenon in intact adult female canaries. Images PMID:6572982

  20. Liquid fructose in pregnancy exacerbates fructose-induced dyslipidemia in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Lourdes; Panadero, María I; Rodrigo, Silvia; Roglans, Núria; Otero, Paola; Álvarez-Millán, Juan J; Laguna, Juan C; Bocos, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and related events. Nevertheless, consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose is not regulated in gestation. Previously, we found that maternal fructose intake produces in the progeny, when fetuses, impaired leptin signaling and hepatic steatosis and then impaired insulin signaling and hypoadiponectinemia in adult male rats. Interestingly, adult females from fructose-fed mothers did not exhibit any of these disturbances. However, we think that, actually, these animals keep a programmed phenotype hidden. Fed 240-day-old female progeny from control, fructose- and glucose-fed mothers were subjected for 3weeks to a fructose supplementation period (10% wt/vol in drinking water). Fructose intake provoked elevations in insulinemia and adiponectinemia in the female progeny independently of their maternal diet. In accordance, the hepatic mRNA levels of several insulin-responsive genes were similarly affected in the progeny after fructose intake. Interestingly, adult progeny of fructose-fed mothers displayed, in response to the fructose feeding, augmented plasma triglyceride and NEFA levels and hepatic steatosis versus the other two groups. In agreement, the expression and activity for carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a lipogenic transcription factor, were higher after the fructose period in female descendants from fructose-fed mothers than in the other groups. Furthermore, liver fructokinase expression that has been indicated as one of those responsible for the deleterious effects of fructose ingestion was preferentially augmented in that group. Maternal fructose intake does influence the adult female offspring's response to liquid fructose and so exacerbates fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. PMID:27142744

  1. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  2. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141

  3. Endocrine disruptors and female cancer: Informing the patients (Review).

    PubMed

    Del Pup, Lino; Mantovani, Alberto; Luce, Amalia; Cavaliere, Carla; Facchini, Gaetano; Di Francia, Raffaele; Caraglia, Michele; Berretta, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    Pollutants altering the endocrine system, known as endocrine disruptors (ED), may modify the risk of female cancers. The carcinogenic effect of ED on humans has been confirmed by experimental studies for various substances including pesticides, DDT, dioxins, phthalates, bisphenol A, diethylstilbestrol, as well as heavy metals, but it is difficult to quantify precisely for several reasons hereby reviewed. Carcinogenesis is a complex and multifactorial mechanism that manifests itself over a long period of time, making difficult the detection of the specific contribution of the pollutants, whose absorbed dose is often unknown. The combined effect of various substances leads to complex interactions whose outcome is difficult to predict. These substances may accumulate and carry out their harmful effect on critical periods of life, probably also at doses considered harmless to an adult. ED can also have epigenetic adverse effects on the health of future generations. In conclusion, the carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors on female cancer types is plausible although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and entities. In the last part of the review we suggest ways to reduce ED exposure as it is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as the embryonic period and puberty. PMID:25998096

  4. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among adult asthmatic patients in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Afshan; Alam, Syed Mahboob; Qadir, Farida

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has assumed pandemic proportions all over the world. It has been documented as a frequent problem in studies of young adults, elderly person and children in other countries, but there is no reliable data on vitamin D status of adult asthmatic patients in Pakistan. To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in adult asthmatic patients with moderate to severe asthma using a cross-sectional study design in Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi.311 adult asthmatic patients with moderate to severe asthma were recruited from JPMC, tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Questionnaires were administered together demographics, height, weight, nutritional and physical activity assessment. Blood samples for vitamin D measurement were also taken. Results show high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (88.10%) in adult patients with moderate to severe persistent asthma. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was more frequently observed in female than in male patients.67.66% of the female patients had serum vitamin D level less than 20 ng/ml as compare to 56.1% of the male patients (p=0.01). PMID:26045376

  5. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with substance-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Alessandra; da Silva, Rosiane Lopes; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction symptoms and the associated risk factors in a sample of patients with substance-related disorders admitted to a specialized in-patient care unit. METHODS: This study used a cross-section design, with eight months of data collection, conducted with substance-dependent women using structured questionnaires to collect socio-demographic data and identify their drug of choice. The Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Arizona Sexual Experience Scale were also administered. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 105 women who had a mean age of 34.8 years (SD = 12.1, range = 18-65) and were predominantly heterosexual (74.3%), single (47.6%), Caucasian (50.5%), catholic (36.2%), and educated only to the level of primary education (40%), with a monthly family income of up to one minimum salary (37.5%). In 42.9% of the patients, crack was the drug of choice; 47.6% of the sample qualified for the Drug Abuse Screening Test (substantial problems related to drugs), 43.8% exhibited Short Alcohol Dependence Data (moderate or severe dependency), 47.6% exhibited Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (high or very high nicotine dependence). The prevalence of sexual dysfunction symptoms was 34.2% (95% CI = [25.3, 44.1]), and a high level of nicotine dependence and low income increased the chances of having sexual dysfunction by 2.72-fold and 2.54 fold, respectively. An association was also observed between female sexual dysfunction symptoms and schooling and levels of drug dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Female sexual dysfunction symptoms were common among this sample and primarily associated with high levels of nicotine use. PMID:23525317

  6. Chronic facial pain in the female patient: treatment updates.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulos, Franci; Hastie, Barbara A

    2007-05-01

    Over the past decade, gender-related differences in pain and analgesia have been examined in experimental settings with conflicting evidence on whether men and women differ in their response to pain. New advances in research have begun to investigate the influence of genetic factors in moderating sex differences in analgesic response. This article provides oral and maxillofacial surgeons with evidence-based data on the issues of chronic pain between the sexes to suggest alternative approaches to the management of pain in their male and female patients. PMID:18088882

  7. Pesticide Methoxychlor Promotes the Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult-Onset Disease through the Female Germline

    PubMed Central

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M. Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

  8. A Case of Strangulated Urethral Prolapse in a Premenopausal Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Morris L.; Al-Omar, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Urethral prolapse in a premenopausal adult female is exceedingly rare. This paper describes a case of strangulated urethral prolapse presenting as a urethral mass in an unusual demographic and reviews the literature on etiology and management. Only a few cases have occurred in women of reproductive age. The etiology is likely multifactorial. Treatment with surgical excision provides good results in the majority of cases. PMID:27413572

  9. Patterns of coping preferences for male and female caregivers of frail older adults.

    PubMed

    DeVries, H M; Hamilton, D W; Lovett, S; Gallagher-Thompson, D

    1997-06-01

    The similarities and differences in male and female caregivers' preferred strategies for coping and the perceived helpfulness of these strategies in managing caregiving stressors were examined in this study. Respondents were 170 caregivers (139 women and 31 men) who were primary caregivers for an elderly adult relative who was either cognitively impaired or physically frail. Results provide preliminary evidence that gender is related to frequency of use but not to the perceived helpfulness of specific coping strategies. PMID:9189986

  10. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  11. Asthma Economic Costs in Adult Asthmatic Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHARIFI, Laleh; POURPAK, Zahra; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; BOKAIE, Saied; MOEZZI, Hamid Reza; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoushirvan; MOIN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: High prevalence and increasing rate of asthmatic patients around the word witnesses the high burden of asthma. We have limited data on asthma burden and economic costs in Iran. This study aimed to find direct and indirect economic costs of asthma and their association with some background factors in one of the referral tertiary centers for adult patients with asthma. Methods: We surveyed asthma related economic costs of 197 adult patients who referred to Milad Hospital, Tehran, Iran from Jun 2007 to January 2010. The patients were followed up for a period of one-year ±1 month and asthma related costs and its control status were registered. Results: Patients were consisted of 125 (64.1%) females and 70 (35.9%) males. Total cost of asthma was 590.22 ±32.18 USD for one patient per one year, the cost of drug, paraclinic, doctor visit, hospitalization, emergency, transportation, and absent days were 327.02, 4.76, 35.44, 3.82, 0.26, 113.03, 105.89 USD respectively. Men showed a significant elevation in their total (P=0.009) and drug costs (P=0.028). In addition, we found significant differences between total asthma costs and asthma control status (P=0.002). Conclusions: According to the high proportion of asthma, related cost compare to Total Income of an Iranian family, the necessity of public coverage of health assurance is quite clear. We suggest that improving asthma management and accessibility to specialized treatment centers can result in decreasing asthma medication and transportation costs as major direct and indirect asthma related costs. PMID:26587495

  12. Inhaled corticosteroids can reduce osteoporosis in female patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shih-Feng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Liu, Guan-Heng; Ho, Shu-Chen; Chang, Huang-Chih; Huang, Hung-Tu; Chen, Yu-Mu; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Kuan-Yi; Fang, Wen-Feng; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in patients with COPD can protect from osteoporosis remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of osteoporosis in patients with COPD with ICS use and without. Patients and methods This is a retrospective cohort and population-based study in which we extracted newly diagnosed female patients with COPD between 1997 and 2009 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance (TNHI) database between 1996 and 2011 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision – Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] 491, 492, 496). The patients with COPD were defined by the presence of two or more diagnostic codes for COPD within 12 months on either inpatient or outpatient service claims submitted to TNHI. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 40 years or if osteoporosis had been diagnosed prior to the diagnosis of COPD and cases of asthma (ICD-9 CM code 493.X) before the index date. These enrolled patients were followed up till 2011, and the incidence of osteoporosis was determined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was also used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incidences of lung cancer. Results Totally, 10,723 patients with COPD, including ICS users (n=812) and nonusers (n=9,911), were enrolled. The incidence rate of osteoporosis per 100,000 person years is 4,395 in nonusers and 2,709 in ICS users (HR: 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63–084). The higher ICS dose is associated with lower risk of osteoporosis (0 mg to ≤20 mg, HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.69–1.04; >20 mg to ≤60 mg, HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.04; and >60 mg, HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55–0.96; P for trend =0.0023) after adjusting for age, income, and medications. The cumulative osteoporosis probability significantly decreased among the ICS users when compared with the nonusers (P<0.001). Conclusion Female patients with COPD using ICS have a dose–response protective effect for osteoporosis. PMID:27478374

  13. Female mice lack adult germ-line stem cells but sustain oogenesis using stable primordial follicles.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Spradling, Allan C

    2013-05-21

    Whether or not mammalian females generate new oocytes during adulthood from germ-line stem cells to sustain the ovarian follicle pool has recently generated controversy. We used a sensitive lineage-labeling system to determine whether stem cells are needed in female adult mice to compensate for follicular losses and to directly identify active germ-line stem cells. Primordial follicles generated during fetal life are highly stable, with a half-life during adulthood of 10 mo, and thus are sufficient to sustain adult oogenesis without a source of renewal. Moreover, in normal mice or following germ-cell depletion with Busulfan, only stable, single oocytes are lineage-labeled, rather than cell clusters indicative of new oocyte formation. Even one germ-line stem cell division per 2 wk would have been detected by our method, based on the kinetics of fetal follicle formation. Thus, adult female mice neither require nor contain active germ-line stem cells or produce new oocytes in vivo. PMID:23630252

  14. Are males and females sexually abused as children socially anxious adults?

    PubMed

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250 undergraduate students from a large metropolitan university. Results indicated that almost one-third of males and a little over a third of females reported being sexually abused as a child or adolescent. Although a large portion of the sample exhibited socially anxious symptomology, childhood sexual abuse did not place males and females at increased risk for social anxiety. The use of a nonclinical, college student sample may provide researchers the opportunity to investigate resiliency in individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:19842534

  15. All about FAX: a Female Adult voXel phantom for Monte Carlo calculation in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; Loureiro, E. C. M.; Lima, V. J. M.; Lima, F. R. A.; Hoff, G.

    2004-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a task group on dose calculations, which, among other objectives, should replace the currently used mathematical MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real persons by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to the mathematical MIRD phantoms, voxel phantoms are true to the natural representations of a human body. Connected to a radiation transport code, voxel phantoms serve as virtual humans for which equivalent dose to organs and tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation can be calculated. The principal database for the construction of the FAX (Female Adult voXel) phantom consisted of 151 CT images recorded from scanning of trunk and head of a female patient, whose body weight and height were close to the corresponding data recommended by the ICRP in Publication 89. All 22 organs and tissues at risk, except for the red bone marrow and the osteogenic cells on the endosteal surface of bone ('bone surface'), have been segmented manually with a technique recently developed at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the UFPE in Recife, Brazil. After segmentation the volumes of the organs and tissues have been adjusted to agree with the organ and tissue masses recommended by ICRP for the Reference Adult Female in Publication 89. Comparisons have been made with the organ and tissue masses of the mathematical EVA phantom, as well as with the corresponding data for other female voxel phantoms. The three-dimensional matrix of the segmented images has eventually been connected to the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for exposures to photons, and compared to data determined for the mathematical MIRD-type phantoms, as well as for other voxel phantoms.

  16. Treatment of Osteitis Pubis in Non-Athlete Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kavroudakis, E; Karampinas, P.K; Evangelopoulos, D.S; Vlamis, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Osteitis pubis represents a non-infectious inflammation of the pubic symphysis causing varying degrees of lower abdominal and pelvic pain. Although, the disease is believed to affect mainly young athletic patients, it is also encountered in other specific patient groups. Both conservative and surgical treatment options are available. While for elite athletes surgical treatment is indicated, leading to fast pain relief and mobilization, for non-athletic patients no clear indication can be established. Methods: Eight non-athletic women with osteitis pubis, referred to our Department for treatment, were evaluated. All were initially treated conservatively with bed rest, per os non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy. Results: Seven patients improved significantly with conservative treatment while one displayed no improvement and was treated surgically with arthrodesis. Conclusion: We conclude that, for non-athletic female patients suffering from osteitis pubis, surgery is rarely required and that conservative treatment by means of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs and physical modalities represents a fair option regarding pain and limitation of everyday activity. PMID:21966337

  17. Side-hairline Correction in Korean Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the proper modifications and usefulness of side-hairline correction surgery in Korean female patients depending on different zygomatic bone structures. Methods: Different zygomatic bone structures were classified according to their maximum transverse width among 310 cases of hairline correction surgery in Korean women. The widest transverse width was located on the anterior zygomatic malar area in type 1, on the mid-zygomatic arch in type 2, and on the posterior zygomatic arch in type 3; there was no difference in the transverse width between the anterior and posterior zygomatic arch in type 4. Various modifications of side-hairline correction surgery were performed among the 310 cases according to the zygomatic bone classification. Results: Among 310 patients, 74 had a type 1 zygomatic structure, 106 had type 2, 46 had type 3, and 50 had type 4. Thirty-four patients exhibited different left and right transverse widths: type 1 + 2 (n = 26), type 2 + 3 (n = 6), type 1 + 3 (n = 1), and type 3 + 4 (n = 1). Satisfactory results were obtained in all patients without noticeable side effects. A minor touch-up procedure was performed in 14 patients to achieve density reinforcement 10 months postoperatively, and all 14 patients expressed satisfaction with the results. Conclusions: In East Asian patients, both side-hairline correction surgery and zygoma reduction can be considered eligible treatment options for the purpose of midface slimming. Especially in patients with a type 3 zygomatic bone structure, side-hairline correction surgery may be more effective than zygoma reduction surgery for midface slimming. PMID:25878947

  18. Prepubertal exposure to bisphenol-A induces ERα upregulation and hyperplasia in adult gerbil female prostate

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Mônica S; Galvão, André L V; Rodríguez, Daniel A O; Biancardi, Manoel F; Marques, Mara R; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Prostate physiology is highly dependent on oestrogenic and androgenic homeostasis. Interferences in this equilibrium, especially in early periods of life, may disrupt the prostate and increase the susceptibility to the development of diseases with ageing. Taking this into account, and considering the increase of environmental chemicals with endocrine-disrupting potential such as bisphenol-A (BPA), this study aimed to evaluate the prostates of adult female gerbils exposed to BPA and BPA plus testosterone from pubertal to adult periods. Morphological, stereological and chemical analyses revealed that long-term BPA exposure, even in environmental dosages, increases the proliferative status of the prostate, increases the number of ERα-positive stromal cells and elicits the development of prostatic hyperplasia in adult female gerbils. Moreover, we also observed that the association with testosterone did not increase the proliferative status of the gland, which shows that low levels of BPA are enough to cause an oestrogenic disruption of the prostate in young adults. This evidence suggests that this oestrogenic endocrine disruptor may increase the susceptibility to prostatic disorders with ageing. PMID:26098999

  19. Early and Mid-term Outcomes in Female Patients Undergoing Isolated Conventional Coronary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Erguneş, Kazim; Yilik, Levent; Yetkin, Ufuk; Lafcı, Banu; Bayrak, Serdar; Ozpak, Berkan; Gurbuz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Several observational studies comparing outcomes between female and male patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have shown that operative mortality rate is higher among female patients than in male patients. However, some conflicting studies report that early mortality among female patients is equivalent to that among male patients. We investigated predictive factors of morbidity, mortality and survival in female patients undergoing isolated conventional CABG. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 1657 patients underwent isolated conventional CABG in our clinic. 21.8% (n=361) of patients were female and 78.2% (n=1296) males. Results: Advanced age (P<0.0001), hypertension (P<0.0001), diabetes (P<0.0001), and hyperlipidemia (P<0.0001) were the independent predictive factors among female patients. Mean in-hospital mortality rates were 5.8% and 3.2%; for females and males, respectively (P=0.029). Prolonged ventilatory support (P=0.009) and postoperative atrial fibrillation (P=0.049) were the independent predictive factors of in-hospital mortality in female patients. Cardiopulmonary bypass time (P=0.041), prolonged ventilatory support (P<0.0001), and postoperative atrial fibrillation (P=0.031) were the independent predictive factors of in-hospital mortality in male patients. Mean follow-up was 47.51±25.06 months and 48.42±25.21 months among female and male patients (P=0.820). In follow-up, mortality rate was 6.1% (n=22) among female patients and 4.6% (n=60) among male patients (P=0.272). Left internal thoracic artery (LITA) usage (P=0.001) was the independent predictive factor of survival in female patients. Conclusion: In-hospital mortality rate was higher in female patients. Length of ICU and hospital stay, and mid-term survival was similar between female and male patients. PMID:25031826

  20. Comparing illness presentation, treatment and functioning between patients with adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Li, Adrienne Wing-Yee; Leung, Chung-Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry Kit-Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2014-12-30

    Studies have shown that early- and adult-onset schizophrenia patients differ in pre-morbid traits, illness presentation, psychopathology, and prognosis. We aimed to compare adult-onset patients (age range 26-55 years) with an adolescent-onset cohort (15-25 years) in demographics, illness presentation and functioning at baseline. Participants were from two territory-wide early intervention services for adolescent-onset (n=671) and adult-onset psychosis patients (n=360) in Hong Kong. The adolescent-onset cohort had their initial psychotic episode from 2001-2003; retrospective data collection was done through systematic case note review. The adult-onset cohort was recruited for a larger interventional study from 2009-2011; information was collected via face-to-face interviews. Adult-onset psychosis was significantly associated with more females, more smokers, more non-local birth, more full-time employment, better functioning, poorer medication adherence, more psychiatric hospitalization and fewer with schizophrenia than adolescent-onset psychosis (mean age: 20.4). The effect sizes were small, except for medication adherence where a robust effect was found. No group difference in DUP was found. The finding that adult-onset patients had better functioning challenges the view that adolescent- and adult-onset psychoses share a similar prognostic trajectory. Implications for adapting intervention processes for adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis are discussed. PMID:25238985

  1. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  2. Assisting sexually abused adults. Practical guide to interviewing patients.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.

    1996-01-01

    Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817

  3. Female Patients Require a Higher Propofol Infusion Rate for Sedation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shigeru; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Honda, Yuka; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Sedation may minimize physiologic and behavioral stress responses. In our facility, the infusion rate of propofol is adjusted according to the bispectral index (BIS) in all cases of implant-related surgery; multivariate analysis of retrospective data enabled us to extract independent factors that affect the dose of propofol in sedation that are considered useful indicators for achieving adequate sedation. The study population comprised all patients undergoing implant-related surgery under intravenous sedation in Okayama University Hospital from April 2009 to March 2013. The infusion rate of propofol was adjusted to maintain the BIS value at 70-80. The outcome was the average infusion rate of propofol, and potential predictor variables were age, sex, body weight, treatment time, and amount of midazolam. Independent variables that affected the average infusion rate of propofol were extracted with multiple regression analysis. One hundred twenty-five subjects were enrolled. In the multiple regression analysis, female sex was shown to be significantly associated with a higher average infusion rate of propofol. Females may require a higher infusion rate of propofol than males to achieve adequate sedation while undergoing implant-related surgery. PMID:27269663

  4. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

    2015-01-15

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91 kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work

  5. In-vivo delivery of FTY720 prevents radiation-induced ovarian failure and infertility in adult female non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Mary B.; Murphy, Mark K.; Lawson, Maralee S.; Jurisicova, Andrea; Pau, K. Y. Francis; Toscano, Natalia P.; Jacob, Darla S.; Fanton, John K.; Casper, Robert F.; Dertinger, Stephen D.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), or the S1P mimetic FTY720 shields ovaries of adult female rhesus monkeys from damage caused by 15 Gy of targeted radiotherapy, allowing for retention of long-term fertility; and, to evaluate if S1P protects human ovarian tissue xenografted into mice from radiation-induced damage. Design Research animal study. Setting Research laboratory and teaching hospital. Animal(s) Adult female rhesus macaques (8–14 years of age). Patient(s) Two women (24 and 27 years of age) undergoing gynecologic surgery for benign reasons, after informed consent and approval. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Ovarian histology, ovarian reserve measurements and fertility in mating trials. Result(s) Rapid ovarian failure was induced in female macaques by ovarian application of 15 Gy of radiation. Females given S1P or FTY720 by direct intraovarian cannulation for 1 week prior to ovarian irradiation rapidly resumed menstrual cycles due to maintenance of follicles, with greater beneficial effects achieved using FTY720. Monkeys given the S1P mimetic prior to ovarian irradiation also became pregnant in mating trials. Offspring conceived and delivered by radioprotected females developed normally, and showed no evidence of genomic instability as measured by micronucleus frequency in reticulocytes. Adult human ovarian cortical tissue xenografted into mice also exhibited a reduction in radiation-induced primordial oocyte depletion when pre-exposed to S1P. Conclusion(s) S1P and its analogs hold clinical promise as therapeutic agents to preserve both ovarian function and fertility in female cancer patients exposed to cytotoxic treatments. PMID:21316047

  6. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes. PMID:26067073

  7. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age.

  8. Rett syndrome in adolescent and adult females: clinical and molecular genetic findings.

    PubMed

    Smeets, E; Schollen, E; Moog, U; Matthijs, G; Herbergs, J; Smeets, H; Curfs, L; Schrander-Stumpel, C; Fryns, J P

    2003-10-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is diagnosed clinically. We report on 30 adolescent and adult females with classical or atypical RTT of whom 24 have a MECP2 mutation. In these 24 females, the clinical manifestations, degree of severity, and disorder profiles are discussed as well as the genotype phenotype correlation. After X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) study in these cases, we found no correlation between skewing and milder phenotype. Three large deletions were found after additional Southern blot analysis in three classical RTT cases. We confirm that early truncating mutations in MECP2 are responsible for a more severe course of the disorder. Three disorder profiles related to the missense mutations R133C and R306C, and to deletions in the C terminal segment are described and are of interest for further clinical study on larger numbers of cases. The R133C genotype has a predominantly autistic presentation while the R306C genotype is associated with a slower disease progression. The phenotype of the "hotspot" deletions in the C terminal segment is predominantly characterized by rapid progressive neurogenic scoliosis. Older women with RTT are underdiagnosed: seven adults were first diagnosed as having RTT between 29 and 60 years of age, and confirmed on finding a MECP2 mutation. Knowledge of the clinical phenotype of RTT at an adult age is important for all involved in the care of these individuals. The involvement of the parent support group is very important in this matter. PMID:12966523

  9. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  10. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  11. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantoms Methods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen∕pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen∕pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for

  12. Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p = 0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

  13. A novel hormone is required for the development of reproductive phenotypes in adult female crabs.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Chung, J Sook

    2014-01-01

    The crustacean male-specific androgenic hormone is widely accepted as a key factor in sexual differentiation and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. However, the mechanism by which the plethora of different reproductive strategies are controlled and executed in crustaceans is not known. We discovered in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, a hitherto unknown neurohormone, named crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), in distinct neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk ganglia. CFSH is highly expressed in females but weakly in males, and its crucial role in developing adult female phenotypes has now been established. CFSH cDNA encodes a 225-amino acid (aa) novel protein composed of a 23-aa predicted signal peptide, 33-aa precursor-related peptide and 167-aa mature protein that did not match any other sequence in GenBank. CFSH RNA interference knockdown by multiple administrations of double-stranded RNA at the prepubertal stage causes abnormal development of brooding and mating systems upon puberty. These systems include a pair of gonopores and an egg attachment system for brooding, comprised of an enlarged semicircular abdomen and ovigerous setae. The ovigerous setae in CFSH knocked-down females were fewer and 50% shorter and the gonopores were either significantly smaller than those of controls, misplaced, or absent. We also identified CFSH in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, a species that shares a similar reproductive strategy with C. sapidus. Together, our data provide the first evidence for the presence of a female hormone in crustaceans and its importance in positively controlling anatomic features associated with brooding and mating systems. From an evolutionary standpoint, the endocrine control supporting a female-specific reproductive strategy, as previously described for many vertebrate species, has now been demonstrated for the first time in crustaceans. PMID:24280057

  14. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Meina; Zhang, Qiuju; Lu, Mingshan; Quan, Hude

    2008-01-01

    Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%), 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female) respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%), reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%), presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7%) and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%). More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4%) and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%). Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%). Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females). In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females). Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease. PMID:18681978

  15. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  16. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod. PMID:14597702

  17. Sexual Abuse Perpetrated by Adult and Juvenile Females: An Ultimate Attempt to Resolve a Conflict Associated with Maternal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, M.; Auclair, N.; Jacob, M.; Carpentier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The purpose of this article is to report the descriptive and phenomenological aspects of adult females (AF) and juvenile females (JF) who sexually abuse children and adolescents. A major focus is to study the relational problems during childhood and adulthood of this specific population and how they echo the relational aspects of their…

  18. Mixed-Gender Group Co-Leadership on Group Counseling with Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threadcraft, Hal L.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    1993-01-01

    Conducted study to investigate whether group cofacilitated by male and female counselor could provide therapeutic benefit to women survivors of childhood sexual victimization. Findings seem to provide preliminary evidence contradicting assumption that male counselors should not be involved in counseling female adult survivors of sexual…

  19. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  20. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  1. The effects of prenatal PCBs on adult female paced mating reproductive behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Rebecca M.; Juenger, Thomas E.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of toxicants that persist in measurable quantities in human and wildlife tissues, despite their ban in production in 1977. Some PCB mixtures can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of hormones in the brain and periphery. When exposure to hormonally active substances such as PCBs occurs during vulnerable developmental periods, particularly prenatally or in early postnatal life, they can disrupt sex-specific patterning of the brain, inducing permanent changes that can later be manifested as improper sexual behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor (A) 1221 on adult female reproductive behaviors in a dose-response model in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Using a paced mating paradigm that permits the female to set the timing of mating and control contact with the male during copulation, we were able to uncover significant differences in female-typical sexual activities in A1221-exposed females. Specifically, A1221 causes significant effects on mating trial pacing, vocalizations, ambulation and the female’s likelihood to mate. The results further demonstrate that the intermediate treatment group has the greatest number of disrupted endpoints, suggestive of non-linear dose responses to A1221. These data demonstrate that the behavioral phenotype in adulthood is disrupted by low, ecologically relevant exposures to PCBs, and the results have implications for reproductive success and health in wildlife and women. PMID:17274994

  2. Condition and mass impact oxygen stores and dive duration in adult female northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Hassrick, J L; Crocker, D E; Teutschel, N M; McDonald, B I; Robinson, P W; Simmons, S E; Costa, D P

    2010-02-15

    The range of foraging behaviors available to deep-diving, air-breathing marine vertebrates is constrained by their physiological capacity to breath-hold dive. We measured body oxygen stores (blood volume and muscle myoglobin) and diving behavior in adult female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, to investigate age-related effects on diving performance. Blood volume averaged 74.4+/-17.0 liters in female elephant seals or 20.2+/-2.0% of body mass. Plasma volume averaged 32.2+/-7.8 liters or 8.7+/-0.7% of body mass. Absolute plasma volume and blood volume increased independently with mass and age. Hematocrit decreased weakly with mass but did not vary with age. Muscle myoglobin concentration, while higher than previously reported (7.4+/-0.7 g%), did not vary with mass or age. Pregnancy status did not influence blood volume. Mean dive duration, a proxy for physiological demand, increased as a function of how long seals had been at sea, followed by mass and hematocrit. Strong effects of female body mass (range, 218-600 kg) on dive duration, which were independent of oxygen stores, suggest that larger females had lower diving metabolic rates. A tendency for dives to exceed calculated aerobic limits occurred more frequently later in the at-sea migration. Our data suggest that individual physiological state variables and condition interact to determine breath-hold ability and that both should be considered in life-history studies of foraging behavior. PMID:20118309

  3. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  4. The Experience of Resilience for Adult Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Phenomenological Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C

    2016-06-01

    While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention. PMID:26567293

  5. Elevation of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the hair of adult black female hypertensives

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Pellum, L.K.

    1984-05-01

    The southern portion of the United States has the highest mortality due to cardiovascular disease of any region of the country. The prevalence of hypertension in the South is also higher. Dietary intake of sodium, an overweight condition, and genetic factors may contribute to the problem. The role of trace elements is also a factor in producing hypertension. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship of selected trace elements with tensive status using hair as a biopsy material. The study examined the differences in hair elemental concentrations between adult black female hypertensives and normotensives from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

  6. Self-characterizations of adult female informal caregivers: gender identity and the bearing of burden.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Maeona K

    2005-01-01

    Gender identity is a powerful aspect of self that shapes values, attitudes, and conduct. Family caregivers, particularly women, tend to forgo institutionalization of care recipients even when care demands are overwhelming. The reluctance of women to relinquish care raises questions about the relationship between gender identity and the bearing of burden. To illuminate the relationship between gender and burden, 36 adult women caring for highly dependent adults were asked to describe the nature of "self"; that is, how they characterized themselves as a person. Results were tabulated and critically examined in relation to stereotypical gender traits, as well as social and political processes that create gender dichotomies. Overall, self-characterizations indicated caregivers had internalized stereotypical female gender traits that support and facilitate the enduring of burden. PMID:16025695

  7. Racial Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Perceptions and Behaviors, and Psychosocial Impact of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Alexis, Andrew F.; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Taylor, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Limited data are available on racial differences in clinical characteristics and burden in adult female acne. The objective was to describe racial differences in clinical characteristics, psychosocial impact, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction in facial adult female acne. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Diverse sample of United States women. Participants: Women between the ages of 25 and 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial impacts, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. Racial differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and t-test/chi-square analyses. Results: 208 females participated (mean age 35±6 years); 51.4 percent were White/Caucasian and 48.6 percent were non-White/Caucasian women [Black/African American (n=51); Hispanic/Latina (n=23); Asian (n=16); Other (n=ll)]. Age of acne onset (mean 14.8±5 vs. 17.0±8 years, p<0.05) and acne concern occurred earlier (16.6±7 vs. 19.3±9 years, p<0.05) in White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian subjects. Facial acne primarily presented on chin (28.0%) and cheeks (30.8%) for White/Caucasian women versus cheeks (58.4%) for non-White/Caucasian women. Non-White/Caucasian women experienced more postinflammatory hyperpigmentation than White/Caucasian women (p<0.0001). Facial acne negatively affected quality of life (QoL) in both groups, and most participants (>70%) reported some depression/anxiety symptoms. More White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian women were troubled by facial acne (88.8% vs. 76.2%, p<0.05). Lesion clearance was most important to White/Caucasian women (57.9 vs. non-White/Caucasian 31.7%, p<0.001); non-White/Caucasian females focused on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation clearance (41.6% vs. Caucasian 8.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Results highlight racial differences in participant-reported clinical characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, and

  8. Maternal Undernutrition Induces Premature Reproductive Senescence in Adult Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Khorram, Omid; Keen-Rinehart, Erin; Chuang, Tsai-Der; Ross, Michael G.; Desai, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of maternal undernutrition (MUN) on the reproductive axis of aging offspring. Design Animal (rat) study. Setting Research Laboratory. Animals Female Sprague-Dawley rats. Intervention(s) Food restriction during the second half of pregnancy in rats. Main Outcome Measures Circulating gonadotropins, Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), ovarian morphology, estrous cyclicity and gene expression studies in the hypothalamus and ovary in 1 day old (P1) and aging adult offspring. Results Offspring of MUN dams had low birth weight (LBW) and by adult age developed obesity. 80% of adult LBW offspring had disruption of estrous cycle by 8 months of age with the majority of animals in persistent estrous. Ovarian morphology was consistent with acyclicity with ovaries exhibiting large cystic structures and reduced corpora lutea. There was an elevation in circulating testosterone (T), increased ovarian expression of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis, an increase in plasma Leuteinizing (LH/)/Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, reduced estradiol (E2) levels and no changes in AMH in adult LBW offspring compared to control offspring. Hypothalamic expression of leptin receptor (OBRb), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and Gonadotropin Releasing hormone (GnRH) protein were altered in an age-dependent manner with increased ObRb, ER-α expression in P1 LBW hypothalami and a reversal of this expression pattern in adult LBW hypothalami. Conclusion Our data indicates that the maternal nutritional environment programs reproductive potential of the offspring through alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The premature reproductive senescence in LBW offspring could be secondary to development of obesity and hyperleptinemia in these animals in adult life. PMID:25439841

  9. Gynaecological Prolapse Surgery in Very Old Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mothes, A. R.; Lehmann, T.; Kwetkat, A.; Radosa, M. P.; Runnebaum, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to compare very elderly female patients with a younger control group after prolapse surgery with regard to co-morbidity and complications. Method: In a case-control design, the consecutive data of patients after prolapse surgery at the age of over 80 years and those of a control group were analysed by means of the Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of surgical complications, the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale Geriatrics (CIRS-G). Statistics: Studentʼs t, Fisherʼs exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The analysis comprised n = 57 vs. n = 60 operations. In the very elderly patients there was often a grade IV prolapse (p < 0.001), apical fixations were more frequent (p < 0.001), but the operating times were not different. In the very elderly patients 21 % CD II+III complications were observed, in the control group 6.6 % (p = 0.031). No CD IV and V complications occurred in either group, the duration of inpatient stay amounted to 5 (± 1) vs. 4.1 (± 0.8; p < 0.001) days, the very elderly patients needed an inpatient follow-up more frequently (p < 0.001). The co-morbidities of the very elderly patients differed from those of the control group in number (median 2.0 vs. 1.5; p < 0.001), in CIRS-G (4.1 ± 2.2 vs. 2.4 ± 1.7; p < 0.01) and in Charlson Index (1.6 ± 1.6 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7; p < 0.001). Conclusions: A prolapse in very elderly women can be safely managed by surgery. In no case did the complications require intensive care treatment nor were they life-threatening, but they did lead to a longer duration of hospital stay and more frequently to further treatment geriatric or inpatient internal medicine facilities. PMID:27582580

  10. Patient-Centered Mental Health Care for Female Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kimerling, Rachel; Bastian, Lori A.; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne A.; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Carney, Diane V.; Goldstein, Karen M.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Pomernacki, Alyssa; Sadler, Anne G.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Frayne, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mental health services for women vary widely across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, without consensus on the need for, or organization of, specialized services for women. Understanding women’s needs and priorities is essential to guide the implementation of patient-centered behavioral health services. Methods In a cross-sectional, multisite survey of female veterans using primary care, potential stakeholders were identified for VHA mental health services by assessing perceived or observed need for mental health services. These stakeholders (N=484) ranked priorities for mental health care among a wide range of possible services. The investigators then quantified the importance of having designated women’s mental health services for each of the mental health services that emerged as key priorities. Results Treatment for depression, pain management, coping with chronic general medical conditions, sleep problems, weight management, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) emerged as women’s key priorities. Having mental health services specialized for women was rated as extremely important to substantial proportions of women for each of the six prioritized services. Preference for primary care colocation was strongly associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s mental health services. For specific types of services, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s services. Conclusions Female veterans are a diverse population whose needs and preferences for mental health services vary along demographic and clinical factors. These stakeholder perspectives can help prioritize structural and clinical aspects of designated women’s mental health care in the VHA. PMID:25642611

  11. Early life stress induces renal dysfunction in adult male rats but not female rats

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Analia S.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Pollock, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal separation (MatSep) is a model of behavioral stress during early life. We reported that MatSep exacerbates ANG II-induced hypertension in adult male rats. The aims of this study were to determine whether exposure to MatSep in female rats sensitizes blood pressure to ANG II infusion similar to male MatSep rats and to elucidate renal mechanisms involved in the response in MatSep rats. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) pups were exposed to MatSep 3 h/day from days 2 to 14, while control rats remained with their mothers. ANG II-induced mean arterial pressure (MAP; telemetry) was enhanced in female MatSep rats compared with control female rats but delayed compared with male MatSep rats. Creatinine clearance (Ccr) was reduced in male MatSep rats compared with control rats at baseline and after ANG II infusion. ANG II infusion significantly increased T cells in the renal cortex and greater histological damage in the interstitial arteries of male MatSep rats compared with control male rats. Plasma testosterone was greater and estradiol was lower in male MatSep rats compared with control rats with ANG II infusion. ANG II infusion failed to increase blood pressure in orchidectomized male MatSep and control rats. Female MatSep and control rats had similar Ccr, histological renal analysis, and sex hormones at baseline and after ANG II infusion. These data indicate that during ANG II-induced hypertension, MatSep sensitizes the renal phenotype in male but not female rats. PMID:23174859

  12. Mate Choice in Adult Female Bengalese Finches: Females Express Consistent Preferences for Individual Males and Prefer Female-Directed Song Performances

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Jeffery L.; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  13. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  14. No effect of different estrogen receptor ligands on cognition in adult female monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2009-03-01

    Many studies in women and animal models suggest that estrogens affect cognitive function. Yet, the mechanisms by which estrogens may impact cognition remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of different estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on cognitive function in adult ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were tested for 6 weeks on a battery of memory and attentional tasks administered on a touchscreen: the object, face, and spatial versions of the Delayed Recognition Span Test (DRST) and a Visual Search task. Following a 2-week baseline period with oil vehicle treatment, monkeys were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups: estradiol benzoate (EB), selective ERbeta agonist (diarylpropionitrile DPN) or selective ER modulator tamoxifen (TAM). In each treatment group, monkeys received oil vehicle for 2 weeks and the drug for 2 weeks, in a cross-over design. After a 4-week washout, a subset of monkeys was re-tested on the battery when treated with a selective ERalpha agonist (propyl-pyrazole-triol, PPT) or oil vehicle. Overall, drug treatments had no or negligible effects on cognitive performance. These results support the contention that exogenous estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) do not significantly affect cognition in young adult female macaques. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the cognitive effects of estrogens in monkeys of more advanced age are mediated by ERbeta, ERalpha or complex interactions between the two receptors. PMID:19101578

  15. Autonomic activation associated with ethanol self-administration in adult female P rats

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Toalston, Jamie E.; McKinzie, David L.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai; McBride, William J.; Murphy, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined changes in heart rate (HR) prior to and during limited access ethanol drinking in adult female P rats. P rats were implanted with radiotelemetric transmitters to measure HR. Daily testing involved a 90-min pre-test period (water only available) and a subsequent 90-min test period [either water (W) or ethanol available]. After a week of habituation, one ethanol group had access to ethanol for 7 weeks (CE), and another ethanol group had access for 4 weeks, was deprived for 2 weeks and then had access for a final week (DEP). Analyses of HR revealed that CE and DEP rats had significantly higher HR than W rats during test periods that ethanol was present and that DEP rats displayed higher HR during the early test period of the ethanol deprivation interval, as well. These data indicate that ethanol drinking induces HR activation in adult female P rats, and that this activation can be conditioned to the test cage environment, paralleling reports on contextual conditioning and cue-reactivity in alcoholics exposed to alcohol-associated stimuli. Therefore, this behavioral test may prove advantageous in screening pharmacotherapies for reducing craving and relapse, which are associated with cue-reactivity in abstinent alcoholics. PMID:18713644

  16. Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.

    PubMed

    McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system. The margin of stability (MoS) at foot touchdown was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support (BoS) and extrapolated center of mass. Older participants showed lower MoS adaptation magnitude in the early adaptation phase (steps 1-3) compared to the young and middle-aged groups. However, in the late adaptation phase (steps 16-18) there were no significant differences in adaptation magnitude between the three age groups. After removing the resistance, all three age groups showed similar aftereffects (i.e. increased BoS). The current results suggest that in old age, the ability to recalibrate locomotion to control stability is preserved, but the rate of adaptive improvement in locomotor stability is diminished. PMID:26970886

  17. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Marta I; Rodriguez, David A; Kawata, Ariane K; Degboe, Arnold N; Wilcox, Teresa K; Burk, Caroline T; Daniels, Selena R; Roberts, Wendy E

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years), comprising black (30.8%), Hispanic (17.6%), Asian/other (17.3%), and white (34.3%). More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%). Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC) (47.4%) versus prescription medications (16.6%). OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05). The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA) (34.3%) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) (32.1%). Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05), Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0.05), and Asian/other (57.0±32.4 vs 46.9±37.2 days, P>0.05) subjects. Most subjects expected OTC (73.7%) and prescription (74.7%) treatments to work quickly. Fewer than half of the subjects were satisfied with OTC treatment (BP, 47.0%; SA, 43.0%), often due to skin dryness (BP, 26.3%; SA, 44.3%) and flakiness (BP, 12.3%; SA, 31.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups in their level of satisfaction with OTC or

  18. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Fortune, Eric S.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female Starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for three weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  19. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Rouse, Melvin L; Stevenson, Tyler J; Fortune, Eric S; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-06-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for 3 weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  20. Comparison of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions in female and male patients receiving female or male blood components

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, S; Araki, N; Shimada, E; Saigo, K; Nishimura, K; Nose, Y; Bouike, Y; Hashimoto, M; Mito, H; Okazaki, H

    2007-01-01

    To study the relationship between antibodies detected in patients’ and/or donors’ sera and the clinical features of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (ANHTRs), and to determine any gender-related difference. ANHTRs range from urticaria to transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Antibodies to human leukocyte antigen (HLA), granulocytes, platelets, and/or plasma proteins are implicated in some of the ANHTRs. A higher antibody positivity is expected for females than for males. A comparative study of ANHTRs for antibody positivity and their clinical features between females and males for both patients and donors is helpful for characterizing ANHTRs including TRALI more clearly, but such studies are few and outdated. Two hundred and twenty-three ANHTR cases reported by 45 hospitals between October 2000 and July 2005 were analysed. The patients and 196 donors of suspect blood products were screened for antibodies to HLA Class I, HLA Class II, granulocytes, and platelets. The patients were also screened for anti-plasma protein antibodies. The types and severity of ANHTR did not differ significantly between female and male patients. The frequency of the anti-HLA antibodies, but not that of the non-HLA antibodies, was significantly higher in females. Non-HLA antibodies were significantly associated with severe reactions in females. All the TRALI cases had predisposing risk factors for acute lung injury, and 60% of the cases showed anti-leucocyte antibodies. Although the anti-HLA antibodies were detected more frequently in females than males, no significant association of ANHTRs including TRALI with gender, not only for patients, but also for donors, could be shown in this study. PMID:18067650

  1. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.

    PubMed

    Gobush, K S; Mutayoba, B M; Wasser, S K

    2008-12-01

    Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented. PMID:18759771

  2. Individual variation in feeding habitat use by adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): are they obligately neritic herbivores?

    PubMed

    Hatase, Hideo; Sato, Katsufumi; Yamaguchi, Manami; Takahashi, Kotaro; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2006-08-01

    Satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis were used to confirm that oceanic areas (where water depths are >200 m) are alternative feeding habitats for adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), which have been thought to be obligate herbivores in neritic areas (where depths are <200 m). Four females were tagged with satellite transmitters and tracked during post-nesting periods from Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Three females migrated to neritic habitats, while transmissions from another female ceased in an oceanic habitat. The overall mean nighttime dive depths during oceanic swimming periods in two females were <20 m, implying that the main function of their nighttime dives were resting with neutral buoyancy, whereas the means in two other females were >20 m, implying that they not only rested, but also foraged on macroplankton that exhibit diel vertical migration. Comparisons of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios between 89 females and the prey items in a three-source mixing model estimated that 69% of the females nesting on Ogasawara Islands mainly used neritic habitats and 31% mainly used oceanic habitats. Out of four females tracked by satellite, two females were inferred from isotope ratios to be neritic herbivores and the two others oceanic planktivores. Although post-nesting movements for four females were not completely consistent with the inferences from isotope ratios, possibly due to short tracking periods (28-42 days), their diving behaviors were consistent with the inferences. There were no relationships between body size and the two isotope ratios, indicating a lack of size-related differences in feeding habitat use by adult female green turtles, which was in contrast with loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). These results and previous findings suggest that ontogenetic habitat shifts by sea turtles are facultative, and consequently, their life histories are polymorphic. PMID:16683139

  3. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, T.C.; Mondragon, J.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

  4. General Anxiety Disorder Symptoms, Tension Reduction, and Marijuana Use Among Young Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Hagerty, Claire E.; Herman, Debra S.; Hayaki, Jumi; Anderson, Bradley J.; Budney, Alan J.; Stein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The current study tested the hypothesis that tension reduction expectancies mediate the relationship between anxiety symptoms and marijuana use. Methods Interview data for 332 young adult females from Southern New England were collected from 2004 to 2009. Results In structural equation modeling, anxiety symptoms had a significant direct effect (byx = 0.227, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.086-0.369, p < 0.05) on tension reduction expectancies and a significant indirect effect (byx = 0.026, 95% CI 0.010-0.046, p < 0.05) on marijuana use. Conclusions The effect of anxiety symptoms on marijuana use was fully mediated by tension reduction expectancies. Implications for tension reduction as a possible component of treatment interventions are discussed. PMID:20718677

  5. The experiences and needs of female adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-05-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data fromn = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health, education, employment, social and community activities. Where relevant, comparisons are provided with the male subset of the same study population; however, in the majority of analyses, no discernible gender differences emerged. The findings highlight the diverse and complex challenges faced by women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, including high levels of mental health disorder, unmet support needs in education settings and the workplace, and social exclusion and isolation. PMID:26111537

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O’Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed. PMID:21535096

  7. Voice Onset Time for Turkish Stop Consonants in Adult Cochlear Implanted Patients.

    PubMed

    Dalgic, Abdullah; Kandogan, Tolga; Aksoy, Gokce

    2015-09-01

    The voice onset time is a temporal acoustic parameter defined as the time between the release of the oral constriction for plosive production and the onset of vocal fold vibrations. Hearing impairment is one of the factors that can effect the magnitude of voice onset time. Since voice onset time is a useful, noninvasive method for documenting the articulatory-phonatory aspects of vocal training during speech, we investigated voice onset time values for Turkish stop consonants in adult cochlear implanted patients in order to clarify the effect of CI and sequential hearing rehabilitation over voice onset time values. The CI patients were divided into two groups according to duration of CI usage. We looked for relations between results of the study and average voice onset time values in Turkish language for adults. Mean VOT values for for both males and females in the first and second group are shown in Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4. Most syllables both in males and females statistically significant differ from average VOT values, e.g. They did not reach to normal hearing adults level. These acoustic results indicated that VOT may be an effective measure for examining the effect of cochlear implantation over the articulatory accuracy. As far as we know, this is the first publication using voice onset time values for the efficiency of cochlear implantation in adult patients. [Table: see text] [Table: see text] [Table: see text] [Table: see text]. PMID:26405669

  8. Association between hair mineral and age, BMI and nutrient intakes among Korean female adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  10. Physical and psychosocial challenges in adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    duTreil, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Numerous challenges confront adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors, including difficulty in controlling bleeding episodes, deterioration of joints, arthritic pain, physical disability, emotional turmoil, and social issues. High-intensity treatment regimens often used in the treatment of patients with inhibitors also impose significant scheduling, economic, and emotional demands on patients and their families or primary caregivers. A comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment of the physical, emotional, and social status of adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors is essential for the development of treatment strategies that can be individualized to address the complex needs of these patients. PMID:25093002

  11. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently. PMID:22101890

  12. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  13. Prenatal dexamethasone selectively decreases calretinin expression in the adult female lateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Damian G.; Carbone, David L.; Handa, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) during early development results in lasting disturbances in emotional behavior in rodents. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons, classified by their expression of calcium binding proteins (CBPs), also contribute to stress-related behaviors and may be GC sensitive during development. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of prenatal treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX) on expression of calbindin and calretinin in brain areas critical to emotional regulation (basolateral/lateral amygdala and hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions). Late gestational treatment with DEX (gestational day 18–22) significantly decreased the density of calretinin immunoreactive cells in the lateral amygdala of adult female offspring with no differences in the basolateral amygdala, hippocampal CA1, or CA3 regions. Moreover, there were no effects of gestational DEX treatment on calretinin expression in males. Calbindin expression in adulthood was unaltered within either amygdala or hippocampal subregion of either sex following prenatal DEX treatment. Together these findings indicate that late gestational DEX treatment causes a targeted reduction of calretinin within the lateral amygdala of females and this may be one mechanism through which developmental glucocorticoid exposure contributes to lasting alterations in emotional behavior. PMID:22668856

  14. The consequences of task delegation for the process of care: Female patients seem to benefit more.

    PubMed

    Noordman, Janneke; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The shift of tasks from primary care physicians to practice nurses and the continuing incease in the numbers of women involved in medical care may have consequences for the provision of health care and communication. The aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in female practice nurses' application of communication skills, practice guidelines, and motivational interviewing skills during consultations with female and male patients. Nineteen female practice nurses and their patients (n = 181) agreed to have their consultations videotaped (during 2010-2011). The videotaped consultations were rated using two validated instruments: the Maas-Global (to assess generic communication skills and practice guidelines) and the Behaviour Change Counselling Index (to assess motivational interviewing skills). Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Female practice nurses provided significantly more comprehensive information during consultations with female patients (p = .03) and talked more about management with male patients (p = .04). Furthermore, nurses applied motivational interviewing skills more clearly during consultations with female than with male patients (p < .01). The shift in tasks from primary care physicians toward practice nurses may have implications for clinical and patient outcomes as patients will no longer be counseled by male professionals. Conceivably, female patients are motivated more by nurses to change their behavior, while male patients receive more concrete management information or advice. PMID:26325441

  15. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  16. Differences in Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae) hemolymph proteome between subadult and adult females.

    PubMed

    Trabalon, Marie; Carapito, Christine; Voinot, Florian; Martrette, Jean-Marc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Gilbert, Caroline; Bertile, Fabrice

    2010-12-01

    The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a combination of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The different structures determined along with possible post-translational modifications may reflect a role of hemocyanin in molting, immunity, and reproduction. In addition, despite no precise identification, additional peptide sequences from eight protein bands (four bands >200 kDa and four bands in the 95-200 kDa mass range) were determined. As reported in other spider species, the putative corresponding structures are the coagulogen protein and/or lipoproteins (HDL-1, HDL-2, VHDL) for which quantitative differences between adult and subadult individuals could be related to the molting process and/or cuticle lipid and protein composition according to the developmental stage. PMID:20717997

  17. [Refractory hypertention in a female patient with renal failure].

    PubMed

    Zuccalà, A; Losinno, F; Fiorenza, S; Lifrieri, F; Rapanà, R

    2005-01-01

    We report one sixty-seven years-old female who presented with hypertension refractory to antihypertensive drugs. She had an elevated BP for approximately 15 years. In the last 8-10 months her hypertension had become difficult to control. Her BP ranged between 180/100 mmHg and 220/1220 mmHg on atenolol 100 mg once daily, methyldopa 500 mg three times daily, furosemide 25 mg twice daily, doxazosine 4 mg twice daily. When she was referred to our unit serum creatinine was 2.3 mg/dL and she had a mild proteinuria (70 mg/dL) without microematuria. Ultrasonography showed a left kidney size in the low-normal range (LD 11 cm) and a small right kidney (LD 9 cm). Renal angiography showed a severe, ostial stenosis of the left renal artery and a total thrombosis of the right renal artery with a blood supply to the right kidney provided by collateral channels. An ACE-I was added to the therapy but a sharp increase in serum creatinina (up to 6.4 mg/dL) prompted us to withdraw the drug. She underwent a renal angioplasty on the left side and a Palmaz stent was placed. The control angiography showed a good anatomical result. Three months after the manoeuvre the patient was again referred to our unit with headache, nausea vomiting and hyper-tension refractory to amlodipine 10 mg/day, doxazosine 4 mg twice a a day, atenolol 50 mg/day, furosemide 50 mg/day. A doppler ultrasonography and a magnetic resonance angiogram showed no restenosis on the treated artery. An ACE-I was again administered and BP on this drug was 145/90 mmHg after one month and 130/85 after three months. Headache, nausea and vomiting disappeared. Serum creatinina kept unchanged (2.2 mg/dL). Comment. In this case the benefit of angioplasty on blood pressure control was indirect. Apparently the manoeuvre showed no effect on blood pressure, but the angioplasty allowed us to use of an ACE-Inhibitor, without any negative effect on renal function, and thus to adequately control blood pressure. PMID:16342054

  18. A snapshot of the adult spina bifida patient – high incidence of urologic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joceline S.; Greiman, Alyssa; Casey, Jessica T.; Mukherjee, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To describe the urologic outcomes of contemporary adult spina bifida patients managed in a multidisciplinary clinic. Material and methods A retrospective chart review of patients seen in our adult spina bifida clinic from January 2004 to November 2011 was performed to identify urologic management, urologic surgeries, and co-morbidities. Results 225 patients were identified (57.8% female, 42.2% male). Current median age was 30 years (IQR 27, 36) with a median age at first visit of 25 years (IQR 22, 30). The majority (70.7%) utilized clean intermittent catheterization, and 111 patients (49.3%) were prescribed anticholinergic medications. 65.8% had urodynamics performed at least once, and 56% obtained appropriate upper tract imaging at least every other year while under our care. 101 patients (44.9%) underwent at least one urologic surgical procedure during their lifetime, with a total of 191 procedures being performed, of which stone procedures (n = 51, 26.7%) were the most common. Other common procedures included continence procedures (n = 35, 18.3%) and augmentation cystoplasty (n = 29, 15.2%). Only 3.6% had a documented diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and 0.9% with end-stage renal disease. Conclusions Most adult spina bifida patient continue on anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. A large percentage of patients required urologic procedures in adulthood. Patients should be encouraged to utilize conservative and effective bladder management strategies to reduce their risk of renal compromise. PMID:27123330

  19. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  20. Urodynamic studies in female patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Beck, R P; Warren, K G; Whitman, P

    1981-02-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis may have two fundamental, related problems in the lower urinary tract, i.e., urinary retention and/or urinary incontinence. Forty-six patients were assessed by urodynamic testing. Evidence of detrusor overactivity was seen in 40 patients (86.9%), elevated resting urethral pressures in 39 patients (84.8%), a positive bethanechol chloride (Urecholine) stress test in 24 patients (63.2%), and a significant residual urine in 26 patients (56.5%). Data were analyzed in an attempt to explain retention and incontinence in these patients. PMID:7468694

  1. Female Adult Learners in Rural Community Colleges: A Case Study of Role Perception and Navigation for Student Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tara Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Female adult learners, the fastest growing subpopulation in community colleges, face challenges navigating domestic, professional, and academic roles and take time off from school to reconcile issues with multiple role navigation; thus, their education is disjointed and staggered, creating barriers to persistence. This interpretive design…

  2. Analysis of Factors Causing Adult Female Learners to Drop out of E-Learning Courses in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Park, Soon-Shin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adult female learners' dropout in e-learning courses, and to suggest possible solutions to problem of high dropout rates in Korea. To identify the factors, we analyzed the literature and developed a questionnaire consisting of 9 possible factors and 16 items. Data gathered…

  3. Care and feeding of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae): Assessing the impact of diet on predation following adult female eclosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction in female Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) is a stringent process, and requires a source of nutrition high in quantity and quality of protein and lipid for optimal production of eggs. Adults can survive solely on a source of carbohydrates, but at the cost of suspending th...

  4. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  5. Gut transcriptome of replete adult female cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a Babesia bovis-infected bovine host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Babesiosis develops in susceptible cattle when infected by the apicomplexan Babesia bovis, which is transmitted to cattle through the bite of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. microplus midgut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adult females feeding on cattle infect...

  6. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  7. Severe chronic primary neutropenia in adults: report on a series of 108 patients.

    PubMed

    Sicre de Fontbrune, Flore; Moignet, Aline; Beaupain, Blandine; Suarez, Felipe; Galicier, Lionel; Socié, Gérard; Varet, Bruno; Coppo, Paul; Michel, Marc; Pautas, Cécile; Oksenhendler, Eric; Lengline, Etienne; Terriou, Louis; Moreau, Philippe; Chantepie, Sylvain; Casadevall, Nicole; Michot, Jean Marie; Gardembas, Martine; Michallet, Mauricette; Croisille, Laure; Audrain, Marie; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Donadieu, Jean; Lamy, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Severe chronic primary neutropenia (CPN) is a rare entity, and long-term outcome and risk factors for infections in severe CPN adults have not been described to date. We report the characteristics and outcomes of 108 severe adult CPN patients enrolled in a multi-institutional observational study. Severe CPN adults were mostly female (78%), and median age at diagnosis was 28.3 years. Diagnosis was fortuitous in 62% of cases. The median absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at diagnosis was 0.4 × 10(9)/L, and median ANC without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) during follow-up was 0.5 × 10(9)/L. Twenty-three of 66 (34.8%) evaluable patients had neutrophil autoantibodies, and 6 of 47 (12.8%) a T-cell clone. The presence of neutrophil autoantibodies or T-cell clone was not associated with any specific clinical or biological characteristics. No death or hematologic malignancies occurred, and 44 severe bacterial infections were reported in 27 patients with a median follow-up of 8.3 years. Fifty patients received G-CSF either sporadically (n = 24) or continuously (n = 26) and responded (96%). Nineteen patients received immunosuppressive therapies: overall response (OR) was 41%, and median duration of response was 3 months. At diagnosis, the only predictive factor for the occurrence of severe bacterial infections was an ANC count below 0.2 × 10(9)/L (OR, 0.76). Severe CPN in adults is characterized by a female predominance and a benign outcome with a low rate of severe bacterial infections and no secondary malignancies. G-CSF is efficient and well tolerated but is not required in a majority of patients. PMID:26261239

  8. Prenatal cocaine exposure increases heart susceptibility to ischaemia–reperfusion injury in adult male but not female rats

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Soochan; Gilbert, Raymond D; Ducsay, Charles A; Zhang, Lubo

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal cocaine exposure differentially regulates heart susceptibility to ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury in adult offspring male and female rats. Pregnant rats were administered intraperitoneally either saline or cocaine (15 mg kg−1) twice daily from day 15 to day 21 of gestational age. There were no differences in maternal weight gain and birth weight between the two groups. Hearts were isolated from 2-month-old male and female offspring and were subjected to I/R (25 min/60 min) in a Langendorff preparation. Preischaemic values of left ventricular (LV) function were the same between the saline control and cocaine-treated hearts for both male and female rats. Prenatal cocaine exposure significantly increased I/R-induced myocardial apoptosis and infarct size, and significantly attenuated the postischaemic recovery of LV function in adult male offspring. In contrast, cocaine did not affect I/R-induced injury and postischaemic recovery of LV function in the female hearts. There was a significant decrease in PKCɛ and phospho-PKCɛ levels in LV in the male, but not female, offspring exposed to cocaine before birth. These results suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure causes a sex-specific increase in heart susceptibility to I/R injury in adult male offspring, and the decreased PKCɛ gene expression in the male heart may play an important role. PMID:15677681

  9. Ovariectomy Results in Variable Changes in Nociception, Mood and Depression in Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Hong; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX), a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%)-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting) during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact). Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA). In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way. PMID:24710472

  10. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  11. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

  12. Effects of adult body size on fecundity and the pre-gravid rate of Anopheles gambiae females in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, E O; Takken, W

    1993-10-01

    The influence of adult body size on the pre-gravid state and fecundity was studied in Anopheles gambiae Giles females hand-caught inside houses and virgin females collected as pupae in Tanzania. Blood-fed mosquitoes were kept for 2-3 days before dissection and examination for insemination and ovarian condition. Those females which did not develop eggs were classified as pre-gravid. The number of mature eggs in those mosquitoes which became gravid was counted. Virgin females were fed and kept for egg maturation in the laboratory. Wing-length of females was measured as an index of mosquito size. The overall pre-gravid rate in the resting An.gambiae population was found to be 21% and, of these, 66% had been inseminated. In the virgin females the pre-gravid rate was 92.6%. The mean wing-length of wild females which became gravid was significantly larger than those which remained pre-gravid. There was a positive correlation between fecundity and wing-length. Smaller females tended to require two or three bloodmeals to facilitate completion of the first gonotrophic cycle. The critical size permitting oviposition from the first blood-meal was a wing-length of 3 mm. PMID:8268486

  13. Posture-specific phantoms representing female and male adults in Monte Carlo-based simulations for radiological protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Brayner, C.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-08-01

    Does the posture of a patient have an effect on the organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by x-ray examinations? This study aims to find the answer to this question, based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of commonly performed x-ray examinations using adult phantoms modelled to represent humans in standing as well as in the supine posture. The recently published FASH (female adult mesh) and MASH (male adult mesh) phantoms have the standing posture. In a first step, both phantoms were updated with respect to their anatomy: glandular tissue was separated from adipose tissue in the breasts, visceral fat was separated from subcutaneous fat, cartilage was segmented in ears, nose and around the thyroid, and the mass of the right lung is now 15% greater than the left lung. The updated versions are called FASH2_sta and MASH2_sta (sta = standing). Taking into account the gravitational effects on organ position and fat distribution, supine versions of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms have been developed in this study and called FASH2_sup and MASH2_sup. MC simulations of external whole-body exposure to monoenergetic photons and partial-body exposure to x-rays have been made with the standing and supine FASH2 and MASH2 phantoms. For external whole-body exposure for AP and PA projection with photon energies above 30 keV, the effective dose did not change by more than 5% when the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. Apart from that, the supine posture is quite rare in occupational radiation protection from whole-body exposure. However, in the x-ray diagnosis supine posture is frequently used for patients submitted to examinations. Changes of organ absorbed doses up to 60% were found for simulations of chest and abdomen radiographs if the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. A further increase of differences between posture-specific organ and tissue absorbed doses with increasing whole-body mass is to be expected.

  14. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  15. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Decreases Aldosterone Production but Maintains Normal Plasma Volume and Increases Blood Pressure in Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    More, Amar S; Mishra, Jay S; Hankins, Gary D; Kumar, Sathish

    2016-08-01

    Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia and polycystic ovaries; their offspring are at increased risk for hypertension during adult life. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg(8)-vasopressin. The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. Accordingly, plasma aldosterone levels were lower in testosterone females. Plasma volume and serum and urine Na(+) and K(+) levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone females; however, prenatal testosterone exposure significantly increased plasma vasopressin and angiotensin II levels and arterial pressure in adult females. In testosterone females, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, while contractile responses to vasopressin were unaffected. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor expression was increased, while angiotensin II type-2 receptor was decreased in testosterone arteries. These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. Elevated angiotensin II and vasopressin levels along with enhanced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II may serve as an underlying mechanism to maintain plasma volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels and mediate hypertension in adult testosterone females. PMID:27385784

  16. Pulmonary manifestations in adult patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Salvator, Hélène; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Catherinot, Emilie; Rivaud, Elisabeth; Pilmis, Benoit; Borie, Raphael; Crestani, Bruno; Tcherakian, Colas; Suarez, Felipe; Dunogue, Bertrand; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Dreyfus, Jean-François; Durieu, Isabelle; Fouyssac, Fanny; Hermine, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier; Fischer, Alain; Couderc, Louis-Jean

    2015-06-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by failure of superoxide production in phagocytic cells. The disease is characterised by recurrent infections and inflammatory events, frequently affecting the lungs. Improvement of life expectancy now allows most patients to reach adulthood. We aimed to describe the pattern of pulmonary manifestations occurring during adulthood in CGD patients. This was a retrospective study of the French national cohort of adult patients (≥16 years old) with CGD. Medical data were obtained for 67 adult patients. Pulmonary manifestations affected two-thirds of adult patients. Their incidence was significantly higher than in childhood (mean annual rate 0.22 versus 0.07, p=0.01). Infectious risk persisted despite anti-infectious prophylaxis. Invasive fungal infections were frequent (0.11 per year per patient) and asymptomatic in 37% of the cases. They often required lung biopsy for diagnosis (10 out of 30). Noninfectious respiratory events concerned 28% of adult patients, frequently associated with a concomitant fungal infection (40%). They were more frequent in patients with the X-linked form of CGD. Immune-modulator therapies were required in most cases (70%). Respiratory manifestations are major complications of CGD in adulthood. Noninfectious pulmonary manifestations are as deleterious as infectious pneumonia. A specific respiratory monitoring is necessary. PMID:25614174

  17. Mediastinal Tuberculosis in an Adult Patient with Cystic Fibrosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Philippe C.; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Carlotti, Agnès; Desmazes-Dufeu, Nadine; Farhi, David; Martin, Clémence; Kanaan, Reem; Mangialavori, Luigi; Palangié, Estelle; Dusser, Daniel; Poyart, Claire; Hubert, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is rarely observed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We report the first case of mediastinal TB, associated with leg pain and skin rash, in an adult patient with CF, and discuss factors suggestive of TB in the course of CF. PMID:21106788

  18. Clinical next-generation sequencing reveals aggressive cancer biology in adolescent and young adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Vivek; Bupathi, Manojkumar; Kato, Shumei; Livingston, Andrew; Slopis, John; Anderson, Pete M.; Hong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aggressive biology of cancers arising in adolescent and young adult (AYA; ages 15–39 years) patients is thought to contribute to poor survival outcomes. Methods We used clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) results to examine the molecular alterations and diverse biology of cancer in AYA patients referred to the Phase 1 program at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Results Among the 28 patients analyzed (14 female and 14 male), 12 had pediatric-type cancers, six had adult-type cancers, and ten had orphan cancers. Unique, hitherto unreported aberrations were identified in all types of cancers. Aberrations in TP53, NKX2-1, KRAS, CDKN2A, MDM4, MCL1, MYC, BCL2L2, and RB1 were demonstrated across all tumor types. Five patients harbored TP53 aberrations; three patients harbored MYC, MCL1, and CDKN2A aberrations; and two patients harbored NKX2-1, KRAS, MDM4, BCL2L2, and RB1 alterations. Several patients had multiple aberrations; a patient with wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumor harbored five alterations (MDM4, MCL1, KIT, AKT3, and PDGRFA). Conclusions This preliminary report of NGS of cancer in AYA patients reveals diverse and unique aberrations. Further molecular profiling and a deeper understanding of the biology of these unique aberrations are warranted and may lead to targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26328274

  19. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English

    PubMed Central

    Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17 500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [ɹ] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

  20. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Female Sexual Orientation, Childhood Gender Typicality and Adult Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Cherkas, Lynn; Spector, Timothy; Rahman, Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Background Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%), AGI (11%) and CGT (31%). For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. Conclusions/Significance This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation. PMID:21760939

  1. Correlation of the hand length and stature in adult Musahar females of Nepal; an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Basnet, K S; Dhungel, S; Panta, P P

    2012-03-01

    Stature of a person is one of the most important and useful anthropometric parameter for establishing identification of unknown living or a dead person. A descriptive cross sectional study was done on 165 Nepalese adult Musahar females of Aurahi Village of Mahottari district, Nepal to predict the stature from their hand length. Measurement of stature and the length of both right and left hands taken with a standard standing height measuring instrument and a slide caliper respectively showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and hand lengths. The multiplication factor which was obtained by dividing the height of the subject by the respective hand lengths was found appropriate parameter to calculate the stature of a questioned person. The importance of the hand length alone will be of a great value for anthropologists and forensic experts. As an alternative method, the coefficient of regression and intercept which were obtained from the measured height and hand length were also proved to be equally valuable to estimate the height of a questioned person. PMID:23441496

  2. Effect of an Eight-Week Ballroom Dancing Program on Muscle Architecture in Older Adults Females.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Christina C P; Lodovico, Angélica; Fowler, Neil; Rodacki, André L F

    2015-10-01

    Aging is related to a progressive remodeling of the neuromuscular system, which includes muscle mass, strength, and power reductions. This study investigated the effect of an eight-week dance program on fascicle pennation angle, fascicle length, and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles using ultrasound images. Thirty-four healthy older women were randomly assigned to either a dancing (DG: n = 19, 69.1 ± 6.5 years, 72.5 ± 11.7 kg) or control group (CG: n = 15, 71.5 ± 7.4 years, 70.9 ± 9.3 kg). After training, the DG showed greater (p < .05) thickness for VL (16%), TA (17%), BF (19%), and GM (15%); pennation angle for VL (21%), TA (23%), BF (21%), and GM (17%); and fascicle length for VL (11%), TA (12%), BF (10%), and GM (10%). These findings suggest that dance training was effective to change the lower limb muscle architecture in older female adults. PMID:25642640

  3. Comparative microarray analyses of adult female midgut tissues from feeding Rhipicephalus species.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Willem A; Stutzer, Christian; Olivier, Nicholas A; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, has a debilitating effect on the livestock industry worldwide, owing to its being a vector of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. In South Africa, co-infestation with R. microplus and R. decoloratus, a common vector species on local livestock, occurs widely in the northern and eastern parts of the country. An alternative to chemical control methods is sought in the form of a tick vaccine to control these tick species. However, sequence information and transcriptional data for R. decoloratus is currently lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying genes that are shared between midgut tissues of feeding adult female R. microplus and R. decoloratus ticks. In this regard, a custom oligonucleotide microarray comprising of 13,477 R. microplus sequences was used for transcriptional profiling and 2476 genes were found to be shared between these Rhipicephalus species. In addition, 136 transcripts were found to be more abundantly expressed in R. decoloratus and 1084 in R. microplus. Chi-square analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are significantly overrepresented in R. microplus and R. decoloratus. This study is the first transcriptional profiling of R. decoloratus and is an additional resource that can be evaluated further in future studies for possible tick control. PMID:25448423

  4. Round and Round and Round We Go: Behavior of Adult Female Mice on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011) emphasized the importance of long duration rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at Ames Research Center. Here we present a video-based behavioral analysis of ten C57BL6 female adult mice exposed to a total of 37 days in space compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight and Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including feeding, drinking, exploratory behavior, grooming, and social interactions. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice. Spontaneous, organized circling or race-tracking behavior emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. I will summarize qualitative observations and quantitative comparisons of mice in microgravity and 1g conditions. Behavioral phenotyping revealed important insights into the overall health and adaptation of mice to the space environment, and identified unique behaviors that can guide future habitat development and research on rodents in space.

  5. Biomarker investigations in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from industrialised areas in northern Sweden in 2003.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Tomas; Hansen, Wenche; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Balk, Lennart; Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik

    2014-02-01

    Since the new millennium, a notion has developed in certain parts of society that environmental pollutants and their associated effects are under control. The primary objective of this investigation, performed in 2003, was to test whether this was actually the case in an industrialised region in the County of Västernorrland in northern Sweden with well-documented environmental pollution from past and present activities. This was performed by measuring a moderate battery of simple biomarkers in adult female perch at several stations. The point sources included sewage-treatment plants, pulp and paper mills, as well as other industries. The biomarkers included growth, somatic indices, gonad maturation status, gonad pigmentation, fin erosion, skin ulcers, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver. The results showed that the environmental pollutants and their associated effects were not under control. In fact, the health of the perch was impaired at all of the polluted stations. Many responses were unspecific with respect to underlying cause, whereas some effects on EROD activity and gonad maturation status were attributed to historical creosote pollution and current kraft pulp mill effluents, respectively. The data presented may also be used as reference values for future investigations of health effects in perch. PMID:24297393

  6. Sertraline inhibits increases in body fat and carbohydrate dysregulation in adult female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Silverstein-Metzler, Marnie G; Shively, Carol A; Clarkson, Thomas B; Appt, Susan E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Jones, Sara R; Register, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed for depression and other disorders. SSRIs have become one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, particularly by women. Acute effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism have been reported, but little is known regarding the effects of chronic SSRI use. We evaluated the effects of chronic administration of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl, on body weight and composition, fat distribution, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as activity, in adult female depressed and nondepressed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; n=42) using a placebo-controlled, longitudinal, randomized study design. Phenotypes were evaluated prior to and after 18 months of oral sertraline (20mg/kg) or placebo. Over the 18 month treatment period, the placebo group experienced increases in body weight, body fat (visceral and subcutaneous) fasting insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR). Sertraline treatment prevented increases in body weight, fat, insulin, and HOMA-IR (all p<0.05), without significantly altering activity levels. Sertraline treatment altered adiponectin in an unusual way - reducing circulating adiponectin in depressed monkeys without affecting fat mass or body weight. Deleterious effects on adiponectin, a potentially insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective protein, may result in adverse effects on cardiovascular health despite otherwise beneficial effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:26939086

  7. Concordance between measured and estimated appendicular muscle mass in adult females.

    PubMed

    Lekamwasam, S; Nanayakkara, J

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of a selected formula used to estimate the appendicular muscle mass (AMM) which is linked with many clinical outcomes. A group of community-dwelling adult women (n=80) had their AMM measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The same was estimated using a formula already published {Skeletal muscle mass = (0.244 × BW in kg) + (7.80 × Ht in meters) + (6.6 × Sex) - (0.098 × Age) + race - 3.3} (sex=0 for female and 1 for male, race =-1.2 for Asian, 1.4 for African American and 0 for White and Hispanic).The two datasets were compared for accuracy and precision. Mean AMM measured by DXA and estimated by the formula were very close (14.8 and 14.5 kg) and the difference ranged from -1.2 to 3.6 kg. Correlation between the two datasets was high (r=0.92) and the Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable measurement agreement between the two methods. Results were independent of age and BMI. The formula used in this analysis gave an accurate estimation of the absolute AMM in women included in this study. PMID:26520864

  8. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  9. Evaluation of Acne Quality of Life and Clinical Severity in Acne Female Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kokandi, Amal

    2010-01-01

    Acne is a common disease especially among teenagers. It has a considerable psychological impact on affected individuals. The aim of this paper was to assess if the effect of acne on acne-related quality of life is correlated to acne clinical severity. 112 university female students attending the university medical clinics with acne complaints were examined. Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) was used to assess acne-related quality of life, and global acne grading system (GAGS) was used to assess clinical severity of acne. There was no correlation between acne severity (GAGS scoring system) and quality of life impairment as assessed by CADI score (r = 0.145, P = .127). Additionally, CADI score did not correlate with disease duration or age of patients. We therefore conclude that acne clinical severity alone does not affect acne-related quality of life changes. Many other factors might play a role. PMID:20706683

  10. [The psychosocial aspects of female patients with genital cancer].

    PubMed

    Buiuc, A I

    1996-01-01

    Revealing a diagnosis as cancer, usually generates various emotional and psychosocial response in the patients: anxiety, negation of reality, passivity and generalized state of shock and anguish; long term projects and personal responsibilities are annihilated, the image of death grows enormously. Genital cancer women patients also exhibits sexual problems which can seriously complicate the psychic representation of disease and impair family life. Our study comprised 20 women patients who were hospitalized, with genital cancer diagnosis (ovarian cancer, neoplasms of the cervix and of the endometrium); by anamnesis and further discussions we tried to establish the main elements which generated different psychologic reactions. The perception of the reality of the diagnosis was proved to depend on age, personality type, doctor-patient and family-patient relationship. Each stage of disease and each treatment applied generates individual psychologic reaction which can be alleviated by communication between doctor and patients, by a patient adapted language. Complexity of psychological and sometimes psychic reactions of such patients requires that a psycho-oncologist be included in the complex oncologic treatment team; deeper knowledge of the problems and employment of individual or group therapy (the patient's family included) may lead to better psychic response to the malady. PMID:9455456

  11. Wilms Tumor: An Uncommon Entity in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Fade; Allen, M Brandon; Cox, Roni; Davis, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor, the most common kidney tumor in children, is rarely seen in adults, making it a challenge for the adult oncologist to diagnose and treat. Unlike with renal cell carcinoma, patients with Wilms tumor should receive adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. Adult oncologists may not be familiar with pediatric oncology protocols, so it is important to consult with pediatric oncologists who have more experience in this disease. Multimodal therapy based on pediatric protocols improved the outcomes of adults with Wilms tumor worldwide. We report a rare case of a 24-year-old woman with a slow-growing mass of the left kidney during a 4-year period. The mass was surgically removed and final diagnosis confirmed by pathology to be Wilms tumor. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and has been free of disease since 2014. PMID:27043834

  12. Perinatal Exposure of Mice to the Pesticide DDT Impairs Energy Expenditure and Metabolism in Adult Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R.; Newman, John W.; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring. PMID:25076055

  13. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Dendrinos, John; Nikitiadis, Emanuel; Vrioni, Georgia; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. PMID:27429814

  14. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dendrinos, John; Nikitiadis, Emanuel; Vrioni, Georgia; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. PMID:27429814

  15. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  16. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  17. Sella Turcica Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Complicated with Lung Metastasis in an Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Costanzo; Lupoi, Domenico; Spasaro, Francesca; Chioma, Laura; Di Giacinto, Paola; Colicchia, Martina; Frajoli, Mario; Mocini, Renzo; Ulisse, Salvatore; Antonelli, Manila; Giangaspero, Felice; Gnessi, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Here we present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a rare sellar region atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), complicated by lung metastasis and treated with neurosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The patient had recurrent headache associated with left cavernous sinus syndrome after a previous endonasal transsphenoidal resection for a presumptive pituitary macroadenoma. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor regrowth in the original location with a haemorrhagic component involving the left cavernous sinus. A near complete transsphenoidal resection of the sellar mass was performed followed by 3 months of stereotactic radiotherapy. Because of a worsening of the general clinical conditions, respiratory failure, and asthenia, the patient underwent a contrast enhanced computer tomography of the whole body which showed the presence of lung metastasis. The histopathological diagnosis on samples from pituitary and lung tissues was AT/RT. The patient survived 30 months after diagnosis regardless chemotherapy. In the adult, the AT/RT should be considered as a possible rare, aggressive, and malignant neoplasm localized in the sella turcica. PMID:24324353

  18. [Mesial temporal sclerosis syndrome in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Consalvo, D; Giobellina, R; Silva, W; Rugilo, C; Saidón, P; Schuster, G; Kochen, S; Sica, R

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential tool in the work-up of epilepsy. Since its appearance it has been possible to identify pathologies, such as hippocampal sclerosis (HS), that had previously only been detected by histopathological assays. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical manifestations, EEG and the outcome of patients with HS as shown by MRI. We revised the clinical histories of 384 outpatients from the Epilepsy Center, Ramos Mejía Hospital, who had been studied by MRI. Thirty five of them (15.5%) had a diagnosis of HS, based on the structural changes observed on the images. Six patients were excluded because of incomplete clinical data. Therefore, we studied 29 patients including 15 men. The mean age was 32.7 +/- 10.2 years (range: 19-58). All of them had partial seizures. Ten subjects had had febrile convulsions (34.5%) in childhood. Neurological examination was normal in all subjects. Interictal EEG showed focal abnormalities that were coincident in their location with the MRI abnormalities in 16 patients (55.1%). Fourteen patients (48.3%) showed right side hippocampal lesions on MRI, thirteen on the left side (44.9%) and 2 bilateral HS (6.8%). Twenty-seven patients (93.1%) had intractable epilepsy. Anterior temporal lobectomy was performed in 3 subjects with good outcome. The identification of these patients who present certain clinical and MRI characteristics, provides an opportunity to define the mesial temporal sclerosis syndrome. This could benefit patients in their prognosis and for specific treatments. PMID:10962804

  19. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The overall mean (± SEM) incidence of adult hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p < 0.0001). Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p < 0.0001). In addition, the overall incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database. PMID:27581317

  20. Anxiety and depression in adult patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Janke, Karl-Heinz; Klump, Bodo; Gregor, Michael; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety and depression levels in adult patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) with controls. METHODS: The levels of anxiety, depression and of a probable anxiety or depressive disorder were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 441 adult patients with CD recruited by the German Celiac Society, in 235 age- and sex-matched patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in remission or with slight disease activity, and in 441 adult persons of a representative German general population sample (GP). Potential demographic (age, sex, social class, family status) and disease-related (latency to diagnosis, duration of GFD, compliance with GFD, thyroid disease) predictors of anxiety and depression in CD were tested for by regression analyses. RESULTS: The level of anxiety in CD patients was predicted (R2 = 0.07) by female gender (P = 0.01). Female sex (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3-9.4, P = 0.01) was associated with a probable anxiety disorder. Living alone (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, P = 0.05) was associated with a reduced risk of an anxiety disorder. The level of depression and a probable depressive disorder were not predicted by any of the demographic and medical variables tested for. The levels of anxiety in patients with CD (6.6 ± 3.4) and with IBD (6.9 ± 3.7) were higher than those of persons in the GP (4.6 ± 3.3) (both P < 0.001). The levels of depression in persons with CD (4.2 ± 3.4), IBD (4.6 ± 3.4) and of the GP (4.2 ± 3.8) did not differ (P = 0.3). The prevalence of a probable anxiety disorder in persons with CD (16.8%) and IBD (14.0%) was higher than that of the GP (5.7%) (P < 0.001). The prevalence of a probable depressive disorder did not differ significantly between the three groups (P = 0.1). CONCLUSION: Anxiety in adult German female celiacs on a GFD is higher than in persons of the GP. Female celiacs on a GFD should be screened for anxiety. PMID:20533598

  1. Practical fluoride and remineralization protocols for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel C N; Wefel, James S; Caughman, W Frank

    2004-12-01

    There is a wealth of information on preventive measures and procedures that can be used to care for paediatric and adolescent patients. However, few studies have been conducted in adult or geriatric populations, and an understanding of preventive and non-surgical treatment regimens for these patients is lacking. Traditionally, caries incidence is high among risk groups of low income, low dental IQ and certain ethnic subgroups, but we are now witnessing a high incidence of caries among middle-income and healthy adult patients with an imbalance of protective factors and cariogenic factors. We will direct our attention to the adult population and attempt to address some of the most common questions. PMID:15736834

  2. Clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients in Hyderabad: Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Naila; Ali Shaikh, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To see the various clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients of Hyderabad Sindh. Methods: A total 60 suspected cases of adult celiac disease, both males and females were screened out from Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital and private clinics at Sadar Hyderabad Sind by non probability purposive sampling during a period from July 2011 to December 2012.Age ranged between 18 to 55 Years. A detailed history and clinical examination was done. Patients already on gluten free diet, age <12years, tuberculosis or cancer of intestine/colon and patients of diabetes and thyroid disorder were excluded, while patients having positive ant tTG (value >15 iu/ml detected by ELISA) were included. The biochemical profile including serum albumin, calcium ,ferritin, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase and Haemoglobin were estimated in central Diagnostic laboratory LUMHS by taking 10 cc centrifuged blood sample. The data was plotted on SPSS 16, mean and percentages were calculated. Results: All patients were divided in to three groups according to age. The most common group was 18-30 years; (mean, 23.5±5.6) comprised 56.6%. The commonest clinical presentation was diarrhoea in 50%, menstrual irregularity in 21%, walking problems 21%, undue fatigue in 15% and edema in 15%. P values calculated in quantitative variable of males and females. The p value was significant in between serum calcium (p 0.004), haemoglobin (p 0,004), serum ferritin (<0.005) and alkaline phosphatise (<0.005). Conclusion: This study showed that Adult celiac disease was present with entirely different clinical and biochemical profile in patients in this region. PMID:24772128

  3. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  4. Language lateralization in female patients with schizophrenia: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Sommer, I E C; Ramsey, N F; Mandl, R C W; Kahn, R S

    2003-04-01

    Gender differences in schizophrenia are among the most consistently reported findings in schizophrenia research. However, the biological substrate underlying these gender differences is still largely unknown. Differences in language lateralization between men and women may underlie some gender differences in schizophrenia. In previous functional imaging studies, language lateralization was found to be decreased in male schizophrenia patients as compared to healthy males, which was due to enhanced language activation of the right hemisphere as compared to the healthy males. It could be hypothesized that decreased language lateralization in schizophrenia is gender specific, i.e. decreased lateralization in male patients and normal lateralization in female patients. To test this hypothesis, language activation was measured in 12 right-handed female patients with schizophrenia and 12 healthy females, and compared to findings in 12 male patients and 12 male controls of an earlier study. Language lateralization was significantly lower in the female patients (0.44) as compared to the female controls (0.75), which was due to increased activation of the right-sided language areas (patients: 19 voxels; controls: 8 voxels), while left hemisphere activation was similar in patients and controls. When these data are compared to the male patients and controls, both patient groups had lower lateralization than their healthy counterparts, but there was no difference between male and female patients. In both sexes, decreased lateralization resulted from increased right hemispheric language activation, which suggests a failure to inhibit nondominant language areas in schizophrenia. These findings indicate that lower language lateralization in women is not likely to underlie gender differences in schizophrenia. PMID:12591582

  5. Marital Status and Fertility in Adult Iranian Patients with β-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Miri-Aliabad, Ghasem; Fadaee, Mahsoumeh; Khajeh, Ali; Naderi, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Expecting a family is an important component and a great goal for better quality of life for most of adults with β-thalassemia major. The aim of the present study was to examine the marital status of adults with β-thalassemia major. This cross-sectional study examined the marital status of patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia aged over 15 years. Patients' demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, duration of marriage, divorce, having or not having children and spouse's health status were recorded. Information about the disease including cardiac and endocrine complications, ferritin level, splenectomy and viral hepatitis were also recorded. Of 228 patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major aged over 15 years who were treated at this medical center, 32 (14 %) were married. The mean age of married patients was 25.18 ± 4.74 years. Among the married patients, 8 (25 %) were females and 24 (75 %) patients were males. The mean age of marriage was 22.76 ± 4.16 years. The minimum and maximum marriage age was 15 and 33 years, respectively. The median duration of marriage was one year with the range from 3 months to 11 years. Only 8 (25 %) patients (one female and seven males) had children. Therapeutic advances have led to significantly increased survival and improved quality of life and fertility of patients with β-thalassemia major. According to the results, 14 % of patients over 15 years were married which was slightly higher as compared with other similar studies. PMID:26855517

  6. Pyridoxine deficiency in adult patients with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Dave, Hina N; Eugene Ramsay, Richard; Khan, Fawad; Sabharwal, Vivek; Irland, Megan

    2015-11-01

    An 8-year-old girl treated at our facility for superrefractory status epilepticus was found to have a low pyridoxine level at 5 μg/L. After starting pyridoxine supplementation, improvement in the EEG for a 24-hour period was seen. We decided to look at the pyridoxine levels in adult patients admitted with status epilepticus. We reviewed the records on patients admitted to the neurological ICU for status epilepticus (SE). Eighty-one adult patients were identified with documented pyridoxine levels. For comparison purposes, we looked at pyridoxine levels in outpatients with epilepsy (n=132). Reported normal pyridoxine range is >10 ng/mL. All but six patients admitted for SE had low normal or undetectable pyridoxine levels. A selective pyridoxine deficiency was seen in 94% of patients with status epilepticus (compared to 39.4% in the outpatients) which leads us to believe that there is a relationship between status epilepticus and pyridoxine levels. PMID:26418265

  7. Multicentric Biatrial Myxoma in a Young Female Patient: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang Jeong; Park, Soon Chang; You, Yun Pyo; Kim, Bum Yong; Kim, Myong Kon; Jeong, Kyung Tae; Lee, Jae Won

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of multicentric, biatrial cardiac myxoma in a 29-year-old female who complained of exertional dyspnea, abdominal distension and peripheral edema. Any other associated skin lesions, breast mass or endocrine disorder presenting complex form were not seen on her. Also, there was no contributory medical history, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. By using transthoracic echocardiography, we identified a biatrial myxoma attached to the interatrial septum. During surgical excision, we found a large right atrial myxoma with extension through the fossa ovalis into the left atrium and small myxoma attached to the right atrial free wall. After successful resection of interatrial septum and free wall, atrial septal defect was created during the resection and safely repaired by bovine pericardial patch. PMID:11242813

  8. Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C

    2013-02-17

    Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber

  9. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26844865

  10. Atypical course of Henoch-Schonlein purpura in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Górnikiewicz-Brzezicka, Bożena; Brzezicki, Jan; Rymko, Marcin; Jeka, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Henoch-Schonlein purpura is vasculitis of small blood vessels characterized by deposits of IgA immune complexes and also non-thrombocytopenic purpura, abdominal pain, arthritis and renal involvement. It affects people of all ages, but most cases occur in children between 2 and 11 years old, more frequently in boys. The disease is much less common in adults, who often have a more severe course of the disease. The paper presents the case of a 38-year-old female patient with insidious course of the disease, initially dominant skin symptoms and joint pain without signs of inflammation. Symptoms of the disease were initially uncharacteristic and mild, and did not suggest severe and rapid course of the disease. The patient required hospitalization in several departments before final diagnosis of Henoch-Schonlein purpura. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppression. Despite the rapid course of the disease, treatment was effective. The patient was discharged in good condition. PMID:27407252

  11. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility. PMID:27052242

  12. Approach to Adult Patients with Acute Dyspnea.

    PubMed

    DeVos, Elizabeth; Jacobson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Undifferentiated patients in respiratory distress require immediate attention in the emergency department. Using a thorough history and clinical examination, clinicians can determine the most likely causes of dyspnea. Understanding the pathophysiology of the most common diseases contributing to dyspnea guides rational testing and informed, expedited treatment decisions. PMID:26614245

  13. Fluid absorption in the isolated midgut of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti)

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Horst; Moffett, David F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The transepithelial voltage (Vte) and the volume of isolated posterior midguts of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were monitored. In all experiments, the initial Vte after filling the midgut was lumen negative, but subsequently became lumen positive at a rate of approximately 1 mV min−1. Simultaneously, the midgut volume decreased, indicating spontaneous fluid absorption. When the midguts were filled and bathed with mosquito saline, the average rate of fluid absorption was 36.5±3.0 nl min−1 (N=4, ±s.e.m.). In the presence of theophylline (10 mmol l−1), Vte reached significantly higher lumen-positive values, but the rate of fluid absorption was not affected (N=6). In the presence of NaCN (5 mmol l−1), Vte remained close to 0 mV (N=4) and fluid absorption was reduced (14.4±1.3 nl min−1, N=3, ±s.e.m.). When midguts were filled with buffered NaCl (154 mmol l−1 plus 1 mmol l−1 HEPES) and bathed in mosquito saline with theophylline, fluid absorption was augmented (50.0±5.8 nl min−1, N=12, ±s.e.m.). Concanamycin A (10 µmol l−1), ouabain (1 mmol l−1), and acetazolamide (1 mmol l−1) affected Vte in different ways, but all reduced fluid absorption by 60–70% of the value before addition of the drugs. PMID:25944920

  14. Effects of dietary fibers with different physicochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carol Souza; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2012-09-10

    The satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7 days each). At 1h, 3h, and 7h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively. PMID:22796465

  15. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  17. [Problems of female cancer patients and their coping behavior].

    PubMed

    Herschbach, P; Rosbund, A M; Brengelmann, J C

    1985-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed with the aim of gathering basic information relevant to the psychosocial aftercare of cancer patients. The questionnaire deals with concrete everyday problems of breast and genital cancer patients, it allowed moreover an analysis of situation-specific coping strategies. The sample consists of 480 breast and genital cancer patients from various aftercare institutions. The results show a wide distribution of problems in many life situations. The most common problems were specific forms of anxiety, clinical symptoms and household problems. On the other hand, certain problems were identified which, although less common, proved to be extremely stressful for the affected patients. The analysis of different subgroups points to the large relative importance of sociodemographic and aftercare factors in the individual stress profile. With respect to coping behavior, the results show that neither personality-oriented nor situation-specific concepts alone provide an adequate approach. Coping strategies are not general but rather tied in specific ways to personality traits and to the form or degree of the problems. PMID:3912691

  18. Sexual Concerns of Male Spouses of Female Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litz, Brett T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents case study which highlights attendant cognitive changes that occur in Alzheimer's patient, presenting caregiver with challenges to couple's sexual functioning. Describes man who reported erectile dysfunction directly stemming from stressful changes that had occurred in his relationship to his wife who had Alzheimer's disease. General…

  19. Phthalate concentrations in personal care products and the cumulative exposure to female adults and infants in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jiaqin; Wang, Min; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yaobin; He, Yuping; Yang, Jielin; Gao, Xi; Li, Shuguang; Ding, Zhuoping; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PE) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry, and have been detected in personal care products (PCP). Recent findings of human reports demonstrated endocrine-disrupting action associated with phthalate exposures. The aims of this study were to (1) measure levels of 11 PE in 198 PCP collected from retail markets in Shanghai and (2) assess daily dermal exposure in adult females and infants. The health risk of cumulative exposure to eight PE on reproductive system function derived from dermal PCP use was further assessed by utilizing the hazard index (HI) approach. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was the most frequently detected compound (29.8%), followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) (6.6%). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of daily exposure to DEP, bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), DiBP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female adults were 0.018, 0.012, 0.002, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, respectively. The GM daily exposure levels to PE in infants and adult females were similar except for DEHP, which was higher in infants. DEP exposure was highest in both subpopulations at either GM or maximal level. All HI of 8 PE were far less than 1, ranging from 0.0002 to 0.005, indicating no cumulative reproductive risks to these populations. DBP, DMEP, and DEHP were three major contributors to the cumulative HI. In summary, the level of phthalate in PCP from Shanghai retail markets posed no apparent cumulative risk to adult females and infants in China. PMID:25734628

  20. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  1. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. PMID:26972154

  2. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  3. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice. PMID:26524146

  4. [Adult patients with congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Grabitz, R G; Kaemmerer, H; Mohr, F-W

    2013-01-01

    Unlike a few decades ago, today most patients with congenital heart disease reach adulthood after intervention or reparative surgery. As complete correction is generally not possible, a patient population with great complexity and a particular challenge to medical management is rising and a regular follow-up is mandatory. The aim of care is the timely recognition of residual or associated problems. Frequency and intensity of follow-up examinations depend on type and complexity of the lesion. The standard repertoire at follow-up consists of a specific history, clinical examination, ECG, Holter-monitoring, exercise tests, and echocardiography. Depending on the indication, cardio-MRI, CT scan, and sophisticated cardiac catheterization may become necessary. Long-term complications like rhythm disturbances, pulmonary hypertension, or heart failure are frequent, despite optimal care. Acute complications like arrhythmias, infective endocarditis, cerebral events, cerebral abscesses, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding have to be recognized early and treated appropriately. Additional focus has to be placed on counseling and management of noncardiac disease and surgery, pregnancy and delivery, exercise at work and in private life, driving, and insurance issues. Training and certification of physicians as well as the establishment of specialized centers will help to ensure high quality health care for the affected patient population. PMID:23318541

  5. Peculiarities of Anxiety Score Distribution in Adult Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Blank, Mikhail; Blank, Olga; Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to investigate and analyze possible peculiarities of the psychological state of cancer patients undergoing treatment. Scores characterizing the trait and state anxiety were acquired using the Integrative Anxiety Test from four groups: adults with no appreciable disease, pregnant women, cancer patients examined during the specific antitumor treatment, and cancer patients brought into lasting clinical remission. Statistical analysis of the testing results revealed the bimodal type of the distribution of scores. The only statistically significant exception was the distribution of the state anxiety scores in cancer patients undergoing treatment that was clearly unimodal. PMID:26176239

  6. The relationship among compulsive buying, compulsive internet use and temperament in a sample of female patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid; Norré, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Wonderlich, Steve; Mitchell, James E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association among compulsive buying (CB), compulsive internet use (CIU) and reactive/regulative temperament in a sample of 60 female patients with eating disorders. All patients were assessed by means of the Compulsive Buying Scale, the CIU scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the effortful control scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. The results showed a positive association between CB and CIU, both categorized as impulse control disorders, not otherwise specified. Both CB and CIU showed significantly positive correlations with emotional lability, excitement seeking and lack of effortful control (more specifically lack of inhibitory and lack of activation control). The implication of these findings for the treatment of both disorders will be discussed. PMID:21710571

  7. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

  8. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

  9. Nutritional profile of adult patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, L; Delibasic, M; Peta, V; Turkulov, V; De Lorenzo, A; Medić-Stojanoska, M

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated gluten dependent enteropathy induced by ingestion of gluten, characterized by intestinal malabsorption and subtotals or total atrophy of intestinal villi. The predominant consequence of CD in untreated patients, is malnutrition as a result of malabsorption. Moreover, several and increasing extra-intestinal clinical manifestations have been described in the CD patients. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves nutritional status, inducing an increase in fat and bone compartments, but does not completely normalize body composition and nutritional deficiencies. An early and accurate evaluation of nutritional status can be of the pivotal step in the clinical management of the adult CD patients. The aim of this review is to present the most important and recent data on nutritional and metabolic features in the CD adult patients, the related implications and the effects of the GFD on these conditions. PMID:26636515

  10. Rhabdomyosarcoma in adolescent and young adult patients: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Egas-Bejar, Daniela; Huh, Winston W

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin, is the third most common extracranial malignant solid tumor in children and adolescents. However, in adults, RMS represents <1% of all solid tumor malignancies. The embryonal and alveolar histologic variants are more commonly seen in pediatric patients, while the pleomorphic variant is rare in children and seen more often in adults. Advances in the research of the embryonal and alveolar variants have improved our understanding of certain genes and biologic pathways that are involved in RMS, but much less is known for the other variants. Multimodality therapy that includes surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for RMS. Improvements in the risk stratification of the pediatric patients based on presurgical (primary tumor site, tumor size, regional lymph node involvement, presence of metastasis) and postsurgical parameters (completeness of resection or presence of residual disease or metastasis) has allowed for the treatment assignment of patients in different studies and therapeutic trials, leading to increases in 5-year survival from 25%–70% over the past 40 years. However, for adult patients, in great part due to rarity of the disease and the lack of consensus on optimal treatment, clinical outcome is still poor. Many factors have been implicated for the differing outcomes between pediatric RMS versus adult RMS, such as the lack of standardized treatment protocols for adult RMS patients and the increased prevalence of advanced presentations. Now that there are increased numbers of survivors, we can appreciate the sequelae from therapy in these patients, such as bone growth abnormalities, endocrinopathies, and infertility. Improvements in risk stratification have led to clinical trials using lower doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy with the intention of decreasing the incidence of side effects without compromising survival outcome. PMID

  11. [65-year old female patient with persistent hypercalcemia].

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, M; Kassahun, W; Deckert, F; Tröltzsch, M; Sturmvoll, M; Führer, D

    2007-12-01

    A 65-year old patient presented with newly diagnosed hypercalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels. Exploration of parathyroid glands was performed under the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism and was combined with thyreoidectomy due to concomittant multinodular goiter. However, no parathyroid adenoma was identified despite careful exploration. Therefore, the operation was terminated and an ectopic adenoma was suspected. A (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy with SPECT, neck ultrasound, neck CT scan with contrast media and selective venous sampling were performed for further localization of the adenoma. A single adenoma localized in the submandibular area of the left jaw was suspected and confirmed during surgical reexploration. Postoperatively, parathyroid hormone levels were below detection level and the patient required short-term calcium supplementation for symptomatic hypocalcemia. PMID:17965847

  12. Pain Assessment in Noncommunicative Adult Palliative Care Patients.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Deborah B; Kaiser, Karen Snow; Haisfield-Wolfe, Mary Ellen; Iyamu, Florence

    2016-09-01

    Palliative care patients who have pain are often unable to self-report their pain, placing them at increased risk for underrecognized and undertreated pain. Use of appropriate pain assessment tools significantly enhances the likelihood of effective pain management and improved pain-related outcomes. This paper reviews selected tools and provides palliative care clinicians with a practical approach to selecting a pain assessment tool for noncommunicative adult patients. PMID:27497016

  13. Female-biased expression of odourant receptor genes in the adult antennae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wanner, K W; Anderson, A R; Trowell, S C; Theilmann, D A; Robertson, H M; Newcomb, R D

    2007-02-01

    Olfaction plays an important role in the life history of insects, including key behaviours such as host selection, oviposition and mate recognition. Odour perception by insects is primarily mediated by the large diverse family of odourant receptors (Ors) that are expressed on the dendrites of olfactory neurones housed within chemosensilla. However, few Or sequences have been identified from the Lepidoptera, an insect order that includes some of the most important pest species worldwide. We have identified 41 Or gene sequences from the silkworm (Bombyx mori) genome, more than double the number of published Or sequences from the Lepidoptera. Many silkworm Ors appear to be orthologs of the 17 published tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) Ors indicating that many Or lineages may be conserved within the Lepidoptera. The majority of the Or genes are expressed in adult female and male antennae (determined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis), supporting their probable roles in adult olfaction. Several Or genes are expressed at high levels in both male and female antennae, suggesting they mediate the perception of common host or conspecific volatiles important to both sexes. BmOrs 45-47 group together in the same phylogenetic branch and all three are expressed at moderate female-biased ratios, six to eight times higher in female compared to male moth antennae. Interestingly, BmOrs19 and 30 appear to be expressed predominantly in female antennae, opposite to that of the published silkworm pheromone receptors BmOrs 1 and 3 that are specific to male antennae. These results suggest that BmOr19 and 30 may detect odours critical to female behaviour, such as oviposition cues or male-produced courtship pheromones. PMID:17257213

  14. A Future for Adult Educators in Patient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education in healthcare comes in several forms: degree and certificate programs aimed at preparing better academic and clinical educators; and community education programs aimed at wellness, rehabilitation, or learning to live with chronic diseases. Patient-centered healthcare, however, is part of something new: coordinated and transitional…

  15. Improvement with Duloxetine in an Adult ADHD Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourjman, Smadar Valerie; Bilodeau, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and disabling disorder among adults and is treated with stimulant and non stimulant medication. Objective: To report the case of a patient with ADHD showing good clinical response to duloxetine, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). Case…

  16. Medication adherence among adult patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M; Alyousif, Sarah M; Alshabanah, Najla; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M; Alharbi, Shemylan; Alhejaili, Fayze F; Alsayyari, Abdullah A; Qandil, Abeer Ma; Qandil, Amjad M

    2014-07-01

    Medication adherence was assessed in 89 patients on hemodialysis (HD) at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City using an Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MASS-8). The results of the study revealed that 31.46% and 40.45% of the participants showed low and medium adherence, respectively, while 28.09% showed high medication adherence. Accordingly, 71.91% of the patients visiting the dialysis unit were considered medication non-adherent. While being of older age (P = 0.012), being married (P = 0.012) increased the level of adherence, being of medium level of education (P = 0.024) decreased adherence levels. On the other hand, gender, presence of a care-giver, number of members in the household and employment status seems to have no effect on the level of medication adherence. These results call upon the practitioners in HD units to develop intervention programs that can increase the level of medication adherence. PMID:24969185

  17. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe. PMID:22903808

  18. [Procedures for fertility preservation in female cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Langmár, Zoltán; Mátrai, Máté; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Csömör, Sándor

    2007-11-25

    Improving survival rates and quality of life following modern combined cancer treatments have resulted a growing number of patients requesting maintenance of reproductive functions. Several methods are currently available to maintain fertility during oncotherapy. Even though most of them are still experimental and their efficacy and safety have not been determined, the future for fertility preservation in women with cancer is promising. In vitro fertilization with embryo cryopreservation offers an established method, but time to delay cancer treatment could be risky regarding the progression of several cancer types. Moreover, exposure to a high oestrogen milieu during ovarian stimulation is undesirable when patients have estrogen-sensitive malignant tumours. Cryopreservation of mature oocytes following in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection offers advantages, but it is still limited due to its low success rate. Emerging techniques of ovarian tissue cryopreservation followed by autotransplantation have been clinically explored. Novel technologies of tissue freezing and thawing promise improving results. However, only one live birth following autotransplanted frozen-thawed ovarian tissue has been established. This procedure can be offered in the future for prepubertal girls before cancer treatment to maintain future fertility. Gonadal tissue cryopreservation and transplantation should be considered experimental in humans for the present time until greater evidence regarding efficacy and safety is accrued. PMID:18003580

  19. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment. PMID:25650731

  20. Identification of Intellectual Disability Genes in Female Patients with a Skewed X-Inactivation Pattern.

    PubMed

    Fieremans, Nathalie; Van Esch, Hilde; Holvoet, Maureen; Van Goethem, Gert; Devriendt, Koenraad; Rosello, Monica; Mayo, Sonia; Martinez, Francisco; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R; Vermeesch, Joris R; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous disorder with an unknown molecular etiology in many cases. Previously, X-linked ID (XLID) studies focused on males because of the hemizygous state of their X chromosome. Carrier females are generally unaffected because of the presence of a second normal allele, or inactivation of the mutant X chromosome in most of their cells (skewing). However, in female ID patients, we hypothesized that the presence of skewing of X-inactivation would be an indicator for an X chromosomal ID cause. We analyzed the X-inactivation patterns of 288 females with ID, and found that 22 (7.6%) had extreme skewing (>90%), which is significantly higher than observed in the general population (3.6%; P = 0.029). Whole-exome sequencing of 19 females with extreme skewing revealed causal variants in six females in the XLID genes DDX3X, NHS, WDR45, MECP2, and SMC1A. Interestingly, variants in genes escaping X-inactivation presumably cause both XLID and skewing of X-inactivation in three of these patients. Moreover, variants likely accounting for skewing only were detected in MED12, HDAC8, and TAF9B. All tested candidate causative variants were de novo events. Hence, extreme skewing is a good indicator for the presence of X-linked variants in female patients. PMID:27159028

  1. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and < 0.01, respectively) and moist ( < 0.01) foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML, and LAL in the dry foods ( < 0.01, < 0.01, and = 0.08, respectively) and for CML and LAL in the moist foods ( < 0.01). The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism

  2. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients: An overview.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Fertility preservation is becoming increasingly important to improve the quality of life in cancer survivors. Despite guidelines suggesting that discussion of fertility preservation should be done prior to starting cancer therapies, there is a lack of implementation in this area. A number of techniques are available for fertility preservation, and they can be used individually or together in the same patient to maximize efficiency. Oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are now established techniques but have their limitations. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation though considered experimental at present, has a wider clinical application and the advantage of keeping the fertility window open for a longer time. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a major impact on reproductive potential and fertility preservation procedures should be carried out prior to these treatments. The need for fertility preservation has to be weighed against morbidity and mortality associated with cancer. There is thus a need for a multidisciplinary collaboration between oncologists and reproductive specialists to improve awareness and availability. PMID:25838742

  3. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Fertility preservation is becoming increasingly important to improve the quality of life in cancer survivors. Despite guidelines suggesting that discussion of fertility preservation should be done prior to starting cancer therapies, there is a lack of implementation in this area. A number of techniques are available for fertility preservation, and they can be used individually or together in the same patient to maximize efficiency. Oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are now established techniques but have their limitations. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation though considered experimental at present, has a wider clinical application and the advantage of keeping the fertility window open for a longer time. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a major impact on reproductive potential and fertility preservation procedures should be carried out prior to these treatments. The need for fertility preservation has to be weighed against morbidity and mortality associated with cancer. There is thus a need for a multidisciplinary collaboration between oncologists and reproductive specialists to improve awareness and availability. PMID:25838742

  4. [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Weller, M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapy has become a third major treatment option for patients with brain tumors, in addition to surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gliomas is no longer limited to recurrent disease. Temozolomide has become the standard of care in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Several ongoing trials seek to define the role of chemotherapy in the primary care of other gliomas. Some of these studies are no longer only based on histological diagnoses, but take into consideration molecular markers such as MGMT promoter methylation and loss of genetic material on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas. In contrast, there is no established role for chemotherapy in other tumors such as ependymomas, meningiomas or neurinomas. Primary cerebral lymphomas are probably the only brain tumors which can be cured by chemotherapy alone and only by chemotherapy. The chemotherapy of brain metastases follows the recommendations for the respective primary tumors. Further, strategies of combined radiochemotherapy using mainly temozolomide or topotecan are currently explored. Leptomeningeal metastases are treated by radiotherapy or systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy depending on their pattern of growth. PMID:18253773

  5. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  6. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  7. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  8. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID

  9. Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB/c mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude

    In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.

  10. Adolescents and adults affected by Cornelia de Lange syndrome: A report of 73 Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Milena; Decimi, Valentina; Bettini, Laura Rachele; Maitz, Silvia; Gervasini, Cristina; Masciadri, Maura; Ajmone, Paola; Kullman, Gaia; Dinelli, Marco; Panceri, Roberto; Cereda, Anna; Selicorni, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutation of various cohesion complex related genes. Its natural history is quite well characterized as regard pediatric age. Relatively little information is available regarding the evolution of the disease in young-adult age. In medical literature, only one specific study has been published on this topic. We report on our experience on 73 Italian CdLS patients (40 males and 33 females) with and age range from 15 to 49 years. Our results confirm the previous study indicating that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the main medical problem of these patients in childhood and young-adult age. Other medical features that should be considered in the medical follow-up are tendency to overweight/frank obesity, constipation, discrepancy of limbs' length, epilepsy, hearing, and visual problems. Behavioral problems are particularly frequent as well. For this reason, every source of hidden pain should be actively searched for in evaluating a patient showing such a disorder. Finally, recommendations for medical follow-up in adult age are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27164219

  11. Quality of life related to urinary continence in adult spina bifida patients

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Caroline; Casey, Jessica T.; Greiman, Alyssa; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Kielb, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To analyze the correlations of bladder management technique, ambulatory status and urologic reconstruction on quality of life (QOL) as affected by urinary symptoms in adult spina bifida (SB) patients. Material and methods Sixty–six adult SB patients completed the RAND 36–Item Health Survey (mSF–36) and Incontinence Quality of Life (I–QOL). Demographic information, history of urinary reconstruction, and bladder management techniques were reviewed and analyzed with respect to survey scores. Results Mean age of patients was 32.3 (SD ±7.2) years and 44 patients (66.7%) were female. Forty–five patients (68.2%) were mainly ambulatory, 21 (31.8%) use a wheelchair and 10 (15.2%) had urologic reconstruction, while 56 (83.3%) did not. Twelve patients (18.2%) void, 42 (63.6%) perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), 4 (6.1%) use an indwelling catheter, 3 (4.5%) have an ileal conduit (IC) and 5 (7.6%) mainly use diapers. Mean mSF–36 General Health score was 56.5 (SD ±22.9) and mean I–QOL Sum score was 50.9 (SD ±21.7), where lower scores reflect lower QOL. mSF–36 and I–QOL scores did not significantly correlate with bladder management technique, ambulatory status or urologic reconstruction. A correlation was noted between I–QOL scales and most mSF–36 scales (all p <0.02). Conclusions In our cohort study of adult SB patients, bladder management technique and urologic reconstruction did not correlate with urinary (I–QOL) or general health (mSF–36) domains, although I–QOL and mSF–36 scores correlated closely, suggesting urinary continence is significantly related to general QOL. However, we are unable to identify a single factor that improves either urinary or general QOL. PMID:25914840

  12. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Marshall, D.; Gehlen, M.K.

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  13. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  14. Effects of hyperandrogenemia and increased adiposity on reproductive and metabolic parameters in young adult female monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C. V.; Pohl, C. R.; Chang, R. J.; Marshall, J. C.; Pau, F. K.; Stouffer, R. L.; Cameron, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with hyperandrogenemia are overweight or obese, which exacerbates morbidities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To examine the ability of testosterone (T) to generate PCOS-like symptoms, monkeys received T or cholesterol (control) implants (n = 6/group) beginning prepubertally. As previously reported, T-treated animals had increased neuroendocrine drive to the reproductive axis [increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency] at 5 yr, without remarkable changes in ovarian or metabolic features. To examine the combined effects of T and obesity, at 5.5 yr (human equivalent age: 17 yr), monkeys were placed on a high-calorie, high-fat diet typical of Western cultures [Western style diet (WSD)], which increased body fat from <2% (pre-WSD) to 15–19% (14 mo WSD). By 6 mo on WSD, LH pulse frequency in the controls increased to that of T-treated animals, whereas LH pulse amplitude decreased in both groups and remained low. The numbers of antral follicles present during the early follicular phase increased in both groups on the WSD, but maximal follicular size decreased by 50%. During the late follicular phase, T-treated females had greater numbers of small antral follicles than controls. T-treated monkeys also had lower progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although fasting insulin did not vary between groups, T-treated animals had decreased insulin sensitivity after 1 yr on WSD. Thus, while WSD consumption alone led to some features characteristic of PCOS, T + WSD caused a more severe phenotype with regard to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels. PMID:24735887

  15. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between left and right feet occur in both the foot breadth measurements (BBAL and BHEL). Foot length measurements (T1 to T5 lengths) did not show any statistically significant bilateral asymmetry. The correlation between stature and all the foot measurements was found to be positive and statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). Linear regression models and multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from the measurements of the foot. The present study indicates that anthropometric measurements of foot and its segments are valuable in the estimation of stature. Foot length measurements estimate stature with greater accuracy when compared to foot breadth measurements. Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the

  16. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  17. Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of HIV-infected adult patients in urban slums of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muhula, Samuel Opondo; Peter, Memiah; Sibhatu, Biadgilign; Meshack, Ndirangu; Lennie, Kyomuhangi

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in access to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) have radically reduced hospitalizations and deaths associated with HIV infection in both developed countries and sub-Saharan Africa. Not much is known about survival of patients on ART in slums. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with mortality among adult patients on ART in resource poor, urban, sub-Saharan African setting. A prospective open cohort study was conducted with adult patients on ART at a clinic in Kibera slums, Nairobi, Kenya. The patients' enrollment to care was between March 2005 and November 2011. Descriptive statistics were computed and Kaplan-Meier (KM) methods used to estimate survival time while Cox's proportional hazards (CPH) model fitted to determine mortality predictors. A total of 2,011 adult patients were studied, 69% being female. Female gender (p=0.0016), zidovudine-based regimen patients (p<0.0001), CD4 count>351 patients (p<0.0001), WHO stage I patients (p<0.0001) and "Working" functional status patients recorded better survival probability on ART. In CPH analysis, the hazard of dying was higher in patients on Stavudine-based regimen(hazard ratio (HR)=.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; p<0.0001),CD4 count<50 cells/µl (HR=1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.7;p<0.0001), WHO Stage IV at ART initiation (HR=1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; p=0.016) and bedridden patients (HR=2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.4;p<0.0001). There was increased mortality among the males, those with advanced Immunosuppression, late WHO stage and bedridden patients. The findings further justify the need to switch patients on Stavudine-based regimen as per the WHO recommendations. PMID:26090021

  18. ACG Clinical Guideline: Nutrition Therapy in the Adult Hospitalized Patient.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A; DiBaise, John K; Mullin, Gerard E; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-03-01

    The value of nutrition therapy for the adult hospitalized patient is derived from the outcome benefits achieved by the delivery of early enteral feeding. Nutritional assessment should identify those patients at high nutritional risk, determined by both disease severity and nutritional status. For such patients if they are unable to maintain volitional intake, enteral access should be attained and enteral nutrition (EN) initiated within 24-48 h of admission. Orogastric or nasogastric feeding is most appropriate when starting EN, switching to post-pyloric or deep jejunal feeding only in those patients who are intolerant of gastric feeds or at high risk for aspiration. Percutaneous access should be used for those patients anticipated to require EN for >4 weeks. Patients receiving EN should be monitored for risk of aspiration, tolerance, and adequacy of feeding (determined by percent of goal calories and protein delivered). Intentional permissive underfeeding (and even trophic feeding) is appropriate temporarily for certain subsets of hospitalized patients. Although a standard polymeric formula should be used routinely in most patients, an immune-modulating formula (with arginine and fish oil) should be reserved for patients who have had major surgery in a surgical ICU setting. Adequacy of nutrition therapy is enhanced by establishing nurse-driven enteral feeding protocols, increasing delivery by volume-based or top-down feeding strategies, minimizing interruptions, and eliminating the practice of gastric residual volumes. Parenteral nutrition should be used in patients at high nutritional risk when EN is not feasible or after the first week of hospitalization if EN is not sufficient. Because of their knowledge base and skill set, the gastroenterologist endoscopist is an asset to the Nutrition Support Team and should participate in providing optimal nutrition therapy to the hospitalized adult patient. PMID:26952578

  19. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  20. Recruitment and Retention of Older Adolescent and Young Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Longitudinal Research

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Conte, Teresa; Hudson, Melissa; Shad, Aziza; Ruble, Kathy; Herth, Kaye; Canino, Alyssa; Kemmy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the challenges encountered in the recruitment and retention of a sample of older adolescent and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer for a longitudinal study testing a targeted psychosocial intervention aimed at enhancing hope. Data Sources Published literature on constructing longitudinal intervention studies and strategies in the recruitment and retention of childhood cancer survivors in research was used to develop the protocol of this study. Data Synthesis Using empirical literature to construct the study’s design resulted in achieving certain goals for the design, but not in the recruitment and retention of study participants. Using online technology to deliver the intervention and collect data was efficient and effective. Traditional approaches to recruitment and retention of those survivors, however, were not effective. Use of more novel approaches to enroll study participants demonstrated only modest success. Conclusions Additional research is needed on strategies to successfully recruit and retain older adolescents and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer in longitudinal intervention studies. Implications for Nursing The improvement in the psychological well-being of female survivors of childhood cancer remains an important outcome in ongoing care. The need to continue to identify creative and effective ways to recruit and retain those survivors is warranted. PMID:22940512

  1. Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

    2008-04-01

    According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

  2. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial. PMID:24940529

  3. An Action Research Project to Assist Incarcerated Females to Become More Effective Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askins, Billy E.; Young, Teresa

    1994-01-01

    Learning style preferences and brain hemispheric dominance were determined for 82 low achieving female inmates. They were counseled to use their modality strengths and take responsibility for learning. Higher test scores, reduced absenteeism, and greater achievement motivation resulted. (SK)

  4. Estimation of effective doses to adult and pediatric patients from multislice computed tomography: A method based on energy imparted

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Tzedakis, Antonis; Karantanas, Apostolos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a method and required data for the estimation of effective dose (E) values to adult and pediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) scans of the head, chest abdomen, and pelvis, performed on multi-slice scanners. Mean section radiation dose (d{sub m}) to cylindrical water phantoms of varying radius normalized over CT dose index free-in-air (CTDI{sub F}) were calculated for the head and body scanning modes of a multislice scanner with use of Monte Carlo techniques. Patients were modeled as equivalent water phantoms and the energy imparted ({epsilon}) to simulated pediatric and adult patients was calculated on the basis of measured CTDI{sub F} values. Body region specific energy imparted to effective dose conversion coefficients (E/{epsilon}) for adult male and female patients were generated from previous data. Effective doses to patients aged newborn to adult were derived for all available helical and axial beam collimations, taking into account age specific patient mass and scanning length. Depending on high voltage, body region, and patient sex, E/{epsilon} values ranged from 0.008 mSv/mJ for head scans to 0.024 mSv/mJ for chest scans. When scanned with the same technique factors as the adults, pediatric patients absorb as little as 5% of the energy imparted to adults, but corresponding effective dose values are up to a factor of 1.6 higher. On average, pediatric patients absorb 44% less energy per examination but have a 24% higher effective dose, compared with adults. In clinical practice, effective dose values to pediatric patients are 2.5 to 10 times lower than in adults due to the adaptation of tube current. A method is provided for the calculation of effective dose to adult and pediatric patients on the basis of individual patient characteristics such as sex, mass, dimensions, and density of imaged anatomy, and the technical features of modern multislice scanners. It allows the optimum selection of scanning

  5. Atrial Fibrillation is Associated With Morphine Treatment in Female Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cynthia Wei-Sheng; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationship between morphine treatment and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in female patients with breast cancer. We identified a malignancy cohort of 73,917 female breast cancer patients without an AF history before the date of breast cancer diagnosis between 2000 and 2010 by using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database for Catastrophic Illness Patients in Taiwan. This malignancy cohort was divided into morphine and comparison cohorts comprising 18,671 and 55,246 patients, respectively, and the incidences of newly diagnosed AF were calculated. We used the Cox proportional hazard model with time-dependent exposure covariates to estimate the risk of AF. The effect of morphine was assessed through multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression controlling for age, the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score, and the use of bisphosphonates and paclitaxel. Compared with nonmorphine users, patients who received morphine exhibited a 4.37-fold (95% CI = 3.56–5.36) increase in the risk of developing AF. The risk of AF increased as the CCI score increased, but decreased in patients with tamoxifen treatment. This risk is especially significant in current morphine users of all ages and with low CCI score. AF risk increased as the duration of morphine use lengthened (P for trend <0.0001). The incidence of AF in female breast cancer patients in Taiwan is associated with morphine, but prevented by tamoxifen treatment. PMID:26986153

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Partner STI Notification Among Adolescent and Young Adult Family Planning Clinic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patient-initiated partner STI notification, i.e., patients informing their sexual partners of diagnosis, is a cornerstone of STI prevention. Growing evidence suggests that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) may fear such notification, or face negative consequences in response to STI disclosure. The current study assessed associations of IPV with fear of partner STI notification, and experiences of partner STI notification, among adolescent and young adult female family planning clinic patients. Methods Females patients ages 16–29 years in five family planning clinics in Northern California (n=1282) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Results History of physical or sexual IPV was associated with fear of partner STI notification. Moreover, participants exposed to IPV were more likely to have partners say it was not from them or otherwise accuse them of cheating in response to STI notification. Such partners were less likely to seek indicated STI treatment or testing. Conclusions Current findings suggest that STI partner notification may be compromised by IPV. Clinical practices and policies to support effective partner STI notification should include IPV assessment, and provide mechanisms to address related fears concerning partner notification. PMID:21680673

  7. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  8. Investigating Potential Effects of the Contraceptive Implanon on the Behavior of Free-Ranging Adult Female Barbary Macaques.

    PubMed

    Maijer, Amanda M; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of hormonal contraception in captive, free-ranging, and wild mammal populations has increased, but the effects on these nonhuman animals' behavior and the associated welfare impacts remain poorly understood. This study of free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Trentham Monkey Forest compared females implanted with the progestin-only contraceptive Implanon to those not receiving contraception. Females with contraceptive implants had higher rates of self-scratching and spent more time self-grooming (2 behavioral indexes of anxiety) than those without implants. They also directed more aggression at others, spent more time receiving grooming and traveling, and spent less time giving grooming and resting. No significant differences between the 2 groups of females were seen for time spent foraging. These results suggest that Implanon had a number of effects on Barbary macaques, although these need to be considered in light of the significant benefits afforded by the use of this contraceptive. The findings of this study provide important information to those evaluating the relative welfare costs and benefits of alternative methods of population control in this and other species. PMID:26466916

  9. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  10. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Wulsin, Aynara C.; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45–58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  11. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  12. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. PMID:24482055

  13. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  14. Species differences in behavior and cell proliferation/survival in the adult brains of female meadow and prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Zhang, Z; Wang, Z

    2016-02-19

    Microtine rodents display diverse patterns of social organization and behaviors, and thus provide a useful model for studying the effects of the social environment on physiology and behavior. The current study compared the species differences and the effects of oxytocin (OT) on anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Furthermore, cell proliferation and survival in the brains of adult female meadow and prairie voles were compared. We found that female meadow voles displayed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior but lower levels of social affiliation and social recognition compared to female prairie voles. In addition, meadow voles showed lower levels of cell proliferation (measured by Ki67 staining) and cell survival (measured by BrdU staining) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG), than prairie voles. Interestingly, the numbers of new cells in the VMH and AMY, but not DG, also correlated with anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in a brain region-specific manner. Finally, central OT treatment (200 ng/kg, icv) did not lead to changes in behavior or cell proliferation/survival in the brain. Together, these data indicate a potential role of cell proliferation/survival in selected brain areas on different behaviors between vole species with distinct life strategies. PMID:26708743

  15. Locomotor activity changes in female adolescent and adult rats during repeated treatment with a cannabinoid or club drug.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jenny L; Evans, Rhys L; Grainger, Darren B; Nicholson, Katherine L

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults of both sexes are the primary consumers of "club" drugs; yet, most of the mechanistic preclinical research in this area has been performed in adult male rodents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute and repeated effects of drugs that are commonly abused by adolescents in female adolescent and adult rats in a rodent model of behavioral sensitization. During two five-day periods separated by a two-day break, rats were injected daily with saline or with one of the following drugs: cocaine (7 or 15 mg/kg), ketamine (3 or 10 mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg), or Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 or 1 mg/kg) and their locomotor activity was measured. Cocaine increased activity across days in both age groups. Whereas ketamine produced progressive increases in activity with repeated administration in rats of both ages, MDMA increased, and then decreased, activity in the chronic dosing regimen in female adolescents only. Tolerance to the initial stimulatory effects of low doses of THC was observed at both ages. The results with THC are similar to those obtained for male rats tested under identical conditions in a previous study; however, in contrast with the present results in females, male adolescent rats in the previous study failed to develop behavioral sensitization to ketamine. Together, these results suggest that age and sex strongly influence the progressive adaptive changes that occur with repeated administration of some, but not all, of these commonly abused substances. PMID:22180350

  16. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Kowalski, Gabriele J.; Voigt, Christian C.; Orben, Rachael A.; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J.; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use. PMID:27304855

  17. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use. PMID:27304855

  18. Effect of hormonal manipulation on sociosexual behavior in adult female leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Flores, D L; Crews, D

    1995-12-01

    Aggressive and sexual behavior in the adult leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), is influenced by the temperature experienced as an egg, as well as by prenatal and perinatal hormones. This study focused on the effects of hormonal manipulation of adult female leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures. Following ovariectomy, females from both all-female (26 degrees C) and male-biased (32.5 degrees C) incubation temperatures exhibited a significant decrease in high-posture (HP) aggression toward male and female stimulus animals. Testosterone treatment attenuated this decrease in HP aggression toward female but not toward male stimulus animals. Ovariectomy also resulted in a loss in attractiveness in both groups of females. Following treatment with testosterone, over 50% of the females were attacked by male stimulus animals, suggesting a change in the pheromonal cues normally secreted by females. Unmanipulated females never exhibit tail vibrations, a male-typical courtship behavior. However, following ovariectomy with testosterone treatment, half of the females from both incubation temperatures exhibited this behavior, indicating an activational effect of testosterone. An effect of incubation temperature on aggression was evident with females from the male-biased incubation temperature exhibiting a greater likelihood of aggression compared to females from the all-female incubation temperature. This effect continued to be detected after hormone manipulation. Ovariectomized females from the all-female incubation temperature were less aggressive even with testosterone treatment toward males, whereas females from the male-biased incubation temperature showed no significant decline in aggression following testosterone treatment, suggesting that individuals from different incubation temperatures may have different sensitivities to hormones. PMID:8748508

  19. Follicular lymphoma in young adults: a clinicopathological and molecular study of 200 patients.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ivison X; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Wludarski, Sheila C L; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Follicular lymphoma is clinically heterogenous, and therefore necessitates the identification of prognostic markers to stratify risk groups and optimize clinical management. It is relatively rare in patients younger than 40 years, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and biological behavior in this age group are poorly understood. In the current study, samples from a cohort of 200 patients between 19 and 40 years were evaluated retrospectively with respect to clinical, histologic, and genetic features. These were then correlated with clinical outcome. The median age at presentation was 35 years with a slight female prepoderance (56%). Most of the cases are presented with nodal disease (90%). Concomitant follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were observed in 7 (4%) patients. Immunohistologic studies showed the expression of CD10 (91%), BCL6 (97%), BCL2 (95%), MUM1/IRF4 (12%), MDM2 (17%), and CD23 (25%). BCL2 rearrangement was present in 74%, and BCL6 in 20%. The estimated overall survival of patients was 13 years (mean). The presence of anemia, elevated lactose dehydrogenase, bone marrow involvement, and high-risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index correlated with adverse overall survival. Our findings revealed that follicular lymphoma in young adults demonstrate similarities with that of older adults, including the frequency of presentation at various anatomic sites, grade, and adverse prognostic factors. PMID:23599146

  20. Female Patient and Physician Communication and Discussion of Gynecological Health Care Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeless, Virginia Eman

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a female patient's trust in, receptivity to, and communication apprehension regarding her physician constitute significant predictors of her (1) likelihood of discussing health care issues, (2) knowledge of gynecological health needs, and (3) feelings toward the gynecologist during examination. Finds that the physician's gender does…

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  2. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  3. Study of inhaler technique in asthma patients: differences between pediatric and adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Manríquez, Pablo; Acuña, Ana María; Muñoz, Luis; Reyes, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Inhaler technique comprises a set of procedures for drug delivery to the respiratory system. The oral inhalation of medications is the first-line treatment for lung diseases. Using the proper inhaler technique ensures sufficient drug deposition in the distal airways, optimizing therapeutic effects and reducing side effects. The purposes of this study were to assess inhaler technique in pediatric and adult patients with asthma; to determine the most common errors in each group of patients; and to compare the results between the two groups. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Using a ten-step protocol, we assessed inhaler technique in 135 pediatric asthma patients and 128 adult asthma patients. Results: The most common error among the pediatric patients was failing to execute a 10-s breath-hold after inhalation, whereas the most common error among the adult patients was failing to exhale fully before using the inhaler. Conclusions: Pediatric asthma patients appear to perform most of the inhaler technique steps correctly. However, the same does not seem to be true for adult patients. PMID:26578130

  4. Organ doses to adult patients for chest CT

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Walter; Sterzik, Alexander; Tipnis, Sameer; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to estimate organ doses for chest CT examinations using volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) data as well as accounting for patient weight. Methods: A CT dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator) was used to compute organ doses for a 70 kg patient undergoing chest CT examinations, as well as volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) in a body CT dosimetry phantom at the same CT technique factors. Ratios of organ dose to CTDI{sub vol} (f{sub organ}) were generated as a function of anatomical location in the chest for the breasts, lungs, stomach, red bone marrow, liver, thyroid, liver, and thymus. Values of f{sub organ} were obtained for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV for 1, 4, 16, and 64 slice CT scanners from two vendors. For constant CT techniques, we computed ratios of dose in water phantoms of differing diameter. By modeling patients of different weights as equivalent water cylinders of different diameters, we generated factors that permit the estimation of the organ doses in patients weighing between 50 and 100 kg who undergo chest CT examinations relative to the corresponding organ doses received by a 70 kg adult. Results: For a 32 cm long CT scan encompassing the complete lungs, values of f{sub organ} ranged from 1.7 (thymus) to 0.3 (stomach). Organs that are directly in the x-ray beam, and are completely irradiated, generally had f{sub organ} values well above 1 (i.e., breast, lung, heart, and thymus). Organs that are not completely irradiated in a total chest CT scan generally had f{sub organ} values that are less than 1 (e.g., red bone marrow, liver, and stomach). Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV resulted in modest increases in f{sub organ} for the heart (9%) and thymus (8%), but resulted in larger increases for the breast (19%) and red bone marrow (21%). Adult patient chests have been modeled by water cylinders with diameters between

  5. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  6. D2 antagonist during development decreases anxiety and infanticidal behavior in adult female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Harkey, Shanna L; Bales, Karen L

    2010-06-26

    On postnatal day 8, prairie vole pups were randomly assigned a treatment of 1mg/kg SKF38393 (D1 agonist), quinpirole (D2 agonist), SCH23390 (D1 antagonist), eticlopride (D2 antagonist), or saline vehicle. As adults, females treated with eticlopride exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze and a reduction in infanticidal behavior. These behavioral effects were not seen in males. These data demonstrate that a single exposure to a D2 antagonist during development can have persistent, sex-specific effects on behavior into adulthood. PMID:20152865

  7. Vaccination of Adult Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Moraes-Fontes, Maria Francisca; Antunes, Ana Margarida; Gruner, Heidi; Riso, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the Portuguese vaccination program 50th anniversary it seems appropriate to review vaccination in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Controversial issues as regards the association between autoimmune diseases, infections, and vaccines are discussed as well as vaccine safety and efficacy issues as regards chronic immunosuppressant (IS) drug therapy. After a brief overview of national policies, specific recommendations are made as regards vaccination for adult patients with SLE with a particular focus on current IS therapy and unmet needs. PMID:27069477

  8. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Bullying Experiences on Female Adults as It Relates to Their Perception of Themselves and Their Relationships with Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcalow, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood bullying is a phenomenon that affects many individuals well beyond their childhood. This study looked specifically at female adults, and how the bullying they experienced in their childhood continues to have long-term effects on them in their adult lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term effects that bullying has on…

  9. A Case Study on the Impacts of Connective Technology on Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning of Female Adult Students Managing Work-Life Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Adults frequently define their lives as "hectic" and "overextended;" yet, many make the decision to return to school and add the role of student into their busy lives. This research study explored and explained the impact of connective technology on self-efficacy and self-regulated learning of female adult students balancing…

  10. Osteosarcoma in Adult Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Leonard C.; Ferreira, Nando

    2013-01-01

    Background. HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, with an estimated prevalence of 21.5% in adults living in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Several malignancies have been identified as part of the spectrum of immunosuppression-related manifestations of HIV infection. Very few reports, however, exist regarding the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining sarcomas in the extremities or limb girdles. Methods. A retrospective review was performed on all adult patients, between the ages of 30 and 60 years, with histologically confirmed osteosarcomas of the appendicular skeleton referred to a tertiary-level orthopaedic oncology unit. Results. Five out of the nine patients (62.5%) included in the study were found to be HIV positive. The average CD4 count of these patients was 278 (237–301) cells/mm3, indicating advanced immunological compromise. Three of the malignancies in HIV-positive patients occurred in preexisting benign or low-grade tumours. Conclusion. A heightened index of suspicion is required in HIV patients presenting with unexplained bone and joint pain or swelling. Judicious use of appropriate radiological investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of suspicious lesions and timely referral to an appropriate specialized orthopaedic oncology unit, is recommended. PMID:23762607

  11. Sexual dysfunction, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Kayhan, Fatih; Küçük, Adem; Satan, Yılmaz; İlgün, Erdem; Arslan, Şevket; İlik, Faik

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD), mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods This case–control study involved 96 patients with FM and 94 healthy women. The SD diagnosis was based on a psychiatric interview in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview. Personality disorders were diagnosed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders. Results Fifty of the 96 patients (52.1%) suffered from SD. The most common SD was lack of sexual desire (n=36, 37.5%) and arousal disorder (n=10, 10.4%). Of the 96 patients, 45 (46.9%) had a mood or anxiety disorder and 13 (13.5%) had a personality disorder. The most common mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were major depression (26%), generalized anxiety disorder (8.3%), and histrionic personality disorder (10.4%). Conclusion SD, mood, and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in female patients with FM. Pain plays a greater role in the development of SD in female patients with FM. PMID:26937190

  12. Social experience affects neuronal responses to male calls in adult female zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Menardy, F; Touiki, K; Dutrieux, G; Bozon, B; Vignal, C; Mathevon, N; Del Negro, C

    2012-04-01

    Plasticity studies have consistently shown that behavioural relevance can change the neural representation of sounds in the auditory system, but what occurs in the context of natural acoustic communication where significance could be acquired through social interaction remains to be explored. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species that forms lifelong pair bonds and uses a vocalization, the distance call, to identify its mate, offers an opportunity to address this issue. Here, we recorded spiking activity in females while presenting distance calls that differed in their degree of familiarity: calls produced by the mate, by a familiar male, or by an unfamiliar male. We focused on the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a secondary auditory forebrain region. Both the mate's call and the familiar call evoked responses that differed in magnitude from responses to the unfamiliar call. This distinction between responses was seen both in single unit recordings from anesthetized females and in multiunit recordings from awake freely moving females. In contrast, control females that had not heard them previously displayed responses of similar magnitudes to all three calls. In addition, more cells showed highly selective responses in mated than in control females, suggesting that experience-dependent plasticity in call-evoked responses resulted in enhanced discrimination of auditory stimuli. Our results as a whole demonstrate major changes in the representation of natural vocalizations in the NCM within the context of individual recognition. The functional properties of NCM neurons may thus change continuously to adapt to the social environment. PMID:22512260

  13. A Sex-Linked Gene Controlling the Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female and Male Platyfish (XIPHOPHORUS MACULATUS), Fecundity in Females and Adult Size in Males

    PubMed Central

    Kallman, Klaus D.; Borkoski, Valerie

    1978-01-01

    A sex-linked gene, P, controls the onset of sexual maturity in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. The activity of this gene is correlated with the age and size at which the gonadotropic zone of the adenohypophysis differentiates and becomes physiologically active. Immature fish of all genotypes grow at the same rate; however, as adults, males with "early" genotypes are significantly smaller than males of "late" genotypes, since growth rate declines strongly under the influence of androgenic hormone. Five alleles, P1... P5, have been identified from natural populations that under controlled conditions cause gonad maturation between eight and 73 weeks. P1P1 males become mature at eight weeks and 21 mm, P2P2 and P3P3 males between eleven and 13.5 weeks and 25 to 29 mm, and P4P4 males at 25 weeks and 37 mm. Since P5 is X-linked, no males homozygous for P5 could be produced. The difference between P2 and P3 is largely based upon their interaction with P5. P3P5 males mature at 17.5 weeks and 33.5 mm and P2P5 males at 28 weeks and 38 mm. The rate of transformation of the unmodified anal fin into a gonopodium, which is under androgenic control, is directly related to the age at initiation of sexual maturity, ranging from 3.2 weeks in P1P1 males to seven weeks in P2P 5 males. These differences may reflect different levels of circulating gonadotropic and androgenic hormones.—In two genotypes of females, initiation of vitellogenesis was closely correlated with size and this critical size was independent of age (e.g., 21 mm for P1P1 ). In a third genotype (P1P5) the minimum size for vitellogenesis decreased with increasing age, so that females would mature as early as eleven weeks, provided they had attained at least 29 mm, but at 25 weeks even females as small as 23 mm possessed ripe gonads. For P5P5 females, which become mature between 34 and 73 weeks of age, there is no correlation between size and initiation of vitellogenesis. In all four genotypes of females examined

  14. Effectiveness of an intervention promoting the female condom to patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Artz, L; Macaluso, M; Brill, I; Kelaghan, J; Austin, H; Fleenor, M; Robey, L; Hook, E W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and reduce unprotected sex among women at high risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: The effect of the intervention on barrier use was evaluated with a pretest-posttest design with 1159 female STD clinic patients. RESULTS: Among participants with follow-up data, 79% used the female condom at least once and often multiple times. More than one third of those who completed the study used female condoms throughout follow-up. Use of barrier protection increased significantly after the intervention, and high use was maintained during a 6-month follow-up. To account for attrition, the use of protection by all subjects was projected under 3 conservative assumptions. The initial visit and termination visit projections suggest that use increased sharply after the intervention and declined during follow-up but remained elevated compared with the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Many clients of public STD clinics will try, and some will continue, to use female condoms when they are promoted positively and when women are trained to use them correctly and to promote them to their partners. A behavioral intervention that promotes both female and male condoms can increase barrier use. PMID:10667185

  15. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results. PMID:10327139

  16. Factors associated with bone metabolism in acromegalic patients: hypogonadism and female gender.

    PubMed

    Tütüncü, N B; Erbaş, T

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the factors associated with bone metabolism in acromegalic patients. Thirty three patients with acromegaly who had been followed on a regular basis in the endocrinology clinic were enrolled for the study. Among the factors acting upon bone metabolism, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration and activity of the disease, length of remission, treatment modalities and functional status of the pituitary were evaluated. Their influences on the determinants of bone remodelling and bone mineral density (BMD) were tried to be elucidated. The median age of the 33 acromegalics (19 females, 14 males) was 39.73 +/- 10.1 years. Twenty-three patients (9 males and 14 females) were eugonadal. Ten patients had been diagnosed with history of at least one year of untreated hypogonadism (5 males and 5 females; for 1 - 10 years). The BMD values of the lumbar vertebrae, the femur and the radius were correlated with each other. Patients were grouped according to their T-scores as decreased, normal, and increased BMD. Groups were similar with regard to age, BMI, gender, duration of disease, and remission, GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels, markers of bone turnover. Presence of hypogonadism and duration of hypogonadism revealed statistically significant difference among the 3 groups (p = 0.005 and p = 0.035, respectively). Hypogonadal acromegalic patients had decreased BMD compared to eugonadal acromegalics and healthy population while the eugonadal female acromegalic patients revealed increased BMD of lumbar vertebrae, femur, and distal radius compared to the sex-matched healthy population. PMID:15216451

  17. Differences in sperm storage and remating propensity between adult females of two morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; Rull, J; Mendoza, M; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Roriz, A K; Kovaleski, A; Segura, D F; Vera, M T

    2014-06-01

    The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species composed of at least seven morphotypes. Some of them, such as the Peruvian and Brazilian 1 morphotypes (which include Argentinean populations), exhibit strong pre-copulatory isolation, yet it is possible to obtain heterotypic crosses when forcing copulation of adults under laboratory conditions. The cross involving Peruvian males and Argentinean females produces F1 offspring with reduced viability in terms of egg hatch. This low hatchability could be caused by a reduced amount of sperm transferred to and stored by females mated with heterotypic males, which in turn could affect their post-copulatory behaviour. To test these hypotheses, we investigated sperm transfer and female mating and remating behaviour for homotypic and heterotypic crosses between adults of two morphotypes (Brazilian 1 [Argentina] and Peruvian [Peru]) of the A. fraterculus cryptic species complex. As reported before, Argentinean males and females mated earlier in the day than the other three mating combinations. Peruvian females engaged in shorter copulation times than Argentinean females. Peruvian females tended to store smaller quantities of sperm than Argentinean females, and almost a half of the crosses involving Argentinean males and Peruvian females were unsuccessful (no sperm transfer). However, there was no evidence that the cross between Peruvian males and Argentinean females resulted in storage of a critically small amount of sperm (posing risk of sperm shortage). Argentinean females were more willing to remate than Peruvian females, irrespective of male morphotype, but latency to remating was not affected by male or female morphotype. This study shows that mating behaviour differs between some of the A. fraterculus complex morphotypes, with female but not male morphotype determining female likelihood to remate. PMID:24702958

  18. Experimental identification of potential falls in older adult hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, James; Pati, Debajyoti; Valipoor, Shabboo

    2016-05-01

    Patient falls within hospitals have been identified as serious but largely preventable incidents, particularly among older adult patients. Previous literature has explored intrinsic factors associated with patient falls, but literature identifying possible extrinsic or situational factors related to falls is lacking. This study seeks to identify patient motions and activities along with associated environmental design factors in a patient bathroom and clinician zone setting that may lead to falls. A motion capture experiment was conducted in a laboratory setting on 27 subjects over the age of seventy using scripted tasks and mockups of the bathroom and clinician zone of a patient room. Data were post-processed using Cortex and Visual3D software. A potential fall was characterized by a set of criteria based on the jerk of the upper body׳s center of mass (COM). Results suggest that only motion-related factors, particularly turning, pushing, pulling, and grabbing, contribute most significantly to potential falls in the patient bathroom, whereas only pushing and pulling contribute significantly in the clinician zone. Future work includes identifying and changing precise environmental design factors associated with these motions for an updated patient room and performing motion capture experiments using the new setup. PMID:26920507

  19. Iron Deficiency in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Obesity, Female Sex, and Low Serum Hepcidin

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Asma; Nelson, James E.; Aouizerat, Bradley; Yeh, Matthew M.; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Iron deficiency is often observed in obese individuals. The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is regulated by iron and cytokines IL6 and IL1β. We examine the relationship between obesity, circulating levels of hepcidin and IL6 and IL1β, and other risk factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with iron deficiency. Methods We collected data on 675 adult subjects (>18 y old) enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network. Subjects with transferrin saturation <20% were categorized as iron deficient, whereas those with transferrin saturation ≥20% were classified as iron normal. We assessed clinical, demographic, anthropometric, laboratory, dietary, and histologic data from patients, as well as serum levels of hepcidin and cytokines IL6 and IL1β. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify risk factors for iron deficiency. Results One third of patients (231/675; 34%) were iron deficient. Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were more common in subjects with iron deficiency (P<.01), compared with those that were iron normal. Serum levels of hepcidin were significantly lower in subjects with iron deficiency (61±45 vs 81±51 ng/mL; P<.0001). Iron deficiency was significantly associated with female sex, obesity, increased body mass index and waist circumference, presence of diabetes, lower alcohol consumption, Black or American Indian/Alaska Native race (P≤.018), and increased levels of IL6 and IL1β (6.6 vs 4.8 for iron normal; P≤.0001 and 0.45 vs 0.32 for iron normal; P≤.005). Conclusion Iron deficiency is prevalent in patients with NAFLD and associated with female sex, increased body mass index, and non-white race. Serum levels of hepcidin were lower in iron-deficient subjects, reflecting an appropriate physiological response to decreased circulating levels of iron, rather than a primary cause of iron deficiency in the setting of obesity and NAFLD. PMID:24269922

  20. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  1. [Symptom portrayal and initial therapeutic relationship of female and male patients in the initial psychoanalytic interview].

    PubMed

    Grande, T; Wilke, S; Nübling, R

    1992-01-01

    The transcripts of psychoanalytic initial interviews are analyzed in using the "Structural Analysis of Social Behavior" (SASB) by L. S. Benjamin. This instrument was chosen to detect how male and female patients talk about their symptoms, and about previous treatments. The immediate interaction with the interviewer during the dialogue was also described by using SASB. On the basis of only the first patients' utterances after the initial request of the therapists (like "What brings you here?") we can distinguish female and male patients by the quality of the relations described (to the symptoms, the previous physicians, and to the therapist). The sex-specific readiness to establish relationships which becomes apparent in these descriptions can be related to the interview situation itself. In our further argumentation we interpret them as subtle messages to the interviewer. Finally we discuss their inherent potentials and risks for the psychotherapeutic cooperation. PMID:1561845

  2. Approach to the Patient: The Adult With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). When the nonclassical (mild) form is included, 21OHD is the most common genetic disease in human beings. With the advent of pharmaceutical preparation of glucocorticoids starting in the 1960s and newborn screening starting in the 1990s, the majority of children with 21OHD are reaching adulthood, which has yielded a cohort of patients with, in essence, a new disease. Only recently have some data emerged from cohorts of adults with 21OHD, and in some centers, experience with the management of these patients is growing. These patients suffer from poor health, infertility, characteristic tumors in the adrenal glands and gonads, and consequences of chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Their care is fragmented and inconsistent, and many stop taking their medications out of frustration. Internal medicine residents and endocrinology fellows receive little training in their care, which further discourages their seeking medical attention. Adults with 21OHD have a different physiology from patients with Addison's disease or other androgen excess states, and their needs are different than those of young children with 21OHD. Consequently, their care requires unorthodox treatment and monitoring strategies foreign to most endocrine practitioners. Our goal for this article is to review their physiology, complications, and needs in order to develop rational and effective treatment and monitoring strategies. PMID:23837188

  3. An Exploration of Female Travellers' Experiences of Guidance Counselling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Anne; Hearne, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The proposed changes in the further education sector, including the rationalisation of the VEC into Local Education and Training Boards (LETBs) and the closures of the Senior Traveller Training Centres (STTCs), have implications for guidance counselling provision to the Traveller community. This article discusses female Travellers' experiences of…

  4. The Stimulation Effect of Auricular Magnetic Press Pellets on Older Female Adults with Sleep Disturbance Undergoing Polysomnographic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chyi; Liao, Wen-Chun; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Hang, Liang-Wen; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives. To examine the stimulation effect of auricular magnetic press pellet therapy on older female adults with sleep disturbance as determined by polysomnography (PSG). Design. Randomized, single-blind, experimental-controlled, parallel-group. Setting. Community. Participants. Twenty-seven older female adults with sleep disturbance according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) >5 for at least 3 months were recruited. Participants were screened by both the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), as well as polysomnography prior to randomization. Interventions. All eligible participants were randomly allocated into the experimental or control group. Both groups were taped with magnetic press pellet on auricular points for 3 weeks. The experimental group was treated by applying pressure on the magnetic press pellets 3 times per day while no stimulation was applied on the control group. Measurements and Results. Both groups were measured by PSG and PSQI at the beginning of the study and 3 weeks after the study. Both groups showed improvements on PSQI scores compared to the baseline. One-way analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline scores showed that significant improvements of PSG-derived sleep parameters, such as sleep efficiency, were found in the experimental group. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the proportion of sleep stages with the exception of Stage 2. Conclusions. Auricular therapy using magnetic pellets and stimulation by pressing was more effective in improving the sleep quality compared to auricular therapy without any stimulation. PMID:23573133

  5. Flight capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) adult females based on flight mill studies and flight muscle ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591

  6. Flight Capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adult Females Based on Flight Mill Studies and Flight Muscle Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591

  7. Intranasal Oxytocin Administration Dampens Amygdala Reactivity towards Emotional Faces in Male and Female PTSD Patients.

    PubMed

    Koch, Saskia Bj; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder. As a substantial part of PTSD patients responds poorly to currently available psychotherapies, pharmacological interventions boosting treatment response are needed. Because of its anxiolytic and pro-social properties, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been proposed as promising strategy for treatment augmentation in PTSD. As a first step to investigate the therapeutic potential of OT in PTSD, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over functional MRI study examining OT administration effects (40 IU) on amygdala reactivity toward emotional faces in unmedicated male and female police officers with (n=37, 21 males) and without (n=40, 20 males) PTSD. Trauma-exposed controls were matched to PTSD patients based on age, sex, years of service and educational level. Under placebo, the expected valence-dependent amygdala reactivity (ie, greater activity toward fearful-angry faces compared with happy-neutral faces) was absent in PTSD patients. OT administration dampened amygdala reactivity toward all emotional faces in male and female PTSD patients, but enhanced amygdala reactivity in healthy male and female trauma-exposed controls, independent of sex and stimulus valence. In PTSD patients, greater anxiety prior to scanning and amygdala reactivity during the placebo session were associated with greater reduction of amygdala reactivity after OT administration. Taken together, our results indicate presumably beneficial neurobiological effects of OT administration in male and female PTSD patients. Future studies should investigate OT administration in clinical settings to fully appreciate its therapeutic potential. PMID:26404844

  8. Oral Spironolactone in Post-teenage Female Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    Oral spironolactone has been used for over two decades in the dermatological setting. Although it is not generally considered a primary option in the management of female patients with acne vulgaris, the increase in office visits by post-teenage women with acne vulgaris has recently placed a spotlight on the use of this agent in this subgroup of patients. This article reviews the literature focusing on the use of oral spironolactone in this subset of women with acne vulgaris, including discussions of the recommended starting dose, expected response time, adjustments in therapy, potential adverse effects, and patient monitoring. PMID:22468178

  9. Schistosoma mansoni Egg, Adult Male and Female Comparative Gene Expression Analysis and Identification of Novel Genes by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Letícia; Amaral, Murilo S.; Beckedorff, Felipe; Silva, Lucas F.; Dazzani, Bianca; Oliveira, Katia C.; Almeida, Giulliana T.; Gomes, Monete R.; Pires, David S.; Setubal, João C.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is a public health problem. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread species responsible for schistosomiasis in the Americas, Middle East and Africa. Adult female worms (mated to males) release eggs in the hepatic portal vasculature and are the principal cause of morbidity. Comparative separate transcriptomes of female and male adult worms were previously assessed with using microarrays and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), thus limiting the possibility of finding novel genes. Moreover, the egg transcriptome was analyzed only once with limited bacterially cloned cDNA libraries. Methodology/Principal findings To compare the gene expression of S. mansoni eggs, females, and males, we performed RNA-Seq on these three parasite forms using 454/Roche technology and reconstructed the transcriptome using Trinity de novo assembly. The resulting contigs were mapped to the genome and were cross-referenced with predicted Smp genes and H3K4me3 ChIP-Seq public data. For the first time, we obtained separate, unbiased gene expression profiles for S. mansoni eggs and female and male adult worms, identifying enriched biological processes and specific enriched functions for each of the three parasite forms. Transcripts with no match to predicted genes were analyzed for their protein-coding potential and the presence of an encoded conserved protein domain. A set of 232 novel protein-coding genes with putative functions related to reproduction, metabolism, and cell biogenesis was detected, which contributes to the understanding of parasite biology. Conclusions/Significance Large-scale RNA-Seq analysis using de novo assembly associated with genome-wide information for histone marks in the vicinity of gene models constitutes a new approach to transcriptome analysis that has not yet been explored in schistosomes. Importantly, all data have been consolidated into a UCSC Genome Browser search

  10. Neuropsychiatric Morbidity in Adolescent and Adult Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency Patients

    PubMed Central

    Knerr, Ina; Gibson, K. Michael; Jakobs, Cornelis; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria) is a rare neurometabolic disorder of γ-aminobutyric acid degradation. While neurological manifestations, such as developmental delay, are typical during infancy, limited data are available on adolescent and adult symptomatology. Methods We overview the phenotype of 33 adolescents and adults (10.1–39.5 years of age, mean: 17.1 years, 48% females) with SSADH deficiency. For this purpose, we applied a database with systematic questionnaire-based follow-up data. Results Two thirds of patients (n=21) presented by 6 months of age, 14% from 6–12 months of age, 5% from 1–2 years of age, and 14% from 2–4 years of age, mean age at first symptoms was 11±12 months. However, mean age at diagnosis was 6.6±6.4 years of age. Presenting symptoms encompassed motor delay, hypotonia, speech delay, autistic features, seizures, and ataxia. Eighty-two percent demonstrated behavioral problems, such as attention deficit, hyperactivity, anxiety, or aggression, and 33% had ≥3 behavior problems. Electroencephalograms showed background slowing or epileptiform discharges in 40% of patients. Treatment approaches are then summarized. Conclusion The variable phenotype in SSADH deficiency suggests the likelihood that this disease may be under-diagnosed. Families of patients with SSADH deficiency should be counseled and supported regarding the anticipated persistence of various neuropsychiatric symptoms into adulthood. PMID:18622364

  11. Early Fasting Is Long Lasting: Differences in Early Nutritional Conditions Reappear under Stressful Conditions in Adult Female Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Krause, E. Tobias; Honarmand, Mariam; Wetzel, Jennifer; Naguib, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR). During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate. PMID:19325706

  12. Clinical features in adult patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, E; Rodríguez-González, F

    2014-06-01

    The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) encompasses deletions at the distal part of the short arm of one chromosome 4 (4p16 region). Clinical signs frequently include a typical facial appearance, mental retardation, intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia with decreased muscle bulk and seizures besides congenital heart malformations, midline defects, urinary tract malformations and brain, hearing and ophthalmologic malformations. Pathogenesis of WHS is multigenic and many factors are involved in prediction of prognosis such as extent of deletion, the occurrence of severe chromosome anomalies, the severe of seizures, the existence of serious internal, mainly cardiac, abnormalities and the degree of mental retardation. The phenotype of adult with WHS is in general similar to that of childhood being facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and mental retardation the rule in both adults and children. Avoid long-term complications and provide rehabilitation programs and genetic counseling may be essential in these patients. PMID:24656633

  13. Clostridium difficile infections among Jordanian adult hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, Lina M; Bakri, Fares G; Shehabi, Asem A

    2009-12-01

    This prospective study investigated the important epidemiologic aspects of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) among Jordanian adult hospitalized patients. A total of 300 stool specimens were investigated using culture and polymerase chain reaction methods for detection of C difficile, its toxins, and fluoroquinolone resistance. C difficile-positive cultures were found in 13.7% of the patients, and 73% of the isolates carried tcdA and/or tcdB toxin genes, and all C difficile isolates were negative for binary toxin. The isolates showed moderate level of resistance to both ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, whereas metronidazole and vancomycin were highly susceptible. This study indicates the need for early detection of CDIs and prevention of its severe disease in hospitalized patients. PMID:19712999

  14. Urinary considerations for adult patients with spinal dysraphism.

    PubMed

    Veenboer, Paul W; de Kort, Laetitia M O; Chrzan, Rafal J; de Jong, Tom P V M

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of newborns with spinal dysraphism is diminishing worldwide, although survival of individuals with this condition into adulthood continues to improve. The number of adults with spinal dysraphism will, therefore, increase in the coming years, which will pose new challenges in patient management. Urological manifestations of spinal dysraphism can include increased risks of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, urinary calculi, sexual dysfunction, end-stage renal disease and iatrogenic metabolic disturbances; however, the severity and incidence of these symptoms varies substantially between patients. Owing to the presence of multiple comorbidities, treatment and follow-up protocols often have to be adapted to best suit the needs of specific patients. Authors describe bladder and kidney function and long-term complications of treatments initiated in childhood, as well as the potential for improvements in quality of life through better follow-up schedules and future developments. PMID:25963964

  15. Amelogenesis imperfecta - lifelong management. Restorative management of the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; McDonnell, S T; Iram, S; Chan, M F W-Y

    2013-11-01

    The biggest challenge restorative dentists face in rehabilitating patients with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is trying to restore aesthetics, function and occlusal stability while keeping the treatment as conservative as possible. The goals of treatment should be to prolong the life of the patient's own teeth and avoid or delay the need for extractions and subsequent replacement with conventional fixed, removable or implant retained prostheses. In order to achieve these goals a stepwise approach to treatment planning is required starting with the most conservative but aesthetically acceptable treatment. This article discusses the management of AI and presents the various treatment options available for restoring the adult patient who presents to the dentist with AI. PMID:24201615

  16. A Case of Behcet’s Disease Combined with Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm in a Korean Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Uh, Sootaek; Kim, Jin Oh; You, Yong Kyu; Moon, Seung Hyug; Park, Choon Sik

    1994-01-01

    Behcet’s disease (BD) is a systemic disorder of unknown process resulting from systemic vasculitis. The pulmonary involvements in BD are uncommon. Furthermore, in the female, involvement of the pulmonary artery is quite rare. There were a few cases of female patients with BD with pulmonary artery aneurysm confirmed by pulmonary artery angiogram. In this article, we report a case of BD, combined with pulmonary artery aneurysm, confirmed by pulmonary angiogram and treated by surgery in a Korean female patient. PMID:8038147

  17. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming". PMID:24275070

  19. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Lieblich, Stephanie E.; Chow, Carmen; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol’s effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17β-estradiol (10 μg), G1 (0.1, 5, 10 μg), G15 (40 μg), G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO). After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 μg) decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus. PMID:26075609

  20. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  1. Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Male and Female Young Adults: 1990 versus 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Laura; Nicodemus, Teresa; Pomante, Michael; Binasiewicz, Megan; Dheer, Rahul; Dugan, Amy; Madaras, Janice; Chambliss, Catherine

    The increase in maternal employment has affected society and children. Indications are that the increased numbers of working mothers had impacted the size of families and the birth intervals within them. In addition, as children experience life with a working mother, personal constructs of adult roles and attitudes towards maternal employment can…

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

  3. Resiliency Determinants and Resiliency Processes among Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogar, Christine B.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard,…

  4. Exploring the Experiences of Female Emerging Adult Mentors: Building a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Julianne; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Sollie, Donna L.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    While mentoring programs are prevalent, limited research focused on the mentors' experiences exist, particularly during critical periods of development. Using a qualitative, grounded theory approach, this study explores the elements of the mentoring experience for a cohort of late adolescent/emerging adult women in a long-term program. Outcomes…

  5. Effects of perinatal bisphenol A exposure during early development on radial arm maze behavior in adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Park, Pul; Neese, Steven L.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Schantz, Susan L.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) can affect anxiety behavior. However, no studies have examined whether administration of this endocrine disruptor during the perinatal period has the potential to induce alterations in cognitive behavior in both adult males and females as assessed in an appetitive task. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to different doses of BPA during early development alters performance on the 17-arm radial maze in adulthood in Long-Evans rats. Oral administration of corn oil (vehicle), 4 μg/kg, 40 μg/kg, or 400 μg/kg BPA to the dams occurred daily throughout pregnancy, and the pups received direct oral administration of BPA between postnatal days 1-9. Blood was collected from offspring at weaning age to determine levels of several hormones (thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone). One male and one female from each litter were evaluated on the 17-arm radial maze, a working/reference memory task, in adulthood. Results indicated that after exposure to BPA at both 4 and 400 μg/kg/day, rats of both sexes had decreased levels of FSH at weaning. There were no significant effects of BPA on performance on the radial arm maze in males or females. In conclusion, exposure to BPA during early development had modest effects on circulating hormones but did not affect a spatial learning and memory task. PMID:24440629

  6. Quality of Life and Migraine Disability among Female Migraine Patients in a Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Munvar Miya; Hassan, Norul Badriah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disability caused by migraine may be one of the main causes of burden contributing to poor quality of life (QOL) among migraine patients. Thus, this study aimed to measure QOL among migraine sufferers in comparison with healthy controls. Methods. Female diagnosed migraine patients (n= 100) and healthy controls (n=100) completed the Malay version of the World Health Organization QOL Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Only migraine patients completed the Malay version of the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire. Results. Females with migraines had significantly lower total WHOQOL-BREF scores (84.3) than did healthy controls (91.9, P<0.001). Similarly, physical health (23.4 versus 27.7, P<0.001) and psychological health scores (21.7 versus 23.2, P< 0.001) were significantly lower than those for healthy controls. Seventy-three percent of patients experienced severe disability, with significantly higher number of days with headaches (13.8 days/3 months, P< 0.001) and pain scores (7.4, P< 0.013). Furthermore, migraine patients with lower total QOL scores had 1.2 times higher odds of having disability than patients with higher total QOL scores. Conclusions. The present study showed that migraine sufferers experienced significantly lower QOL than the control group from a similar population. Disability was severe and frequent and was associated with lower QOL among the migraine patients. PMID:25632394

  7. Prenatal choline availability modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and neurogenic responses to enriching experiences in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Melissa J.; Gibson, Erin M.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Mellott, Tiffany J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    Increased dietary intake of choline early in life improves performance of adult rats on memory tasks and prevents their age-related memory decline. Because neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus also declines with age, we investigated whether prenatal choline availability affects hippocampal neurogenesis in adult Sprague–Dawley rats and modifies their neurogenic response to environmental stimulation. On embryonic days (ED) 12−17, pregnant rats ate a choline-supplemented (SUP-5 g/kg), choline sufficient (SFF-1.1 g/kg), or choline-free (DEF) semisynthetic diet. Adult offspring either remained in standard housing or were given 21 daily visits to explore a maze. On the last ten exploration days, all rats received daily injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 100 mg/kg). The number of BrdU+ cells was significantly greater in the dentate gyrus in SUP rats compared to SFF or DEF rats. While maze experience increased the number of BrdU+ cells in SFF rats to the level seen in the SUP rats, this enriching experience did not alter cell proliferation in DEF rats. Similar patterns of cell proliferation were obtained with immunohistochemical staining for neuronal marker doublecortin, confirming that diet and exploration affected hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were increased in SUP rats as compared to SFF and DEF animals. We conclude that prenatal choline intake has enduring effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, possibly via up-regulation of BDNF levels, and suggest that these alterations of neurogenesis may contribute to the mechanism of life-long changes in cognitive function governed by the availability of choline during gestation. PMID:17445242

  8. In vitro hemolytic effect of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and artemether/lumefantrine on malaria parasitized erythrocytes of female patients.

    PubMed

    Anaba, Festus Chinyereugo; Ahiante, Blessing Osemengbe; Pepple, Dagogo John

    2012-10-01

    G6PD is an X-linked gene enzyme that protects erythrocytes from hemolysis when they are exposed to antimalarial drugs because of the effects of the free radicals generated by these drugs. We investigated the effects of Fansidar ™ (Sulfatoxine/Pyrimethamine) and Coartem ™ (Artemether/Lumefantrine) on the hemolysis of malaria parasitized female erythrocytes. Twelve (12) malarious patients attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, were used in this study. Ten (10) apparently healthy female students from the Medical School, University of Benin, acted as control. Low, normal (the recommended adult dose) and high doses of Fansidar ™ and Coartem ™ were used to determine the percentage hemolysis by checking the absorbance of the various samples. Data was analyzed by the Student's t-test and ANOVA with p<0.05 indicating the level of significance. At low doses of Fansidar ™ and Coartem ™, no hemolysis occurred, while at normal doses, Fansidar ™ showed no hemolysis but significant hemolysis (p<0.05) was observed in the Coartem ™ group. At high doses, both FansidarTM and CoartemTM caused significant (p<0.05) hemolysis. High doses of both drugs and normal dose of CoartemTM caused significant hemolysis. There was no hemolysis observed in the normal dose of FansidarTM and low doses for both drugs, similar to the trend reported for male subjects. PMID:23010004

  9. Sexual harassment of female physicians by patients. What is to be done?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the responses of female physicians who have been sexually harassed by patients, as a means of answering the question, "What is to be done?" DESIGN: As part of a larger study on the topic, randomly selected participants were mailed a questionnaire requesting information about the nature and extent of sexual harassment by patients and about resulting feelings, actions, and suggestions for prevention. SETTING: Family practices in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of the 1064 female certificants of the College of Family Physicians of Canada in active practice in Ontario during 1992 was selected. A total of 599 were surveyed; 422 (70%) replied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Responses to survey questions. RESULTS: Of the 422 respondents, 76% reported sexual harassment by patients and their reactions to it. Though most respondents had many suggestions about how to minimize harassment, written comments suggested confusion as to its cause. Many participants wondered whether their behaviour, manner, or dress provoked unwanted responses. The ability to root the cause of the harassment externally as a social rather than a personal problem seemed to decrease immobilization. CONCLUSIONS: There is no single effective response to sexual harassment, but understanding its source as an abuse of the power of gender* (perhaps to overcome the powerlessness felt as a patient) could enable female physicians to act in protective and effective ways. PMID:8924816

  10. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

  11. Exercise increases serum endostatin levels in female and male patients with diabetes and controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels, most notably plaques. The angiostatic parameter endostatin is able to inhibit angiogenesis in tissue as well as in plaques and therefore plays an important role in physiological and pathological neovascularisation. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences and the influence of exercise on circulating endostatin levels in patients suffering from diabetes, and control subjects. Methods In total, 42 T2DM-patients and 45 control subjects were investigated. They underwent a graded physical stress test (ergometry). Serum endostatin levels were measured in venous blood at rest and directly after reaching maximum workload. Results Females showed significantly higher endostatin levels at baseline measurements compared to men, independently of their underlying disease. In both female and male T2DM-patients endostatin levels were significantly lower compared to controls. Both groups and sexes showed a significant increase of endostatin after physical stress, whereas the extent of endostatin-increase was between 10.59-15.05%. Conclusion Middle-aged healthy female individuals as well as female T2DM-patients showed higher circulating serum endostatin levels compared to males, suggesting a hormonal influence on baseline circulating endostatin amounts. Exercise-induced increase in endostatin is also observable in patients suffering from T2DM. Concerning vascularisation, lower endostatin levels in T2DM might be advantageous. Concerning plaque stability, lower levels might be prejudicial. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01165515 PMID:24393402

  12. Permanent bilateral acoustic trauma due to air bag deployment in a young female adult.

    PubMed

    Kastanioudakis, Ioannis; Exarchakos, Georgios; Ziavra, Nausica; Skevas, Antonios

    2003-02-01

    Air bag safety systems have significantly reduced the number of occupant injuries from road traffic accidents (RTA). However air bag deployment is also associated with unavoidable risks. We report the acoustic trauma incurred by a young female driver who was a heavy smoker as a consequence of air-bag deployment in a low speed RTA and the sparing of her child seated in the rear. PMID:12625890

  13. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  14. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Mair, Jacqueline L; Nevill, Alan M; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  15. Influence of acute tryptophan depletion on verbal declarative episodic memory in young adult females.

    PubMed

    Helmbold, K; Bubenzer, S; Dahmen, B; Eisert, A; Gaber, T J; Habel, U; Konrad, K; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

    2013-11-01

    Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain has been linked to disturbed memory processes. The present study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous 5-HT synthesis as achieved by an acute dietary tryptophan depletion (ATD) on verbal declarative episodic memory in young women while controlling for the effects of female sex hormones. Eighteen healthy females (aged 20-31 years) participated in a within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment spaced at least one individual menstrual cycle apart. On one day, participants were subjected to ATD, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT synthesis. The other day participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL = control condition). The study was randomized, counterbalanced and double blind in terms of ATD/BAL administration. Measurements took place in the early follicular phase of the participants' menstrual cycle. Estrogen, FSH and LH levels were assessed at baseline. Verbal declarative episodic memory was assessed using a structured word-learning task. Short-term memory, as indexed by immediate recall, was reduced after ATD intake, whereas delayed recall and recognition after a 25-min delay did not show any differences after intake of ATD or BAL. In young women, verbal short-term memory function was more vulnerable to ATD than consolidation processes. In light of the possible interplay between female sex hormones and 5-HT, further studies comparing different menstrual cycle phases are needed. PMID:24072504

  16. Ah receptor expression in cardiomyocytes protects adult female mice from heart dysfunction induced by TCDD exposure.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Hisaka; Carreira, Vinicius S; Fan, Yunxia; Jiang, Min; Naticchioni, Mindi; Koch, Sheryl; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2016-04-29

    Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental work in rodents suggest that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent environmental toxicant, is associated with incidence of heart disease. Although TCDD toxicity depends by and large on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), the role of the cardiac AHR in TCDD induced cardiovascular disease is not well defined. To determine whether the Ahr gene mediates disruption of heart function by TCDD, we generated a cardiomyocyte-specific Ahr knockout mouse by crossing Ahr(fx/fx) mice with βMhc:cre/+ mice, in which expression of Cre recombinase is driven by the promoter of the βMhc (myosin heavy chain-beta) gene. Starting at three months of age, mice with cardiomyocyte-specific Ahr ablation were exposed to 1μg/kg/week of TCDD or control vehicle by oral gavage for an additional three months. Relative to unexposed controls, TCDD-exposure induced cardiomyocyte Ahr-independent changes in males but not females, including a significant increase in body weight, blood pressure, and cardiac hypertrophy and a decrease in cardiac ejection fraction. TCDD exposure also induced cardiomyocyte Ahr-dependent changes in fibrosis and calcium signaling gene expression in both males and females. TCDD exposure appears to cause sexually dimorphic effects on heart function and induce fibrosis and changes in calcium signaling in both males and females through activation of the cardiomyocyte-specific Ahr. PMID:27163630

  17. Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

  18. Updates in vaccination: Recommendations for adult inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudrey, Khadija; Salvaggio, Michelle; Ahmed, Aftab; Mahmood, Sultan; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimens for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incorporate the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents that increase the risk of infections. Prevention of many of these infections can be achieved by the timely and judicious use of vaccinations. IBD patients tend to be under-immunized. Some of the contributing factors are lack of awareness regarding the significance of vaccinating IBD patients, misperception about safety of vaccinations in immunocompromised patients, ambiguity about the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in contrast to the primary care physician and unavailability of vaccination guidelines focused on IBD population. In general, immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination recommendations. However there are special considerations for IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, IBD travelers and pregnant women with IBD. This review discusses current vaccination recommendations with updates for adult IBD patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 vaccination guidelines with 2014 updates and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations have been highlighted as a primary source of recommendations. PMID:25805924

  19. FISH analysis of a subtle familial Xp deletion in a female patient with Madelung deformity

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, T.Y.; Gibson, L.H.; Pober, B.R.

    1994-09-01

    A subtle deletion of Xp [del(X)(p22.32)]was identified by high-resolution chromosome analysis in a twelve-year-old female with short stature (<2 percentile) and Madelung deformity suggestive of Turner syndrome. The proband`s mother, who has short stature (<2 percentile) and demyelinating disorder, also showed this deletion. The maternal grandmother is of normal height and carries two normal X chromosomes. Both the patient and her mother have no other physical abnormalities and are of normal intelligence. To confirm and delineate this Xp deletion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on metaphases from the patient and her mother using probes of DXYS20 (a pseudoautosomal locus), DXS232A, and a newly isolated Xp YAC clone, YHX2, whose relative map position is unknown. Hybridization signals of DXS232A were detected on both X chromosomes, and DXYS20 and YHX2 were missing from one of the X`s of both the patient and her mother. YHX2 was thus placed distal to DXS232A (tel-DXYS20-YHX2-S232A-cen). This familial deletion with a breakpoint distal to DXS232A, which is located at -900 Kb telomeric to STS locus, appears to be the smallest Xp deletion reported thus far. Short stature is consistently associated with females carrying Xp deletions. Madelung deformity has been found in some patients with Turner syndrome or Dyschondrosteosis but it has not been reported in patients with Xp deletion. Our results suggest that the phenotype of our patient is associated with her chromosome abnormality. Due to the subtlety of the deletion identified in our patient and her mother, females presenting with short stature warrant careful clinical and cytogenetic evaluation.

  20. An annotated catalogue of salivary gland transcripts in the adult female mosquito, Ædes ægypti*

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José MC; Arcà, Bruno; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Calvo, Eric; Chandra, Prafulla K; Wikel, Stephen K

    2007-01-01

    Background Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a cocktail of antihemostatic agents and immunomodulators that help blood feeding. Mosquitoes additionally feed on sugar meals and have specialized regions of their glands containing glycosidases and antimicrobials that might help control bacterial growth in the ingested meals. To expand our knowledge on the salivary cocktail of Ædes ægypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fevers, we analyzed a set of 4,232 expressed sequence tags from cDNA libraries of adult female mosquitoes. Results A nonredundant catalogue of 614 transcripts (573 of which are novel) is described, including 136 coding for proteins of a putative secretory nature. Additionally, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of salivary gland (SG) homogenates followed by tryptic digestion of selected protein bands and MS/MS analysis revealed the expression of 24 proteins. Analysis of tissue-specific transcription of a subset of these genes revealed at least 31 genes whose expression is specific or enriched in female SG, whereas 24 additional genes were expressed in female SG and in males but not in other female tissues. Most of the 55 proteins coded by these SG transcripts have no known function and represent high-priority candidates for expression and functional analysis as antihemostatic or antimicrobial agents. An unexpected finding is the occurrence of four protein families specific to SG that were probably a product of horizontal transfer from prokaryotic organisms to mosquitoes. Conclusion Overall, this paper contributes to the novel identification of 573 new transcripts, or near 3% of the Æ. ægypti proteome assuming a 20,000-protein set, and to the best-described sialome of any blood-feeding insect. PMID:17204158

  1. Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver in an Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Nicole; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcomas (UESs) are uncommon tumours that are seen predominantly in late childhood. Cases in adults are rare and generally present once a large mass develops and may be mistaken for other tumours. A case of an UES of the liver with an isolated peritoneal metastasis is described. The patient presented with a palpable mass with imaging findings suggestive of a cystic tumour. She had complete surgical resection of the liver mass and isolated peritoneal metastasis. She was tumour-free on imaging at 6 months without adjuvant chemotherapy. An UES should be considered in the differential of large cystic hepatic lesions, with aggressive surgical resection considered when possible. PMID:22690347

  2. Midface fracture in an unoperated adult patient with cleft palate

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Sanyog; Baliga, Shridhar; Kotrashetti, Sharadaindu Mahadevappa; Pillai, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    In western countries, it is hard to find an unoperated cleft palate due to better healthcare services and awareness. Here, we present an unoperated adult case of cleft palate that had midfacial fractures following a road traffic accident. The patient's cleft lip was repaired when he was 2 years old but the palate was not operated because of poor follow-up. We would like to share the difficulties encountered in diagnosis and treatment planning for this rare kind of trauma case. After routine investigations, a palatal acrylic splint was constructed for fixation and an acceptable degree of function and aesthetics was achieved postoperatively. PMID:25150231

  3. Metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors in adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mnif, Mouna Feki; Kamoun, Mahdi; Mnif, Fatma; Charfi, Nadia; Naceur, Basma Ben; Kallel, Nozha; Rekik, Nabila; Mnif, Zainab; Sfar, Mohamed Habib; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Hachicha, Mongia; Abid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), long-term glucocorticoid treatment coupled with increased androgens may lead to undesirable metabolic effects. The aim of our report was to determine the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of adult patients with CAH due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients (11 males and 15 females, mean age ± SD=27.4±8.2 years) were recruited. Anthropometry, body composition, metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors were studied. Results: Obesity (overweight included) was noted in 16 patients (61.5%), with android distribution in all cases. Bioelectrical impedance showed increased body fat mass in 12 patients (46.1%). Lipid profile alterations and carbohydrate metabolism disorders were detected in seven (26.9%) and five (19.2%) patients respectively. Moderate hepatic cytolysis, associated with hepatic steatosis, was found in one patient. Seven patients (27%) had insulin resistance. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring showed abnormalities in six patients (23%). Increased carotid intima media thickness was found in 14 patients (53.8%). Conclusion: Adult CAH patients tend to have altered metabolic parameters and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Lifelong follow-up, lifestyle modifications, and attempts to adjust and reduce the glucocorticoid doses seem important. PMID:23226639

  4. Title IX, girls' sports participation, and adult female physical activity and weight.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Xin Xu

    2010-02-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and weight of adult women some 20-25 years later. Our results indicate that adult women who were affected by Title IX and had greater opportunity to participate in athletics while young had lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity and reported being more physically active than women who were not afforded these opportunities. However, effect sizes were quite modest. PMID:20130236

  5. HAE update: special considerations in the female patient with hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Geng, Bob; Riedl, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    This review on hereditary angioedema (HAE) focuses on special topics regarding HAE in female patients. HAE is a bradykinin-mediated disorder, and the role of hormonal regulation of disease expression will be discussed focusing on the effect of estrogen on disease mechanism. The impact of exogenous estrogen on symptom exacerbation leads to special consideration regarding choice of contraceptives and safety of hormone replacement therapy. The effects of pregnancy and childbirth will be examined on the course of disease control. Unique considerations regarding therapeutic management for female HAE patients will be addressed, including the role of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), ecallantide, and icatibant. Finally, this review will provide an overview of the more recently characterized HAE with normal C1-INH (HAE type III) that predominantly affects women and is in some cases associated with factor XII gene mutations. PMID:23406930

  6. Prolactin levels and autoantibodies in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kozáková, D; Rovenský, J; Cebecauer, L; Bosák, V; Jahnová, E; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between prolactin (PRL) levels and antibody occurrence in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No significant association between PRL levels and the majority of the autoantibodies studied (anti-U1 RNP, anti-rRNP, anti-Sm, anti-dsDNA, anti-DNP, auto-LCA, anti-EACA) could be confirmed (P > 0.05), anti-Ro/SSA antibodies being an exception. Our results showed significantly increased frequencies of these antibodies in the group of female SLE patients with normal PRL levels (< 20 micrograms/L): anti Ro/SSA in 53% (P < 0.025, chi 2 = 5.80, RR = 4.0) and anti-Ro/SSA + anti-Ro/La in 60% (P < 0.05, chi 2 = 4.05) compared with female SLE patients with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:11155810

  7. Late-onset epileptic spasms in a female patient with a CASK mutation.

    PubMed

    Nakajiri, Tomoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Oka, Makio; Miya, Fuyuki; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2015-10-01

    We report a female patient with late-onset epileptic spasms (ESs) of a rare form, distinct from those seen in typical West syndrome, in association with a heterozygous frameshift CASK mutation (c.1896dupC (p.C633fs(∗)2)). She has a phenotype of microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), and has had intractable ESs in clusters since 3 years 8 months of age with multifocal, particularly bifrontal, epileptic discharges in electroencephalogram. The available literature on patients with both ESs and CASK mutations has been reviewed, revealing that four of the five female children, including the present girl, had late-onset ESs, in contrast to the four males, who tended toward early-onset ESs. PMID:25765806

  8. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  9. Preoperative Factors Predicting Intraoperative Blood Loss in Female Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Yang, Mingyuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chuanfeng; Fan, Jianping; Chen, Ziqiang; Wei, Xianzhao; Zhang, Guoyou; Bai, Yushu; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xie, Yang; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this article, a retrospective analysis of 161 female patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is performed who underwent posterior correction and fusion using all-pedicle screw instrument. The aim of this article is to find out preoperative factors that influence intraoperative blood loss (IOBL) in female patients with AIS. The IOBL in posterior correction and fusion surgery for patients with idiopathic scoliosis greatly varies. The variables affecting the IOBL also greatly vary among different studies. Medical records of all female patients with AIS who underwent posterior correction and fusion operations using the all-pedicle screw system in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patients with irregular menstruation, who underwent osteotomy, and using coagulants were excluded. Preoperative clinical data, including patient age, height, weight, Risser sign, day after last menstruation, major curve Cobb angle, fulcrum-bending Cobb angle, curve flexibility index, sagittal thoracic Cobb angle, sagittal lumbar Cobb angle, albumin, hemoglobin, platelet, activated partial thromboplastic time (APTT), prothrombin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, fusion level, menstrual phase, and blood type, were collected. Data were further analyzed using multiple linear regression with forward elimination. A total of 161 patients were included in this study. The mean IOBL was 933.98 ± 158.10 mL (500–2000 mL). Forward selection showed that fulcrum-bending Cobb angle, fusion level, Risser sign, APTT, fibrinogen, and menstrual phase were the preoperative factors that influenced the IOBL in female patients with AIS. Equation of IOBL was built by multiple linear regression: IOBL = −966.228 + 54.738 Risser sign + 18.910 fulcrum-bending Cobb angle + 114.737 fibrinogen + 21.386 APTT − 71.312 team 2 − 177.985 team 3 − 165.082 team 4 + 53.470 fusion level. R = 0.782. Operation for patients with AIS was featured by large IOBL

  10. Occurrence of epidermolysis bullosa along with Amelogenesis imperfecta in female patient of India

    PubMed Central

    Javed, A. P.; Shenai, Prashanth; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Veena, K. M.; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Prabhu, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited disorder, which is characteristically presented as skin blisters developing in response to minor injury. Junctional variety of EB is also associated with enamel hypoplasia. Amelogenesis imperfecta presents with abnormal formation of the enamel both in deciduous and permanent dentition. This article describes a previously unreported case of Amelogenesis imperfecta with complete loss of enamel in a young female patient with EB. PMID:24379873

  11. [Multiple smooth colon stenosis in 76-year-old female patient].

    PubMed

    Muehlenberg, K; Dietl, O; Piso, P; Pech, O

    2015-10-01

    Differential diagnostic aspects of colon stenoses are discussed using the example case of a female patient presenting with multilocular colon metastases, who had lobular breast cancer 9 years previously. Typical is linitis plastica, which can indicate tumorous infiltration not only of the stomach, but also of the large intestine. Other endoscopic imaging and histological studies may, however, fail. The pathologist requires the anamnestic data relating to the breast cancer for exact assignment of the tumorous infiltration. PMID:26349909

  12. Association of Pulmonary Cysts and Nodules in a Young Female Patient.

    PubMed

    Dias, Olívia Meira; do Nascimento, Ellen Caroline Toledo; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Baldi, Bruno Guedes

    2016-06-01

    A 27-year-old female patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with a 1-year history of shortness of breath when walking fast on level ground or when climbing stairs. Symptoms worsened after a second episode of spontaneous left pneumothorax, when a chest tube was placed in another hospital for complete lung expansion. During this hospitalization, an open lung biopsy was performed. There was no history of rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, hemoptysis, wheezing, or expectoration. PMID:27287595

  13. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult.

  14. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult. PMID:27578936

  15. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English.

    PubMed

    Lulich, Steven M; Morton, John R; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S; Leung, Gary K F; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17,500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [[inverted r

  16. Predicting eating disturbances in Turkish adult females: Examining the role of intimate partner violence and perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Muyan, Mine; Chang, Edward C; Jilani, Zunaira; Yu, Tina

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationships between intimate partner violence (IPV), perfectionism, and eating disturbances, namely, excessive dieting and bulimia, in a sample of 149 Turkish female college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that IPV accounted for significant variance in both excessive dieting and bulimic symptoms. The inclusion of perfectionism was found to predict additional variance in eating disturbances, beyond IPV. Specifically, we found parental expectations to be a significant predictor of dieting, and personal standards, doubts about actions, and parental criticism to be significant predictors of bulimia. Some implications for understanding eating disturbances in Turkish women are discussed. PMID:26276707

  17. Shielding during x-ray examination of pediatric female patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Shan; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Chuang, Ming-Tsung; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Lai, Cheng-Shih; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Lin, Chii-Jeng; Lu, Chia-Hsing

    2014-12-01

    Patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) generally undergo multiple x-ray examinations of both hip joints. During these examinations, the gonads are completely exposed to radiation, unless shielded. Although many types and sizes of gonad shields exist, they often do not provide adequate protection because of size and placement issues; additionally, these shields are frequently omitted for female patients. Our aim was to assess gonad protection during x-ray examination that is provided by gonad shields designed for individual female patients with DDH.We retrospectively retrieved data from the Picture Archiving and Communication System database; pelvic plain x-ray films from 766 females, 18 years old or younger, were included in our analysis. Based on x-ray measurements of the anterior superior iliac spine, we developed a system of gonad shield design that depended on the distance between anterior superior iliac spine markers. We custom-made shields and then examined shielding rates and shielding accuracy before and after these new shields became available. Standard (general-purpose) shields were used before our custom design project was implemented. The shielding rate and shielding accuracy were, respectively, 14.5% and 8.4% before the project was implemented and 72.7% and 32.2% after it was implemented. A shield that is more anatomically correct and available in several different sizes may increase the likelihood of gonad protection during pelvic x-ray examinations. PMID:25325378

  18. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    PubMed

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, p<.05) and impulsivity (β=.24, p<.05) were associated with the number of previous suicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. PMID:27352091

  19. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic irradiation in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohshiro, Taihei; Fujita, Shin

    2015-12-01

    In the report, we describe the first case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic radio-chemo therapy in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer in Japan. A 14-year-old female visited a hospital because of consistent diarrhea and melena. Colonoscopy examination showed a bulky tumor of the rectum, which was diagnosed as moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was cT3N2aM1a (due to lymph node in pelvic side wall), cStage IVA. In an attempt to improve local control and sphincter preservation, neoadjuvant concurrent radio-chemo therapy was planned. Considering that pelvic irradiation particularly in young female might cause ovarian failure, laparoscopic ovarian transposition was carried out prior to pelvic irradiation. Sequentially the patient underwent low anterior resection of the rectum and lymphadenectomy including pelvic side wall. The menstruation was maintained with delay for 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy. There is no evidence of cancer recurrence at 3 years after the surgery.In premenopausal patients with rectal cancer undergoing pelvic irradiation, laparoscopic ovarian transposition is one of the choices to prevent ovarian failure. PMID:26943437

  20. Adrenocortical response to low-dose ACTH test in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Radikova, Zofia; Rovensky, Jozef; Vlcek, Miroslav; Penesova, Adela; Kerlik, Jana; Vigas, Milan; Imrich, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Alterations in adrenal steroid production have been suggested in females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to assess adrenocortical function in RA females. We examined 11 female RA patients (RA: age 30 +/- 2 years, BMI 21.0 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)) and 10 matched healthy controls (C: age 31 +/- 1 years, BMI 21.6 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2)). Low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test (i.v. bolus of 1 microg synthetic ACTH) was performed at 10.00 h with blood sampling every 15 min for 90 min. Cortisol, 17-OH-progesterone (17OHP), androstenedione (ASD), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were assayed in plasma. Baseline cortisol levels were higher in RA patients (RA: 385 +/- 38 versus C: 229 +/- 28 nmol/L, P= 0.007). In both study groups, ACTH administration increased all the four steroids measured (P < 0.001). Cortisol response to ACTH administration was diminished in RA patients when compared to controls (Delta(max): 284 +/- 24 in RA versus 424 +/- 31 nmol/L in C, P= 0.002). ACTH-induced maximal rise in plasma DHEA was significantly lower in RA patients when compared to controls (Delta(max): 2.59 +/- 0.68 in RA versus 5.57 +/- 1.25 ng/mL in C, P= 0.015). No significant between-groups differences were found in responses of ASD or 17OHP. The molar ratio of ASD:cortisol was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in RA patients at base line, but did not differ during ACTH test. After ACTH bolus, the cortisol:17OHP ratio decreased significantly in the RA group (P < 0.001), whereas there was no change in the control group. The present results show decreased secretion of cortisol and DHEA in RA patients in response to ACTH, suggesting a subtle HPA hypofunction at the adrenocortical level. PMID:19120158

  1. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient.

  2. Psychopharmacological options for adult patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Miniati, Mario; Mauri, Mauro; Ciberti, Agnese; Mariani, Michela Giorgi; Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize evidence from research on psychopharmacological options for adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Database searches of MEDLINE and PsycINFO (from January 1966 to January 2014) were performed, and original articles published as full papers, brief reports, case reports, or case series were included. Forty-one papers were screened in detail, and salient characteristics of pharmacological options for AN were summarized for drug classes. The body of evidence for the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in AN was unsatisfactory, the quality of observations was questionable (eg, the majority were not blinded), and sample size was often small. More trials are needed, while considering that nonresponse and nonremission are typical of patients with AN. PMID:26145463

  3. [Salmonella enteritidis: an unusual meningitis agent in an adult patient].

    PubMed

    Metan, Gökhan; Alp, Emine; Eşel, Duygu; Aygen, Bilgehan; Sümerkan, Bülent

    2005-10-01

    Salmonella species may cause wide spectrum of infections changing from enterocolitis to sepsis. However, Salmonella meningitis in adults is a rare but important clinical condition with a high mortality rate. In this report, a 71 years old male patient with Salmonella enteritidis meningitis who was followed-up with the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura and had been administered azothioprin and prednisolone, has been presented and similar cases in the literature have been reviewed. The cerebrospinal fluid culture yielded S. enteritidis, and the isolate was intermediate susceptible to ampicillin, susceptible to cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulphametoxasole, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Our patient was successfully treated with ceftriaxone (2 x 2 gr i.v.) and discharged with total cure. PMID:16544553

  4. Decreased functional connectivity density in pain-related brain regions of female migraine patients without aura.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing; Xu, Fei; Jiang, Cui; Chen, Zhifeng; Chen, Huafu; Liao, Huaqiang; Zhao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders which is suggested to be associated with dysfunctions of the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to detect the altered functional connectivity architecture in the large-scale network of the whole brain in migraine without aura (MWoA). Meanwhile, the brain functional hubs which are targeted by MWoA could be identified. A new voxel-based method named functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 55 female MWoA patients and 44 age-matched female healthy controls (HC). Comparing to HC, MWoA patients showed abnormal short-range FCD values in bilateral hippocampus, bilateral insula, right amygdale, right anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral putamen, bilateral caudate nucleus and the prefrontal cortex. The results suggested decreased intraregional connectivity of these pain-related brain regions in female MWoA. In addition, short-range FCD values in left prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly negatively correlated with duration of disease in MWoA group, implying the repeated migraine attacks over time may consistently affect the resting-state functional connectivity architecture of these brain hubs. Our findings revealed the dysfunction of brain hubs in female MWoA, and suggested the left prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus served as sensitive neuroimaging markers for reflecting the disease duration of female MWoA. This may provide us new insights into the changes in the organization of the large-scale brain network in MWoA. PMID:26688226

  5. Effect of Leptin Replacement on PCSK9 in ob/ob Mice and Female Lipodystrophic Patients.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Amy E; Haas, Mary E; Miao, Ji; Brown, Rebecca J; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Biddinger, Sudha B

    2016-04-01

    Leptin treatment has beneficial effects on plasma lipids in patients with lipodystrophy, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) decreases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) clearance, promotes hypercholesterolemia, and has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic target. To determine the effect of leptin on PCSK9, we treated male and female ob/ob mice with leptin for 4 days via sc osmotic pumps (∼24 μg/d). Leptin reduced body weight and food intake in all mice, but the effects of leptin on plasma PCSK9 and lipids differed markedly between the sexes. In male mice, leptin suppressed PCSK9 but had no effect on plasma triglycerides or cholesterol. In female mice, leptin suppressed plasma triglycerides and cholesterol but had no effect on plasma PCSK9. In parallel, we treated female lipodystrophic patients (8 females, ages 5-23 y) with sc metreleptin injections (∼4.4 mg/d) for 4-6 months. In this case, leptin reduced plasma PCSK9 by 26% (298 ± 109 vs 221 ± 102 ng/mL; n = 8; P = .008), and the change in PCSK9 was correlated with a decrease in LDL cholesterol (r(2) = 0.564, P = .03). In summary, in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, the effects of leptin on PCSK9 and plasma lipids appeared to be independent of one another and strongly modified by sex. On the other hand, in lipodystrophic females, leptin treatment reduced plasma PCSK9 in parallel with LDL cholesterol. PMID:26824363

  6. Energy needs and nutritional rehabilitation in undernourished adolescents and young adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, P; Hill, R; Archibald, E; Levy, L; Newth, C

    1984-01-01

    The energy needs, nutritional status and body composition of 6 undernourished adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis (3 male and 3 female) were studied prior to and following a 12 day period of refeeding. Nutritional rehabilitation was attempted with continuous naso-gastric feeding of an elemental diet. The energy needs of the patients were shown to be 25-80% higher than in healthy individuals of the same age, sex and size. Lean body mass as judged by measurement of total body potassium and nitrogen was relatively well preserved, but there was significant wasting of adipose tissue. During the short period of refeeding, body weight, fat and potassium all increased significantly, while fat free body mass and total body nitrogen did not change. A model is proposed for the aetiology of undernutrition in the adolescent and young adult cystic with deteriorating lung function. Based on this model and the finding of the short-term N/G refeeding program described in this paper, we have embarked on a long-term supplementation study in malnourished CF patients who do not respond to dietary counselling and oral supplementation. PMID:6438297

  7. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. PMID:21440475

  8. Prior swimming exercise favors muscle recovery in adult female rats after joint immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Ana Claudia; Ramos, Douglas Massoni; Gomes de Oliveira, Luana; Alberto da Silva, Carlos; Pertille, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise on immobilization and subsequent recovery of white gastrocnemius (WG) and soleus (SOL) muscles of female rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty, 8-month-old, female Wistar rats were randomly and evenly allocated to six groups: sedentary (S); immobilized sedentary (IS); immobilized/rehabilitated sedentary (IRS); trained (T); immobilized trained (IT); and immobilized/rehabilitated trained (IRT). For four months, T, IT and IRT group animals performed swimming exercise (three sessions per week, 60 minutes per session), while S, IS and IRS groups animals remained housed in cages. After this period, the left hindlimb of the animals from the IS, IRS, IT and IRT groups was immobilized for five days, with the ankle at 90°. After removal of the orthosis, animals from the IRS and IRT groups followed a rehabilitation program based on swimming (five sessions per week, 60 minutes per session) for two weeks. [Results] Immobilization significantly reduced the cross-sectional area of the white gastrocnemius muscle; no changes were observed in the soleus muscles of the trained animals. Transforming growth factor-β1 protein levels were similar among the trained groups. [Conclusion] Prior swimming prevents hypotrophy of the soleus muscle after immobilization, and protein levels reflected the adaptive capacity of the skeletal muscle. PMID:27512267

  9. Robotic gastrectomy with transvaginal specimen extraction for female gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Jiang; Zhao, Jian; Li, Jie-Shou

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the application of complete robotic gastrectomy with transvaginal specimen extraction (TVSE) for gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Between July and November 2014, eight female patients who were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma underwent a TVSE following a full robot-sewn gastrectomy. According to the tumor location, the patients were allocated to two different groups; two patients received robotic total gastrectomy with TVSE and the other six received robotic distal gastrectomy with TVSE. RESULTS: Surgical procedures were successfully performed in all eight cases without conversion. The mean age was 55.3 (range, 42-69) years, and the mean body mass index was 23.2 (range, 21.6-26.0) kg/m2. The mean total operative time and blood loss were 224 (range, 200-298) min and 62.5 (range, 50-150) mL, respectively. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.6 (range, 3-5) d. The mean number of lymph nodes resected was 23.6 (range, 17-27). None was readmitted within 30 d of postoperation. During the follow-up, no stricture developed nor was any anastomotic leakage detected. CONCLUSION: It is possible to perform a TVSE following a full robot-sewn gastrectomy with standard D2 lymph node resection for female gastric cancer patients. PMID:26715817

  10. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients: an emerging challenge for physicians.

    PubMed

    Caserta, D; Ralli, E; Matteucci, E; Marci, R; Moscarini, M

    2014-03-01

    Fertility preservation has become an issue of great importance in female cancer patients due to increasing survival rates and delayed childbearing. It is an emerging challenge for physicians, cause of several related issues (multidisciplinary approach, doctor-patient communication, ethical, religious and legal problems) and many unresolved questions. This review aims to update the latest literature data, summarizing the effects of cancer treatments on female fertility and the various options currently available to offer cancer patients the opportunity of future pregnancies. Many strategies exist for fertility preservation in young women and they should be assessed according to the patient's age, type of cancer, partner status and time available. Some techniques are well established, others are still experimental. The established methods include embryo cryopreservation, transposition of ovaries prior to radiation therapy, radiation shielding of gonads and conservative surgical approaches. The experimental methods include oocyte cryopreservation, in vitro maturation of oocytes, ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation, and ovarian suppression. Improvement of these techniques as well as better characterization of their success rates and risks, await further investigation. Oocytes donation and gestational surrogacy represent the last options. Thus, the care of these patients is challenging, complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. A close collaboration between Oncologists, Specialists in Reproductive Medicine, Gynecologic Oncologists and Endocrinologists is crucial for always offering the best possible option. PMID:24637474

  11. Breast cancer in a male-to-female transsexual patient with a BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Corman, Vinciane; Potorac, Iulia; Manto, Florence; Dassy, Sarah; Segers, Karin; Thiry, Albert; Bours, Vincent; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is rare in male patients. Certain predisposing factors, be they genetic (e.g., BRCA2 gene mutations) or hormonal (imbalance between estrogen and androgen levels), have been implicated in male breast cancer pathophysiology. Male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism is a condition that generally involves cross-sex hormone therapy. Anti-androgens and estrogens are used to mimic the female hormonal environment and induce the cross-sex secondary characteristics. In certain situations, the change in the hormonal milieu can be disadvantageous and favor the development of hormone-dependent pathologies, such as cancer. We report a case of a MtF transgender patient who developed breast cancer after 7 years of cross-sex hormonal therapy. The patient was found to be BRCA2 positive, and suffered recurrent disease. The patient was unaware of being a member of an established BRCA2 mutation-positive kindred. This represents the first case of a BRCA2 mutation predisposing to breast cancer in a MtF transgender patient. PMID:27000661

  12. Intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Heller, Axel R

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oils have shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases due to their pleiotropic effects on inflammatory cell signalling pathways. In a variety of experimental and clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids attenuated hyperinflammatory conditions and induced faster recovery. This chapter will shed light on the effects of intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients and will discuss clinical data and recent meta-analyses on the topic. While significant beneficial effects on infection rates and the lengths of ICU and hospital stays have concordantly been identified in three recent meta-analyses on non-ICU surgical patients, the level of evidence is not so clear for critically ill patients. Three meta-analyses published in 2012 or 2013 explored data on the ICU population. Although the present data suggest the consideration of enteral nutrition enriched with fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants in mild to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, only one of the three meta-analyses found a trend (p = 0.08) of lower mortality in ICU patients receiving intravenous omega-3 fatty acids. Two of the meta-analyses indicated a significantly shorter hospital stay (5.17-9.49 days), and one meta-analysis found a significant reduction in ICU days (1.92). As a result of these effects, cost savings were postulated. Unlike in surgical patients, the effects of fish oil on infection rates were not found to be statistically significant in ICU patients, and dose-effect relationships were not established for any cohort. Thus, obvious positive secondary outcome effects with intravenous fish oil have not yet been shown to transfer to lower mortality in critically ill patients. There is a need for adequately powered, well-planned and well-conducted randomized trials to give clear recommendations on the individual utility and dosage of intravenous omega-3 fatty acids in critical illness. PMID:25471809

  13. [Three Elderly Female Patients Who Experienced Self-Recovery during End-of-Life Care at Home].

    PubMed

    Ohara, Hiro; Sato, Mutsuko

    2015-12-01

    Recently, after completing hospital treatment, 3 elderly female patients were introduced to our home care department for end-of-life care at home. However, these patients recovered almost by themselves and now spend quiet days. From now on, women became the era they live alone in the statistics on the elderly. On the basis of these 3 cases, it is suggested that elderly female patients have the capacity to overcome conditions such as infectious diseases and digestive system disorders. PMID:26809415

  14. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women. PMID:25778405

  15. Observations of a free-ranging adult female dingo (Canis dingo) and littermates' responses to the death of a pup.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Rob; Smith, Bradley; Jones, Darryl

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to several species of cetaceans and primates, behavioural responses to dead conspecifics have rarely been reported in wild canids. Here we provide details of the responses of an adult female and littermates to a dying and subsequently dead pup, including what appeared to be four instances of transport of the deceased pup by the mother over a two-day period, one of which was directly observed and filmed. We tentatively propose that, in the absence of any evidence of consumption of the pup, its transport by the mother could be interpreted as care-giving behaviour emanating from an enduring mother-infant bond, in a similar vein to what has been suggested for several other species exhibiting such behaviour. PMID:23500482

  16. Increased hair testosterone but unaltered hair cortisol in female patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Spitzer, Carsten; Roepke, Stefan; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have reported on dysfunctions in steroid secretion, including altered cortisol and testosterone levels in borderline personality disorder (BDP) patients compared to healthy controls. The present study extends findings from blood and saliva studies to the cumulative measure of hair steroids. We investigated women with BPD (n=18) and age- and education-matched healthy women (n=17). We did not find differences between BPD patients and healthy women (p=0.40) concerning hair cortisol levels but increased hair testosterone levels among BPD patients compared to controls (p=0.03). These results remained when restricting the analyses to unmedicated patients. Our data indicate altered long-term testosterone but not cortisol levels in females with BPD. Future studies should address the possible impact of altered testosterone on medical illness processes including metabolic syndrome in this population. PMID:27290653

  17. Factitious proteinuria - the most dominant feature in a young female patient with Munchausen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lela, Ivana Vuković; Karanović, Sandra; Matišić, Danica; Kuzmanić, Duško; C Orić, Marijana; Šimić, Mirjana; Jelaković, Bojan

    2013-02-01

    Munchausen syndrome is a factitious disorder with predominantly physical signs and symptoms, resulting from the patient's high motivation for assuming a sick role, without any external incentives or boundaries. We report the case of a young female patient with factitious proteinuria in the nephrotic range and a fairly eventful medical history. After performing many expensive and unnecessary investigations and procedures,the real origin of the proteinuria was determined;it was found to be caused by the patient carefully adding calibrated egg albumin to her urine samples. This discovery roused suspicions about multiple, non-corroborated conditions from her history (e.g., multiple miscarriages, breast cancer, and thyroid disorders).The diversity of diseases presented by a single Munchausen patient tends to be bizarre,and thus is a challenge for health care providers to diagnose the condition. Teamwork is therefore of the utmost necessity to diagnose Munchausen syndrome. PMID:23364208

  18. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults: A French Nationwide Study Enrolling 41 Patients.

    PubMed

    Audemard-Verger, A; Descloux, E; Ponard, D; Deroux, A; Fantin, B; Fieschi, C; John, M; Bouldouyre, A; Karkowsi, L; Moulis, G; Auvinet, H; Valla, F; Lechiche, C; Davido, B; Martinot, M; Biron, C; Lucht, F; Asseray, N; Froissart, A; Buzelé, R; Perlat, A; Boutboul, D; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V; Isnard, S; Bienvenu, B

    2016-05-01

    Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies.A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis.Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15-67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1-10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35% (n = 14

  19. Perioperative Hemoglobin Trajectory in Adult Cardiac Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Tung, Hon-Ming Andrew; Slater, Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Preoperative anemia and nadir hemoglobin (Hb) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been identified as significant risk factors for blood transfusion during cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to confirm the association between preoperative anemia, perioperative fluid management, and blood transfusion. In addition, the proportion of elective cardiac surgery patients presenting for surgery with anemia was identified to examine whether the opportunity exists for timely diagnosis and intervention. Data from referral until hospital discharge were comprehensively reviewed over a 12-month period for all nonemergency cardiac surgical patients operated on in our institution. Of the 342 patients identified, elective cases were referred a median of 35 days before preoperative clinic and operated on a median of 14 days subsequently. Subacute cases had a median of 3 days from referral to surgery. As per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for anemia, 24.2% of elective and 29.6% of subacute patients were anemic. Blood transfusion was administered to 46.2% of patients during their admission. Transfusion was more likely in patients who were female (odds ratio [OR]: 2.45, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.28–4.70), had a low body mass index (BMI) (OR: .89, 95% CI: .84–.94), preoperative anemia (OR: 5.15, 95% CI: 2.59–10.24), or renal impairment (OR: 5.44, 95% CI: 2.42–12.22). Hemodilution minimization strategies reduced the Hb fall during CPB, but not transfusion rates. This study identifies a high prevalence of preoperative anemia with sufficient time for elective referrals to undergo appropriate diagnosis and interventions. It also confirms that low red cell mass (anemia and low BMI) and renal impairment are predictors of perioperative blood transfusion. Perfusion strategies to reduce hemodilution are effective at minimizing the intraoperative fall in Hb concentration but did not influence transfusion rate. PMID:26543251

  20. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26020354

  1. Imatinib-induced dental hyperpigmentation in chronic myeloid leukemia in an adult female

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Prabhat; Singh, Omkar; Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Upadhyay, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    The course of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has changed since the introduction of imatinb, and its side-effects are still being reported. We are reporting a case of a CML patient who presented to us with discoloration of the upper front teeth following 6 months of therapy with imatinib. On detailed evaluation, the patient was found to have imatinib-induced dental hyperpigmentation. PMID:26729966

  2. One-year assessment of physical activity level in adult Qatari females: a pedometer-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Suzan; Van Der Walt, Mercia; Al-Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing health concern and has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. The Arab region includes countries with some of the world’s highest physical inactivity levels, such as Qatar, more specifically the Qatari female population. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the physical activity levels of Qatari national female adults during a 1-year pedometer-based program. Materials and methods A total of 549 Qatari national females aged between 18 years and 64 years were included. Data extracted from “Step into Health” program web database in Qatar were used for analyses. Daily habitual physical activity (daily total step count and aerobic steps) was assessed through the Omron HJ-324U pedometer. Step counts were classified as follows: <5,000 steps/d, sedentary; 5,000–7,499 steps/d, low active; and ≥7,500 steps/d, physically active. Statistical significance was set at P-value ≤0.05. Descriptive statistics were used, and habitual physical activity was calculated through repeated measures analysis of variance to determine the difference across the monitored days. Results Mean age was 37.4±11.7 years, and median body mass index of 28.8 kg/m2 (interquartile range 24.8–33.5). Daily steps for the overall population ranged from 3,505 steps/d to 10,010 steps/d, with a median of 6,008 steps/d. A total of 242 (44.1%) females were sedentary, 178 (32.4%) were low active, and 129 (23.5%) were physically active. The physically active group showed a median of 927 aerobic steps/d (interquartile range 0–4,248). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, Qatari females are not meeting the global recommendations of physical activity. Future research might need to consider barriers to physical activity as well as social, cultural, and environmental factors. PMID:27486343

  3. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  4. Prosthodontic treatment of the edentulous adult cleft palate patient.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Leanne M

    2003-03-01

    Clefts of the upper lip and plate are relatively common, yet dental treatment of these patients is still very poor and many grow up suffering dental neglect. Dental practitioners should become involved in the treatment team as dental needs are present from birth to death. Adult cleft patients often need tooth replacement with obturation of any residual clefts. They are best treated with tooth-supported removable appliances including partial and complete overdentures, thus preservation of their natural dentition is desirable. Edentulous cleft palate patients present with restorative difficulties due to their compromised maxillary arches as well as the presence of scar tissue in their palates and lips. An outline of these complications and guidelines for their treatment is illustrated in the form of three case reports from members of one family all presenting with varying cleft lip and palate defects. This article highlights the need for dental students to be exposed to dentally compromised patients so that they will feel confident enough to treat them in private practice. PMID:12800267

  5. Factors Associated with Pregnancy Attempts among Female Young Adult Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Gorman, Jessica R.; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Chung, Karine; Su, H. Irene

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose Little is known about pregnancy attempts among female young cancer survivors (YCS). We sought to determine fertility preservation (FP), demographic, cancer and reproductive characteristics associated with pregnancy attempts after cancer. Methods We recruited 251 female YCS (ages 18-44) to complete a survey on reproductive health outcomes. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate relative risks (RR) for characteristics associated with pregnancy attempts. Results For the entire cohort, median time since cancer diagnosis was 2.4 years (interquartile range 4.0). Fifty-two YCS (21%) attempted pregnancy after cancer diagnosis. In unadjusted analyses, lack of FP therapy prior to cancer treatment, older age, partnered relationship, higher income, history of stem cell or bone marrow transplant, and longer duration of survivorship were significantly associated with pregnancy attempts. In multivariable analyses, YCS who did not undergo FP therapy were more than twice as likely to attempt pregnancy as those who did undergo FP therapy (RR 2.4, 95%CI 1.3, 4.3). Partnered status (RR 7.1, 95%CI 2.5, 20.2) and >2 years since cancer diagnosis (RR 2.3, 95%CI 1.3, 4.1) were also significantly associated with attempts. Conclusions In YCS, milestones including partnered relationships and longer duration of cancer survivorship are important to attempting pregnancy. A novel, inverse association between FP therapy and pregnancy attempts warrants further study. Implications for Cancer Survivors Pregnancy attempts after cancer were more likely after attaining both social and cancer-related milestones. As these milestones require time, YCS should be made aware of their potential for concomitant, premature loss of fertility in order to preserve their range of fertility options. PMID:24859010

  6. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism. PMID:26769161

  7. A global research synthesis of HIV and STI biobehavioural risks in female-to-male transgender adults.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Murchison, Gabriel R

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in HIV infection and sexually transmitted infection (STI) disease burden and risk among transgender people globally; however, the majority of work has been conducted with male-to-female transgender populations. This research synthesis comprehensively reviews HIV and STI research in female-to-male (FTM) transgender adults. A paucity of research exists about HIV and STIs in FTMs. Only 25 peer-reviewed papers (18 quantitative, 7 qualitative) and 11 'grey literature' reports were identified, most in the US or Canada, that include data identifying HIV and STI risks in FTMs (five with fully laboratory-confirmed HIV and/or STIs, and five with partial laboratory confirmation). Little is known about the sexual and drug use risk behaviours contributing to HIV and STIs in FTMs. Future directions are suggested, including the need for routine surveillance and monitoring of HIV and STIs globally by transgender identity, more standardised sexual risk assessment measures, targeted data collection in lower- and middle-income countries, and explicit consideration of the rationale for inclusion/exclusion of FTMs in category-based prevention approaches with MSM and transgender people. Implications for research, policy, programming, and interventions are discussed, including the need to address diverse sexual identities, attractions, and behaviours and engage local FTM communities. PMID:26785800

  8. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2), and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; p=.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=.036; p=.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted. PMID:25640769

  9. Conservative treatment of a young patient with thyroid carcinoma in adult ovarian teratoma - case report.

    PubMed

    Cymbaluk-Ploska, Aneta; Chudecka-Głaz, Anita; Chosia, Maria; Ashuryk, Olgierd; Menkiszak, Janusz

    2014-03-01

    The cystic mature teratomas, including dermoid cysts, are one of the most frequently occurring benign ovarian tumors diagnosed in female patients. The process of neoplastic transformation in mature dermoid cysts is applicable only to 1-2% of cases. In our article, we present a rare case of thyroid carcinoma development in adult teratoma in 21-year-old patient. The young age, certain pathomorphological features and clinical data (small size of neoplastic lesion, correct values of tumour markers, unilateral character, regular levels of thyreoglobulin and absence of any significant deviations in imaging examinations), were the basis for attempting to apply the conservative treatment both in the scope of gynecological surgery and in the supplemental endocrinological therapy. In the patient, the one-sided adnexectomy was performed, considering pathological lesions on the adnexa, as well as the other ovary dermoid cyst was enucleated, without the hysteroctomy procedure. Considering the lack of any morphological lesions and functional changes relating to thyroid gland, the treatment was not radicalised in this scope, either. At present, one year after the primary operation treatment, the patient does not manifest any disease symptoms, whereas the other ovary, in the follow-up ultrasound examinations, shows normal size and echostructure. The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression keeps being applied. PMID:24397359

  10. Systematic review of surgical treatment techniques for adult and pediatric patients with pectus excavatum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This compares outcome measures of current pectus excavatum (PEx) treatments, namely the Nuss and Ravitch procedures, in pediatric and adult patients. Original investigations that stratified PEx patients based on current treatment and age (pediatric = 0–21; adult 17–99) were considered for inclusion. Outcome measures were: operation duration, analgesia duration, blood loss, length of stay (LOS), outcome ratings, complications, and percentage requiring reoperations. Adult implant patients (18.8%) had higher reoperation rates than adult Nuss or Ravitch patients (5.3% and 3.3% respectively). Adult Nuss patients had longer LOS (7.3 days), more strut/bar displacement (6.1%), and more epidural analgesia (3 days) than adult Ravitch patients (2.9 days, 0%, 0 days). Excluding pectus bar and strut displacements, pediatric and adult Nuss patients tended to have higher complication rates (pediatric - 38%; adult - 21%) compared to pediatric and adult Ravitch patients (12.5%; 8%). Pediatric Ravitch patients clearly had more strut displacements than adult Ravitch patients (0% and 6.4% respectively). These results suggest significantly better results in common PEx surgical repair techniques (i.e. Nuss and Ravitch) than uncommon techniques (i.e. Implants and Robicsek). The results suggest slightly better outcomes in pediatric Nuss procedure patients as compared with all other groups. We recommend that symptomatic pediatric patients with uncomplicated PEx receive the Nuss procedure. We suggest that adult patients receive the Nuss or Ravitch procedure, even though the long-term complication rates of the adult Nuss procedure require more investigation. PMID:24506826

  11. New regulations for oral contraceptive prescription in France in 2013: what is the impact on adult female acne?

    PubMed

    Leclerc-Mercier, Stéphanie; Buisson, Virginie; Dreno, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    In 2012, a young French woman lodged a complaint against a pharmaceutical company having suffered a cerebral stroke. The French health authority recommended all prescribers of hormonal contraception (HCP) to favour second-generation HCP. To evaluate the consequences of these recommendations on female acne. A prospective multicentre study using a standardised questionnaire completed by 1,724 women. The mean age was 26.57 years; 58.7% of the women had changed their HCP during the last 12 months. The initial ratio of first or second/third or fourth-generation drugs was 5.5%/82.9% which changed after the recommendations to 70.6%/29.4%. Among the patients who switched from third or fourth to first or second-generation drugs, 83.9% considered that their acne had worsened (p<0.0001). In those patients who received a local acne treatment, 72.1% had additional systemic treatment. This study confirms the important rise in prescriptions of first or second-generation HCP. This switch has resulted in a significant increase in acne, requiring treatment for the large majority of patients, thus confirming the role of a hormonal factor in female acne. PMID:27312707

  12. A model for autumn pelagic distribution of adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Seas, 1987-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    We made predictions of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) autumn distribution in the Chukchi Sea with a Resource Selection Function (RSF) developed from 1198 satellite radio-collar locations on 124 adult female polar bears, 1987 – 1994. The RSF was created to assist in an aerial survey design for polar bears proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The RSF was based on bathymetry and daily sea ice covariates extracted from passive microwave satellite imagery within the pelagic region > 25 km from shore. The RSF indicated that polar bears selected habitats with intermediate amounts (~50%) of ice cover in close proximity to higher ice concentrations, and over relatively shallow waters. The RSF showed good predictive abilities for the years of its construct, worked best in October, and was robust to inter-annual variability. When evaluated with recent (1997 – 2005) data, the RSF performed well for October and November but poorly in September. This loss of predictive abilities appeared to be related to recent changes in habitat due to longer melt seasons and younger sea ice, and testing the retrospective model with a small sample of recent polar bears locations from a limited region of the Chukchi Sea. Contemporary applications of this RSF must consider three factors that could limit its utility: 1) 2 different sea ice phenology; 2) distributions of males and sub-adults; and 3) occupancy in nearshore habitats.

  13. ICRP Publication 116--the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-09-21

    ICRP Publication 116 on 'Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the 'conventional' energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116. PMID:25144220

  14. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-09-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116.

  15. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  16. Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Madeira, M D; Cadete-Leite, A; Andrade, J P; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1991-12-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism upon the structure of the central nervous system of adult rats are poorly understood in spite of evidence that the mature brain is vulnerable to this condition. Existing developmental studies show that the morphological changes induced by thyroid hormone deficiency are related to alterations in neurogenesis. We studied the granular layer of the dentate gyrus under different experimental conditions of hypothyroidism, because in rodents the neurogenesis of the granule cells continues during adulthood. The following groups of rats were analysed: 1) control; 2) hypothyroid from day 0 until day 180 (hypothyroid group); 3) hypothyroid until day 30 and henceforth maintained euthyroid (recovery group); and 4) hypothyroid since day 30 (adult hypothyroid group). Groups of 6 male rats and 6 female rats were analysed separately. The volume of the dentate gyrus granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were evaluated, so we were able to estimate the total number of granule cells. Because in the experimental groups the volume of the granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were reduced, the total number of granule cells was decreased. In the hypothyroid and recovery groups the alterations were identical and more striking than in the adult hypothyroid groups. The total number of granule cells displayed sexual differences in all groups studied except in the hypothyroid groups. The present results support the view that thyroid hormone deficiency interferes with the process of cell acquisition by reducing neuronal proliferation and that it also leads to increased cell death. These events underlie the irreversible morphological changes observed in the brain of hypothyroid rats, either during development or at maturity. The referred structural alterations are probably related to the functional deficits observed in this condition. PMID:1797872

  17. Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient.

    PubMed Central

    Stabin, M G

    1997-01-01

    The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern in evaluating radiation dose and risk in nuclear medicine. The female's overall body size and organ sizes generally are smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics); female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry (urinary bladder, liver, kidneys, intestines); risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; and in the case of pregnancy, exposure to radiation of the embryo/fetus and the nursing infant are of special concern in such an analysis. All these concerns are addressed in this study through a comparative study of radiation doses for males and females over a large number (approximately 60) of nuclear medicine studies and through a study of what is known about radiation dosimetry in pregnancy and breast feeding. It was found that women's critical organ doses and effective doses (as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 [ICRP 60] are about 25% higher than those for men across all these studies. Women's gonad doses, however, may be as much as 10 to 30 times higher than those in men, although 2- to 3-fold differences are common. Many radiopharmaceuticals are administered to women of childbearing age; however, little is known about how much activity crosses the placenta and about the biokinetics in the fetus should it occur. Nonetheless, dose estimates are provided at four stages of pregnancy (early, 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month gestation) for a large number of radiopharmaceuticals, whether or not quantitative estimates of placental crossover can be made. Many radiopharmaceuticals are also excreted in breast milk of nursing mothers. Breast feeding interruption schedules are suggested through analysis of the observed kinetics of these pharmaceuticals and

  18. Risk factors for low molar bite force in adult orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Malene Krogh; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to analyse which parameters in a standard orthodontic material are most important for identifying factors for low bite force. Such analyses have not previously been reported in adult orthodontic patients. The sample comprised 95 adults (67 females and 28 males) aged 18-55 years sequentially admitted for conventional orthodontic treatment. All subjects had moderate to severe malocclusions. Bite force was measured by a pressure transducer, craniofacial dimensions and head posture were measured on profile radiographs, number of teeth in contact were evaluated with a plastic strip in intercuspidal position, and symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were evaluated by TMD screening. Associations were assessed by Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test, and multiple stepwise regression analyses. Associations were found between bite force and craniofacial dimensions as mandibular prognathia (S-N-Pg, P < 0.05; S-N-sm, P < 0.05), sagittal jaw relationship (SS-N-Pg, P < 0.05), mandibular inclination (NSL/ML, P < 0.05), and mandibular plane angle (ML/RL, P < 0.01) and between bite force and TMD symptoms (P < 0.05) and TMD signs (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that gender (P < 0.001), TMD symptoms (P < 0.01), and mandibular plane angle (P < 0.001) were the most important factors for the magnitude of the bite force in adult orthodontic patients (R (2) = 0.32). The results showed that particularly women with TMD symptoms and an increased mandibular plane angle are at risk of having low bite force. This may prove valuable in the clinic, especially in orthodontic cases with an increased need for vertical anchorage during treatment. PMID:22291432

  19. Preference for One or Two Hearing Aids among Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robyn M; Schwartz, Kathryn S.; Noe, Colleen M.; Alexander, Genevieve C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Most practitioners believe that use of two hearing aids is the ideal fitting for adults with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss. However, previous research has consistently shown that a substantial proportion of these patients actually prefer to use only one hearing aid. The current study explored whether this pattern of preferences is seen with technologically advanced hearing aids. In addition, a selection of variables that were available pre-fitting were used to attempt to predict which patients will prefer one hearing aid rather than two. Design The study was designed as a 12-week field trial including structured and unstructured use of one and two hearing aids. Ninety-four subjects with mild to moderate bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss were bilaterally fit with 2005-2007 era hearing aids. Potential predictors included demographic, audiometric, auditory lifestyle, personality, and binaural processing variables. After the field trial, each subject stated his/her preference for one or two hearing aids and completed three self-report outcome questionnaires for their preferred fitting. Results Previous research was confirmed with modern technology hearing aids: after the field trial 46% of the subjects preferred to use one hearing aid rather than two. Subjects who preferred two hearing aids tended to report better real-world outcomes than those who preferred one. Subjects who reported more hearing problems in daily life, who experienced more binaural loudness summation, and whose ears were more equivalent in dichotic listening were more likely to prefer to use two hearing aids. Contrary to conventional wisdom (ideas that are generally accepted as true), audiometric hearing loss and auditory lifestyle were not predictive of aiding preference. However, the best predictive approach from these data yielded accurate predictions for only two-thirds of subjects. Conclusions Evidence-based practice calls for a conscientious melding of current evidence

  20. Identifying Adult Dengue Patients at Low Risk for Clinically Significant Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Joshua G. X.; Thein, Tun Linn; Leo, Yee-Sin; Pang, Junxiong; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically significant bleeding is important for subsequent optimal case management in dengue patients, but most studies have focused on dengue severity as an outcome. Our study objective was to identify differences in admission parameters between patients who developed clinically significant bleeding and those that did not. We sought to develop a model for discriminating between these patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 4,383 adults aged >18 years who were hospitalized with dengue infection at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2005 to 2008. Patients were divided into those with clinically significant bleeding (n = 188), and those without (n = 4,195). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on admission were compared between groups to determine factors associated with clinically significant bleeding during hospitalization. Results On admission, female gender (p<0.001); temperature >38°C (p<0.001); nausea/vomiting (p = 0.009) and abdominal pain/tenderness (p = 0.005); lower systolic blood pressure (p<0.001); higher pulse rate (p<0.001); increased absolute neutrophil count (ANC; p<0.001); reduced absolute lymphocyte count (ALC; p<0.001), haematocrit percentage (p<0.001) and platelet count (p = 0.04), and increased prothrombin time (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with clinically significant bleeding on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that independent variables in the final model were female gender (aOR 2.85; 95% CI: 1.9–4.33); temperature >38°C (aOR 1.81; 95% CI: 1.27–2.61), nausea/vomiting (aOR 1.39; 95% CI: 0.94–2.12), ANC (aOR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.15–1.46), ALC (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.25–0.64), hematocrit percentage (aOR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92–1.002) and platelet count (aOR 0.993; 95% CI: 0.988–0.998). At the cutoff of -3.919, the model achieved an AUC of 0.758 (sensitivity:0.87, specificity: 0.38, PPV: 0.06, NPV: 0.98). Conclusion Clinical risk factors associated with clinically significant

  1. Average ambulatory measures of sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and vocal dose do not differ between adult females with phonotraumatic lesions and matched control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Burns, James A.; Barbu, Anca M.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Clinical management of phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions (nodules, polyps) is based largely on assumptions that abnormalities in habitual levels of sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (f0), and/or amount of voice use play a major role in lesion development and chronic persistence. This study used ambulatory voice monitoring to evaluate if significant differences in voice use exist between patients with phonotraumatic lesions and normal matched controls. Methods Subjects were 70 adult females: 35 with vocal fold nodules or polyps and 35 age-, sex-, and occupation-matched normal individuals. Weeklong summary statistics of voice use were computed from anterior neck surface acceleration recorded using a smartphone-based ambulatory voice monitor. Results Paired t-tests and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests resulted in no statistically significant differences between patients and matched controls regarding average measures of SPL, f0, vocal dose measures, and voicing/voice rest periods. Paired t-tests comparing f0 variability between the groups resulted in statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes. Conclusions Individuals with phonotraumatic lesions did not exhibit differences in average ambulatory measures of vocal behavior when compared with matched controls. More refined characterizations of underlying phonatory mechanisms and other potentially contributing causes are warranted to better understand risk factors associated with phonotraumatic lesions. PMID:26024911

  2. [Gene mutation analysis of coagulation factor VIII from a female patient with hemophilia A].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Yan, Nai-hong; Jia, Yong-qian; Lu, Yi-lu; Yu, Jiang; Cao, Gui-qun; Chen, Qing-ying; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Fa-qiang; Xia, Oing-jie

    2006-05-01

    Hemophilia A affects male, whereas females are carriers and generally spared from this disease. However, we here reported a 65-year-old female with Hemophilia A while screening the gene mutation of coagulation factor VIII. The female went to hospital because of tripping to lead her right chest to be injured with subcutaneous hematoma. She had historically a hemorrhagic diathesis. The physical examination discovered her hip limited to bend and move, but no discrepancy length between her two legs. The initial laboratory tests showed that the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was 61. 3 seconds (20-40 seconds), and the APTT corrected by mixing with normal plasma was 41.3 s, but the levels of PT, FIB and TT were normal. The plain radiographs revealed the hip joints to suffer from the acetabular dysplasia and osteoarthritis. The level of FVIII:C was 2%, F IX:C 200%, vWF:Ag 120%, vWF:Rcof 100%, vWF:CBA 128%, and the F VIII binding assay to vWF was normal. The primers for exon 14 of F VIII gene were designed according to the NM - 000132 gene sequence. DNA was abstracted from the patient blood. PCR were carried out and the DNA sequence was followed. A new mutation of 4111A-->C was discovered, which caused the amino acid sequence changed (T 1314 P). The mutation of T 1314 P may be the cause of this female patient to get the hemophilia A. This mutation was a novel one which has never been reported before. PMID:16761442

  3. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  4. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  5. Correlates of human papillomavirus vaccine series completion among young adult female initiators

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H; McGrath, Christine; Berenson, Abbey B

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine the correlates of vaccine series completion among 18–26 year old US women using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Using BRFSS data collected during 2008–2010, we conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the correlates of HPV vaccine completion among HPV vaccine initiators. Among 656 women (18–26 years old) who initiated the HPV vaccine, the overall weighted vaccine series completion rate was 60.7%. It was 32.9%, 65.3%, and 69.9% in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Black and Hispanic women were less likely to complete the series compared with white women. Higher income, having a college degree and completion of the study in a more recent year were associated with higher completion rates. Thus, the reasons for HPV series non-completion may be multifactorial. Interventions targeting 18–26 year old female vaccine initiators with low income and education, and minority backgrounds may improve HPV vaccine series completion. PMID:25424919

  6. Cultural predictors of self-esteem: a study of Chinese American female and male young adults.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J L; Ying, Y W; Lee, P A

    2001-08-01

    This study examined how specific domains of cultural orientation (language, social affiliation, and cultural pride) related to self-esteem for a sample of 174 Chinese American male and 179 Chinese American female college students. Participants completed measures of cultural orientation (General Ethnicity Questionnaire; J.L. Tsai, Y.W. Ying, & P.A. Lee, 2000) and self-esteem (M. Rosenberg, 1965). Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem, above and beyond the contribution of age, gender, grade point average, and socioeconomic status. Specifically, proficiency in English and Chinese languages and pride in Chinese culture were positively correlated with self-esteem, whereas affiliation with Chinese people was negatively correlated with selfesteem. The cultural predictors of self-esteem differed for Chinese American men and women. Whereas self-esteem was mainly related to pride in Chinese culture for Chinese American women, self-esteem was mainly related to English and Chinese language proficiency for Chinese American men. Implications of these findings for understanding Asian Americans are discussed. PMID:11506074

  7. Long-Term Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment on Sexuality in Female Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren; Midgren, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Results from a previous study showed that sexuality was negatively affected in females with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data are sparse on the long-term effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sexual difficulties and sexual distress in female patients with OSA. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects after 1 year of CPAP treatment on sexual difficulties, sexual distress, and manifest sexual dysfunction in female patients with OSA. The effect of CPAP on life satisfaction was also investigated. Methods Fifty-four therapy-compliant, female patients (age 22–71) received a survey before and after 1 year of nocturnal CPAP treatment. The questions on this survey were drawn from three self-administered questionnaires: two on sexuality and one on life satisfaction. The results were compared with a population sample. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used for assessment of daytime sleepiness. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, Manifest Female Sexual Dysfunction, four questions from Life Satisfaction 11, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were all used to measure outcome. Results In total, 44 patients responded to the survey (81% response rate). The results were a significant, positive change in manifest female sexual dysfunction, but no significant changes in isolated sexual difficulties or sexual distress. Daytime sleepiness significantly decreased after 1 year. The results from the Life Satisfaction 11 questionnaire remained unchanged after 1 year. Conclusions After 1 year of CPAP treatment, female patients with OSA reported reduced manifest sexual dysfunction. However, it cannot be concluded if this result is due to CPAP treatment alone. Furthermore, reduced daytime tiredness was found in the surveyed population. CPAP treatment, per se, does not seem to affect partner relationships. Petersen M, Kristensen E, Berg S, and Midgren B. Long

  8. Organ S values and effective doses for family members exposed to adult patients following I-131 treatment: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Mcguire, Lynn; Brown, Tracy L. Y.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To calculate organ S values (mGy/Bq-s) and effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv/Bq-s) for pediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult male or female patient treated with I-131 using a series of hybrid computational phantoms coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport technique.Methods: A series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantoms were employed in the study. Three different exposure scenarios were considered: (1) standing face-to-face exposures between an adult patient and pediatric or adult family phantoms at five different separation distances; (2) an adult female patient holding her newborn child, and (3) a 1-yr-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient. For the adult patient model, two different thyroid-related diseases were considered: hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with corresponding internal distributions of {sup 131}I. A general purpose Monte Carlo code, MCNPX v2.7, was used to perform the Monte Carlo radiation transport.Results: The S values show a strong dependency on age and organ location within the family phantoms at short distances. The S values and effective dose per time-integrated activity from the adult female patient phantom are relatively high at shorter distances and to younger family phantoms. At a distance of 1 m, effective doses per time-integrated activity are lower than those values based on the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) by a factor of 2 for both adult male and female patient phantoms. The S values to target organs from the hyperthyroid-patient source distribution strongly depend on the height of the exposed family phantom, so that their values rapidly decrease with decreasing height of the family phantom. Active marrow of the 10-yr-old phantom shows the highest S values among family phantoms for the DTC-patient source distribution. In the exposure scenario of mother and baby, S values and effective doses per time-integrated activity to

  9. Phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in female patients with goiter.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Dowli, Alexander; Jabbour, Jad; Sabri, Alain; Azar, Sami T

    2016-07-01

    Our objective is to report on the prevalence of phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in a group of female patients with goiter who had not been selected for surgery or who had not presented to the emergency room with respiratory distress. A total of 40 patients with goiter and 14 controls were enrolled in this study. Demographic data included age, sex, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, allergy, smoking, duration of disease, presence or absence of compressive symptoms, presence or absence of thyroid gland nodules, vascular status, presence or absence of calcifications, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Phonatory symptoms included hoarseness, vocal fatigue, vocal straining, lump sensation, and aphonia. The Voice Handicap Index 10 was used to assess the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life. The most common phonatory symptom in the patients with goiter was vocal fatigue followed by lump sensation. The only phonatory symptom that was significantly more present in patients with goiter was vocal straining. As for the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life, 15.8% of goiter patients had a Voice Handicap Index score >7 compared with 7.7% of controls. Phonatory symptoms are common in patients with goiter, with vocal straining occurring significantly more frequently than in controls. In 1 of 6 patients, the presence of phonatory symptoms had an impact on quality of life. PMID:27434485

  10. Attachment and Parenting in Adult Patients with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Gennaro, Giancarlo Di; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. Methods: A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results: The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother’s care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Conclusions: Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions. PMID:24155770

  11. Pediatric and Young Adult Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated With Preradiation Cisplatin and Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Varan, Ali Ozyar, Enis; Corapcioglu, Funda; Koeksal, Yavuz; Aydin, Burca; Yazici, Nalan; Akyuez, Canan; Bueyuekpamukcu, Muenevver

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment results for pediatric and young adult (aged <21 years) patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant cisplatin + docetaxel and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who received diagnoses between 2004 and 2007 were treated with four cycles of cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} + docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 with premedication every 3 weeks. All patients were treated with fractionated external beam radiotherapy after chemotherapy to a median dose of 59.4 Gy (range, 54-59.4 Gy) to the primary disease and 40 Gy to the supraclavicular field with the clavicles shielded. Five children were monitored with serum EBV DNA quantification at diagnosis, after each cycle of chemotherapy, before radiotherapy, and at follow-up. Results: The median age of the patients was 14 years (range, 9-20 years), with a male:female ratio of 6:4. Stage distribution was as follows: 2 patients had Stage IIb disease, 2 had Stage III, 4 had Stage IVa, and 2 had Stage IVb disease. After cisplatin+docetaxel chemotherapy 1 patient had a complete response, 5 had a partial response, 3 had stable disease, and 1 had disease progression. The 2-year overall survival rate in our series was 90% and the event-free survival rate was 70%. No major chemotherapy toxicity was observed. The EBV DNA titers were higher in 2 of the 5 monitored patients at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion: As neoadjuvant chemotherapy before radiotherapy, the cisplatin+docetaxel combination is safe for use in the treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  12. Aerodigestive Foreign Bodies in Adult Ethiopian Patients: A Prospective Study at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Foreign bodies (FBs) in the aerodigestive tract are important causes of morbidity and mortality and pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The best method of removal of an esophageal and tracheobronchial FB is endoscopic guided extraction. Objective. To present our experience of the removal of aerodigestive FBs in adult Ethiopian patients using rigid endoscopes. Methods. A hospital-based prospective study, at Tikur Anbessa Referral and Teaching Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012 (over two years). Results. A total of 32 patients (18 males and 14 females) with a mean age of 28.0 ± 12.74 years were treated for FB ingestion and aspiration at Tikur Anbessa Hospital. The FBs were impacted at the esophagus in 18 (56.2%) patients, at the pharynx in 7 (21.8%), and at the air way in 7 (21.8%) patients. Pieces of bones were the commonest objects found in the esophagus (17/18 of the cases) and the pharynx (4/7), while fractured tracheostomy tubes and needles were frequently seen in the air way (3/7 cases each). The foreign bodies were visible in plain radiographs of 26 (81.2%) patients. Successful extraction of FBs was achieved by using Mc gill forceps in 11 cases, rigid esophagoscopes in 9 patients, and bronchoscopes in 4 cases. Four cases required open surgery to remove the foreign bodies. Two complications (one pneumothorax and one esophageal perforation) occurred. All patients were discharged cured. Discussion and Recommendations. Aerodigestive FBs are not so rare in the hospital and timely diagnosis and removal of accidentally ingested and aspirated foreign body should be performed so as to avoid the potentially lethal complications associated. Rigid esophagoscopy requires general anesthesia and is associated with its own complications, but our experience and outcome of its use are encouraging. PMID:24834074

  13. Lesions targeted to the anterior forebrain disrupt vocal variability associated with testosterone-induced sensorimotor song development in adult female canaries, Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Melvin L; Ball, Gregory F

    2016-01-01

    Learned communication was a trait observed in a limited number of vertebrates such as humans but also songbirds (i.e., species in the suborder passeri sometimes called oscines). Robust male-biased sex-differences in song development and production have been observed in several songbird species. However, in some of these species treating adult females with testosterone (T) induced neuro-behavioral changes such that females become more male-like in brain and behavior. T-treatment in these adult females seemed to stimulate sensorimotor song development to facilitate song masculinization. In male songbirds it was known that the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN) played a modulatory role during song development. LMAN was androgen sensitive and may be a key target of a T-induced recapitulation of a developmental process in adult females. This hypothesis was tested. Adult female canaries were given either a chemical lesion of LMAN or a control sham-surgery. Prior to surgery birds were individually housed for 2-weeks in sound-attenuated chambers to record baseline vocal behavior. Post-surgery birds were given 1-week to recover before subcutaneous implantation with silastic capsules filled with crystalline-T. Birds remained on treatment for 3-weeks (behavioral recordings continued throughout). Birds with a lesion to LMAN had less variability in their song compared with controls. The diversity of syllable and phrase type(s) was greater in sham controls as compared with birds with LMAN lesions. Birds did not differ in song rate. These data suggested that the sustention and conclusion of T-induced sensorimotor song development in adult female canaries required an intact LMAN. PMID:25864444

  14. Primary Care for the Older Adult Patient: Common Geriatric Issues and Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine; Shi, Sandra; Kiraly, Carmela

    2016-06-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the US population and the majority of older adults are women. Primary care for the older adult patient requires a wide variety of skills, reflecting the complexity and heterogeneity of this patient population. Individualizing care through consideration of patients' goals, medical conditions, and prognosis is paramount. Quality care for the older adult patient requires familiarity with common geriatric syndromes, such as dementia, falls, and polypharmacy. In addition, developing the knowledge and communication skills necessary for complex care and end-of-life care planning is essential. PMID:27212097

  15. [Comparison of serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients and healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Yin, D Z

    1990-05-01

    The contents of 15 trace elements in the sera of 30 liver cancer patients and 30 healthy adults were assayed by ICP-AES method. The data obtained were analysed by routine statistical tests, multi-variate discrimination analysis, multi-variate stepwise regression analysis and non-linear mapping algorithm. The results showed that the contents of copper, vanadium, cadmium, stannum, cobalt, nickel in liver cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy adults. The serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients was different from that of healthy adults. Hence, the liver cancer patients could be differentiated from healthy adults by serum trace element spectrum. PMID:2249593

  16. Fibromyalgia syndrome: is it related to vitamin D deficiency in premenopausal female patients?

    PubMed

    Okumus, Muyesser; Koybası, Mine; Tuncay, Figen; Ceceli, Esma; Ayhan, Figen; Yorgancioglu, Rezan; Borman, Pinar

    2013-12-01

    There are a number of studies that have evaluated the relationship between fibromyalgia (FM) and vitamin D deficiency with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to assess vitamin D deficiency in patients with FM and to evaluate the relationship with the common symptoms of FM and levels of serum vitamin D. Forty premenopausal female fibromyalgia patients and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of all subjects, including age, sex, and body mass index, were recorded. The number of tender points was recorded, and the intensity of the widespread pain of the subjects was measured by the visual analog scale. The activities of daily living component of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-ADL), was used to assess physical functional capacity. Serum vitamin D was measured in both groups, and vitamin D levels <37.5 nmol/L were accepted as vitamin D deficiency. The vitamin D levels and clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patient and control groups were comparatively analyzed. The relationship between vitamin D levels and clinical findings of the FM patients were also determined. The mean age was 41.23 ± 4.8 and 39.48 ± 4.08 years for the patient and control groups, respectively. The pain intensity, number of tender points, and FIQ-ADL scores were higher in FM patients than in control subjects. The mean levels of vitamin D in the patient and control groups were determined to be 31.97 ± 15.50 and 28.97 ± 13.31 nmol/L, respectively (p > .05). The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was similar between the patient and control groups (67.5% vs. 70%). Vitamin D levels significantly correlated with pain intensity (r = -0.653; p = .001) and FIQ-ADL scores in the FM group (r = -0.344; p = .030). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that deficiency of vitamin D is not more common in premenopausal female patients with FM than in control subjects without FM. However, the association

  17. Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Al Ashry, Haitham S.; Modrykamien, Ariel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions. PMID:25089275

  18. Research proposal: evaluation of ART in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Régia Luzia

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) is to reduce the indication of tooth extraction by means of a low-cost technique. Considering the difficulties of Brazilian public services to meet the demand of care of the low-income population, with lack of care to the adult population, which usually receives only emergency care, the aim of this study is to assess the performance of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements accomplished by the modified atraumatic restorative treatment in one- and multiple-surface cavities, compared to the conventional restorative approach. It will be analyzed the clinical performance of the materials; cost (material and human resources); patient satisfaction with the treatment received; and preventive effect of treatment. PMID:19089083

  19. Prenatal nicotine exposure increases anxiety and modifies sensorimotor integration behaviors in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Sarah E; Huffman, Kelly J

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to nicotine (PNE) has been associated with a myriad of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral effects in the developing offspring. In this study, CD-1 dams were given injections of nicotine or control vehicle throughout gestation and their offspring were raised to 6 months of age. Adult mice were administered a battery of behavioral tests (the Suok test, the elevated platform test, and the elevated plus maze test) to assess anxiety and sensorimotor integration. PNE resulted in a decreased likelihood of jumping during the elevated platform test and decreased directed exploration in the Suok test, both indicative of increased anxiety. Also, PNE mice showed increased numbers of missteps while traversing an elevated rod in the Suok test, demonstrating altered sensorimotor integration. No significant differences were found in falls, segments traveled, latency to leave the central zone, vegetative responses, risk assessment behaviors, or autogroom behaviors. The elevated plus maze test revealed no significant differences between groups. No significant differences in body and brain weights, or cortical thickness within motor, somatosensory, and visual cortices were observed between PNE and control mice. Although neuroanatomical effects of PNE may be rescued as development progresses, defects in sensorimotor integration and increased anxiety persist into adulthood. PMID:24157430

  20. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  1. Complication of Anterior Iliac Bone Graft Harvesting in 372 Adult Patients from May 2006 to May 2011 and a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Almaiman, Manar; Al-Bargi, Hamed H.; Manson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous bone graft from the iliac is considered the gold standard graft material in maxillofacial surgery. The common and the rare complications associated with harvesting bone from anterior iliac crest were reviewed; we recommend a safe technique to avoid these complications. A retrospective analysis of 372 adult patients who had undergone anterior iliac bone graft harvesting from May 2006 to May 2011. The patients age range from 21 to 63 years. Out of the 372 patients, 200 were male with age range from 21 to 63 years and 172 were female with age range from 22 to 59 years. Two major complications (fracture and seroma) occurred, a fracture of the anterior superior iliac spine was observed in two patients (0.538%); one male and one female. One female patient (0.269%) developed seroma. One minor complication occurred in three patients (0.806%); one female and two females who suffered from temporary sensory disturbance. All patients (100%) suffered pain maximum for the first 15 days postoperative. In our study; the morbidity after anterior iliac bone graft harvesting was found to be low due to the technique, utilizing the proper instruments, gentle and minimal mobilization of the graft. PMID:24436771

  2. Adult patients with Fontan circulation: What we know and how to manage adults with Fontan circulation?

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    Most of patients after the Fontan operation can reach their adulthood, however, the management strategy for this complex pathophysiology has not been yet established. In general, elevated central venous pressure (CVP) and low cardiac output (CO) due to impaired ventricular preload characterize the Fontan circulation and the ideal hemodynamics could be a combination of a lower CVP with a higher CO. Thus, preserved functional systemic ventricle with low pulmonary artery resistance is thought to be crucial for better long-term outcome. However, on the other hand, because of the unique hemodynamics, these patients have significantly higher incidence of complications, sequelae, and even mortality. The major complications are supraventricular arrhythmias, heart failure, and Fontan-related problems, including protein-losing enteropathy and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae, both of which are refractory to the treatments, and most of these "Fontan inconveniences" increase as patients age. In addition, one of the recent emerging problems is Fontan-associated liver disease that includes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, women with Fontan circulation also reach childbearing age and there have been increasing numbers of reports showing a high incidence of pregnancy-associated complications. All these problems may be a part of "Fontan inconveniences" because most of the current Fontan patients are still "young" i.e. in their twenties or thirties and it may be not surprising that more new Fontan-associated pathophysiology emerges as patients age. Recent evidence reminds us of the concept that adult Fontan pathophysiology is not just a cardiovascular disease, rather, a multiorgan disease with many interactions between cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular organs. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to take care of and anticipate the better long-term outcome. PMID:27134136

  3. Does long-term swimming participation have a deleterious effect on the adult female skeleton?

    PubMed

    Greenway, Kate Gwendoline; Walkley, Jeff Whenan; Rich, Peter Adrian

    2012-09-01

    Swimming is a popular activity for Australian women with proven cardiovascular benefits yet lacks the features thought necessary to stimulate positive adaptive changes in bone. Given that peak bone mass is attained close to the end of the second decade, we asked whether swimming was negatively associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women beyond this age. Bone mass and retrospective physical activity data were gathered from 43 female swimmers and 44 controls (mean ages 40.4 and 43.8 years, respectively). Swimmers were recruited from the Australian Union of Senior Swimmers International while controls were healthy community dwellers with similar lean mass, fat mass, height, weight and body mass index. None of the participants had a history of medical complaints nor use of medications known to affect bone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine areal bone mineral density at total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius and tibia while self-administered questionnaires were used to approximate historical and recent physical activity and calcium intake. Swimmers had averaged over 2 hours of swimming per week for the past 5 years and 1.45 h/week over lifetime with no systematic swimming exposure for controls. Lifetime exposure to weight bearing and impact exercise were similar. There were no intergroup differences for bone mass at any site though controls had higher incidence of low bone mass/osteoporosis. No differences in bone mass were detected between swimmers in the upper and lower quartiles for swim participation for any period. Long-term swim participation did not compromise areal bone mineral density. PMID:22230920

  4. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative

  5. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood. PMID:25402719

  6. Impact of Radiotherapy on Fertility, Pregnancy, and Neonatal Outcomes in Female Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wo, Jennifer Y.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation has many potential long-term effects on cancer survivors. Female cancer patients may experience decreased fertility depending on the site irradiated. Oncologists should be aware of these consequences and discuss options for fertility preservation before initiating therapy. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive review of the existing literature was conducted. Studies reporting the outcomes for female patients treated with cranio-spinal, abdominal, or pelvic radiation reporting fertility, pregnancy, or neonatal-related outcomes were reviewed. Results: Cranio-spinal irradiation elicited significant hormonal changes in women that affected their ability to become pregnant later in life. Women treated with abdomino-pelvic radiation have an increased rate of uterine dysfunction leading to miscarriage, preterm labor, low birth weight, and placental abnormalities. Early menopause results from low-dose ovarian radiation. Ovarian transposition may decrease the rates of ovarian dysfunction. Conclusions: There is a dose-dependent relationship between ovarian radiation therapy (RT) and premature menopause. Patients treated with RT must be aware of the impact of treatment on fertility and explore appropriate options.

  7. Potential Harm of Prophylactic Platelet Transfusion in Adult Dengue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tau-Hong; Wong, Joshua G. X.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Thein, Tun-Linn; Ng, Ee-Ling; Lee, Linda K.; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombocytopenia is a hallmark of dengue infection, and bleeding is a dreaded complication of dengue fever. Prophylactic platelet transfusion has been used to prevent bleeding in the management of dengue fever, although the evidence for its benefit is lacking. In adult dengue patients with platelet count <20,000/mm3 without bleeding, we aimed to assess if prophylactic platelet transfusion was effective in reducing clinical bleeding and other outcomes. Method We conducted a retrospective non-randomised observational study of dengue patients with platelet count < 20,000/mm3 without bleeding (except petechiae) admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital from January 2005 to December 2008. Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between the non-transfused vs. transfused groups. Outcomes studied were clinical bleeding, platelet increment, hospital length of stay, intensive care unit admission and death. Results Of the 788 patients included, 486 received prophylactic platelet transfusion. There was no significant difference in the presence of clinical bleeding in the two groups (18.2% in non-transfused group vs. 23.5% in transfused group; P = 0.08). Patients in the transfused group took a median of 1 day longer than the non-transfused group to increase their platelet count to 50,000/mm3 or more (3 days vs. 2 days, P <0.0001). The median duration of hospital stay in the non-transfused group was 5 days vs. 6 days in the transfused group (P< 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the proportion requiring ICU admission (non-transfused 0.66% vs. transfused 1.23%, P = 0.44) and death (non-transfused 0% vs. transfused 0.2%, P = 0.43). Conclusion Platelet transfusion in absence of bleeding in adult dengue with platelet count <20,000/mm3 did not reduce bleeding or expedite platelet recovery. There was potential harm by slowing recovery of platelet count to >50,000/mm3 and increasing length of hospitalization. PMID:27015272

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics of Benznidazole in Adult Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, E.; Guerrero, L.; Posada, E.; Serret, N.; Mejía, T.; Urbina, J. A.; Gascón, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to characterize benznidazole (BNZ) pharmacokinetics in adults with chronic Chagas disease. This study was a prospective, open-label, single-center clinical trial approved by the local ethics committee. Patients received BNZ at 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (Abarax, Elea Laboratory, Argentina) for 60 days. Plasma BNZ samples were taken several times during the study and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection (HPLC-UV). The popPK analysis was done with NONMEMv.7.3. Demographic and biological data were tested as covariates. Intraindividual, interoccasion, and residual variabilities were modeled. Internal and external validations were completed to assess the robustness of the model. Later on, simulations were performed to generate BNZ concentration-time course profiles for different dosage regimens. A total of 358 plasma BNZ concentrations from 39 patients were included in the analysis. A one-compartment PK model characterized by clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F), with first-order absorption (Ka) and elimination, adequately described the data (CL/F, 1.73 liters/h; V/F, 89.6 liters; and Ka, 1.15 h−1). No covariates were found to be significant for CL/F and V/F. Internal and external validations of the final model showed adequate results. Data from simulations revealed that a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/12 h might lead to overexposure in most patients. A lower dose (2.5 mg/kg/24 h) was able to achieve trough BNZ plasma concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range of 3 to 6 mg/liter. In summary, we developed a population PK model for BNZ in adults with chronic Chagas disease. Dosing simulations showed that a BNZ dose of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h will adequately keep BNZ trough plasma concentrations within the recommended target range for the majority of patients. (This study has been registered at EudraCT under number 2011

  9. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1–S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3–S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5–S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S3 and S4, respectively). In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively). There was no significant difference between 46 XX DSD patients and 46 XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the seven findings. Two patients requested gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients. PMID:23874323

  10. The Principal Components of Adult Female Insole Shape Align Closely with Two of Its Classic Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Domjanic, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The plantar surface of the human foot transmits the weight and dynamic force of the owner’s lower limbs to the ground and the reaction forces back to the musculoskeletal system. Its anatomical variation is intensely studied in such fields as sports medicine and orthopedic dysmorphology. Yet, strangely, the shape of the insole that accommodates this surface and elastically buffers these forces is neither an aspect of the conventional anthropometrics of feet nor an informative label on the packet that markets supplementary insoles. In this paper we pursue an earlier suggestion that insole form in vertical view be quantified in terms of the shape of the foot not at the plane of support (the “footprint”) but some two millimeters above that level. Using such sections extracted from laser scans of 158 feet of adult women from the University of Zagreb, in conjunction with an appropriate modification of today’s standard geometric morphometrics (GMM), we find that the sectioned form can be described by its size together with two meaningful relative warps of shape. The pattern of this shape variation is not novel. It is closely aligned with two of the standard footprint measurements, the Chippaux-Šmiřák arch index and the Clarke arch angle, whose geometrical foci (the former in the ball of the foot, the latter in the arch) it apparently combines. Thus a strong contemporary analysis complements but does not supplant the simpler anthropometric analyses of half a century ago, with implications for applied anthropology. PMID:26308442

  11. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the posture modification of Adult Male (AM) and Adult Female (AF) reference phantoms of ICRP 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Alves, M. C.; Souza, D. N.; Carvalho, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to modify the standing posture of the anthropomorphic reference phantoms of ICRP publication 110, AM (Adult Male) and AF (Adult Female), to the sitting posture. The change of posture was performed using the Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the phantoms and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. Scion Image software was used to reconstruct and smooth the knee and hip contours of the phantoms in a sitting posture. For 3D visualization of phantoms, the VolView software was used. In the change of postures, the organ and tissue masses were preserved. The MCNPX was used to calculate the equivalent and effective dose conversion coefficients (CCs) per fluence for photons for six irradiation geometries suggested by ICRP publication 110 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO) and energy range 0.010-10 MeV. The results were compared between the standing and sitting postures, for both sexes, in order to evaluate the differences of scattering and absorption of radiation for different postures. Significant differences in the CCs for equivalent dose were observed in the gonads, colon, prostate, urinary bladder and uterus, which are present in the pelvic region, and in organs distributed throughout the body, such as the lymphatic nodes, muscle, skeleton and skin, for the phantoms of both sexes. CCs for effective dose showed significant differences of up to 16% in the AP irradiation geometry, 27% in the PA irradiation geometry and 13% in the ROT irradiation geometry. These results demonstrate the importance of using phantoms in different postures in order to obtain more precise conversion coefficients for a given exposure scenario.

  12. Management of a young female patient with Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aslanidis, Theodoros; Myrou, Athena; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis affecting the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions. Lemierre's syndrome is a condition characterized by thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and bacteremia caused by primarily anaerobic organisms, following a recent oropharyngeal infection. Although the literature about either of them is rich, there is no report about co-appearance of the two syndromes. We present the case of a young healthy female patient who suffered concomitantly from Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome after minor surgery. PMID:25489369

  13. Management of a young female patient with Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, Theodoros; Myrou, Athena; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis affecting the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions. Lemierre's syndrome is a condition characterized by thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and bacteremia caused by primarily anaerobic organisms, following a recent oropharyngeal infection. Although the literature about either of them is rich, there is no report about co-appearance of the two syndromes. We present the case of a young healthy female patient who suffered concomitantly from Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome after minor surgery. PMID:25489369

  14. Preoperative corneal astigmatism among adult patients with cataract in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isyaku, Mohammed; Ali, Syed A; Hassan, Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of corneal astigmatism among patients with cataract has not been well-documented in the resident African population. This retrospective study was undertaken to investigate preexisting corneal astigmatism in adult patients with cataract. We analyzed keratometric readings acquired by manual Javal-Schiotz keratometry before surgery between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. There were 3,169 patients (3286 eyes) aged between 16 and 110 years involved with a Male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Mean keratometry in diopters was K1 = 43.99 and K2 = 43.80. Mean corneal astigmatism was 1.16 diopter and a majority (45.92%) of eyes had astigmatism between 1.00 and 1.99 diopters. Two-thirds of the eyes (66.9%) in this study had preoperative corneal astigmatism equal to or above 1.00 diopter. Findings will help local cataract surgeons to estimate the potential demand for toric intraocular lenses. PMID:25494254

  15. Fertility Protection in Female Oncology Patients: How Should Patients Be Counseled?

    PubMed Central

    Findeklee, S.; Lotz, L.; Heusinger, K.; Hoffmann, I.; Dittrich, R.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Protecting the fertility of patients with oncologic disease is becoming more and more important, as fulfilling the wish to have children is increasingly occurring at a later stage in life and long-term survival rates after cancer are continuing to improve. A number of fertility-preserving options exist. In addition to techniques which have been around for some time such as medical ovarian suppression, ovarian transposition, and organ-preserving surgery, there are other, more recent, innovative methods which have developed over the last few years such as cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian tissue transplantation after completing cancer therapy. As every procedure has its specific advantages and disadvantages, informed patient consent is essential. The physicianʼs aim must be to select the optimal procedure for each patient. The extent of patientsʼ information about the options to preserve fertility in women with oncologic disease remains limited. One of the main reasons for this is that clinicians are not sure how to inform patients about existing procedures and methods. The aim of this review article is to provide help in clinical practice. PMID:26726265

  16. Hepatic reference gene selection in adult and juvenile female Atlantic salmon at normal and elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become widespread due to its specificity, sensitivity and apparent ease of use. However, experimental error can be introduced at many stages during sample processing and analysis, and for this reason qPCR data are often normalised to an internal reference gene. The present study used three freely available algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) to assess the stability of hepatically expressed candidate reference genes (Hprt1, Tbp, Ef1α and β-tubulin) in two experiments. In the first, female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) broodstock of different ages were reared at either 14 or 22°C for an entire reproductive season, therefore a reference gene that does not respond to thermal challenge or reproductive condition was sought. In the second, estrogen treated juvenile salmon were maintained at the same temperatures for 14 days and a reference gene that does not respond to temperature or estrogen was required. Additionally, we performed independent statistic analysis to validate the outputs obtained from the program based analysis. Results Based on the independent statistical analysis performed the stability of the genes tested was Tbp > Ef1α > Hprt1 > β-tubulin for the temperature/reproductive development experiment and Ef1α > Hprt1 > Tbp for the estrogen administration experiment (β-tubulin was not analysed). Results from the algorithms tested were quite ambiguous for both experiments; however all programs consistently identified the least stable candidate gene. BestKeeper provided rankings that were consistent with the independent analysis for both experiments. When an inappropriate candidate reference gene was used to normalise the expression of a hepatically expressed target gene, the ability to detect treatment-dependent changes in target gene expression was lost for multiple groups in both experiments. Conclusions We have highlighted the need to independently validate

  17. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to iden...

  18. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults.

  19. Volatiles induced by larvae of asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, (Guenée), feeding on maize (Zea mays L.) induced volatiles from the plants that affected orientation behaviors of ACB larvae and oviposition of ACB adult females. Nineteen volatile chemicals were identified from maize plants attacked by thir...

  20. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  1. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  2. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe. PMID:26675459

  3. Early dysautonomia detected by heart rate variability predicts late depression in female patients following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chih-Wei; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Chu, Shu-Fen; Ou, Ju-Chi; Tsai, Shin-Han; Liao, Kuo-Hsing; Lin, Chien-Min; Lin, Jia-Wei; Chen, Gunng-Shinng; Li, Wei-Jiun; Wang, Jia-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Depression is one of the frequent complications following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Recent research indicated that abnormalities in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can be evaluated by a noninvasive power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this study, we investigated whether a frequency-domain analysis of HRV was correlated with late depression in mTBI patients. In total, 181 patients diagnosed with mTBI and 83 volunteers as healthy controls were recruited in 2010-2014. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores were used to evaluate depression in the 1st week of assessment and at 1.5-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups. Correlation and logistic regression analyses of the 1st week HRV parameters with BDI scores at 18 months were performed in individual female mTBI patients. Female mTBI patients were more vulnerable to depression accompanied by reduced HRV compared to healthy controls. Over time, depression was aggravated in female mTBI patients but was alleviated in male mTBI patients. A significantly lower parasympathetic proportion of the ANS was noted at 18 months with respect to the 1st week in female mTBI patients. In addition, depression in female mTBI patients at 18 months after injury was significantly correlated with a decrease in the parasympathetic proportion of the ANS in the 1st week (ρ = -0.411; p < .05). Dysautonomia resulted in higher risks of depression in female mTBI patients. We concluded that early dysautonomia following an mTBI contributes to late depression in female mTBI patients. PMID:26560198

  4. Radiation dosimetry for the adult female and fetus from iodine-131 administration in hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Marcus, C.S.; Salk, R.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Through a study of the iodine kinetics of 127 patients, we have developed radiation dose estimates to major organs and the fetus for patients with varying degrees of hyperthyroidism. We observed a negative correlation between maximum thyroid uptake and biologic half-time of iodine in the thyroid and used this correlation to predict the biologic half-time at fixed values of maximum thyroid uptake. Dose estimates to the bladder, gonads, marrow, thyroid, uterus, and whole body were estimated for maximum thyroid uptakes from 20% to 100%. Bladder dose varied from 0.6 to 1.0 mGy/MBq and dose to the uterus varied from 0.036 to 0.063 mGy/MBq under different model assumptions. Dose estimates to the fetus and fetal thyroid were approximated at all stages of pregnancy. Average fetal dose was a maximum between 0 and 2 mo of pregnancy, with the maximum ranging from 0.048 mGy/MBq to 0.083 mGy/MBq, depending on model assumptions. Some radiation risks for irradiation of the fetus and the fetal thyroid are discussed.

  5. Extensive juvenile "babysitting" facilitates later adult maternal responsiveness, decreases anxiety, and increases dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase-2 expression in female laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Harding, Kaitlyn M; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy and parturition can dramatically affect female neurobiology and behavior. This is especially true for laboratory-reared rodents, in part, because such rearing prevents a host of develo