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Sample records for adult female patient

  1. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  2. Motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment: an application of Q-methodology

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xia; Cai, Jiaxin; Lin, Beibei; Yao, Linjie; Lin, Feiou

    2015-01-01

    Background Motivation is the impetus for patients to seek orthodontic treatment, affecting adherence, treatment outcomes, and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment, and classify the patients according to their motivations. Methods This study used Q-methodology as the main tool. Q-samples were collected and categorized (35 items). Forty-two adult female patients were interviewed before treatment as the P-sample, and their responses were categorized into the Q-methodology grid. Participants were asked to rank-order a set of 35 statements (Q-sample) from “agree most” to “disagree most” (Q-sorting). The finished Q-grids were analyzed using PQ method 2.35. Results Four main factors were identified based on how adult female patients ranked statements: factor 1, patients who focus on their self-perception of their appearance; factor 2, patients who are concerned about the esthetics and function of their teeth; factor 3, patients who are easily influenced by others; factor 4, patients who want to improve their confidence and avoid negative thoughts caused by their teeth. The remaining patients who had other views did not match any of the above four groups. Conclusion The motivations of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. This study found that most adult female patients fell into one of four typical factor groups. Our findings may improve the adherence of adult female patients by developing a more ideal treatment program. PMID:25709410

  3. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  4. The Relationship of Sexual Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors among Heterosexual Adult Female STD Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to high-risk sexual behavior and between sexual abuse and expectations for condom use. Among 83 female clinic patients with sexually transmitted diseases, those sexually abused in childhood had more sexual partners, more positive hedonic outcome expectations for condom use, and fewer…

  5. Management of acne vulgaris with hormonal therapies in adult female patients.

    PubMed

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common condition affecting up of 93% of adolescents. Although rare, this disease may persist in adulthood. In adult women with acne (those older than 25 years old), this condition is particularly relevant because of the refractory to conventional therapies, which makes acne a challenge for dermatologists in this group of patients. In order to its potential risk for chronicity and the involvement of visible anatomical sites such as face and upper torso, acne has been associated with a wide spectrum of psychological and social dysfunction such as depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and social inhibition. In particular, adult women with acne have been shown to be adversely impacted by the effect of acne on their quality of life. For the last four decades, dermatologists have used hormonal therapies for the management of acne vulgaris in adult women, which are considered a rational choice given the severity and chronicity of this condition in this group of patients. The aim of this work is to review the hormonal drugs for management of acne.

  6. Treatment of adult female acne: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Dréno, B

    2015-06-01

    Acne is affecting an increasing number of adult females and so can no longer be considered as a disease of adolescence. The disease has a greater negative impact on the quality of life of adult females than their younger counterparts. Adult female acne may persist from adolescence or may have its first occurrence once adulthood has been reached. The clinical presentation and pathogenesis of adult female acne may be somewhat different to that of adolescent acne and this may require a different treatment approach. Genetic and hormonal factors are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of adult female acne and the disease is characterized by a chronic evolution with frequent relapses requiring long-term maintenance therapy. Fixed-dose retinoid/antimicrobial combinations may be of interest for the treatment of adult female acne given that subgroup analysis of clinical trials has indicated that they are effective against both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions in these patients. These treatments may also be of interest, given the chronic course of the disease in adult females, the high likelihood of the presence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes and the poor adherence of patients to other long-term therapies. Oral hormonal treatment or isotretinoin may be required in patients with severe acne or disease that is refractory to other treatments. Additional clinical studies of acne treatments specifically conducted in adult female patients are required to increase the evidence base on which future treatment recommendations can be based.

  7. Management of a rare case of idiopathic multiple unerupted impacted permanent teeth in an adult female patient.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Karunakar; Kumar, Mahesh; Amanna, Susan; Sridharan, Srirangarajan; Reddy, Satyanarayan

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case report describes the multi-disciplinary approach in the management of an unusual presentation of idiopathic multiple unerupted impacted permanent teeth in a 20-year-old female patient. The case was unique in that, not only were there multiple missing permanent teeth, but also over retained deciduous teeth and attrited existing permanent teeth with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. Since the patient was young, it was decided to retain all the erupted permanent teeth and extract the infected deciduous teeth with the objective of fabricating overlay complete dentures. This is a simple, reversible and an economical treatment modality, which satisfies both the esthetic and functional demands where the extraction of teeth is not generally indicated and, in addition, provides a stable occlusion. PMID:27621553

  8. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  9. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

  10. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Angela K.; Klock, Susan C.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N.; Kazer, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues which arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population patient. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: 1) pre-existing psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, 2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, 3) decision making regarding use of third party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), 4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, 5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and 6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  11. The Spiritual Journey: Black Female Adult Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones Tinner, LaShanta Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the experience of Black female adult learners and how spirituality influenced their academic journeys. Research concerning Black female adult learners in higher education is ostensibly partial. These data offered an extended understanding of Black female adult learners' academic experiences, while also investigating common…

  12. Extension of RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms to obese patients and a Monte Carlo study of the effect on CT imaging dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Aiping; Mille, Matthew M.; Liu, Tianyu; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2012-05-01

    Although it is known that obesity has a profound effect on x-ray computed tomography (CT) image quality and patient organ dose, quantitative data describing this relationship are not currently available. This study examines the effect of obesity on the calculated radiation dose to organs and tissues from CT using newly developed phantoms representing overweight and obese patients. These phantoms were derived from the previously developed RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms. The result was a set of ten phantoms (five males, five females) with body mass indexes ranging from 23.5 (normal body weight) to 46.4 kg m-2 (morbidly obese). The phantoms were modeled using triangular mesh geometry and include specified amounts of the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. The mesh-based phantoms were then voxelized and defined in the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code to calculate organ doses from CT imaging. Chest-abdomen-pelvis scanning protocols for a GE LightSpeed 16 scanner operating at 120 and 140 kVp were considered. It was found that for the same scanner operating parameters, radiation doses to organs deep in the abdomen (e.g., colon) can be up to 59% smaller for obese individuals compared to those of normal body weight. This effect was found to be less significant for shallow organs. On the other hand, increasing the tube potential from 120 to 140 kVp for the same obese individual resulted in increased organ doses by as much as 56% for organs within the scan field (e.g., stomach) and 62% for those out of the scan field (e.g., thyroid), respectively. As higher tube currents are often used for larger patients to maintain image quality, it was of interest to quantify the associated effective dose. It was found from this study that when the mAs was doubled for the obese level-I, obese level-II and morbidly-obese phantoms, the effective dose relative to that of the normal weight phantom increased by 57%, 42% and 23%, respectively. This set

  13. Extensive ameloblastic fibroma of the mandibula in a female adult patient: A case report with a follow-up of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Mukerrem; Aytekin, Zeliha; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is rare benign odontogenic tumour which usually occurs in the first two decades of life. It can occur either the mandible or maxilla but it is most frequently found in the posterior region of the mandible. Treatment of AF in usual is a conservative approach, such as enucleation and curettage but the aggressive lesions require a radical approach. A more radical approach should be considered in older patients who have likely high recurrence tendency. This report describes a case of AF in a 38-year-old female patient identified during a routine radiographic exam. Tomographic examination through three-dimensional reconstruction indicated vestibular fenestration of the cortical bone, with involvement of lingual cortical bone as the lession extended to the posterior region. We removed the tumor under local anesthesia. In this case patient has continued to be followed frequently and has been disease-free for 3 years.

  14. Extensive ameloblastic fibroma of the mandibula in a female adult patient: A case report with a follow-up of 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Mukerrem; Aytekin, Zeliha; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is rare benign odontogenic tumour which usually occurs in the first two decades of life. It can occur either the mandible or maxilla but it is most frequently found in the posterior region of the mandible. Treatment of AF in usual is a conservative approach, such as enucleation and curettage but the aggressive lesions require a radical approach. A more radical approach should be considered in older patients who have likely high recurrence tendency. This report describes a case of AF in a 38-year-old female patient identified during a routine radiographic exam. Tomographic examination through three-dimensional reconstruction indicated vestibular fenestration of the cortical bone, with involvement of lingual cortical bone as the lession extended to the posterior region. We removed the tumor under local anesthesia. In this case patient has continued to be followed frequently and has been disease-free for 3 years. PMID:27011753

  15. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  16. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  17. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory.

  18. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults

    PubMed Central

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  19. Malignant syphilis in an immunocompetent female patient*

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Orasmo, Cínthia Rosane; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartore; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response. Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. PMID:25387504

  20. Malignant syphilis in an immunocompetent female patient.

    PubMed

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Orasmo, Cínthia Rosane; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartore; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response. Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. PMID:25387504

  1. Teaching the adult ostomy patient.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, H S

    2001-01-01

    Ostomy education is based on principles of adult learning, including assessment of the learners' readiness, ability, and need to learn. Such teaching incorporates specific strategies designed to promote cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning and strategies to overcome potential cultural barriers. In addition, modifications may be included to meet the needs of aged or disabled patients who have cognitive deficits or low literacy skills. Finally, ostomy education must include an evaluation of its effectiveness. This article reviews general guidelines for planning, implementing, and evaluating patient education for adult patients with ostomies.

  2. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients. PMID:26711274

  3. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  4. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs.

  5. Survival of adult female elk in yellowstone following wolf restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, S.B.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival records for 85 radiocollared adult female elk 1-19 years old to estimate annual survival from March 2000 to February 2004. Weighted average annual survival rates were approximately 0.83 (95% CI = 0.77-0.89) for females 1-15 years old and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.73-0.86) for all females. Our estimates were much lower than the rate of 0.99 observed during 1969-1975 when fewer elk were harvested by hunters, wolves were not present, and other predators were less numerous. Of 33 documented deaths included in our analysis, we attributed 11 to hunter harvest, 14 to predation (10 wolf, 2 unknown, 1 cougar [Puma concolor], and 1 bear [Ursus sp.]), 6 to unknown causes, and 2 to winter-kill. Most deaths occurred from December through March. Estimates of cause-specific annual mortality rates were 0.09 (0.05-0.14) for all predators, 0.08 (0.04-0.13) for hunting, and 0.07 (0.03-0.11) for wolves specifically. Wolf-killed elk were typically older (median = 12 yr) than hunter-killed elk (median = 9 yr, P = 0.03). However, elk that winter outside the park where they were exposed to hunting were also younger (median = 7 yr) than elk that we did not observe outside the park (median = 9 yr, P < 0.01). Consequently, differences in ages of elk killed by wolves and hunters may reflect characteristics of elk exposed to various causes of mortality, as well as differences in susceptibility. Unless survival rates of adult females increase, elk numbers are likely to continue declining. Hunter harvest is the only cause of mortality that is amenable to management at the present time.

  6. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  7. Female Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Female Reproductive Complications

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Monika L.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Patterson, Briana; Casillas, Jacqueline S.; Constine, Louis S.; Hijiya, Nobuko; Kenney, Lisa B.; Leonard, Marcia; Lockart, Barbara A.; Likes, Wendy; Green, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As more young female patients with cancer survive their primary disease, concerns about reproductive health related to primary therapy gain relevance. Cancer therapy can often affect reproductive organs, leading to impaired pubertal development, hormonal regulation, fertility, and sexual function, affecting quality of life. Methods The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) are evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of late effects of therapeutic exposures. The guidelines are updated every 2 years by a multidisciplinary panel based on current literature review and expert consensus. Results This review summarizes the current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of female reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Experimental pretreatment as well as post-treatment fertility preservation strategies, including barriers and ethical considerations, which are not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Conclusion Ongoing research will continue to inform COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care of female survivors of childhood cancer to improve their health and quality of life. PMID:23382474

  8. Caring for the elderly female psychiatric patient.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mudhasir; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2010-06-01

    With the growth of the elderly population, and the female elderly population in particular, healthcare providers will see increasing numbers of elderly women with psychiatric disorders. To properly care for this group of patients, better understanding is needed not only of group differences in this patient population but also of the differences in each individual, as they age, given their unique life experiences, cohort effects, medical comorbidity, social situation, and personality traits. Understandably, these characteristics will interact with psychiatric disorders in ways that may increase the challenge to correctly diagnose and treat these patients. In addition, understanding late life changes, the prevalence of various mental disorders and the sometimes unique presentation of mental disorders in this age group is required to better diagnose and treat this population.

  9. Understanding Fertility in Young Female Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Waimey, Kate E.; Smith, Brigid M.; Confino, Rafael; Jeruss, Jacqueline S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Young women diagnosed with cancer today have a greater chance of long-term survival than ever before. Successful survivorship for this group of patients includes maintaining a high quality of life after a cancer diagnosis and treatment; however, lifesaving treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery can impact survivors by impairing reproductive and endocrine health. Studies demonstrate that future fertility is a concern for many women diagnosed with cancer, but physician knowledge and attitudinal barriers can still prevent females from receiving care. Today, fertility preservation is an option for girls and women facing a cancer diagnosis, and emerging research is providing clinicians with an increasing number of reproductive and hormonal management tools. Physicians can play an important role in fertility by working closely with oncologists, providing patients with information about fertility preservation options prior to the start of cancer treatment, monitoring reproductive capacity after treatment, and working with cancer survivors to explore potential avenues to parenthood. PMID:26075731

  10. Litter Size Predicts Adult Stereotypic Behavior in Female Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice. PMID:23043805

  11. [Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

    2014-01-01

    A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

  12. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

  13. Managing the female patient with hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Aleena; Riedl, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder resulting from decreased functional levels of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH), which manifests as periodic episodes of localized edema which can be extremely painful, debilitating and even fatal if the swelling affects the larynx. HAE can complicate many aspects of obstetric/gynecologic care, and an awareness of the disease is critical for clinicians involved in the care of women because of potential HAE-related complications pertaining to pregnancy, labor and delivery, and other women's health issues. This article provides a review of published literature specific to HAE and its management in female patients, including important concerns regarding obstetric/gynecologic care. A growing body of relevant experience is presented to help guide the care of women with HAE.

  14. Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-03-01

    Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms

  15. A spontaneous depressive pattern in adult female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Chu, Xunxun; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Lü, Longbao; Yang, Lichuan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Chen, Lin; Feng, Xiaoli; Hu, Xintian

    2015-01-01

    Non-human primates offer unique opportunities to study the development of depression rooted in behavioral and physiological abnormalities. This study observed adult female rhesus macaques within social hierarchies and aimed to characterize the physiological and brain abnormalities accompanying depressive-like behavior. The behaviors of 31 female rhesus macaques from 14 different breeding groups were video recorded, and the footage was analyzed using the focal animal technique. There were 13 monkeys who never displayed huddling behavior (non-huddlers). The remaining 18 monkeys were divided into two groups according the mean time spent in the huddle posture. Four monkeys were designated as high huddlers, whereas the other 14 monkeys were low huddlers. An inverse relationship was discovered between social rank and depression. High huddlers spent more time engaging in physical contact and in close proximity to other monkeys, as well as less time spontaneously and reactively locomoting, than low huddlers and/or non-huddlers. Cortisol levels measured from the hair were elevated significantly in high huddlers compared with low huddlers and non-huddlers, and the measured cortisol levels were specifically higher in high huddlers than subordinate or dominant control monkeys. Regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant and widespread decreases in high huddlers compared with non-huddlers. PMID:26059851

  16. Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting Online, except for the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) that was completed over the telephone. Subjects Participants were 306 female university students aged 18–25 years. Measures MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

  17. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  18. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  19. Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation in Adults Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sei Woong; Moon, Seung Myung; Choi, Sun Kil

    2009-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) in adult is a rare disorder that occurs followed by a trauma. The patients were presented with painful torticollis and a typical 'cock robin' position of the head. The clinical diagnosis is generally difficult and often made in the late stage. In some cases, an irreducible or chronic fixation develops. We reported a case of AARF in adult patient which was treated by immobilization with conservative treatment. A 25-year-old female was presented with a posterior neck pain and limitation of motion of cervical spine after a traffic accident. She had no neurological deficit but suffered from severe defect on the scalp and multiple thoracic compression fractures. Plain radiographs demonstrated torticollis, lateral shift of odontoid process to one side and widening of one side of C1-C2 joint space. Immobilization with a Holter traction were performed and analgesics and muscle relaxants were given. Posterior neck pain and limitation of the cervical spine's motion were resolved. Plain cervical radiographs taken at one month after the injury showed that torticollis disappeared and the dens were in the midline position. The authors reported a case of type I post-traumatic AARF that was successfully treated by immobilization alone. PMID:19444353

  20. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  1. Modeling depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Willard, Stephanie L; Shively, Carol A

    2012-06-01

    Depressive disorders are prevalent, costly, and poorly understood. Male rodents in stress paradigms are most commonly used as animal models, despite the two-fold increased prevalence of depression in women and sex differences in response to stress. Although these models have provided valuable insights, new models are needed to move the field forward. Social stress-associated behavioral depression in adult female cynomolgus macaques closely resembles human depression in physiological, neurobiological, and behavioral characteristics, including reduced body mass, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis perturbations, autonomic dysfunction, increased cardiovascular disease risk, reduced hippocampal volume, altered serotonergic function, decreased activity levels, and increased mortality. In addition, behaviorally depressed monkeys also have low ovarian steroid concentrations, even though they continue to have menstrual cycles. Although this type of ovarian dysfunction has not been reported in depressed women and is difficult to identify, it may be the key to understanding the high prevalence of depression in women. Depressive behavior in female cynomolgus monkeys is naturally occurring and not induced by experimental manipulation. Different social environmental challenges, including isolation vs. subordination, may elicit the depression-like response in some animals and not others. Similarly, social subordination is stressful and depressive behavior is more common in socially subordinate monkeys. Yet, not all subordinates exhibit behavioral depression, suggesting individual differences in sensitivity to specific environmental stressors and enhanced risk of behavioral depression in some individuals. The behavior and neurobiology of subordinates is distinctly different than that of behaviorally depressed monkeys, which affords the opportunity to differentiate between stressed and depressed states. Thus, behaviorally depressed monkeys exhibit numerous physiological

  2. Delayed Recognition of an Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in a Young Adult Female.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Ariel; Wuilleumier, Jean Paul; Teper, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    A percentage of ureteropelvic junction obstruction cases are clinically silent in childhood and manifest symptoms in adults. Herein we present a 25-year-old female with several years of intermittent flank pain and abdominal symptoms with prior inconclusive diagnostic workup including abdominal imaging without hydronephrosis. Ultimately, a CT scan performed during an acute pain crisis clearly identified right-sided hydronephrosis. The keys to diagnosis are awareness of this entity, a detailed history, and obtaining imaging studies during a crisis. The patient subsequently underwent a right robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty with preservation of a lower pole crossing vessel. We highlight noteworthy features of the clinical presentation and surgical repair. PMID:26221562

  3. Survival of adult female northern pintails in Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.; Newton, Wesley E.; Gilmer, David S.

    1995-01-01

    North American populations of northern pintails (Anas acuta) declined between 1979 and the early 1990s. To determine if low survival during winter contributed to declines, we estimated winter (last week of Aug-Feb 1987-90) survival for 190 adult (after hatching yr [AHY]) female radio-tagged pintails in late summer in Sacramento Valley (SACV), California. Survival rates did not vary by winter (P = 0.808), among preseason, hunting season, or postseason intervals (P = 0.579), or by body mass at time of capture (P = 0.127). Premolt (wing) pintails (n = 10) tended to survive at a lower rate (0.622, SE = 0.178) than pintails that had already replaced flight feathers (0.887, SE = 0.030) (P = 0.091). The pooled survival (all years) estimate for the 180-day winter was 0.874 (SE = 0.031). Hunting mortality rate (0.041-0.087) and nonhunting mortality rate (0.013-0.076) did not differ among years (P = 0.332) or within years (all P > 0.149). Legal hunting (n = 7), predation (n = 4), cholera (n = 2), illegal shooting (n = 2), botulism (n = 1), and unknown cause (n = 1) accounted for all mortality. Nonwintering survival (annu. survival/winter survival = 0.748) was lower than winter survival; thus, if gains in annual survival are desired for this population, managers should first examine the breeding-migration period for opportunities to achieve increases.

  4. Survival of Common Eider Somateria mollissima adult females and ducklings during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Moran, C.L.; Schamber, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied survival of adult female and duckling Common Eiders during brood rearing at two sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in 1997. Duckling survival to 30 days of age was 19% ?? 10% (95% CI). Seventy-three percent of radio-marked adult females had lost all their ducklings by 30 days after hatch. Duckling survival was not related to hatch date. We estimate an average of 0.84 ducklings fledged per adult female radio-marked at hatch. Most broods moved to salt water within 15 days of hatch. Adult female survival during the first 30 days of brood rearing was 96 ?? 6% (95% CI). Mortality of adult females during brood rearing is probably higher than during other times of the year.

  5. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    PubMed

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women.

  6. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  7. Stature estimation from craniofacial anthropometry in Bangladeshi Garo adult females.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Z; Banu, L A; Alam, M M; Rahman, M F

    2012-07-01

    Estimation of stature is an important tool in forensic examination especially in unknown, highly decomposed, fragmentary and mutilated human remains. When the evidences are skeletal remains; forensic anthropology has put forward means to estimate the stature from the skeletal and even from fragmentary bones. Sometimes, craniofacial remains are brought in for forensic and postmortem examination. In such a situation, estimation of stature becomes equally important along with other parameters like age, sex, race, etc. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. It is well established that a single standard of craniofacial aesthetics is not appropriate for application to diverse racial and ethnic groups. Bangladesh is a country not only for the Bengalis; the country harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Like other ethnic groups, the Garos (study subjects) have their own set of language, social structure, cultures and economic activities and religious values. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Bangladeshi Garo adult females. The study also attempted to find out the correlation of the craniofacial dimensions with stature and to determine multiplication factors. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components. The study was carried out with a total number of one hundred Garo adult females, aged between 25-45 years. Craniofacial dimension such as head circumference, head length, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth and stature were measured using a measuring tape, spreading caliper, steel plate and steel tape and sliding caliper. The data were then statistically

  8. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  9. Oestradiol modulation of cognition in adult female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, A; Chang, J; Metevier, C M; LaClair, M; Meyer, J S; Ferris, C M

    2014-05-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) provides many advantages over traditional rodent and macaque species as a model for human ageing and may be very useful for studying the effects of sex steroids on cognitive and brain ageing. We present the first study examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function in female marmosets. Adult monkeys (3-5 years of age) were trained to a specific learning criterion on a battery of cognitive tasks preoperatively (object discrimination, delayed response with increasing delays and detour reaching with opaque box) and were tested on different versions of these tasks (object reversals, delayed response with randomised delays and detour reaching with clear box) after ovariectomy and simultaneous implantation with 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) (n = 6) or blank (n = 6) Silastic capsules. Acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position task with a 1-s delay was also administered after completion of these tests. E2 -treated monkeys were significantly impaired on the second reversal and showed an increase in perseverative responding from reversals 1-3. Their performance also tended to be worse than that of control monkeys on the delayed response task. Performance acquisition on the delayed matching-to-position tended to be better in E2 -treated relative to control monkeys, although the group difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect of treatment was detected for detour reaching or affiliative behaviours. Overall, the findings indicate that E2 compromises performance on prefrontally-mediated tasks. The suggestion that E2 may improve acquisition on tasks dependent on the hippocampus will require further validation. These results are discussed in the context of dopaminergic and serotonergic signalling. We conclude that the marmoset is a useful new primate model for examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function.

  10. Oestradiol modulation of cognition in adult female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Chang, Jeemin; Metevier, Christina M.; LaClair, Matthew; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Ferris, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) provides many advantages over traditional rodent and macaque species as a model for human aging and may be very valuable to study the effects of sex steroids on cognitive and brain aging. We present the first study examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function in female marmosets. Adult monkeys (3-5 years of age) were trained to a specific learning criterion on a battery of cognitive tasks preoperatively (object discrimination, delayed response with increasing delays and detour reaching with opaque box) and tested on different versions of these tasks (object reversals, delayed response with randomised delays and detour reaching with clear box) following ovariectomy and simultaneous implantation with 17β-oestradiol (E2, n=6) or blank (n=6) Silastic capsules. Acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position task with a 1s delay was also administered following completion of these tests. E2-treated monkeys were significantly impaired on the second Reversal and showed an increase in perseverative responding from Reversals 1 to 3. Their performance also tended to be worse than that of control monkeys on the Delayed Response task. Performance acquisition on the DMP tended to be better in E2-treated relative to control monkeys, but the group difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect of treatment was detected for Detour Reaching or affiliative behaviours. Overall, the findings indicate that E2 compromises performance on prefrontally-mediated tasks. The suggestion that E2 may improve acquisition on tasks dependent on the hippocampus will require further validation. These results are discussed in the context of dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling. We conclude that the marmoset is a useful new primate model to examine the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function. PMID:24617856

  11. Acne-Related Quality of Life Among Female Adults of Different Races/Ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, Joe; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Degboe, Arnold; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Douse-Dean, Tracee

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Acne impairs quality of life, but its effect on different races/ethnicities is unclear. This study evaluated racial/ethnic differences in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms among female adults. Methods A Web-based survey was conducted with U.S. female adults (25–45 years old) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, acne-related quality of life (Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire), psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/school productivity. Racial/ethnic differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance/chi-square analyses. Results Three-hundred twelve subjects (Black = 30.8%, Hispanic = 17.6%, Asian/other = 17.3%, White = 34.3%) completed the survey (mean age = 35.3 ± 5.9 years). Acne negatively impacted quality of life for all subjects. Black subjects reported significantly less negative impact on self-perception versus Asian/other (Black = 12.6 ± 9.9, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 8.6; p = .05). Social functioning was less negatively impacted in White and Black subjects versus Asian/other (White = 12.7 ± 7.5, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p < .05; Black = 12.1 ± 9.2, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p = .06). Over one third (total sample = 40.7%, Black = 31.3%, Hispanic = 36.4%, Asian/other = 50.0%, White = 46.7%) reported moderate/severe anxiety/depression symptoms. Acne also impacted ability to concentrate on work/school. Conclusion Racial/ethnic differences were observed in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms in female adults; acne negatively impacted self-perceptions and social/emotional functioning. PMID:26097643

  12. Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in a female patient: Case report.

    PubMed

    Petribu, Natacha Calheiros de Lima; Cisneiros, Mayana Silva; Carvalho, Glauber Barbosa de; Baptista, Lucyana de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric lymphoproliferative malignancy. Most of the time this tumor is confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but it can present with widespread visceral involvement, such as in the lung. Pulmonary KS is the most frequent form in young adult males, in a ratio of 15:1. The disease usually affects individuals with low CD4 lymphocyte counts (<150-200 cells/mm3). We report a case of a female patient aged 35 years, with the presence of skin lesions, self-limiting episodes of diarrhea and weight loss of 15 kg for nearly 9 months, progressing to persistent fever. AIDS was diagnosed and biopsy of the lesions revealed Kaposi's sarcoma. Computed tomography of the chest showed peribronchovascular thickening, areas of ground glass opacity, condensations with air bronchograms surrounded by ground glass opacity (halo sign) and bilateral pleural effusion. The diagnosis of pulmonary KS is still a challenge, especially due to the occurrence of other opportunistic diseases that may also occur concurrently. Therefore, suspecting this diagnosis based on clinical and laboratory manifestations, and even more with CT findings, is fundamental, especially in patients who already have the cutaneous form of the disease. PMID:27656847

  13. Reconsultation and Antimicrobial Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection in Male and Female Patients in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tandan, Meera; Duane, Sinead; Cormican, Martin; Murphy, Andrew W.; Vellinga, Akke

    2016-01-01

    Current antimicrobial prescribing guidelines indicate that male and female patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) should be treated with same antimicrobials but for different durations. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in reconsultations and antimicrobial prescribing for UTI for both males and females. A total of 2557 adult suspected UTI patients participating in the Supporting the Improvement and Management of Prescribing for urinary tract infection (SIMPle) study from 30 general practices were analyzed. An antimicrobial was prescribed significantly more often to females (77%) than males (63%). Nitrofurantoin was prescribed more often for females and less often for males (58% vs. 41%), while fluoroquinolones were more often prescribed for males (11% vs. 3%). Overall, reconsultation was 1.4 times higher in females, and if the antimicrobial prescribed was not the recommended first-line (nitrofurantoin), reconsultation after empirical prescribing was significantly higher. However, the reconsultation was similar for males and females if the antimicrobial prescribed was first-line. When a urine culture was obtained, a positive culture was the most important predictor of reconsultation (Odds ratio 1.8 (95% CI 1.3–2.5)). This suggests, when prescribing empirically, that male and female UTI patients should initially be treated with first-line antimicrobials (nitrofurantoin) with different durations (50–100 mg four times daily for three days in females and seven days for males). However, the consideration of a culture test before prescribing antimicrobials may improve outcomes. PMID:27649253

  14. Reconsultation and Antimicrobial Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection in Male and Female Patients in General Practice.

    PubMed

    Tandan, Meera; Duane, Sinead; Cormican, Martin; Murphy, Andrew W; Vellinga, Akke

    2016-01-01

    Current antimicrobial prescribing guidelines indicate that male and female patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) should be treated with same antimicrobials but for different durations. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in reconsultations and antimicrobial prescribing for UTI for both males and females. A total of 2557 adult suspected UTI patients participating in the Supporting the Improvement and Management of Prescribing for urinary tract infection (SIMPle) study from 30 general practices were analyzed. An antimicrobial was prescribed significantly more often to females (77%) than males (63%). Nitrofurantoin was prescribed more often for females and less often for males (58% vs. 41%), while fluoroquinolones were more often prescribed for males (11% vs. 3%). Overall, reconsultation was 1.4 times higher in females, and if the antimicrobial prescribed was not the recommended first-line (nitrofurantoin), reconsultation after empirical prescribing was significantly higher. However, the reconsultation was similar for males and females if the antimicrobial prescribed was first-line. When a urine culture was obtained, a positive culture was the most important predictor of reconsultation (Odds ratio 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.5)). This suggests, when prescribing empirically, that male and female UTI patients should initially be treated with first-line antimicrobials (nitrofurantoin) with different durations (50-100 mg four times daily for three days in females and seven days for males). However, the consideration of a culture test before prescribing antimicrobials may improve outcomes. PMID:27649253

  15. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for lifelong neurological decline.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99 (60%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their life-span. PMID:26788781

  16. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  17. Juvenile play conditions sexual partner preference in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2011-10-24

    Rats can display a conditioned partner preference for individuals that bear an odor previously associated with sexual reward. Herein we tested the possibility that odors associated with the reward induced by social play in prepubescent rats would induce a conditioned partner preference in adulthood. Two groups of 31-day-old, single-housed female rats were formed, and were given daily 30-min periods of social play with scented females. In one group, almond scent was paired with juvenile play during conditioning trials, whereas lemon scent functioned as a novel odor in the final test. The counterbalanced group received the opposite association. At age 42, females were tested for play partner preference with two males, one almond-scented and one lemon-scented. In both groups females displayed a play partner preference only for males scented with the paired odor. They were ovariectomized, hormone-primed, and at age 55 were tested for sexual partner preference with two scented stud males. Females displayed a sexual preference towards males scented with the paired odor as observed with more visits, solicitations, hops and darts, intromissions and ejaculations. These results indicate that olfactory stimuli paired with juvenile play affects later partner choice for play as well as for sex in female rats.

  18. Diagnosis of Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jerry A; Nichols, David P

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is being made with increasing frequency in adults. Patients with CF diagnosed in adulthood typically present with respiratory complaints, and often have recurrent or chronic airway infection. At the time of initial presentation individuals may appear to have clinical manifestation limited to a single organ, but with subclinical involvement of the respiratory tract. Adult-diagnosed patients have a good response to CF center care, and newly available cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor-modulating therapies are promising for the treatment of residual function mutation, thus increasing the importance of the diagnosis in adults with unexplained bronchiectasis.

  19. Depressive Symptoms in Older Female Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C-Y.; Fu, L-Y.; Kroger, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This survey study aims to examine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among primary older female family carers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In total, 350 female family carers aged 55 and older took part and completed the interview in their homes. The survey package contained…

  20. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  1. A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

    To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

  2. To Tell the Truth: What Names Mean to Female Characters in Young Adult Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Caroline S.

    1998-01-01

    Considers the small but important motif of female characters (in young adult books) seeking their appropriate names. Discusses how this step expresses the search to define authenticity in their own terms, an important step toward developing inner voice and self-esteem that adolescent girls can take. Offers examples from several young adult books…

  3. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  4. Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

  5. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    PubMed

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations.

  6. Second-Language Acquisition, Culture Shock, and Language Stress of Adult Female Latina Students in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the educational, cultural, and linguistic adjustments and experiences encountered by Hispanic adult females in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the relation of these experiences to the variables of language, culture, and education of adult Hispanic females. Adult ESL learners…

  7. Adult: young ratio influences song acquisition in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Hausberger, Martine; Henry, Laurence; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2009-05-01

    One parallel between humans and most songbirds is the fact that young require social interactions with an adult to acquire specific vocalizations. Songbirds are considered good models for comparative studies, although reports to date concern almost exclusively male songbirds. In addition, adult influence on vocal communication is generally investigated only in restricted social contexts (usually dyads). Here, the authors analyzed song learning and spatial associations among young female starlings that were maintained for 1 year in dyads (1 adult, 1 young), triads (2 adults, 1 young) or a larger group (7 young, 2 adults). Segregation by age was seen in the triads and in the larger group. The influence of adults (proportion of songs copied from adults) decreased as the young adult ratio increased. Unusual temporal features were observed in young maintained in triads and young neglected copying adult songs in the presence of peers. These results are among the first to explore the circumstances under which females learn and from whom they learn. They also add new insight to a wide range of questions about social influences on learning. PMID:19450026

  8. Asthma in an Adult Female Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Liza S; Simon, Bradley; Rawlins, Gilda; Beierschmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    A 9-y-old, colony-bred, female vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) presented with a 6-y history of open-mouth breathing, tachypnea, and sibilant wheezing. These symptoms did not significantly affect her activity or quality of life. Thoracic radiographs and results of bronchoalveolar lavage supported the diagnosis of asthma. Treatment comprising intramuscular prednisolone (tapered over 2 mo from twice daily to every other day), inhaled salmeterol–fluticasone (25 µg–250 µg per actuation twice daily) by mask, and a metered dose inhaler was successful in restoring a normal respiratory pattern. Despite the availability of several primate models of human asthma, this case represents the first report of spontaneous asthma in a NHP. PMID:26884413

  9. Primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis in a female patient.

    PubMed

    Kuno, I; Matsumoto, Y; Kasai, M; Fukuda, T; Hashiguchi, Y; Ichimura, T; Yasui, T; Sumi, T

    2016-01-01

    Nongestational choriocarcinoma is very rare and carries a poor prognosis in female patients. In this report, the authors present a case of nongestational choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis in a female. A 58-year-old female with intermittent back pain was referred to a private hospital. On examination, a mediastinal tumor and a pancreatic tumor were detected. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor was performed for histological evaluation. Pathological diagnosis was difficult because only a small amount of tissue was collected. Head MRI showed multiple metastatic tumors in the brain. The patient was diagnosed with primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. She was treated with one course of an etoposide, methotrexate, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine regimen, but her general condition gradually deteriorated, and she died on day 41. Nongestational choriocarcinoma is drug resistant, whereas gestational choriocarcinoma has better chemotherapeutic sensitivity. PMID:27172760

  10. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  11. Fingolimod suppresses bone resorption in female patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yusei; Niino, Masaaki; Kanazawa, Ippei; Suzuki, Masako; Mizuno, Masanori; Hisahara, Shin; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Eri; Amino, Itaru; Ochi, Ryutaro; Nakamura, Masakazu; Akimoto, Sachiko; Minami, Naoya; Fujiki, Naoto; Doi, Shizuki; Shimohama, Shun; Terayama, Yasuo; Kikuchi, Seiji

    2016-09-15

    Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist used to inhibit the inflammatory activity of multiple sclerosis (MS), and has been shown to suppress osteoporosis in mouse models. In this study, levels of bone turnover markers were quantified in serum and urine samples from MS patients treated with fingolimod. Compared with untreated MS patients and healthy controls, fingolimod-treated MS patients had a significantly lower level of the bone resorption marker type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide in urine. This finding was prominent in female but was not seen in male subjects. Our results suggest that fingolimod may have a beneficial effect on bone mass loss in female MS patients. PMID:27609272

  12. Differential stress reactivity in intact and ovariectomized prepubertal and adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Russell D; Lee, Susan J; McEwen, Bruce S

    2004-01-01

    The pubertal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has received relatively little experimental attention. As puberty is marked by an increase in the susceptibility to various psychiatric disorders that may be related to HPA dysfunction, it is imperative to elucidate the pubertal development of this neuroendocrine axis. To date, the limited research in this area has been conducted primarily on males. Presently, we investigated stress responsiveness, as measured by both stress hormones (e.g., corticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone) and gonadal steroids, in intact and ovariectomized prepubertal and adult female rats before and after a 30-min session of restraint stress. We report here that intact prepubertal females exhibit an extended corticosterone stress response (30-45 min longer) compared to intact adults. Moreover, ovariectomized prepubertal females continue to exhibit a prolonged stress-induced corticosterone and progesterone response compared to ovariectomized adults, indicating these protracted responses prior to puberty are independent of ovarian hormones. ACTH levels were not significantly different between intact and ovariectomized prepubertal and adult animals at all the post-stress time points measured, suggesting that the prolonged corticosterone response in prepubertal females is due to an enhanced sensitivity to ACTH at the level of the adrenal cortex. Taken together, these data indicate that stress reactivity changes dramatically during puberty in females. Furthermore, these data demonstrate additional development of the HPA axis during pubertal maturation, resulting in a more quickly terminated stress response in adulthood.

  13. Positron emission tomography in female patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Juengling, F D; Schmahl, C; Hesslinger, B; Ebert, D; Bremner, J D; Gostomzyk, J; Bohus, M; Lieb, K

    2003-01-01

    The pathology of Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is poorly understood and its biological basis remains largely unknown. One functional brain imaging study using [(18)F]Deoxyglucose-PET previously reported frontal and prefrontal hypometabolism. We studied brain metabolism at baseline in 12 medication-free female patients with BPD without current substance abuse or depression and 12 healthy female controls by [(18)F]Deoxyglucose-PET and statistical parametric mapping. We found significant frontal and prefrontal hypermetabolism in patients with BPD relative to controls as well as significant hypometabolism in the hippocampus and cuneus. This study demonstrated limbic and prefrontal dysfunction under resting conditions in patients with BPD by FDG-PET. Dysfunction in this network of brain regions, which has been implicated in the regulation of emotion, may underlie symptoms of BPD.

  14. Cosmetic selection of skin incision for resection of choledochal cyst in young female patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Woo; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Open surgery for choledochal cyst has a disadvantage of skin incision scar from operative wound, which can be a definite disadvantage especially in young female patients. This study focused on the cosmetic aspect of skin incision for resection of choledochal cyst in young female patients. Methods During a 2-year study period, 11 adult female patients aged less than 40 years underwent primary resection of choledochal cyst by a single surgeon. The cosmetic effect of two types of skin incision was evaluated. Results The patients underwent mini-laparotomy through either a right subcostal incision (n=8) or an upper midline incision (n=3). The mean length of skin incision was 10 cm for right subcostal incisions and 9 cm for upper midline incisions. It took approximately 1 hour to repair the operative wound meticulously in both groups. At the 6 month to 1 year follow-up, a slight bulge on the skin scar was observed in 3 (37.5%) patients of the right subcostal incision group and 1 (33.3%) patient of the upper midline incision group. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study support the claim that cosmetic effect of the upper midline incision for CCD surgery appears to be non-inferior to that of the right subcostal incision if the incision is placed accurately and repaired very meticulously. PMID:27621750

  15. Cosmetic selection of skin incision for resection of choledochal cyst in young female patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Woo; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Open surgery for choledochal cyst has a disadvantage of skin incision scar from operative wound, which can be a definite disadvantage especially in young female patients. This study focused on the cosmetic aspect of skin incision for resection of choledochal cyst in young female patients. Methods During a 2-year study period, 11 adult female patients aged less than 40 years underwent primary resection of choledochal cyst by a single surgeon. The cosmetic effect of two types of skin incision was evaluated. Results The patients underwent mini-laparotomy through either a right subcostal incision (n=8) or an upper midline incision (n=3). The mean length of skin incision was 10 cm for right subcostal incisions and 9 cm for upper midline incisions. It took approximately 1 hour to repair the operative wound meticulously in both groups. At the 6 month to 1 year follow-up, a slight bulge on the skin scar was observed in 3 (37.5%) patients of the right subcostal incision group and 1 (33.3%) patient of the upper midline incision group. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study support the claim that cosmetic effect of the upper midline incision for CCD surgery appears to be non-inferior to that of the right subcostal incision if the incision is placed accurately and repaired very meticulously.

  16. Early prenatal androgenization results in diminished ovarian reserve in adult female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, D.A.; Patankar, M.S.; Barnett, D.K.; Lesnick, T.G.; Hutcherson, B.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early prenatal androgenization (PA) accelerates follicle differentiation and impairs embryogenesis in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) undergoing FSH therapy for IVF. To determine whether androgen excess in utero affects follicle development over time, this study examines whether PA exposure, beginning at gestational days 40–44 (early treated) or 100–115 (late treated), alters the decline in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels with age in adult female rhesus monkeys and perturbs their ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) therapy for IVF. METHODS Thirteen normal (control), 11 early-treated and 6 late-treated PA adult female monkeys had serum AMH levels measured at random times of the menstrual cycle or anovulatory period. Using some of the same animals, basal serum AMH, gonadotrophins and steroids were also measured in six normal, five early-treated and three late-treated PA female monkeys undergoing FSH therapy for IVF during late-reproductive life (>17 years); serum AMH also was measured on day of HCG administration and at oocyte retrieval. RESULTS Serum AMH levels in early-treated PA females declined with age to levels that were significantly lower than those of normal (P ≤ 0.05) and late-treated PA females (P ≤ 0.025) by late-reproductive life. Serum AMH levels positively predicted numbers of total/mature oocytes retrieved, with early-treated PA females having the lowest serum AMH levels, fewest oocytes retrieved and lowest percentage of females with fertilized oocytes that cleaved. CONCLUSIONS Based on these animals, early PA appears to program an exaggerated decline in ovarian reserve with age, suggesting that epigenetically induced hormonal factors during fetal development may influence the cohort size of ovarian follicles after birth. PMID:19740899

  17. The Experiences and Needs of Female Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-01-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data from n = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health,…

  18. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  19. Balancing Work, Family, and Student Roles: A Phenomenological Study of the Adult Female Graduate Online Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Charlene X.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of female adult learners pursuing graduate degrees online. As online graduate programs have become increasingly popular and more readily available in the last decade, more women than men are enrolling in online graduate programs in addition to…

  20. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  1. When Your "Problem" Becomes Mine: Adult Female Siblings' Perspectives of Having a Brother with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompeo, Michelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study is a retrospective look at adult female siblings' perspectives of their childhoods and present identities based on having a brother with a disability. This paper focuses on siblings' experiences within educational and public domains, and how such experiences have shaped their personalities and career choices. Qualitative findings were…

  2. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  3. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  4. Are Males and Females Sexually Abused as Children Socially Anxious Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N.

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250…

  5. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-11-09

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility.

  6. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  7. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.

  8. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care. PMID:25643971

  9. Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things.

  10. Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things. PMID:22549480

  11. [Liver failure in a 27 years old female patient].

    PubMed

    Gertsch, T; Pfammatter, T; Braun, M; Hechelhammer, L; Meyenberger, C; Semela, D; Sawatzki, M

    2012-08-01

    We report about a 27-years old female patient with acute liver failure due to an acute Budd Chiari Syndrom (thrombosis of all three liver veins an vena cava inferior) with caval web, birth control pills and after long distance flight. After successfull aspiration of the caval thrombus and dilatation of caval web liver transplantation could be bypassed. Two weeks after intervention the patient was in a good healthy condition with normal laboratory values, normal liver size, normal perfusion of the V. cava inferior and signs of reperfusion of the middle liver vein. PMID:22878949

  12. Tickling in juvenile but not adult female rats conditions sexual partner preference.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Pfaus, James G; López-Meraz, Maria Leonor; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-20

    Female rats display a conditioned partner preference for males that bear odors paired with different types of rewarding unconditioned stimuli (UCS). Here we examined whether tickling constitutes a rewarding UCS that supports the development of partner preferences. In Experiment 1, we tested the possibility that odors associated with a tickling UCS in prepubescent rats would induce a conditioned partner preference in adulthood. Two groups were formed with 31-day-old, single-housed females, tickled for 6 min daily for 10 days, by a hand that wore a scented glove (almond or lemon). At 47 days of age, females were ovariectomized (OVX), hormone-primed (EB+P), and tested for sexual partner preference with two scented stud males (one almond and one lemon). In each group, females displayed a sexual preference toward males bearing the odor paired with tickling, as observed with longer visits, more solicitations, hops & darts, and receiving more intromissions and ejaculations from the preferred male. In Experiment 2, we used 3-month old, OVX, hormone-primed rats conditioned every 4 days for 10 trials. In contrast to juvenile females, adult females failed to prefer males that bore the odor paired with tickling but instead preferred the novel male. These results suggest that tickling has opposite age-dependent effects in the conditioning of partner preference. Tickling in juvenile females appears to act as a rewarding UCS, whereas in adult females it may act as an aversive UCS. Further research is needed to understand brain mechanisms that might account for such differences.

  13. The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17β-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success.

  14. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart.

  15. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M.; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well

  16. Protein Restriction during Pregnancy Induces Hypertension in Adult Female Rat Offspring—Influence of Estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Sathishkumar, K; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that gestational dietary protein restriction in rats causes gender-related differences in development of offspring's blood pressure (BP) that is more pronounced in the males than females. Since such effects may depend on sex hormones, we investigated the role of estradiol in the development of hypertension in female offspring of protein restricted dams. Female offspring of pregnant rats fed normal (20%) or protein restricted (6%) casein diets throughout pregnancy were kept either, intact, ovariectomized or ovariectomized with estradiol supplementation. BP, estradiol and testosterone levels and vascular estrogen receptor (ER) were examined. BP was significantly higher and plasma estradiol levels were significantly lower by 34% in intact protein restricted female offspring compared to corresponding controls. Further decrease in estradiol levels by ovariectomy exacerbated hypertension in the protein restricted females with an earlier onset and more prominent elevation in BP compared to controls. Estradiol supplementation in ovariectomized protein restricted females significantly reversed ovariectomy-induced hypertension but did not normalize BP to control levels. The hypertensive protein restricted females have reduced vascular ERα expression that was unaffected by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement. In addition, the testosterone levels were significantly higher by 2.4-, 3.4-, and 2.8-fold in intact, ovariectomized and estradiol replaced protein restricted females compared to corresponding controls. Our data show that: 1) hypertension in protein restricted adult female offspring is associated with reduced plasma estradiol levels, 2) estradiol protects and limits the severity of hypertension in protein restricted females and contribute for sexual dimorphism, and 3) Estradiol replacement fails to completely reverse hypertension, which may be related to limited availability of vascular ERα receptors and/or increased circulating testosterone

  17. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    PubMed

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  18. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3μg/L as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1928, 89, and 435 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis. PMID:25929836

  19. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  20. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Weber, Gregory J.; Sepúlveda, Maria S.; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3 µg/L as defined by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 µg/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7 dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1853, 84, and 419 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30 µg/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis. PMID:25929836

  1. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3μg/L as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1928, 89, and 435 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

  2. Social stress-associated depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Register, Thomas C; Friedman, David P; Morgan, Timothy M; Thompson, Jalonda; Lanier, Tasha

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a behavior pattern in adult female cynomolgus monkeys that has several behavioral and physiological characteristics in common with human depression including reduced body fat, low levels of activity, high heart rate, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, and increased mortality. Under certain circumstances, this depressive behavior appears more common in socially stressed subordinate, than dominant, females. This is the first animal model of social stress-related depression in females and the first primate model of adult depression. It is important to have a female animal model of depression because women are more likely to experience a clinically significant depression than men, and depression in women is often associated with changes in reproductive system function. This model is particularly useful because these monkeys have menstrual cycles that are similar to those of women, and those that exhibit depressive behavior have relatively low levels of ovarian steroids. These monkeys may be a useful model of reproductive system-associated mood disorders in females.

  3. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient. PMID:25624670

  4. Ab interno trabeculectomy in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient.

  5. Young Women's Leadership Alliance: Youth-Adult Partnerships in an All-Female After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Meyer, Beth; Bean, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article describes program strategies and adult practices that can build youth-adult partnerships. In particular, it focuses on strategies to empower girls in all-female after-school programs. The Young Women's Leadership Alliance has involved 164 girl leaders and five adult women leaders over three years. To build the partnerships, adults…

  6. Cervical column morphology in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Petri, Niels; Kjaer, Inger; Svanholt, Palle

    2008-10-01

    Cervical column morphology was examined in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and compared with the cervical morphology of an adult control group with neutral occlusion, normal craniofacial morphology, and no history of sleep apnoea. The sleep apnoea group consisted of 91 patients, 16 females aged 29-59 years (mean 49.4 years) and 75 males aged 27-65 years (mean 49.0 years). All patients were diagnosed with OSA by overnight polysomnography. The control group consisted of 21 subjects, 15 females aged 23-40 years (mean 29.2 years) and 6 males aged 25-44 years (mean 32.8 years). From each individual, a visual assessment of the cervical column was performed on the radiograph. Differences in the cervical column morphology, between the genders and the groups were assessed by Fisher's exact test and the effect of age by logistic regression analysis. In the OSA group, 46.2 per cent had fusion anomalies of the cervical column and 5.5 per cent a posterior arch deficiency. Fusion anomalies occurred in 26.4 per cent as fusions between two cervical vertebrae. Block fusions occurred in 12.1 per cent and occipitalization in 14.3 per cent. A posterior arch deficiency occurred in 2.2 per cent as a partial cleft of C1 and in 3.3 per cent as dehiscence of C3 and C4. No statistical gender differences were found in the occurrence of morphological characteristics of the cervical column. The fusion anomalies of the cervical column occurred significantly more often in the OSA group. The results indicate that the morphological deviations of the upper cervical vertebrae play a role in the phenotypical subdivision and diagnosis of OSA.

  7. Reduced Long-Term Relative Survival in Females and Younger Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Enger, Tone Bull; Pleym, Hilde; Stenseth, Roar; Greiff, Guri; Wahba, Alexander; Videm, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess long-term survival and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. Methods 8,564 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Trondheim, Norway from 2000 until censoring 31.12.2014 were prospectively followed. Observed long-term mortality following surgery was compared to the expected mortality in the Norwegian population, matched on gender, age and calendar year. This enabled assessment of relative survival (observed/expected survival rates) and relative mortality (observed/expected deaths). Long-term mortality was compared across gender, age and surgical procedure. Predictors of reduced survival were assessed with multivariate analyses of observed and relative mortality. Results During follow-up (median 6.4 years), 2,044 patients (23.9%) died. The observed 30-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality rates were 2.2%, 4.4%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively, and remained constant throughout the study period. Comparing observed mortality to that expected in a matched sample from the general population, patients undergoing cardiac surgery showed excellent survival throughout the first seven years of follow-up (relative survival ≥ 1). Subsequently, survival decreased, which was more pronounced in females and patients undergoing other procedures than isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Relative mortality was higher in younger age groups, females and patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The female survival advantage in the general population was obliterated (relative mortality ratio (RMR) 1.35 (1.19–1.54), p<0.001). Increasing observed long-term mortality seen with ageing was due to population risk, and younger age was independently associated with increased relative mortality (RMR per 5 years 0.81 (0.79–0.84), p<0.001)). Conclusions Cardiac surgery patients showed comparable survival to that expected in the general Norwegian population, underlining the benefits of cardiac surgery in appropriately selected patients. The

  8. Endocrine disruptors and female cancer: Informing the patients (Review).

    PubMed

    Del Pup, Lino; Mantovani, Alberto; Luce, Amalia; Cavaliere, Carla; Facchini, Gaetano; Di Francia, Raffaele; Caraglia, Michele; Berretta, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    Pollutants altering the endocrine system, known as endocrine disruptors (ED), may modify the risk of female cancers. The carcinogenic effect of ED on humans has been confirmed by experimental studies for various substances including pesticides, DDT, dioxins, phthalates, bisphenol A, diethylstilbestrol, as well as heavy metals, but it is difficult to quantify precisely for several reasons hereby reviewed. Carcinogenesis is a complex and multifactorial mechanism that manifests itself over a long period of time, making difficult the detection of the specific contribution of the pollutants, whose absorbed dose is often unknown. The combined effect of various substances leads to complex interactions whose outcome is difficult to predict. These substances may accumulate and carry out their harmful effect on critical periods of life, probably also at doses considered harmless to an adult. ED can also have epigenetic adverse effects on the health of future generations. In conclusion, the carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors on female cancer types is plausible although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and entities. In the last part of the review we suggest ways to reduce ED exposure as it is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as the embryonic period and puberty. PMID:25998096

  9. Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.

  10. A Case of Strangulated Urethral Prolapse in a Premenopausal Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Morris L.; Al-Omar, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Urethral prolapse in a premenopausal adult female is exceedingly rare. This paper describes a case of strangulated urethral prolapse presenting as a urethral mass in an unusual demographic and reviews the literature on etiology and management. Only a few cases have occurred in women of reproductive age. The etiology is likely multifactorial. Treatment with surgical excision provides good results in the majority of cases. PMID:27413572

  11. Pesticide Methoxychlor Promotes the Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult-Onset Disease through the Female Germline

    PubMed Central

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M. Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

  12. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  13. Perinatal iron deficiency affects locomotor behavior and water maze performance in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Stephane L; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Adams, Michael A; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2008-05-01

    Iron deficiency during early growth and development adversely affects multiple facets of cognition and behavior in adult rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the learning and locomotor behavioral deficits observed in male and female rats in the absence of depressed brain iron levels at the time of testing. Adult female Wistar rats were fed either an iron-enriched diet (>225 mg/kg Fe) or an iron-restricted diet (3 mg/kg Fe) for 2 wk prior to and throughout gestation, and a nonpurified diet (270 mg/kg Fe) thereafter. Open-field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM) testing began when the offspring reached early adulthood (12 wk). At birth, perinatal iron-deficient (PID) offspring had reduced (P < 0.001) hematocrits (-33%), liver iron stores (-83%), and brain iron concentrations (-38%) compared with controls. Although there were no differences in iron status in adults, the PID males and females exhibited reduced OF exploratory behavior, albeit only PID males had an aversion to the center of the apparatus (2.5 vs. 6.9% in controls, P < 0.001). Additionally, PID males required greater path lengths to reach the hidden platform in the MWM, had reduced spatial bias for the target quadrant, and had a tendency for greater thigmotactic behavior in the probe trials (16.5 vs. 13.0% in controls; P = 0.06). PID females had slower swim speeds in all testing phases (-6.2%; P < 0.001). These results suggest that PID has detrimental programming effects in both male and female rats, although the behaviors suggest different mechanisms may be involved in each sex.

  14. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  15. Inhaled corticosteroids can reduce osteoporosis in female patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shih-Feng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Liu, Guan-Heng; Ho, Shu-Chen; Chang, Huang-Chih; Huang, Hung-Tu; Chen, Yu-Mu; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Kuan-Yi; Fang, Wen-Feng; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in patients with COPD can protect from osteoporosis remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of osteoporosis in patients with COPD with ICS use and without. Patients and methods This is a retrospective cohort and population-based study in which we extracted newly diagnosed female patients with COPD between 1997 and 2009 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance (TNHI) database between 1996 and 2011 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision – Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] 491, 492, 496). The patients with COPD were defined by the presence of two or more diagnostic codes for COPD within 12 months on either inpatient or outpatient service claims submitted to TNHI. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 40 years or if osteoporosis had been diagnosed prior to the diagnosis of COPD and cases of asthma (ICD-9 CM code 493.X) before the index date. These enrolled patients were followed up till 2011, and the incidence of osteoporosis was determined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was also used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incidences of lung cancer. Results Totally, 10,723 patients with COPD, including ICS users (n=812) and nonusers (n=9,911), were enrolled. The incidence rate of osteoporosis per 100,000 person years is 4,395 in nonusers and 2,709 in ICS users (HR: 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63–084). The higher ICS dose is associated with lower risk of osteoporosis (0 mg to ≤20 mg, HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.69–1.04; >20 mg to ≤60 mg, HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.04; and >60 mg, HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55–0.96; P for trend =0.0023) after adjusting for age, income, and medications. The cumulative osteoporosis probability significantly decreased among the ICS users when compared with the nonusers (P<0.001). Conclusion Female patients with COPD using ICS have a dose–response protective effect for osteoporosis. PMID:27478374

  16. Carboplatin dosing for adult Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yuichi; Shimokata, Tomoya; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-based anticancer drug that has been long used to treat many types of solid cancer. Because the clearance of carboplatin strongly correlates with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), its dosage is calculated with the Calvert formula on the basis of the patient's GFR to achieve the target area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC) for each patient. However, many lines of evidence from previous clinical studies should be interpreted with caution because different methods were used to estimate drug clearance and derive the dosage of carboplatin. There is a particularly high risk of carboplatin overdosing when the dosage is determined on the basis of standardized serum creatinine values. When deciding the dose of carboplatin for adult Japanese patients, preferred methods to assess renal function instead of directly measuring GFR include (1) 24-h urinary collection-based creatinine clearance adjusted by adding 0.2 mg/dl to the serum creatinine concentration measured by standardized methods, and (2) equation-based GFR (eGFR) with a back calculation to units of ml/min per subject. Given the limitations of serum creatinine-based GFR estimations, the GFR or creatinine clearance should be directly measured in each patient whenever possible. To ensure patient safety and facilitate a medical-team approach, the single most appropriate method available at each institute or medical team should be consistently used to calculate the dose of carboplatin with the Calvert formula.

  17. All about FAX: a Female Adult voXel phantom for Monte Carlo calculation in radiation protection dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Loureiro, E C M; Lima, V J M; Lima, F R A; Hoff, G

    2004-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a task group on dose calculations, which, among other objectives, should replace the currently used mathematical MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real persons by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to the mathematical MIRD phantoms, voxel phantoms are true to the natural representations of a human body. Connected to a radiation transport code, voxel phantoms serve as virtual humans for which equivalent dose to organs and tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation can be calculated. The principal database for the construction of the FAX (Female Adult voXel) phantom consisted of 151 CT images recorded from scanning of trunk and head of a female patient, whose body weight and height were close to the corresponding data recommended by the ICRP in Publication 89. All 22 organs and tissues at risk, except for the red bone marrow and the osteogenic cells on the endosteal surface of bone ('bone surface'), have been segmented manually with a technique recently developed at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the UFPE in Recife, Brazil. After segmentation the volumes of the organs and tissues have been adjusted to agree with the organ and tissue masses recommended by ICRP for the Reference Adult Female in Publication 89. Comparisons have been made with the organ and tissue masses of the mathematical EVA phantom, as well as with the corresponding data for other female voxel phantoms. The three-dimensional matrix of the segmented images has eventually been connected to the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for exposures to photons, and compared to data determined for the mathematical MIRD-type phantoms, as well as for other voxel phantoms.

  18. Prepubertal exposure to bisphenol-A induces ERα upregulation and hyperplasia in adult gerbil female prostate.

    PubMed

    Campos, Mônica S; Galvão, André L V; Rodríguez, Daniel A O; Biancardi, Manoel F; Marques, Mara R; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-06-01

    Prostate physiology is highly dependent on oestrogenic and androgenic homeostasis. Interferences in this equilibrium, especially in early periods of life, may disrupt the prostate and increase the susceptibility to the development of diseases with ageing. Taking this into account, and considering the increase of environmental chemicals with endocrine-disrupting potential such as bisphenol-A (BPA), this study aimed to evaluate the prostates of adult female gerbils exposed to BPA and BPA plus testosterone from pubertal to adult periods. Morphological, stereological and chemical analyses revealed that long-term BPA exposure, even in environmental dosages, increases the proliferative status of the prostate, increases the number of ERα-positive stromal cells and elicits the development of prostatic hyperplasia in adult female gerbils. Moreover, we also observed that the association with testosterone did not increase the proliferative status of the gland, which shows that low levels of BPA are enough to cause an oestrogenic disruption of the prostate in young adults. This evidence suggests that this oestrogenic endocrine disruptor may increase the susceptibility to prostatic disorders with ageing. PMID:26098999

  19. Borderline typical symptoms in adult patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Feige, Bernd; Hesslinger, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Ebert, Dieter; Matthies, Swantje; Limberger, Matthias F; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Bohus, Martin; Lieb, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) share several clinical features, e.g. emotional lability and impulsivity. This study aimed to delineate differences and similarities between ADHD and BPD with respect to borderline typical symptomatology and gender specifics. Borderline symptomatology was assessed in 60 adult patients with ADHD with the borderline symptom list (BSL) and compared to both 60 gender- and age-matched BPD patients and control subjects. The BSL is a standardized instrument including 95 items on 7 subscales (self-perception, affect regulation, self-destruction, dysphoria, loneliness, intrusions and hostility). Adult ADHD patients showed significantly higher BSL total scores and all of the seven subscales compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) but lower scores than BPD patients (p < 0.001). With respect to the seven subscales, the largest differences between ADHD and BPD patients were found with respect to self-destruction (d = 1.12) and affect dysregulation (d = 0.90), whereas the smallest difference was found with respect to loneliness (d = 0.36). In females, the BSL subscales "loneliness" and "hostility" did not differentiate between BPD and ADHD. Borderline typical symptoms are common in adult patients with ADHD but seem to be less pronounced than in patients with BPD. Females with ADHD and BPD share more clinical features than males. However, symptoms of self-destruction and affect dysregulation appear to be more severe in BPD patients.

  20. The older female patient with a complex chronic dissociative disorder.

    PubMed

    Kluft, Richard P

    2007-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are rarely considered in the diagnostic assessment of older women, despite the fact that the existence, appearance and characteristics of certain dissociative disorders in older populations has been known and described since the 1980s. This communication reviews the core phenomena of Dissociative Identity Disorder and related forms of Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, the natural history of their phenomena from youth to old age, and describes common presentations of Dissociative Disorders in older women. It also reviews the treatment of complex chronic dissociative disorders and discusses alternative approaches to their psychotherapy in the older female patient. It is crucial to recognize and respect the importance of appreciating individual differences among older dissociative patients and to individualize their treatments accordingly.

  1. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  2. Television viewing is not predictive of Body Mass Index in Black and Hispanic young adult females

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Walls, Courtney; Gooding, Holly C.; Field, Alison E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have observed that television viewing is predictive of obesity and weight gain. We examined whether the cross-sectional association between television viewing and body mass index (BMI) varied by racial/ethnic subgroups among young women in Wave III (collected in 2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the relationship between TV viewing and BMI among 6,049 females while controlling for socio-demographic and health attributes. We stratified the sample by race/ethnicity to better understand the association between TV viewing and BMI across different groups. Black and Hispanic females had higher BMIs (Black: 28.5 kg/m2, Hispanic: 27.3 kg/m2, White: 26.0kg/m2) than White females while Black females reported higher numbers of hours spent watching TV (Black: 14.7 hrs/wk, Hispanic: 10.6 hrs/wk, White: 11.2 hrs/wk) when compared to their White and Hispanic peers. TV viewing was positively associated with BMI (β=0.79, p=0.003 for 8–14 v. ≤7 hrs/wk; β=1.18, p=0.01 for >14 v. ≤ 7 hrs/wk) independent of race/ethnicity, age, maternal education, history of pregnancy, parental obesity, and household income. However, in models stratified by race/ethnicity, increased TV viewing was associated with increased BMI only among White females. TV viewing was not predictive of higher BMI in Black or Hispanic young adult females. Among Black and Hispanic females, counseling to decrease TV viewing may be important but insufficient for promoting weight loss. PMID:19876003

  3. Comparing illness presentation, treatment and functioning between patients with adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Li, Adrienne Wing-Yee; Leung, Chung-Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry Kit-Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2014-12-30

    Studies have shown that early- and adult-onset schizophrenia patients differ in pre-morbid traits, illness presentation, psychopathology, and prognosis. We aimed to compare adult-onset patients (age range 26-55 years) with an adolescent-onset cohort (15-25 years) in demographics, illness presentation and functioning at baseline. Participants were from two territory-wide early intervention services for adolescent-onset (n=671) and adult-onset psychosis patients (n=360) in Hong Kong. The adolescent-onset cohort had their initial psychotic episode from 2001-2003; retrospective data collection was done through systematic case note review. The adult-onset cohort was recruited for a larger interventional study from 2009-2011; information was collected via face-to-face interviews. Adult-onset psychosis was significantly associated with more females, more smokers, more non-local birth, more full-time employment, better functioning, poorer medication adherence, more psychiatric hospitalization and fewer with schizophrenia than adolescent-onset psychosis (mean age: 20.4). The effect sizes were small, except for medication adherence where a robust effect was found. No group difference in DUP was found. The finding that adult-onset patients had better functioning challenges the view that adolescent- and adult-onset psychoses share a similar prognostic trajectory. Implications for adapting intervention processes for adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis are discussed.

  4. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  5. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  6. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age. PMID:27630474

  7. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age.

  8. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  9. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  10. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  11. Epilepsy, sex hormones and antiepileptic drugs in female patients.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; D'Egidio, Claudia; Coppola, Giangennaro; Parisi, Pasquale; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Women with epilepsy have a higher incidence of reproductive endocrine disorders than the general female population. These alterations include polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperandrogenemia, infertility, hypothalamic amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Reproductive dysfunction is attributed both to epilepsy itself and to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Focal epileptic discharges from the temporal lobe may have a direct influence on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thus altering the release of sex steroid hormones, including the production of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone and prolactin. AEDs may modulate hormone release from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and they may alter the metabolism of sex hormones and their binding proteins. Hepatic enzyme-inducing AEDs, such as carbamazepine and phenytoin, may be most clearly linked to altered metabolism of sex steroid hormones, but valproic acid, an enzyme inhibitor, has also been associated with a frequent occurrence of polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperandrogenism in women with epilepsy. Therefore, treatment of epilepsy and selection of AEDs are important for reproductive health in female patients. The aim of the present review is to critically evaluate the recently published data concerning the interactions between sex hormones, epilepsy and AEDs.

  12. Female Patients Require a Higher Propofol Infusion Rate for Sedation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shigeru; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Honda, Yuka; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Sedation may minimize physiologic and behavioral stress responses. In our facility, the infusion rate of propofol is adjusted according to the bispectral index (BIS) in all cases of implant-related surgery; multivariate analysis of retrospective data enabled us to extract independent factors that affect the dose of propofol in sedation that are considered useful indicators for achieving adequate sedation. The study population comprised all patients undergoing implant-related surgery under intravenous sedation in Okayama University Hospital from April 2009 to March 2013. The infusion rate of propofol was adjusted to maintain the BIS value at 70-80. The outcome was the average infusion rate of propofol, and potential predictor variables were age, sex, body weight, treatment time, and amount of midazolam. Independent variables that affected the average infusion rate of propofol were extracted with multiple regression analysis. One hundred twenty-five subjects were enrolled. In the multiple regression analysis, female sex was shown to be significantly associated with a higher average infusion rate of propofol. Females may require a higher infusion rate of propofol than males to achieve adequate sedation while undergoing implant-related surgery. PMID:27269663

  13. Female Patients Require a Higher Propofol Infusion Rate for Sedation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shigeru; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Honda, Yuka; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Sedation may minimize physiologic and behavioral stress responses. In our facility, the infusion rate of propofol is adjusted according to the bispectral index (BIS) in all cases of implant-related surgery; multivariate analysis of retrospective data enabled us to extract independent factors that affect the dose of propofol in sedation that are considered useful indicators for achieving adequate sedation. The study population comprised all patients undergoing implant-related surgery under intravenous sedation in Okayama University Hospital from April 2009 to March 2013. The infusion rate of propofol was adjusted to maintain the BIS value at 70-80. The outcome was the average infusion rate of propofol, and potential predictor variables were age, sex, body weight, treatment time, and amount of midazolam. Independent variables that affected the average infusion rate of propofol were extracted with multiple regression analysis. One hundred twenty-five subjects were enrolled. In the multiple regression analysis, female sex was shown to be significantly associated with a higher average infusion rate of propofol. Females may require a higher infusion rate of propofol than males to achieve adequate sedation while undergoing implant-related surgery.

  14. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes.

  15. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes. PMID:26067073

  16. Salivary Testosterone Measurement by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Adult Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Keevil, BG; MacDonald, P; Macdowall, W; Lee, DM; Wu, FCW

    2016-01-01

    Background Salivary testosterone (Sal-T) may be a useful surrogate of serum free testosterone. The study aims were to use a novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to determine whether Sal-T concentrations accurately reflect Sal-T concentrations in both sexes and to investigate practical aspects of sample collection. Methods Saliva and serum samples were collected in 104 male and 91 female subjects. A more sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was developed to enable Sal-T quantitation in the low concentrations found in females. Saliva (200 μL) was extracted with 1 mL of methyl-tert-butyl ether following the addition of D5-testosterone. Quantitation was performed using a Waters TQ-S mass spectrometer. Results The assay achieved a lower limit of quantification of 5pmol/L, sufficiently sensitive to measure testosterone in female saliva. Sal-T showed a diurnal variation but samples taken at weekly and monthly intervals showed no significant differences. Sal-T was stable at ambient temperature for up to 5 days, after freeze-thawing and 3 years frozen storage. Reference intervals for Sal-T were 93-378 pmol/L in males and 5-46 pmol/L in females. Sal-T correlated significantly with serum calculated free-T in males (r=0.71, P<0.001) and in females (r=0.39, P<0.001). Conclusions These results confirm that testosterone can be reliably and accurately measured by LC-MS/MS in both adult male and female saliva samples. These results lay the foundation for further exploration of the clinical application of Sal- T as a reliable alternative to serum testosterone in the diagnosis and management of androgen disorders and assessment of androgen status in clinical research. PMID:24194586

  17. A novel hormone is required for the development of reproductive phenotypes in adult female crabs.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Chung, J Sook

    2014-01-01

    The crustacean male-specific androgenic hormone is widely accepted as a key factor in sexual differentiation and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. However, the mechanism by which the plethora of different reproductive strategies are controlled and executed in crustaceans is not known. We discovered in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, a hitherto unknown neurohormone, named crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), in distinct neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk ganglia. CFSH is highly expressed in females but weakly in males, and its crucial role in developing adult female phenotypes has now been established. CFSH cDNA encodes a 225-amino acid (aa) novel protein composed of a 23-aa predicted signal peptide, 33-aa precursor-related peptide and 167-aa mature protein that did not match any other sequence in GenBank. CFSH RNA interference knockdown by multiple administrations of double-stranded RNA at the prepubertal stage causes abnormal development of brooding and mating systems upon puberty. These systems include a pair of gonopores and an egg attachment system for brooding, comprised of an enlarged semicircular abdomen and ovigerous setae. The ovigerous setae in CFSH knocked-down females were fewer and 50% shorter and the gonopores were either significantly smaller than those of controls, misplaced, or absent. We also identified CFSH in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, a species that shares a similar reproductive strategy with C. sapidus. Together, our data provide the first evidence for the presence of a female hormone in crustaceans and its importance in positively controlling anatomic features associated with brooding and mating systems. From an evolutionary standpoint, the endocrine control supporting a female-specific reproductive strategy, as previously described for many vertebrate species, has now been demonstrated for the first time in crustaceans. PMID:24280057

  18. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  19. The effects of prenatal PCBs on adult female paced mating reproductive behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Rebecca M.; Juenger, Thomas E.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of toxicants that persist in measurable quantities in human and wildlife tissues, despite their ban in production in 1977. Some PCB mixtures can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of hormones in the brain and periphery. When exposure to hormonally active substances such as PCBs occurs during vulnerable developmental periods, particularly prenatally or in early postnatal life, they can disrupt sex-specific patterning of the brain, inducing permanent changes that can later be manifested as improper sexual behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor (A) 1221 on adult female reproductive behaviors in a dose-response model in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Using a paced mating paradigm that permits the female to set the timing of mating and control contact with the male during copulation, we were able to uncover significant differences in female-typical sexual activities in A1221-exposed females. Specifically, A1221 causes significant effects on mating trial pacing, vocalizations, ambulation and the female’s likelihood to mate. The results further demonstrate that the intermediate treatment group has the greatest number of disrupted endpoints, suggestive of non-linear dose responses to A1221. These data demonstrate that the behavioral phenotype in adulthood is disrupted by low, ecologically relevant exposures to PCBs, and the results have implications for reproductive success and health in wildlife and women. PMID:17274994

  20. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  1. Sexual Abuse Perpetrated by Adult and Juvenile Females: An Ultimate Attempt to Resolve a Conflict Associated with Maternal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, M.; Auclair, N.; Jacob, M.; Carpentier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The purpose of this article is to report the descriptive and phenomenological aspects of adult females (AF) and juvenile females (JF) who sexually abuse children and adolescents. A major focus is to study the relational problems during childhood and adulthood of this specific population and how they echo the relational aspects of their…

  2. Mixed-Gender Group Co-Leadership on Group Counseling with Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threadcraft, Hal L.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    1993-01-01

    Conducted study to investigate whether group cofacilitated by male and female counselor could provide therapeutic benefit to women survivors of childhood sexual victimization. Findings seem to provide preliminary evidence contradicting assumption that male counselors should not be involved in counseling female adult survivors of sexual…

  3. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A

    2003-11-11

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.

  4. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod. PMID:14597702

  5. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  6. Gene expression profiling of adult female tissues in feeding Rhipicephalus microplus cattle ticks.

    PubMed

    Stutzer, Christian; van Zyl, Willem A; Olivier, Nicholas A; Richards, Sabine; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is an economically important pest, especially for resource-poor countries, both as a highly adaptive invasive species and prominent vector of disease. The increasing prevalence of resistance to chemical acaricides and variable efficacy of current tick vaccine candidates highlight the need for more effective control methods. In the absence of a fully annotated genome, the wealth of available expressed sequence tag sequence data for this species presents a unique opportunity to study the genes that are expressed in tissues involved in blood meal acquisition, digestion and reproduction during feeding. Utilising a custom oligonucleotide microarray designed from available singletons (BmiGI Version 2.1) and expressed sequence tag sequences of R. microplus, the expression profiles in feeding adult female midgut, salivary glands and ovarian tissues were compared. From 13,456 assembled transcripts, 588 genes expressed in all three tissues were identified from fed adult females 20 days post infestation. The greatest complement of genes relate to translation and protein turnover. Additionally, a number of unique transcripts were identified for each tissue that relate well to their respective physiological/biological function/role(s). These transcripts include secreted anti-hemostatics and defense proteins from the salivary glands for acquisition of a blood meal, proteases as well as enzymes and transporters for digestion and nutrient acquisition from ingested blood in the midgut, and finally proteins and associated factors involved in DNA replication and cell-cycle control for oogenesis in the ovaries. Comparative analyses of adult female tissues during feeding enabled the identification of a catalogue of transcripts that may be essential for successful feeding and reproduction in the cattle tick, R. microplus. Future studies will increase our understanding of basic tick biology, allowing the identification of shared proteins

  7. Post-parturition habitat selection by elk calves and adult female elk in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, J.; Cain, James W.; Liley, Stewart; Gould, William R.; Quintana, Nichole T.; Ballard, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal survival and juvenile recruitment are crucial to maintaining viable elk (Cervus elaphus) populations. Neonate survival is known to be influenced by many factors, including bed-site selection. Although neonates select the actual bed-site location, they must do so within the larger calf-rearing area selected by the mother. As calves age, habitat selection should change to meet the changing needs of the growing calf. Our main objectives were to characterize habitat selection at 2 spatial scales and in areas with different predator assemblages in New Mexico. We evaluated bed-site selection by calves and calf-rearing area selection by adult females. We captured 108 elk calves by hand and fitted them with ear tag transmitters in two areas in New Mexico: the Valle Vidal and Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area. In both study areas, we found that concealing cover structure and distance to that cover influenced bed-site selection of young calves (i.e., <2 weeks of age). Older calves (i.e., 3–10 weeks of age) still selected areas in relation to distance to cover, but also preferred areas with higher visibility. At the larger spatial scale of calf-rearing habitat selection by the adult female, concealing cover (e.g., rocks, shrubs, and logs) and other variables important to the hiding calves were still in the most supported models, but selection was also influenced by forage availability and indices of forage quality. Studies that seek to obtain insight into microhabitat selection of ungulate neonates should consider selection by the neonate and selection by the adult female, changes in selection as neonates age, and potential selection differences in areas of differing predation risk. By considering these influences together and at multiple scales, studies can achieve a broader understanding of neonatal ungulate habitat requirements. 

  8. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.; Rees, Alan F.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  9. The Experience of Resilience for Adult Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Phenomenological Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C

    2016-06-01

    While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention.

  10. Elevation of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the hair of adult black female hypertensives

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Pellum, L.K.

    1984-05-01

    The southern portion of the United States has the highest mortality due to cardiovascular disease of any region of the country. The prevalence of hypertension in the South is also higher. Dietary intake of sodium, an overweight condition, and genetic factors may contribute to the problem. The role of trace elements is also a factor in producing hypertension. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship of selected trace elements with tensive status using hair as a biopsy material. The study examined the differences in hair elemental concentrations between adult black female hypertensives and normotensives from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

  11. Age at Trauma Exposure and PTSD Risk in a Young Adult Female Sample

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of age at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent/early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by age remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence. PMID:20963847

  12. Racial Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Perceptions and Behaviors, and Psychosocial Impact of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Alexis, Andrew F.; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Taylor, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Limited data are available on racial differences in clinical characteristics and burden in adult female acne. The objective was to describe racial differences in clinical characteristics, psychosocial impact, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction in facial adult female acne. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Diverse sample of United States women. Participants: Women between the ages of 25 and 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial impacts, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. Racial differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and t-test/chi-square analyses. Results: 208 females participated (mean age 35±6 years); 51.4 percent were White/Caucasian and 48.6 percent were non-White/Caucasian women [Black/African American (n=51); Hispanic/Latina (n=23); Asian (n=16); Other (n=ll)]. Age of acne onset (mean 14.8±5 vs. 17.0±8 years, p<0.05) and acne concern occurred earlier (16.6±7 vs. 19.3±9 years, p<0.05) in White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian subjects. Facial acne primarily presented on chin (28.0%) and cheeks (30.8%) for White/Caucasian women versus cheeks (58.4%) for non-White/Caucasian women. Non-White/Caucasian women experienced more postinflammatory hyperpigmentation than White/Caucasian women (p<0.0001). Facial acne negatively affected quality of life (QoL) in both groups, and most participants (>70%) reported some depression/anxiety symptoms. More White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian women were troubled by facial acne (88.8% vs. 76.2%, p<0.05). Lesion clearance was most important to White/Caucasian women (57.9 vs. non-White/Caucasian 31.7%, p<0.001); non-White/Caucasian females focused on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation clearance (41.6% vs. Caucasian 8.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Results highlight racial differences in participant-reported clinical characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, and

  13. Neurokinin B is critical for normal timing of sexual maturation but dispensable for adult reproductive function in female mice.

    PubMed

    True, Cadence; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Cox, Kimberly; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2015-04-01

    Humans carrying mutations in neurokinin B (NKB) or the NKB receptor fail to undergo puberty due to decreased secretion of GnRH. Despite this pubertal delay, many of these patients go on to achieve activation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adulthood, a phenomenon termed reversal, indicating that NKB signaling may play a more critical role for the timing of pubertal development than adult reproductive function. NKB receptor-deficient mice are hypogonadotropic but have no defects in the timing of sexual maturation. The current study has performed the first phenotypic evaluation of mice bearing mutations in Tac2, the gene encoding the NKB ligand, to determine whether they have impaired sexual development similar to their human counterparts. Male Tac2-/- mice showed no difference in the timing of sexual maturation or fertility compared with wild-type littermates and were fertile. In contrast, Tac2-/- females had profound delays in sexual maturation, with time to vaginal opening and first estrus occurring significantly later than controls, and initial abnormalities in estrous cycles. However, cycling recovered in adulthood and Tac2-/- females were fertile, although they produced fewer pups per litter. Thus, female Tac2-/- mice parallel humans harboring NKB pathway mutations, with delayed sexual maturation and activation of the reproductive cascade later in life. Moreover, direct comparison of NKB ligand and receptor-deficient females confirmed that only NKB ligand-deficient animals have delayed sexual maturation, suggesting that in the absence of the NKB receptor, NKB may regulate the timing of sexual maturation through other tachykinin receptors.

  14. Gynaecological Prolapse Surgery in Very Old Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mothes, A. R.; Lehmann, T.; Kwetkat, A.; Radosa, M. P.; Runnebaum, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to compare very elderly female patients with a younger control group after prolapse surgery with regard to co-morbidity and complications. Method: In a case-control design, the consecutive data of patients after prolapse surgery at the age of over 80 years and those of a control group were analysed by means of the Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of surgical complications, the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale Geriatrics (CIRS-G). Statistics: Studentʼs t, Fisherʼs exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The analysis comprised n = 57 vs. n = 60 operations. In the very elderly patients there was often a grade IV prolapse (p < 0.001), apical fixations were more frequent (p < 0.001), but the operating times were not different. In the very elderly patients 21 % CD II+III complications were observed, in the control group 6.6 % (p = 0.031). No CD IV and V complications occurred in either group, the duration of inpatient stay amounted to 5 (± 1) vs. 4.1 (± 0.8; p < 0.001) days, the very elderly patients needed an inpatient follow-up more frequently (p < 0.001). The co-morbidities of the very elderly patients differed from those of the control group in number (median 2.0 vs. 1.5; p < 0.001), in CIRS-G (4.1 ± 2.2 vs. 2.4 ± 1.7; p < 0.01) and in Charlson Index (1.6 ± 1.6 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7; p < 0.001). Conclusions: A prolapse in very elderly women can be safely managed by surgery. In no case did the complications require intensive care treatment nor were they life-threatening, but they did lead to a longer duration of hospital stay and more frequently to further treatment geriatric or inpatient internal medicine facilities. PMID:27582580

  15. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  16. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  17. Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.

    PubMed

    McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system. The margin of stability (MoS) at foot touchdown was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support (BoS) and extrapolated center of mass. Older participants showed lower MoS adaptation magnitude in the early adaptation phase (steps 1-3) compared to the young and middle-aged groups. However, in the late adaptation phase (steps 16-18) there were no significant differences in adaptation magnitude between the three age groups. After removing the resistance, all three age groups showed similar aftereffects (i.e. increased BoS). The current results suggest that in old age, the ability to recalibrate locomotion to control stability is preserved, but the rate of adaptive improvement in locomotor stability is diminished.

  18. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  19. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Marta I; Rodriguez, David A; Kawata, Ariane K; Degboe, Arnold N; Wilcox, Teresa K; Burk, Caroline T; Daniels, Selena R; Roberts, Wendy E

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years), comprising black (30.8%), Hispanic (17.6%), Asian/other (17.3%), and white (34.3%). More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%). Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC) (47.4%) versus prescription medications (16.6%). OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05). The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA) (34.3%) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) (32.1%). Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05), Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0.05), and Asian/other (57.0±32.4 vs 46.9±37.2 days, P>0.05) subjects. Most subjects expected OTC (73.7%) and prescription (74.7%) treatments to work quickly. Fewer than half of the subjects were satisfied with OTC treatment (BP, 47.0%; SA, 43.0%), often due to skin dryness (BP, 26.3%; SA, 44.3%) and flakiness (BP, 12.3%; SA, 31.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups in their level of satisfaction with OTC or

  20. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Fortune, Eric S.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female Starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for three weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  1. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Rouse, Melvin L; Stevenson, Tyler J; Fortune, Eric S; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-06-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for 3 weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  2. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  3. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults.

    PubMed

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284-0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202-0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  4. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284–0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202–0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  5. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  6. Relationship between perceived sleep and polysomnography in older adult patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Silva, Mayra; Bazzana, Caroline Moreira; de Souza, Altay Lino; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Lucchesi, Lígia M.; Lopes, Guiomar Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Aging is a multifactorial process that elicits changes in the duration and quality of sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the standard examination for the analysis of sleep and consists of the simultaneous recording of selected physiological variables during sleep. Objective The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to compare sleep reported by senior citizens. Methods We selected 40 patients, both male and female, with ages ranging from 64 to 89 years from the Center for the Study of Aging at the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients answered questions about sleep on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and underwent polysomnography. Results The results were compared, and agreement between perceived sleep and polysomnography was found in several areas. There was an association between difficulty sleeping and sleep onset latency (p=0.015), waking up at night with sleep onset latency (p=0.005), total sleep time with daytime sleepiness (0.005) and snoring (0.027), sleep efficiency with sleepiness (0.004), snoring (0.033) and pause in breathing (p=0.024), awakenings with snoring (p=0.012) and sleep apnea with pauses in breathing (p=0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that the older adult population have a good perception of their sleep. The questionnaires aimed at this population should be used as an alternative to polysomnography. PMID:26483948

  7. Myocardial macronutrient transporter adaptations in the adult pregestational female intrauterine and postnatal growth-restricted offspring

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Afshan; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Shin, Bo-Chul; Jordan, Maria C.; Roos, Kenneth P.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Associations between exponential childhood growth superimposed on low birth weight and adult onset cardiovascular disease with glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes mellitus exist in epidemiological investigations. To determine the metabolic adaptations that guard against myocardial failure on subsequent exposure to hypoxia, we compared with controls (CON), the effect of intrauterine (IUGR), postnatal (PNGR), and intrauterine and postnatal (IPGR) calorie and growth restriction (n = 6/group) on myocardial macronutrient transporter (fatty acid and glucose) -mediated uptake in pregestational young female adult rat offspring. A higher myocardial FAT/CD36 protein expression in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR, with higher FATP1 in IUGR, FATP6 in PNGR, FABP-c in PNGR and IPGR, and no change in GLUT4 of all groups was observed. These adaptive macronutrient transporter protein changes were associated with no change in myocardial [3H]bromopalmitate accumulation but a diminution in 2-deoxy-[14C]glucose uptake. Examination of the sarcolemmal subfraction revealed higher basal concentrations of FAT/CD36 in PNGR and FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. CON. Exogenous insulin uniformly further enhanced sarcolemmal association of these macronutrient transporter proteins above that of basal, with the exception of insulin resistance of FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR and FAT/CD36 in PNGR. The basal sarcolemmal macronutrient transporter adaptations proved protective against subsequent chronic hypoxic exposure (7 days) only in IUGR and PNGR, with notable deterioration in IPGR and CON of the echocardiographic ejection fraction. We conclude that the IUGR and PNGR pregestational adult female offspring displayed a resistance to insulin-induced translocation of FATP1, GLUT4, or FAT/CD36 to the myocardial sarcolemma due to preexistent higher basal concentrations. This basal adaptation of myocardial macronutrient transporters ensured adequate fatty acid uptake, thereby proving protective against chronic

  8. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.

    PubMed

    Gobush, K S; Mutayoba, B M; Wasser, S K

    2008-12-01

    Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented.

  9. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.

    PubMed

    Gobush, K S; Mutayoba, B M; Wasser, S K

    2008-12-01

    Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented. PMID:18759771

  10. Comparison of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions in female and male patients receiving female or male blood components

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, S; Araki, N; Shimada, E; Saigo, K; Nishimura, K; Nose, Y; Bouike, Y; Hashimoto, M; Mito, H; Okazaki, H

    2007-01-01

    To study the relationship between antibodies detected in patients’ and/or donors’ sera and the clinical features of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (ANHTRs), and to determine any gender-related difference. ANHTRs range from urticaria to transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Antibodies to human leukocyte antigen (HLA), granulocytes, platelets, and/or plasma proteins are implicated in some of the ANHTRs. A higher antibody positivity is expected for females than for males. A comparative study of ANHTRs for antibody positivity and their clinical features between females and males for both patients and donors is helpful for characterizing ANHTRs including TRALI more clearly, but such studies are few and outdated. Two hundred and twenty-three ANHTR cases reported by 45 hospitals between October 2000 and July 2005 were analysed. The patients and 196 donors of suspect blood products were screened for antibodies to HLA Class I, HLA Class II, granulocytes, and platelets. The patients were also screened for anti-plasma protein antibodies. The types and severity of ANHTR did not differ significantly between female and male patients. The frequency of the anti-HLA antibodies, but not that of the non-HLA antibodies, was significantly higher in females. Non-HLA antibodies were significantly associated with severe reactions in females. All the TRALI cases had predisposing risk factors for acute lung injury, and 60% of the cases showed anti-leucocyte antibodies. Although the anti-HLA antibodies were detected more frequently in females than males, no significant association of ANHTRs including TRALI with gender, not only for patients, but also for donors, could be shown in this study. PMID:18067650

  11. [Bacterial parotitis in an immunocompromised patient in adult ICU].

    PubMed

    Vassal, O; Bernet, C; Wallet, F; Friggeri, A; Piriou, V

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial parotitis is a common childhood disease with a favorable outcome. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently involved pathogen. Clinical presentation in adult patients can be misleading, Onset occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities, making diagnosis difficult--particularly in ICU. Different pathogens are found in adults with worse outcomes observed. We report here the case of a critically ill patient and discuss diagnosis and management of bacterial parotitis.

  12. Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres

    2014-08-01

    There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio.

  13. Atherosclerotic adult Moya-Moya disease in a patient with hyperhomocysteinaemia.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, P; Grasso, M; Lentini, A; Destefanis, E; Bosco, G; Caprioli, M; Bradac, G B; Bergui, M

    2007-03-01

    Moya-Moya is a rare cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain, named "moya-moya". In children, Moya-Moya disease usually presents with ischemic cerebrovascular events, mainly TIA or lacunar stroke, leading to mental deterioration. In adults, especially in females, it presents with intracranial haemorrhages. We describe the case of an adult patient with an atherosclerotic Moya-Moya disease which presented with a cerebral borderzone infarction.

  14. Identification and characterization of HPA-axis reactivity endophenotypes in a cohort of female PTSD patients.

    PubMed

    Zaba, Monika; Kirmeier, Thomas; Ionescu, Irina A; Wollweber, Bastian; Buell, Dominik R; Gall-Kleebach, Dominique J; Schubert, Christine F; Novak, Bozidar; Huber, Christine; Köhler, Katharina; Holsboer, Florian; Pütz, Benno; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Höhne, Nina; Uhr, Manfred; Ising, Marcus; Herrmann, Leonie; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis in patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has hitherto produced inconsistent findings, inter alia in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). To address these inconsistencies, we compared a sample of 23 female PTSD patients with either early life trauma (ELT) or adult trauma (AT) or combined ELT and AT to 18 age-matched non-traumatized female healthy controls in the TSST which was preceded by intensive baseline assessments. During the TSST, we determined a variety of clinical, psychological, endocrine and cardiovascular parameters as well as expression levels of four HPA-axis related genes. Using a previously reported definition of HPA-axis responsive versus non-responsive phenotypes, we identified for the first time two clinically and biologically distinct HPA-axis reactivity subgroups of PTSD. One subgroup ("non-responders") showed a blunted HPA-axis response and distinct clinical and biological characteristics such as a higher prevalence of trauma-related dissociative symptoms and of combined AT and ELT as well as alterations in the expression kinetics of the genes encoding for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and for FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51). Interestingly, this non-responder subgroup largely drove the relatively diminished HPA axis response of the total cohort of PTSD patients. These findings are limited by the facts that the majority of patients was medicated, by the lack of traumatized controls and by the relatively small sample size. The here for the first time identified and characterized HPA-axis reactivity endophenotypes offer an explanation for the inconsistent reports on HPA-axis function in PTSD and, moreover, suggest that most likely other factors than HPA-axis reactivity play a decisive role in determination of PTSD core symptom severity.

  15. Identification and characterization of HPA-axis reactivity endophenotypes in a cohort of female PTSD patients.

    PubMed

    Zaba, Monika; Kirmeier, Thomas; Ionescu, Irina A; Wollweber, Bastian; Buell, Dominik R; Gall-Kleebach, Dominique J; Schubert, Christine F; Novak, Bozidar; Huber, Christine; Köhler, Katharina; Holsboer, Florian; Pütz, Benno; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Höhne, Nina; Uhr, Manfred; Ising, Marcus; Herrmann, Leonie; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis in patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has hitherto produced inconsistent findings, inter alia in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). To address these inconsistencies, we compared a sample of 23 female PTSD patients with either early life trauma (ELT) or adult trauma (AT) or combined ELT and AT to 18 age-matched non-traumatized female healthy controls in the TSST which was preceded by intensive baseline assessments. During the TSST, we determined a variety of clinical, psychological, endocrine and cardiovascular parameters as well as expression levels of four HPA-axis related genes. Using a previously reported definition of HPA-axis responsive versus non-responsive phenotypes, we identified for the first time two clinically and biologically distinct HPA-axis reactivity subgroups of PTSD. One subgroup ("non-responders") showed a blunted HPA-axis response and distinct clinical and biological characteristics such as a higher prevalence of trauma-related dissociative symptoms and of combined AT and ELT as well as alterations in the expression kinetics of the genes encoding for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and for FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51). Interestingly, this non-responder subgroup largely drove the relatively diminished HPA axis response of the total cohort of PTSD patients. These findings are limited by the facts that the majority of patients was medicated, by the lack of traumatized controls and by the relatively small sample size. The here for the first time identified and characterized HPA-axis reactivity endophenotypes offer an explanation for the inconsistent reports on HPA-axis function in PTSD and, moreover, suggest that most likely other factors than HPA-axis reactivity play a decisive role in determination of PTSD core symptom severity. PMID:25745955

  16. Epigenetic abnormality of SRY gene in the adult XY female with pericentric inversion of the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Warita, Katsuhiko; Sugawara, Teruo; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Takasaki, Ichiro; Kondo, Takashi; Hayashi, Fumio; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Miki, Takanori; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Nanmori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kant, Jeffrey A; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2010-06-01

    In normal ontogenetic development, the expression of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene, involved in the first step of male sex differentiation, is spatiotemporally regulated in an elaborate fashion. SRY is expressed in germ cells and Sertoli cells in adult testes. However, only few reports have focused on the expressions of SRY and the other sex-determining genes in both the classical organ developing through these genes (gonad) and the peripheral tissue (skin) of adult XY females. In this study, we examined the gonadal tissue and fibroblasts of a 17-year-old woman suspected of having disorders of sexual differentiation by cytogenetic, histological, and molecular analyses. The patient was found to have the 46,X,inv(Y)(p11.2q11.2) karyotype and streak gonads with abnormally prolonged SRY expression. The sex-determining gene expressions in the patient-derived fibroblasts were significantly changed relative to those from a normal male. Further, the acetylated histone H3 levels in the SRY region were significantly high relative to those of the normal male. As SRY is epistatic in the sex-determination pathway, the prolonged SRY expression possibly induced a destabilizing effect on the expressions of the downstream sex-determining genes. Collectively, alterations in the sex-determining gene expressions persisted in association with disorders of sexual differentiation not only in the streak gonads but also in the skin of the patient. The findings suggest that correct regulation of SRY expression is crucial for normal male sex differentiation, even if SRY is translated normally.

  17. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, T.C.; Mondragon, J.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

  18. The experiences and needs of female adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-05-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data from n = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health, education, employment, social and community activities. Where relevant, comparisons are provided with the male subset of the same study population; however, in the majority of analyses, no discernible gender differences emerged. The findings highlight the diverse and complex challenges faced by women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, including high levels of mental health disorder, unmet support needs in education settings and the workplace, and social exclusion and isolation.

  19. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    CHU, Xun-Xun; Rizak, Joshua Dominic; YANG, Shang-Chuan; WANG, Jian-Hong; MA, Yuan-Ye; HU, Xin-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction—similar to humans—as well as much greater homology to

  20. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  1. Physical and psychosocial challenges in adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    duTreil, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Numerous challenges confront adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors, including difficulty in controlling bleeding episodes, deterioration of joints, arthritic pain, physical disability, emotional turmoil, and social issues. High-intensity treatment regimens often used in the treatment of patients with inhibitors also impose significant scheduling, economic, and emotional demands on patients and their families or primary caregivers. A comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment of the physical, emotional, and social status of adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors is essential for the development of treatment strategies that can be individualized to address the complex needs of these patients. PMID:25093002

  2. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  3. Social experience modulates ocular dominance plasticity differentially in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Balog, Jenny; Matthies, Ulrike; Naumann, Lisa; Voget, Mareike; Winter, Christine; Lehmann, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to regulate brain plasticity. We investigated the potential influence of social experience on ocular dominance plasticity. Fully adult female or male mice were monocularly deprived for four days and kept a) either alone or in pairs of the same sex and b) either in a small cage or a large, featureless arena. While mice kept alone did not show ocular dominance plasticity, no matter whether in a cage or in an arena, paired female mice in both environmental conditions displayed a shift of ocular dominance towards the open eye. Paired male mice, in contrast, showed no plasticity in the cage, but a very strong ocular dominance shift in the arena. This effect was not due to increased locomotion, since the covered distance was similar in single and paired male mice in the arena, and furnishing cages with a running wheel did not enable ocular dominance plasticity in cage-housed mice. Confirming recent results in rats, the plasticity-enhancing effect of the social environment was shown to be mediated by serotonin. Our results demonstrate that social experience has a strong effect on cortical plasticity that is sex-dependent. This has potential consequences both for animal research and for human education and rehabilitation.

  4. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: identification and characterization of microRNAs in male and female adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Xin; Ai, Lin; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhang, Ren-Li; Chen, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Yong-Nian; Guo, Jian; Cai, Yu-Chun; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2011-06-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis causes eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic pleocytosis in humans and is of significant socio-economic importance globally. microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis and pathogenesis. They have been identified in a diverse range of organisms. The objective of this study was to determine and characterize miRNAs of female and male adults of A. cantonensis by Solexa deep sequencing. A total of 8,861,260 and 10,957,957 high quality reads with 20 and 23 conserved miRNAs were obtained in females and males, respectively. No new miRNA sequence was found. Nucleotide bias analysis showed that uracil was the prominent nucleotide, particularly at positions of 1, 10, 14, 17 and 22, approximately at the beginning, middle and the end of the conserved miRNAs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in A. cantonensis, which may represent a new platform for studying regulation of genes and their networks in A. cantonensis.

  5. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  6. Differences in Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae) hemolymph proteome between subadult and adult females.

    PubMed

    Trabalon, Marie; Carapito, Christine; Voinot, Florian; Martrette, Jean-Marc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Gilbert, Caroline; Bertile, Fabrice

    2010-12-01

    The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a combination of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The different structures determined along with possible post-translational modifications may reflect a role of hemocyanin in molting, immunity, and reproduction. In addition, despite no precise identification, additional peptide sequences from eight protein bands (four bands >200 kDa and four bands in the 95-200 kDa mass range) were determined. As reported in other spider species, the putative corresponding structures are the coagulogen protein and/or lipoproteins (HDL-1, HDL-2, VHDL) for which quantitative differences between adult and subadult individuals could be related to the molting process and/or cuticle lipid and protein composition according to the developmental stage. PMID:20717997

  7. A Female Patient with Down Syndrome and Low-Penetrance Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Frousiakis, Starleen E; Pouw, Andrew E; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2014-09-01

    We present the case of a 19-year-old female with a history of Down syndrome (DS) who was referred to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic for evaluation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The patient's family history was significant for a known G11778A mutation in a maternal relative, consistent with LHON. The patient was also positive for the G11778A mutation; however, the genotype demonstrated low penetrance in the pedigree, with only 1 out of 10 adult male offspring showing signs or symptoms of the disease. Mitochondrial mutations implicated in LHON have been shown to impair complex I of the electron transport chain and thereby reducing the effective generation of adenosine triphosphate and increasing the production of toxic reactive oxygen species. Although the partial or complete triplicate of chromosome 21 constitutes the etiology of DS, some of the pleiotropic phenotypes of the syndrome have been attributed to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Given the low penetrance of the mutation and the patient's sex, this case illustrates the possibility that the mitochondrial mutation demonstrated increased penetrance due to pre-existing mitochondrial dysfunction related to DS.

  8. Prenatal Testosterone Induces Sex-Specific Dysfunction in Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Pathways in Adult Male and Female Rats1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone (T) exposure impacts postnatal cardiovascular function, leading to increases in blood pressure with associated decreased endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in adult females. Endothelial function in males is not known. Furthermore, which of the endothelial pathways contributes to endothelial dysfunction and if there exists sex differences are not known. The objective of this study was to characterize the relative contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in prenatal T-exposed adult males and females. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with T propionate or its vehicle were examined. Telemetric blood pressure levels and endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity were assessed with wire myography. Levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and Kcnn3 and Kcnn4 channel expression were examined in mesenteric arteries. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in T males and females than in controls. Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine relaxation was significantly lower in both T males and females. EDHF-mediated relaxation was specifically blunted in T males (Emax = 48.64% ± 3.73%) compared to that in control males (Emax = 81.71% ± 3.18%); however, NO-mediated relaxation was specifically impaired in T females (Emax = 36.01% ± 4.29%) compared with that in control females (Emax = 54.56% ± 6.37%). Relaxation to sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim were unaffected with T-treatment. NOS3 protein was decreased in T females but not in T males. Kcnn3 expression was decreased in both T males and females compared to controls. These findings suggest that prenatal T leads to an increase in blood pressure in the adult offspring, associated with blunting of endothelial cell-associated relaxation and that the effects are sex-specific: EDHF-related in males and NO-related in females. PMID:23966325

  9. The consequences of task delegation for the process of care: Female patients seem to benefit more.

    PubMed

    Noordman, Janneke; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The shift of tasks from primary care physicians to practice nurses and the continuing incease in the numbers of women involved in medical care may have consequences for the provision of health care and communication. The aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in female practice nurses' application of communication skills, practice guidelines, and motivational interviewing skills during consultations with female and male patients. Nineteen female practice nurses and their patients (n = 181) agreed to have their consultations videotaped (during 2010-2011). The videotaped consultations were rated using two validated instruments: the Maas-Global (to assess generic communication skills and practice guidelines) and the Behaviour Change Counselling Index (to assess motivational interviewing skills). Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Female practice nurses provided significantly more comprehensive information during consultations with female patients (p = .03) and talked more about management with male patients (p = .04). Furthermore, nurses applied motivational interviewing skills more clearly during consultations with female than with male patients (p < .01). The shift in tasks from primary care physicians toward practice nurses may have implications for clinical and patient outcomes as patients will no longer be counseled by male professionals. Conceivably, female patients are motivated more by nurses to change their behavior, while male patients receive more concrete management information or advice.

  10. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    PubMed

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters.

  11. A snapshot of the adult spina bifida patient – high incidence of urologic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joceline S.; Greiman, Alyssa; Casey, Jessica T.; Mukherjee, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To describe the urologic outcomes of contemporary adult spina bifida patients managed in a multidisciplinary clinic. Material and methods A retrospective chart review of patients seen in our adult spina bifida clinic from January 2004 to November 2011 was performed to identify urologic management, urologic surgeries, and co-morbidities. Results 225 patients were identified (57.8% female, 42.2% male). Current median age was 30 years (IQR 27, 36) with a median age at first visit of 25 years (IQR 22, 30). The majority (70.7%) utilized clean intermittent catheterization, and 111 patients (49.3%) were prescribed anticholinergic medications. 65.8% had urodynamics performed at least once, and 56% obtained appropriate upper tract imaging at least every other year while under our care. 101 patients (44.9%) underwent at least one urologic surgical procedure during their lifetime, with a total of 191 procedures being performed, of which stone procedures (n = 51, 26.7%) were the most common. Other common procedures included continence procedures (n = 35, 18.3%) and augmentation cystoplasty (n = 29, 15.2%). Only 3.6% had a documented diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and 0.9% with end-stage renal disease. Conclusions Most adult spina bifida patient continue on anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. A large percentage of patients required urologic procedures in adulthood. Patients should be encouraged to utilize conservative and effective bladder management strategies to reduce their risk of renal compromise. PMID:27123330

  12. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  13. Nonextraction treatment of upper canine-premolar transposition in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shingo; Kuroda, Yasuko

    2005-05-01

    This article reports the successful treatment of a unilateral maxillary canine and first premolar transposition without the extraction of the premolar in an adult patient. A female patient, 21 years and three months of age, had moderate crowding in the upper arch with complete transposition of the canine and first premolar. After distal movement of the upper molars with a lingual arch and headgear appliance, the upper left first premolar and canine were transposed. Thirty-eight months after the placement of preadjusted appliances, the transposed canine and premolar were reordered in the proper positions. The total active treatment period was 49 months. After two years of retention, the occlusion is generally stable.

  14. Female Adult Learners in Rural Community Colleges: A Case Study of Role Perception and Navigation for Student Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tara Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Female adult learners, the fastest growing subpopulation in community colleges, face challenges navigating domestic, professional, and academic roles and take time off from school to reconcile issues with multiple role navigation; thus, their education is disjointed and staggered, creating barriers to persistence. This interpretive design…

  15. Analysis of Factors Causing Adult Female Learners to Drop out of E-Learning Courses in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Park, Soon-Shin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adult female learners' dropout in e-learning courses, and to suggest possible solutions to problem of high dropout rates in Korea. To identify the factors, we analyzed the literature and developed a questionnaire consisting of 9 possible factors and 16 items. Data gathered…

  16. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  17. [Background factors in the detection of drug-resistant bacteria in adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Michio

    2014-02-01

    In the treatment of adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis, it has been assumed that subjects over 65 years of age or living with children attending a day nursery, are at higher risk for infection with drug-resistant bacteria. However there are few reports which have discussed the relationship between those risk factors and adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis. I investigated the association between adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis living with children attending a day nursery and gender, ages, and frequency of detection of drug-resistant bacteria. From 2010 to 2012, a total of 598 adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis were enrolled. The majority of the study subjects were women, and the largest 10-year age group was 30-39 years. By sex, a greater proportion of the female subjects than the male subjects lived with children attending a day nursery. By age, the proportion of subjects who lived with children attending a day nursery was significantly higher in the 30-39-year age group than other age groups. Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and ampicillin (ABPC)-resistant Haemophilus influenzae were detected at significantly higher rates in subjects with children attending a day nursery than in those without. There were no significant difference in drug-resistant bacteria detection between subjects over 65 years of age, and under 65 years. These findings suggested that living with children attending a day nursery is a risk factor and source of infection by drug-resistant organisms that may cause intra-familial infections of adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis. These results suggested we must ask adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis whether they are living with children attending a day nursery or not, when we plan their treatment strategy.

  18. Severe chronic primary neutropenia in adults: report on a series of 108 patients.

    PubMed

    Sicre de Fontbrune, Flore; Moignet, Aline; Beaupain, Blandine; Suarez, Felipe; Galicier, Lionel; Socié, Gérard; Varet, Bruno; Coppo, Paul; Michel, Marc; Pautas, Cécile; Oksenhendler, Eric; Lengline, Etienne; Terriou, Louis; Moreau, Philippe; Chantepie, Sylvain; Casadevall, Nicole; Michot, Jean Marie; Gardembas, Martine; Michallet, Mauricette; Croisille, Laure; Audrain, Marie; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Donadieu, Jean; Lamy, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Severe chronic primary neutropenia (CPN) is a rare entity, and long-term outcome and risk factors for infections in severe CPN adults have not been described to date. We report the characteristics and outcomes of 108 severe adult CPN patients enrolled in a multi-institutional observational study. Severe CPN adults were mostly female (78%), and median age at diagnosis was 28.3 years. Diagnosis was fortuitous in 62% of cases. The median absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at diagnosis was 0.4 × 10(9)/L, and median ANC without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) during follow-up was 0.5 × 10(9)/L. Twenty-three of 66 (34.8%) evaluable patients had neutrophil autoantibodies, and 6 of 47 (12.8%) a T-cell clone. The presence of neutrophil autoantibodies or T-cell clone was not associated with any specific clinical or biological characteristics. No death or hematologic malignancies occurred, and 44 severe bacterial infections were reported in 27 patients with a median follow-up of 8.3 years. Fifty patients received G-CSF either sporadically (n = 24) or continuously (n = 26) and responded (96%). Nineteen patients received immunosuppressive therapies: overall response (OR) was 41%, and median duration of response was 3 months. At diagnosis, the only predictive factor for the occurrence of severe bacterial infections was an ANC count below 0.2 × 10(9)/L (OR, 0.76). Severe CPN in adults is characterized by a female predominance and a benign outcome with a low rate of severe bacterial infections and no secondary malignancies. G-CSF is efficient and well tolerated but is not required in a majority of patients. PMID:26261239

  19. Adult Female Rats Altered Diurnal Locomotor Activity Pattern Following Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T.; Kohllepin, S; Yang, P.B.; Burau, K.D.; Dafny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed pharmacological agents and also used as cognitive enhancement and for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the repetitive dose-response effects of MPD on rhythm locomotor activity pattern of female WKY rats and compare to prior study done on male. The hypothesis is that change in the circadian activity pattern indicates a long-lasting effect of the drug. Four animal groups (saline control, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD dose groups) were housed in a sound-controlled room at 12:12 light/dark cycle. All received saline injections on experimental day 1 (ED 1). On EDs 2-7, the control group received saline injection; the other groups received 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg MPD, respectively. On ED 8-10, injections were withheld. On ED 11, each group received the same dose as EDs 2-7. Hourly histograms and cosine statistical analyses calculating the acrophase (ϕ), amplitude (A), and MESOR (M) were applied to assess the 24-hour circadian activity pattern. The 0.6 and 2.5 mg/kg MPD groups exhibited significant (p<0.05) change in their circadian activity pattern on ED 11. The 10.0 mg/kg MPD group exhibited tolerance on ED 11 and also a significant change in activity pattern on ED 8 compared to ED 1, consistent with withdrawal behavior (p<0.007). In conclusion, chronic MPD administration alters circadian locomotor activity of adult female WKY rats and confirms that chronic MPD use elicits long lasting effects PMID:23893293

  20. Determination of body composition in conscious adult female Wistar utilising total body electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, K; North, T J; Telford, G; Smith, S; Brammer, R; Jones, R B; Heal, D J

    2001-01-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a noninvasive method for estimating fat free mass (FFM) in live animals. In this study, we have evaluated the use of the Em-Scan SA-3000, which is claimed by the manufacturers to perform better than earlier analysers. Previous studies in rats using these earlier versions of the TOBEC analyser have always used anaesthesia to minimise movement artefacts. As repeated anaesthesia also has the potential to induce artefacts by disrupting food intake, for example, we have also attempted to determine if this TOBEC analyser can be used to predict body composition in conscious adult weight-stable female Wistar rats. A simplified cafeteria diet was used to produce large variations in body composition (40-350 g fat/carcass) and a full chemical body composition analysis was performed to generate a TOBEC calibration equation. The TOBEC parameter was more strongly correlated to FFM (r(2)=.785) than it was to body weight (r(2)=.669) or other body composition parameters. Using the TOBEC calibration equation to predict fat mass on these data, there was an excellent correlation with the value obtained by chemical analyses (r(2)=.952, slope=0.958). To determine if the TOBEC calibration equation derived from this calibration study would then be useful for the routine estimation of body composition an additional, validation study was performed. This validation study was performed 6 months later, used an independent group of obese female Wistar rats and was undertaken by different TOBEC operators. This validation study, again, showed a good correlation between the TOBEC- and chemical-derived fat mass (r(2)=.918, slope=1.003) indicating stability of the calibration equation with time and independence from operator. We therefore conclude that it is possible to meaningfully estimate body fat changes in conscious rats using this TOBEC analysis system.

  1. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    It is generally believed that butterflies (and other holometabolous insects) rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction, whereas the carbohydrate-rich adult diet is thought to mainly cover energy requirements. In at least some species though, realization of the full reproductive potential is extensively affected by post-eclosion nutrition. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of adult-derived amino acids and micronutrients is controversial and largely unknown, respectively. We here focus on the effects of different adult diets on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). Carbohydrates were the most important adult-derived nutrients affecting reproduction. Adding amino acids, vitamins or minerals to sucrose-based solutions did not yield a reproductive output equivalent to that of fruit-fed females, which showed the highest performance throughout. This suggests that either not yet identified compounds of fruit substantially contribute to reproduction, or that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance. Apart from adult income, realized fecundity depended on egg size and longevity, with the former dominating when dietary quality was low, but the latter when quality was high. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off seems to be affected by female nutrition.

  2. Photo-anthropometric study on face among Garo adult females of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Z; Banu, M L A; Alam, M M; Hossain, S; Nazneen, M

    2013-08-01

    Facial anthropometry has well-known implications in health-related fields. Measurement of human face is used in identification of person in Forensic medicine, Plastic surgery, Orthodontics, Archeology, Hair-style design and examination of the differences between races and ethnicities. Facial anthropometry provides an indication of the variations in facial shape in a specified population. Bangladesh harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Standards based on ethnic or racial data are desirable because these standards reflect the potentially different patterns of craniofacial growth resulting from racial, ethnic and sexual differences. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Christian Garo adult females of Bangladesh. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components and it was carried out with a total number of 100 Christian Garo adult females aged between 25-45 years. Three vertical facial dimensions such as facial height from 'trichion' to 'gnathion', nasal length and total vermilion height were measured by photographic method. Though these measurements were taken by photographic method but they were converted into actual size using one of the physically measured variables between two angles of the mouth (chilion to chilion). The data were then statistically analyzed by computation to find out its normatic value. The study also observed the possible 'correlation' between the facial height from 'trichion' to 'gnathion' with nasal length and total vermilion height. Multiplication factors were estimated for estimating facial height from nasal length and total vermilion height. Comparison were made between 'estimated' values with the 'measured' values by using't' test. The mean (+/- SD) of nasal length and total vermilion height were 4.53 +/- 0.36 cm and 1.63 +/- 0.23 cm

  3. Posture-specific phantoms representing female and male adults in Monte Carlo-based simulations for radiological protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Brayner, C.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-08-01

    Does the posture of a patient have an effect on the organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by x-ray examinations? This study aims to find the answer to this question, based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of commonly performed x-ray examinations using adult phantoms modelled to represent humans in standing as well as in the supine posture. The recently published FASH (female adult mesh) and MASH (male adult mesh) phantoms have the standing posture. In a first step, both phantoms were updated with respect to their anatomy: glandular tissue was separated from adipose tissue in the breasts, visceral fat was separated from subcutaneous fat, cartilage was segmented in ears, nose and around the thyroid, and the mass of the right lung is now 15% greater than the left lung. The updated versions are called FASH2_sta and MASH2_sta (sta = standing). Taking into account the gravitational effects on organ position and fat distribution, supine versions of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms have been developed in this study and called FASH2_sup and MASH2_sup. MC simulations of external whole-body exposure to monoenergetic photons and partial-body exposure to x-rays have been made with the standing and supine FASH2 and MASH2 phantoms. For external whole-body exposure for AP and PA projection with photon energies above 30 keV, the effective dose did not change by more than 5% when the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. Apart from that, the supine posture is quite rare in occupational radiation protection from whole-body exposure. However, in the x-ray diagnosis supine posture is frequently used for patients submitted to examinations. Changes of organ absorbed doses up to 60% were found for simulations of chest and abdomen radiographs if the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. A further increase of differences between posture-specific organ and tissue absorbed doses with increasing whole-body mass is to be expected.

  4. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013.

  5. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dranow, Daniel B; Hu, Kevin; Bird, April M; Lawry, S Terese; Adams, Melissa T; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F; Draper, Bruce W

    2016-09-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle.

  6. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kevin; Lawry, S. Terese; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle. PMID:27642754

  7. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dranow, Daniel B; Hu, Kevin; Bird, April M; Lawry, S Terese; Adams, Melissa T; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F; Draper, Bruce W

    2016-09-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle. PMID:27642754

  8. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  9. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  10. Mediastinal Tuberculosis in an Adult Patient with Cystic Fibrosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Philippe C.; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Carlotti, Agnès; Desmazes-Dufeu, Nadine; Farhi, David; Martin, Clémence; Kanaan, Reem; Mangialavori, Luigi; Palangié, Estelle; Dusser, Daniel; Poyart, Claire; Hubert, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is rarely observed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We report the first case of mediastinal TB, associated with leg pain and skin rash, in an adult patient with CF, and discuss factors suggestive of TB in the course of CF. PMID:21106788

  11. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Decreases Aldosterone Production but Maintains Normal Plasma Volume and Increases Blood Pressure in Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    More, Amar S; Mishra, Jay S; Hankins, Gary D; Kumar, Sathish

    2016-08-01

    Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia and polycystic ovaries; their offspring are at increased risk for hypertension during adult life. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg(8)-vasopressin. The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. Accordingly, plasma aldosterone levels were lower in testosterone females. Plasma volume and serum and urine Na(+) and K(+) levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone females; however, prenatal testosterone exposure significantly increased plasma vasopressin and angiotensin II levels and arterial pressure in adult females. In testosterone females, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, while contractile responses to vasopressin were unaffected. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor expression was increased, while angiotensin II type-2 receptor was decreased in testosterone arteries. These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. Elevated angiotensin II and vasopressin levels along with enhanced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II may serve as an underlying mechanism to maintain plasma volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels and mediate hypertension in adult testosterone females. PMID:27385784

  12. Impact of Sediment on Agrichemical Fate and Bioavailability to Adult Female Fathead Minnows: A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Krysl, Ryan G; Ali, Jonathan M; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Kolok, Alan S

    2015-08-01

    Precipitation induced runoff is an important pathway for agrichemicals to enter surface water systems and expose aquatic organisms to endocrine-disrupting compounds such as pesticides and steroid hormones. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of agrichemicals between dissolved and sediment-bound phases during spring pulses of agrichemicals and to evaluate the role of suspended sediment in agrichemical bioavailability to aquatic organisms. To accomplish these objectives, suspended sediment and water samples were collected every 3 days from a field site along the Elkhorn River, located at the downstream end of a heavily agricultural watershed, and were screened for 21 pesticides and 21 steroids. Adult female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed in field mesocosms to river water containing varying sediment loads. Changes in organism hepatic gene expression of two estrogen-responsive genes, vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), as well as the androgen receptor (AR) were analyzed during periods of both low and high river discharge. Trends in agrichemical concentrations of both the dissolved and sediment phases as a function of time show that, while sediment may act as both a source and a sink for agrichemicals following precipitation events, the overall driver for molecular defeminization in this system is direct exposure to the sediment-associated compounds. This study suggests that endocrine disrupting effects observed in organisms in turbid water could be attributed to direct exposure of contaminated sediment. PMID:26151375

  13. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English

    PubMed Central

    Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17 500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [ɹ] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

  14. The relationship between religiosity and health behaviors in female caregivers of older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Yaron G; Mausbach, Brent T; Atkinson, Philip J; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2009-11-01

    The current study explored the relationship between three dimensions of religiosity: (a) organizational religiosity (e.g. attendance at religious events), (b) non-organizational religiosity (e.g. prayer), and (c) subjective religiosity (e.g. importance of religion) and caregiver health behavior patterns in a sample of Latina and Caucasian female caregivers of older adult relatives with dementia. It was hypothesized that religiosity would have a significant association with reduced cumulative health risk as determined by an index of health behaviors. It was also hypothesized that, when examining the individual health behaviors subsumed in the overarching index, religiosity would be positively associated with adaptive health behaviors like exercise and negatively associated with health risk behaviors like smoking. Amongst Caucasians, increased subjective religiosity was related to increased cumulative health risk. Conversely, in Latinas, non-organizational religiosity was positively correlated with improved dietary practices (reduced dietary restriction). Increased levels of subjective religiosity were significantly associated with decreased maintenance of a routine exercise regimen across ethnic groups. Recommendations for clinicians and religious leaders, and avenues of future research are discussed.

  15. Survival and other observations of adult female northern pintails molting in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Fleskes, J.P.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Survival rates of nine adult female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) that became flightless after being radio-marked in the Sacramento Valley, California in August 1987-1989 were estimated. Seven of the radio-marked pintails molted in the Sacramento Valley, a nontraditional molting region, and two flew 280 km north to the Klamath Basin to molt. Molting marshes were dominated by emergent vegetation in both locations. Two ducks, while flightless in the Sacramento Valley, were killed by predators. Molting pintails remained sedentary (did not fly) for an average of 36 d, and the daily survival rate during this period was 0.9934. The resulting sedentary-period survival rate was 0.79. Primary feather 9 on two captive ducks grew an average of 4.2 mm per day. Mean body mass of molting ducks that died was lower than that for molting ducks that survived (P < 0.10). The number of pintails molting on Sacramento Valley refuges is probably <200.

  16. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  17. Effect of an Eight-Week Ballroom Dancing Program on Muscle Architecture in Older Adults Females.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Christina C P; Lodovico, Angélica; Fowler, Neil; Rodacki, André L F

    2015-10-01

    Aging is related to a progressive remodeling of the neuromuscular system, which includes muscle mass, strength, and power reductions. This study investigated the effect of an eight-week dance program on fascicle pennation angle, fascicle length, and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles using ultrasound images. Thirty-four healthy older women were randomly assigned to either a dancing (DG: n = 19, 69.1 ± 6.5 years, 72.5 ± 11.7 kg) or control group (CG: n = 15, 71.5 ± 7.4 years, 70.9 ± 9.3 kg). After training, the DG showed greater (p < .05) thickness for VL (16%), TA (17%), BF (19%), and GM (15%); pennation angle for VL (21%), TA (23%), BF (21%), and GM (17%); and fascicle length for VL (11%), TA (12%), BF (10%), and GM (10%). These findings suggest that dance training was effective to change the lower limb muscle architecture in older female adults.

  18. Round and Round and Round We Go: Behavior of Adult Female Mice on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011) emphasized the importance of long duration rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at Ames Research Center. Here we present a video-based behavioral analysis of ten C57BL6 female adult mice exposed to a total of 37 days in space compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight and Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including feeding, drinking, exploratory behavior, grooming, and social interactions. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice. Spontaneous, organized circling or race-tracking behavior emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. I will summarize qualitative observations and quantitative comparisons of mice in microgravity and 1g conditions. Behavioral phenotyping revealed important insights into the overall health and adaptation of mice to the space environment, and identified unique behaviors that can guide future habitat development and research on rodents in space.

  19. A Rare Occurrence of Enchondroma in Neck of Femur in an Adult Female: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kejariwal, Ujjwal; Chugh, Ankush

    2015-01-01

    Enchondroma is a solitary, benign, intramedullary cartilaginous tumour occurring most commonly in small bones of hands and feet. Distal femur and proximal humerus are other less common locations. Enchondroma consists of 3-10% of all bone tumours, while they constitute 12-24% of benign bone tumours. They originate from the growth plate cartilage which later on proliferates to form enchondroma. Radiographs reveal a localized, radiolucent lytic bone defect usually with punctuate calcifications. Lesions are central or eccentric and metaphyseal involvement most commonly for long bones. MRI and histopathological examination can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Asymptomatic cases can be managed conservatively with serial radiological follow ups. Cases with symptoms are managed operatively. Recurrence rate is very low (<5%), it suggests malignancy. We here present a case of a 30-year-old female patient who presented with a history of pain in right hip since 7 months. Radiological examination showed the lesion to be enchondroma. The patient was managed by curettage with autogenous iliac bone graft & prophylactic 6.5 mm cannulated screws fixation. Histopathology confirmed the lesion to be enchondroma. At the latest follow up after 6 months, the patient was symptom free and there was no evidence of any recurrence. The current case report of enchondroma located in the neck of femur signifies the importance of early diagnosis, timely intervention and treatment. Also, this case report represents one of the very rare cases reported in literature. PMID:26816956

  20. [Lung pneumatocele in adult patient - case report].

    PubMed

    Dzian, A; Fúčela, I; Hamžík, J; Huťka, Z; Stiegler, P

    2012-12-01

    Lung pneumatoceles are characterized by a thin-walled air-filled cavity present in lung parenchyma. Mostly they are the result of acute bronchopneumonia after spontaneous drainage of altered lung parenchyma with subsequent development and progression of cavities due to ventile mechanism. This disease is more prevalent in infants and young children, it is rather rare in adults. In the present case report, videothoracoscopy resection of lung pneumatocele of the right lower lobe was performed a 43-years old man. The operation was indicated for the presence of chronic persisting and progressing pneumatocele as a preventive measure of pneumatocele complications. PMID:23448707

  1. Nutritional Intake in Adult Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Susan; Snetselaar, Linda; Hall, Beth; Stone, Roslyn A.; Kim, Sunghee; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Research pertaining to the nutritional intake of hemodialysis patients is limited. Purpose Describe the nutritional quality of foods consumed by hemodialysis patients and variation by day of the week. Methods Dietary recalls were obtained from 22 hemodialysis patients and analyzed using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Results Few statistically significant differences were found by day of the week, but several dietary deficits were noted. Conclusion The data suggest poor intake of calories, protein, and several vitamins and minerals, as well as excess sodium consumption, but little variation by day of the week. Additional research is needed. PMID:25104876

  2. [Invasive candidiasis in critically ill adult patient].

    PubMed

    Tobar A, Eduardo; Silva O, Francisco; Olivares C, Roberto; Gaete G, Pablo; Luppi N, Mario

    2011-02-01

    Invasive infections by Candida strains are a relevant pathology in critically ill patients. Candida should be considered where a high risk of infection is present for a critical early diagnosis. Despite the incorporation of new drugs in the therapeutic armamentarium over the last decade, mortality remains high. The key in improving clinical outcomes of these patients are the use of early effective therapies that offer coverage against different strains of Candida: C. albicans and non-albicans. Recent international guidelines suggest empiric therapy with echinocandins in suspected invasive candidiasis in this patient population. This group of drugs adequately documented clinical efficacy and safe use in these patients. The emergence of new echinocandins could improve access to these drugs by reducing their cost.

  3. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  4. Perinatal Exposure of Mice to the Pesticide DDT Impairs Energy Expenditure and Metabolism in Adult Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R.; Newman, John W.; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring. PMID:25076055

  5. Perinatal exposure of mice to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R; Newman, John W; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring.

  6. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  7. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dendrinos, John; Nikitiadis, Emanuel; Vrioni, Georgia; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. PMID:27429814

  8. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Dendrinos, John; Nikitiadis, Emanuel; Vrioni, Georgia; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. PMID:27429814

  9. Cloning of calves from various somatic cell types of male and female adult, newborn and fetal cows.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Tani, T; Tsunoda, Y

    2000-11-01

    Twenty-four calves were cloned from six somatic cell types of female and male adult, newborn and fetal cows. The clones were derived from female cumulus (n = 3), oviduct (n = 2) and uterine (n = 2) cells, female and male skin cells (n = 10), and male ear (n = 5) and liver (n = 2) cells. On the basis of the number of cloned embryos transferred (n = 172) to surrogate cows, the overall rate of success was 14%, but based on the number of surrogate mothers that became pregnant (n = 50), the success rate was 48%. Cell nuclei from uterus, ear and liver cells, which have not been tested previously, developed into newborn calves after nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes. To date, seven female and six male calves have survived: six of the females were from adult cells (cumulus (n = 3), oviduct (n = 2) and skin (n = 1) cells) and one was from newborn skin cells, whereas the male calves were derived from adult ear cells (n = 3), newborn liver and skin cells (n = 2), and fetal cells (n = 1). Clones derived from adult cells frequently aborted in the later stages of pregnancy and calves developing to term showed a higher number of abnormalities than did those derived from newborn or fetal cells. The telomeric DNA lengths in the ear cells of three male calves cloned from the ear cells of a bull aged 10 years were similar to those of the original bull. However, the telomeric DNA lengths from the white blood cells of the clones, although similar to those in an age-matched control, were shorter than those of the original bull, which indicates that telomeric shortening varies among tissues.

  10. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  11. Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  12. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and female cancer: Informing the patients.

    PubMed

    Rachoń, Dominik

    2015-12-01

    Breast and uterine cancer are the most frequent female gender related neoplasms whose growth is mostly estrogen dependent. Therefore, any EDC exhibiting estrogenic effects may increase the risk of these two malignancies. This review focuses on the potential role of EDCs with estrogenic potential on the risk of breast and uterine neoplasms but also points to the possible role of the exposure to EDCs in the pathogenesis of ovarian and cervical cancer. It also underlines the necessity of informing the public about the presence of EDCs in common consumer products, their detrimental health effects and methods of reducing the exposure risk.

  13. Practical fluoride and remineralization protocols for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel C N; Wefel, James S; Caughman, W Frank

    2004-12-01

    There is a wealth of information on preventive measures and procedures that can be used to care for paediatric and adolescent patients. However, few studies have been conducted in adult or geriatric populations, and an understanding of preventive and non-surgical treatment regimens for these patients is lacking. Traditionally, caries incidence is high among risk groups of low income, low dental IQ and certain ethnic subgroups, but we are now witnessing a high incidence of caries among middle-income and healthy adult patients with an imbalance of protective factors and cariogenic factors. We will direct our attention to the adult population and attempt to address some of the most common questions. PMID:15736834

  14. Hypothyroidism increases prolactin secretion and decreases the intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Taya, K; Watanabe, G; Voogt, J L

    In order to understand the mechanism by which thyroid hormones alter prolactin (PRL) secretion, we investigated the role of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons and pituitary and hypothalamus vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in thiouracil- (0. 03% in drinking water for 16 days) induced-hypothyroid adult female rats. The intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy also was examined to evaluate the PRL response to coital stimulation in hypothyroid rats. Hypothyroidism in adult female rats did not affect TIDA neuronal activity as measured by tyrosine hydroxylase activity (DOPA accumulation 30 min after administration of m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine dihydrochloride, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the stalk-median eminence compared with that in euthyroid rats, whereas pituitary concentration of VIP was dramatically increased. Plasma concentration of PRL was higher at 1100 h of proestrus and estrus in hypothyroid rats as compared with that of euthyroid rats. The proportion of female rats exhibiting pseudopregnancy was higher in hypothyroid animals (100%) receiving seven intromissions than in euthyroid animals (43%). Administration of L-thyroxine in hypothyroid rats decreased the proportion of pseudopregnancy (40%) to the level of euthyroid animals. These results indicate that the increased level of pituitary VIP probably affects PRL secretion in a paracrine or autocrine manner and account for the hyperprolactinemia induced in hypothyroid female rats. No role for TIDA neurons in PRL elevation can be ascribed. A decrease in the intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy might be due to increased levels of PRL in hypothyroid female rats.

  15. Reproductive morphology and status of female Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) fatally injured by adult male seals.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Becker, B L; Johanos, T C; Pietraszek, J R; Kuhn, B C

    1994-01-01

    Female Hawaiian monk seals at Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands seasonally risk aggressive mating attempts by groups of adult male monk seals. These attacks, which also target immature female and male seals at a lower frequency, result in injuries that are often fatal and are termed mobbings. This study was undertaken to assess the reproductive status of nine female seals that died after mobbing attacks and to obtain basic morphological data of reproductive tracts from ten females. Reproductive morphology of the seals indicated that the lengths of the uterine body and both uterine horns were significantly shorter in nulliparous than in parous seals. Seven of the nine seals were periovulatory, on the basis of gross morphology of the ovaries at death. The ovaries of the other two seals possessed immature follicles. Histological studies of the vagina and uterus confirmed the reproductive status of the seals. When the reproductive status at the time of first injury was estimated, all seals were in the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle. At least four of these seals were estimated to be in oestrus at the time of their first injury, and seven of the seals sustained at least one injury during the estimated period of oestrus (2-6 days). These results support the hypothesis that most adult female Hawaiian monk seals that die following an attack by male monk seals are periovulatory, and that the majority of the attacks occur during oestrus. PMID:8182594

  16. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The overall mean (± SEM) incidence of adult hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p < 0.0001). Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p < 0.0001). In addition, the overall incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database.

  17. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The overall mean (± SEM) incidence of adult hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p < 0.0001). Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p < 0.0001). In addition, the overall incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database. PMID:27581317

  18. Dreaming during anaesthesia in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Kate; Skrzypek, Hannah

    2007-09-01

    Dreaming during anaesthesia is defined as any recalled experience (excluding awareness) that occurred between induction of anaesthesia and the first moment of consciousness upon emergence. Dreaming is a commonly-reported side-effect of anaesthesia. The incidence is higher in patients who are interviewed immediately after anaesthesia (approximately 22%) than in those who are interviewed later (approximately 6%). A minority of dreams, which include sensory perceptions obtained during anaesthesia, provide evidence of near-miss awareness. These patients may have risk factors for awareness and this type of dreaming may be prevented by depth of anaesthesia monitoring. Most dreaming however, occurs in younger, fitter patients, who have high home dream recall, who receive propofol-based anaesthesia and who emerge rapidly from anaesthesia. Their dreams are usually short and pleasant, are related to work, family and recreation, are not related to inadequate anaesthesia and probably occur during recovery. Dreaming is a common, fascinating, usually pleasant and harmless phenomenon.

  19. Pyridoxine deficiency in adult patients with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Dave, Hina N; Eugene Ramsay, Richard; Khan, Fawad; Sabharwal, Vivek; Irland, Megan

    2015-11-01

    An 8-year-old girl treated at our facility for superrefractory status epilepticus was found to have a low pyridoxine level at 5 μg/L. After starting pyridoxine supplementation, improvement in the EEG for a 24-hour period was seen. We decided to look at the pyridoxine levels in adult patients admitted with status epilepticus. We reviewed the records on patients admitted to the neurological ICU for status epilepticus (SE). Eighty-one adult patients were identified with documented pyridoxine levels. For comparison purposes, we looked at pyridoxine levels in outpatients with epilepsy (n=132). Reported normal pyridoxine range is >10 ng/mL. All but six patients admitted for SE had low normal or undetectable pyridoxine levels. A selective pyridoxine deficiency was seen in 94% of patients with status epilepticus (compared to 39.4% in the outpatients) which leads us to believe that there is a relationship between status epilepticus and pyridoxine levels.

  20. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Kacerovsky-Bielesz, Gertrud; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes education has gained a critical role in diabetes care. The empowerment of patients aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification. Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations.

  1. Marital Status and Fertility in Adult Iranian Patients with β-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Miri-Aliabad, Ghasem; Fadaee, Mahsoumeh; Khajeh, Ali; Naderi, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Expecting a family is an important component and a great goal for better quality of life for most of adults with β-thalassemia major. The aim of the present study was to examine the marital status of adults with β-thalassemia major. This cross-sectional study examined the marital status of patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia aged over 15 years. Patients' demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, duration of marriage, divorce, having or not having children and spouse's health status were recorded. Information about the disease including cardiac and endocrine complications, ferritin level, splenectomy and viral hepatitis were also recorded. Of 228 patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major aged over 15 years who were treated at this medical center, 32 (14 %) were married. The mean age of married patients was 25.18 ± 4.74 years. Among the married patients, 8 (25 %) were females and 24 (75 %) patients were males. The mean age of marriage was 22.76 ± 4.16 years. The minimum and maximum marriage age was 15 and 33 years, respectively. The median duration of marriage was one year with the range from 3 months to 11 years. Only 8 (25 %) patients (one female and seven males) had children. Therapeutic advances have led to significantly increased survival and improved quality of life and fertility of patients with β-thalassemia major. According to the results, 14 % of patients over 15 years were married which was slightly higher as compared with other similar studies. PMID:26855517

  2. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  3. Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C

    2013-02-17

    Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber

  4. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility.

  5. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26844865

  6. Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2012-07-21

    The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study.

  7. Altered hypothalamic-pituitary function in the adult female rat with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Spindler-Vomachka, M; Johnson, D C

    1985-01-01

    Infertility associated with anovulation and loss of regular oestrous cyclicity is a consequence of diabetes mellitus in the rat. In an attempt to define loci of altered function, studies were undertaken to examine various aspects of hypothalamic-pituitary function in rats treated with streptozotocin. Medial basal hypothalamic fragments from adult female diabetic rats contained the same amount of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone but, with depolarization, released slightly but insignificantly (p greater than 0.05) more than did those from control animals. Furthermore, release of luteinizing hormone from pituitaries exposed to hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone was not altered by diabetes. Removal of the negative feedback effect of gonadal steroids upon the hypothalamic-pituitary axis produced an increase in luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone concentrations in the serum of normal rats within 6h (p less than 0.05), whereas 24h were required for similar increases in diabetic rats. However, the same concentrations of gonadotrophins were found in diabetic and control animals 120 h after ovariectomy. The inhibitory action of oestradiol benzoate on the secretion of gonadotrophins was more pronounced in ovariectomized diabetic than in control rats. A 74% depression in serum luteinizing hormone (p less than 0.01) was produced by 0.5 microgram oestradiol benzoate per day in diabetic rats, while 5 micrograms was required in control animals. Similar reductions in follicle stimulating hormone concentrations (50%, p less than 0.05) were obtained by injecting 5 micrograms of the oestrogen into diabetic or 50 micrograms into control rats. Increases in serum prolactin were greater in the control animals however.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Fluid absorption in the isolated midgut of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Onken, Horst; Moffett, David F

    2015-07-01

    The transepithelial voltage (Vte) and the volume of isolated posterior midguts of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were monitored. In all experiments, the initial Vte after filling the midgut was lumen negative, but subsequently became lumen positive at a rate of approximately 1 mV min(-1). Simultaneously, the midgut volume decreased, indicating spontaneous fluid absorption. When the midguts were filled and bathed with mosquito saline, the average rate of fluid absorption was 36.5±3.0 nl min(-1) (N=4, ±s.e.m.). In the presence of theophylline (10 mmol l(-1)), Vte reached significantly higher lumen-positive values, but the rate of fluid absorption was not affected (N=6). In the presence of NaCN (5 mmol l(-1)), Vte remained close to 0 mV (N=4) and fluid absorption was reduced (14.4±1.3 nl min(-1), N=3, ±s.e.m.). When midguts were filled with buffered NaCl (154 mmol l(-1) plus 1 mmol l(-1) HEPES) and bathed in mosquito saline with theophylline, fluid absorption was augmented (50.0±5.8 nl min(-1), N=12, ±s.e.m.). Concanamycin A (10 µmol l(-1)), ouabain (1 mmol l(-1)), and acetazolamide (1 mmol l(-1)) affected Vte in different ways, but all reduced fluid absorption by 60-70% of the value before addition of the drugs.

  9. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  10. Living donor liver transplantation in an adult patient with situs inversus totalis

    PubMed Central

    Yankol, Yücel; Mecit, Nesimi; Kanmaz, Turan; Acarlı, Koray; Kalayoğlu, Münci

    2015-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital anomaly, and liver transplantation (LT) in an adult SIT patient is extremely rare. Liver transplantation in a SIT patient is also technically challenging due to reversed anatomical structures. Here we present the case of an 18-year-old female with SIT in whom left lobe living donor LT was performed. The patient suffered from cirrhosis due to autoimmune hepatitis. The recipient and donor are doing well without complications 20 months after LT. Situs inversus totalis should not be considered a contraindication for LT. If possible, use of a living donor left lobe graft for LT is more feasible than a living donor right lobe graft. It is also technically easier than using deceased donor full-size liver graft in SIT patients who require liver transplantation. PMID:26668533

  11. Clinical profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Huib; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B.; Eichhorn, Edwin; Reitsma, Bennie H.; Bel, Elisabeth H.D.; ten Brinke, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma is increasingly recognised as a severe and difficult-to-treat subtype of asthma. In clinical practice, early recognition of patients with this asthma subtype is important because it may have treatment implications. Therefore, physicians need to know the distinct characteristics of this asthma phenotype. The objective of the present study was to determine the characteristic profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma. 130 patients with adult-onset (>18 years of age) asthma and high blood eosinophil counts (≥0.3×109 L−1) were compared with 361 adult-onset asthma patients with low (<0.3×109 L−1) blood eosinophils. Measurements included a series of clinical, functional and imaging parameters. Patients with high blood eosinophils were more often male, had less well controlled asthma and higher exacerbation rates, despite the use of higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids. They had higher levels of total IgE without more sensitisation to common inhaled allergens. In addition, these patients had worse lung function, and more often showed fixed airflow limitation, air trapping, nasal polyposis and abnormalities on sinus computed tomography scanning. Chronic rhinosinusitis, air trapping and male sex were three independent factors associated with blood eosinophilia (adjusted OR 3.8 (95% CI 1.7–8.1), 3.0 (95% CI 1.1–8.1) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.4), respectively). Patients with adult-onset asthma with elevated blood eosinophils exhibit a distinct profile, which can readily be recognised in clinical practice. PMID:27730197

  12. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  13. Peculiarities of Anxiety Score Distribution in Adult Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Blank, Mikhail; Blank, Olga; Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to investigate and analyze possible peculiarities of the psychological state of cancer patients undergoing treatment. Scores characterizing the trait and state anxiety were acquired using the Integrative Anxiety Test from four groups: adults with no appreciable disease, pregnant women, cancer patients examined during the specific antitumor treatment, and cancer patients brought into lasting clinical remission. Statistical analysis of the testing results revealed the bimodal type of the distribution of scores. The only statistically significant exception was the distribution of the state anxiety scores in cancer patients undergoing treatment that was clearly unimodal. PMID:26176239

  14. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  15. Effects of age on cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Hoffman, Christy L.; Hyde, Shellie A.; Cummings, Carl S.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying oxytocin biology in the context of social functioning in human and non-human primates. Studies of human subjects are typically restricted to peripheral oxytocin assessments because opportunities to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are rare. A few studies have examined CSF oxytocin levels in captive adult primates, but none to our knowledge have been conducted under free-ranging conditions and inclusive of young infants. The main goal of the present study was to establish feasibility of quantifying CSF oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus monkeys living on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. CSF oxytocin levels were examined in relation to individuals’ demographic and reproductive characteristics, as well as in relation to plasma cortisol levels. CSF oxytocin concentrations ranged from 36.02 to 134.41 pg/ml in adult females (ages 7–26 years; N = 31) and 35.94 to 77.3 pg/ml in infants (ages 38–134 days; N = 17). CSF oxytocin levels were positively correlated with adult female age and negatively correlated with infant age. The former correlation was driven by reproductive status. CSF oxytocin levels were unrelated to dominance rank or plasma cortisol levels. In contrast to a previous study of plasma oxytocin concentrations in this population, CSF oxytocin levels did not differ significantly between lactating and non-lactating females. In summary, these findings: 1) provide feasibility data for examining CSF oxytocin biology in free-ranging nonhuman primates and 2) indicate that CSF oxytocin levels may be a biomarker of age-related central nervous system changes across lifespan development. Although our study did not report significant associations between CSF oxytocin levels and socially-relevant demographic variables, the relationships between CSF oxytocin levels and assessments of social functioning warrant future investigation. PMID:20528088

  16. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. PMID:26972154

  17. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice. PMID:26524146

  18. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice.

  19. Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  20. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

  1. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days.

  2. Social relationships of nulliparous young adult females beyond the ordinary age of the first birth in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Katsu, Noriko; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We describe the social relationships of young adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging troop in Arashiyama, Kyoto, Japan, who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth because of contraceptive administration. We observed 12 young nulliparous adult females (6-9 years old) for 270 h and 10 min from 2 February to 5 October 2010. The majority maintained close relationships with their mothers through proximity and grooming, whereas a few had very infrequent social interactions with their mothers. Most had asymmetrical grooming relationships; the grooming they received from unrelated adult females was less than the grooming they gave. Young adult females who had less frequent interactions with their mothers by either proximity or grooming received more grooming from a larger number of unrelated adult females than did those who had more frequent social interactions with their mothers. These results indicate that most young adult females who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth tended to maintain close relationships with their mothers, and their grooming relationships with unrelated adult females were inversely related to the degree of closeness with their mothers.

  3. Sexual Concerns of Male Spouses of Female Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litz, Brett T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents case study which highlights attendant cognitive changes that occur in Alzheimer's patient, presenting caregiver with challenges to couple's sexual functioning. Describes man who reported erectile dysfunction directly stemming from stressful changes that had occurred in his relationship to his wife who had Alzheimer's disease. General…

  4. Improvement with Duloxetine in an Adult ADHD Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourjman, Smadar Valerie; Bilodeau, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and disabling disorder among adults and is treated with stimulant and non stimulant medication. Objective: To report the case of a patient with ADHD showing good clinical response to duloxetine, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). Case…

  5. A Future for Adult Educators in Patient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education in healthcare comes in several forms: degree and certificate programs aimed at preparing better academic and clinical educators; and community education programs aimed at wellness, rehabilitation, or learning to live with chronic diseases. Patient-centered healthcare, however, is part of something new: coordinated and transitional…

  6. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  7. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe.

  8. Food hypersensitivity among adult patients: epidemiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Castillo, R; Delgado, J; Quiralte, J; Blanco, C; Carrillo, T

    1996-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FH) is lesser frequent among adult patients than in childhood. Foods implicated in hypersensitivity reactions vary with sociocultural and diet habits from a geographic place to other. We studied 142 adult patients sensitized to foods, among 7698 patients visited at our Outpatient Clinic. Hundred and twenty patients referred clinical symptoms after consumption of one or more foods consistently. From the latest, 107 patients (89.2%) were atopics (92 of them sensitizes to dust mites) and 54 (45%) referred atopic familiar background. Most frequent recorded symptoms were: urticaria/angioedema 84 cases (70%), oral syndrome 65 (54%), asthma 48 (37%) and anaphylaxis 33 patients (27.5%). Shellfish sensitization occurred in 50 patients, fresh fruits in 33 and nuts in 29 cases. Shrimp (48 patients), squid (33), kiwi (14), papaya (14), avocado (13) and banana (12 cases) were the most frequent causes of FH. Significant statistical association between foods and inhalants was observed for fresh fruits and latex (p < 0.001), fresh fruits and pollens (p < 0.01), and shellfish and Blatta germanica (p < 0.001). Prevalence of FH among patients at our Area is around 1.6%. Tropical fruits, as other kind of fruits, seem to share common IgE-epitopes to pollens. High prevalence of shellfish and cockroach hypersensitivity could be more easily developed by previous domestic mites sensitization.

  9. Effect of anger and trait forgiveness on cardiovascular risk in young adult females.

    PubMed

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Batchelor, Wayne B; Fincham, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    High trait anger is linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A potential antidote to the cardiotoxic influence of anger is trait forgiveness (TF), as it has shown associations with improved blood pressure (BP) and cardiovagal tone regulation in cardiac patients. However, it has yet to be determined if anger and forgiveness independently predict cardiovascular parameters. Trait anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2) and TF (Tendency to Forgive Scale) were evaluated in 308 (M = 21.11years ± SD = 2.52) healthy female volunteers allocated to 3 related, yet distinct, studies. Hierarchical multiple regressions tested the incremental contribution of TF after accounting for anger. Study 1 assessed autonomic modulation through beat-to-beat BP and spectral analysis to examine sympathovagal balance and baroreflex functioning. Study 2 used tonometry and pulse wave analysis for aortic hemodynamics. Study 3 assessed 24-hour ambulatory BP and ambulatory arterial stiffness index. Hierarchical models demonstrated that anger was significantly associated with increased sympathovagal tone, increased hemodynamic indices, high ambulatory BPs, and attenuated BP variability and baroreflex. In contrast, TF was associated with more favorable hemodynamic effects (i.e., decreased ventricular work and myocardial oxygen consumption). In conclusion, these results demonstrate divergent cardiovascular effects of anger and forgiveness, such that anger is associated with a more cardiotoxic autonomic and hemodynamic profile, whereas TF is associated with a more cardioprotective profile. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at decreasing anger while increasing forgiveness may be clinically relevant.

  10. What Do Clinicians Expect?: Comparing Envisioned and Reported Violence for Male and Female Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Odgers, Candice; Schubert, Carol; Stowman, Stephanie; Gardner, William; Lidz, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Mental health professionals' (MHPs') accuracy in assessing the risk of violence in female patients is particularly limited. Based on assessments made by 205 MHPs of 605 patients in an emergency room, this study explored potential causes of MHPs' poorer accuracy in assessing women's potential for violence. The dimensions that underlie MHPs'…

  11. Adult consequences of post-weaning high fat feeding on the limbic-HPA axis of female rats.

    PubMed

    Boukouvalas, George; Gerozissis, Kyriaki; Kitraki, Efthimia

    2010-05-01

    The peripubertal period is critical for the final maturation of circuits controlling energy homeostasis and stress response. However, the consequence of juvenile fat consumption on adult physiology is not clear. This study analyzed the adult consequences of post-weaning fat feeding on limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis components and on metabolic regulators of female rats. Wistar rats were fed either a high fat (HF) diet or the normal chow from weaning to puberty or to 3 months of age. Additional groups crossed their diets at puberty onset. Plasma leptin, insulin, and corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and their brain receptors by western blot analysis. Adult HF-fed animals though not overweight, had higher corticosterone and reduced glucocorticoid receptor levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, compared to the controls. The alterations in HPA axis emerged already at puberty onset. Leptin receptor levels in the hypothalamus were reduced only by continuous fat feeding from weaning to adulthood. The pre-pubertal period appeared more vulnerable to diet-induced alterations in adulthood than the post-pubertal one. Switching from fat diet to normal chow at puberty onset restored most of the diet-induced alterations in the HPA axis. The corticosteroid circuit rather than the leptin or insulin system appears as the principal target for the peripubertal fat diet-induced effects in adult female rats.

  12. Dynamic stability control during perturbed walking can be assessed by a reduced kinematic model across the adult female lifespan.

    PubMed

    Süptitz, Florian; Moreno Catalá, María; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to determine potential differences in dynamic stability control during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan and to test the hypothesis that such differences can be assessed by a reduced kinematic model. 11 young-aged (22-30years), 9 middle-aged (41-59years) and 14 old-aged (62-75years) female adults walked on a treadmill while the right leg was unexpectedly perturbed once during the swing phase. Margin of stability (MS) at touchdown was investigated using a full body and a reduced kinematic model. After the perturbation, all age groups showed a lower MS compared to non-perturbed gait (baseline), leading to negative MS. Four old-aged adults failed to cope with the task (only preventing a fall by grasping). The remaining ten old-aged and the middle-aged subjects required three more recovery steps than the young-aged adults to get back to baseline MS. Moreover, there were no differences between kinematic models, and both methods demonstrated similar age-related findings. We concluded that the ability to control dynamic stability during perturbed walking by enlarging the base of support has already begun to deteriorate by middle age. Further, the valid agreement between kinematic models shows that such differences can be assessed by using just four body markers.

  13. A fe/male transsexual patient in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, D

    1998-02-01

    The author describes the analysis of a transsexual who had undergone a vaginoplasty as a young man and had since been living as a woman. The complexity of the psychic reality is epitomised by the analyst's difficulty in deciding whether to use masculine or feminine grammatical forms to refer to this patient. The author tells how she assumed the fantasy role of parents expecting a baby whose sex they did not yet know. She discusses at length her hesitation about accepting a transsexual patient into analysis and reports how she overcame her misgivings after analysing her own countertransference and consulting the literature. Noting that this borderline analysand resorted to both psychotic and neurotic mechanisms, the analyst decided to rely on the capacity for symbolisation and mental representation evinced in the latter. On the psychotic level, the delusional neo-reality of the appearance of a woman sought to replace the unbearable reality of being a man, whereas the neurotic part was aware that s/he could never really be a woman. The author observes that in this analysand sexualisation served to conceal a fundamental narcissistic fault. She also describes how she worked with her own madness to help the patient emerge from a situation of paradoxical fusion with the mother in madness.

  14. Risk and Protective Factors for Adult and Child Hunger Among Low-Income Housed and Homeless Female-Headed Families

    PubMed Central

    Wehler, Cheryl; Weinreb, Linda F.; Huntington, Nicholas; Scott, Richard; Hosmer, David; Fletcher, Kenneth; Goldberg, Robert; Gundersen, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify factors associated with adult or child hunger. Methods. Low-income housed and homeless mothers were interviewed about socioeconomic, psychosocial, health, and food sufficiency information. Multinomial logistic regression produced models predicting adult or child hunger. Results. Predictors of adult hunger included mothers’ childhood sexual molestation and current parenting difficulties, or “hassles.” Risk factors for child hunger included mothers’ childhood sexual molestation, housing subsidies, brief local residence, having more or older children, and substandard housing. Conclusions. This study found that the odds of hunger, although affected by resource constraints in low-income female-headed families, were also worsened by mothers’ poor physical and mental health. Eliminating hunger thus may require broader interventions than food programs. PMID:14713707

  15. Prevalence of celiac disease in adult patients with refractory functional dyspepsia: Value of routine duodenal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Giangreco, Emiliano; D’agate, Cinzia; Barbera, Carmelo; Puzzo, Lidia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Naso, Pietro; Bonanno, Giacomo; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Incarbone, Salvatore; Trama, Giuseppe; Russo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in adult patients referred to an open access gastroenterology clinic in the south of Italy and submitted to esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for evaluation of refractory functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty six consecutive dyspeptic patients (282 male, 444 female; mean age 39.6 years, range 18-75 years) with unexplained prolonged dyspepsia were prospectively enrolled. Duodenal biopsies were taken and processed by standard staining. Histological evaluation was carried out according to the Marsh-Oberhuber criteria. RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were: normal in 61.2%, peptic lesions in 20.5%, malignancies in 0.5%, miscellaneous in 16.7%. CD was endoscopically diagnosed in 8 patients (1.1%), histologically in 15 patients (2%). The endoscopic features alone showed a sensitivity of 34.8% and specificity of 100%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPP) of 97.9%. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that CD has a high prevalence (1:48) in adult dyspeptic patients and suggests the routine use of duodenal biopsy in this type of patient undergoing EGD. PMID:19058330

  16. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and < 0.01, respectively) and moist ( < 0.01) foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML, and LAL in the dry foods ( < 0.01, < 0.01, and = 0.08, respectively) and for CML and LAL in the moist foods ( < 0.01). The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism

  17. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  18. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  19. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  20. Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB/c mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude

    In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.

  1. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID

  2. Optimal serum phenylalanine for adult patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yoshiyuki; Nagasaka, Hironori

    2013-12-01

    High serum phenylalanine in adult patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) causes neuropsychological and psychosocial problems that can be resolved by phenylalanine-restricted diet. Therefore, PKU patients must continue to adhere to phenylalanine-restricted diet for life, although the optimal serum phenylalanine level in later life has yet to be established. The purpose of this review was to establish the optimal serum phenylalanine level in later life of PKU patients. We evaluated oxidative stress status, nitric oxide metabolism, cholesterol-derived oxysterols, vitamin D and bone status, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adult PKU patients according to serum phenylalanine level. Oxidative stress increased markedly at serum phenylalanine of 700-800 μmol/L. Serum phenylalanine higher than 700-850 μmol/L correlated with the disturbance of nitric oxide regulatory system. Adult PKU patients had poor vitamin D status and exhibited predominance of bone resorption over bone formation. In the brain, the levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol, a marker of brain cholesterol elimination, were low at serum phenylalanine levels exceeding 650 μmol/L. MRI studies showed high signal intensity in deep white matter on T2-weighted and FLAIR images of PKU patients with serum phenylalanine greater than 500 μmol/L, with decreased apparent diffusion coefficients. Changes in most parameters covering the entire body organs in adult PKU were almost acceptable below 700-800 μmol/L of phenylalanine level. However, the optimal serum phenylalanine level should be 500 μmol/L or less in later life for the brain to be safe.

  3. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  4. Comparison of clinical and serological parameters in female and male patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Majdan, Maria; Dryglewska, Magdalena; Suszek, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The course of systemic sclerosis (SSc) can differ in female and male patients. According to the literature the incidence rates of diffuse cutaneous SSc, scleroderma renal crisis and digital ulceration are higher in male patients. The aim of the study was to compare selected clinical and serological parameters in male and female patients with SSc. Material and methods The study encompassed 101 European Caucasian patients with SSc, including 23 men, hospitalized in the Department of Rheumatology. Patients fulfilled the American Rheumatism Association (ARA) classification criteria for SSc. The study groups of men and women were assessed according to the SSc subtype, incidence of internal organ involvement and presence of antinuclear antibodies considered SSc markers. Results Diffuse cutaneous (dc) SSc was observed more commonly in men than in women (13/23 vs. 25/78; p = 0.03). The time from the development of Raynaud's phenomenon to the diagnosis was significantly shorter in male compared to female patients (3.2 ±4.7 vs. 7.5 ±7.1; p = 0.01). The incidence of scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) was significantly higher (3/23 vs. 2/78; p = 0.04) and of other calcifications significantly lower in the male group compared to the female group (1/23 vs. 20/78; p = 0.02). Conclusions We concluded that the incidence of dcSSc is higher in men compared to women. The time from the development of Raynaud's phenomenon to the diagnosis is shorter in the male compare to female group. The incidence of SRC is higher, whereas that of calcifications is lower in SSc men. The serological profiles of female and male patients with SSc are comparable. PMID:27407264

  5. Differences between morning and afternoon colonoscopies for adenoma detection in female and male patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailendra; Dhawan, Manish; Chowdhry, Monica; Babich, Michael; Aoun, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background Colonoscopies performed in the afternoon (PM) have been shown to have lower adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared to those in the morning (AM). Endoscopist fatigue has been suggested as a possible reason. Colonoscopies tend to be technically more challenging in female patients. Furthermore, women have a lower incidence of adenomas then men. The impact of the timing of colonoscopy based on sex has not been studied. We hypothesized that any decrease in ADR in PM colonoscopies would be more pronounced in female patients when compared to male patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed colonoscopies performed for screening or surveillance in our outpatient endoscopy center from January 2008 to December 2011. Complete colonoscopies with a documented cecal intubation were included. All patients with a history of colorectal cancer or colonic resection, inadequate bowel preparation, or incomplete data were excluded. Results A total of 2305 patients (1207 female) were included. Overall, ADR was significantly higher in AM than in PM procedures. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that ADR for females was lower in PM than in AM colonoscopies (odds ratio [OR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.91, P=0.015). There was a non-significant trend towards a lower ADR for males in PM (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.62-1.15, P=0.28). Females had a prolonged intubation time and a longer procedure time. Conclusion The difference in ADR between AM and PM procedures seems to apply mainly to female patients. No significant change in ADR was noted in male patients in the afternoon. PMID:27708517

  6. Identification of Intellectual Disability Genes in Female Patients with a Skewed X-Inactivation Pattern.

    PubMed

    Fieremans, Nathalie; Van Esch, Hilde; Holvoet, Maureen; Van Goethem, Gert; Devriendt, Koenraad; Rosello, Monica; Mayo, Sonia; Martinez, Francisco; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R; Vermeesch, Joris R; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous disorder with an unknown molecular etiology in many cases. Previously, X-linked ID (XLID) studies focused on males because of the hemizygous state of their X chromosome. Carrier females are generally unaffected because of the presence of a second normal allele, or inactivation of the mutant X chromosome in most of their cells (skewing). However, in female ID patients, we hypothesized that the presence of skewing of X-inactivation would be an indicator for an X chromosomal ID cause. We analyzed the X-inactivation patterns of 288 females with ID, and found that 22 (7.6%) had extreme skewing (>90%), which is significantly higher than observed in the general population (3.6%; P = 0.029). Whole-exome sequencing of 19 females with extreme skewing revealed causal variants in six females in the XLID genes DDX3X, NHS, WDR45, MECP2, and SMC1A. Interestingly, variants in genes escaping X-inactivation presumably cause both XLID and skewing of X-inactivation in three of these patients. Moreover, variants likely accounting for skewing only were detected in MED12, HDAC8, and TAF9B. All tested candidate causative variants were de novo events. Hence, extreme skewing is a good indicator for the presence of X-linked variants in female patients.

  7. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Fertility preservation is becoming increasingly important to improve the quality of life in cancer survivors. Despite guidelines suggesting that discussion of fertility preservation should be done prior to starting cancer therapies, there is a lack of implementation in this area. A number of techniques are available for fertility preservation, and they can be used individually or together in the same patient to maximize efficiency. Oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are now established techniques but have their limitations. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation though considered experimental at present, has a wider clinical application and the advantage of keeping the fertility window open for a longer time. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a major impact on reproductive potential and fertility preservation procedures should be carried out prior to these treatments. The need for fertility preservation has to be weighed against morbidity and mortality associated with cancer. There is thus a need for a multidisciplinary collaboration between oncologists and reproductive specialists to improve awareness and availability. PMID:25838742

  8. Characteristic features of reproductive hormone profiles in late adolescent and adult females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doehnert, Ulla; Bertelloni, Silvano; Werner, Ralf; Dati, Eleonora; Hiort, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about gonadotropins and sex steroid levels in postpubertal women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). In order to define reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS and intact gonads, 42 postpubertal females with proven CAIS (age range 14-50 years) with testes in situ were examined. Reproductive hormone values [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] were assessed by commercially available immunoassays. In women with CAIS, LH levels (median 18.5 IU/l, range 5.5-51.1 IU/l) were elevated above the usual adult reference ranges, whereas FSH values (3.5 IU/l, 0.4-16.3 IU/l) were not. Basal T (20 nmol/l, 6-52 nmol/l) and E2 values (113 pmol/l; 18-257 pmol/l) were found in the usual adult male reference ranges; SHBG levels (53 nmol/l, 15-180 nmol/l) were in the adult female reference range. Calculated free androgen indices (Tx10³/SHBG: 380, 114-863) and aromatization indices (E2/T: 0.052, 0.020-0.196) did not differ from the reference ranges for adult men given in the literature (Tx10³/SHBG: 315-936; E2/T: 0.03-0.07). Reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS do not follow the usual male/female pattern, suggesting a specific postpubertal hormone milieu. Albeit calculation of CAIS-specific reference ranges requires larger series and standardization of laboratory methods, these results may be a prerequisite for the identification of pathologic hormone patterns in women with CAIS and gonads in situ. The present data will also be useful to monitor hormone replacement therapy in individuals with removed gonads.

  9. Adolescents and adults affected by Cornelia de Lange syndrome: A report of 73 Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Milena; Decimi, Valentina; Bettini, Laura Rachele; Maitz, Silvia; Gervasini, Cristina; Masciadri, Maura; Ajmone, Paola; Kullman, Gaia; Dinelli, Marco; Panceri, Roberto; Cereda, Anna; Selicorni, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutation of various cohesion complex related genes. Its natural history is quite well characterized as regard pediatric age. Relatively little information is available regarding the evolution of the disease in young-adult age. In medical literature, only one specific study has been published on this topic. We report on our experience on 73 Italian CdLS patients (40 males and 33 females) with and age range from 15 to 49 years. Our results confirm the previous study indicating that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the main medical problem of these patients in childhood and young-adult age. Other medical features that should be considered in the medical follow-up are tendency to overweight/frank obesity, constipation, discrepancy of limbs' length, epilepsy, hearing, and visual problems. Behavioral problems are particularly frequent as well. For this reason, every source of hidden pain should be actively searched for in evaluating a patient showing such a disorder. Finally, recommendations for medical follow-up in adult age are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27164219

  10. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  11. ACG Clinical Guideline: Nutrition Therapy in the Adult Hospitalized Patient.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A; DiBaise, John K; Mullin, Gerard E; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-03-01

    The value of nutrition therapy for the adult hospitalized patient is derived from the outcome benefits achieved by the delivery of early enteral feeding. Nutritional assessment should identify those patients at high nutritional risk, determined by both disease severity and nutritional status. For such patients if they are unable to maintain volitional intake, enteral access should be attained and enteral nutrition (EN) initiated within 24-48 h of admission. Orogastric or nasogastric feeding is most appropriate when starting EN, switching to post-pyloric or deep jejunal feeding only in those patients who are intolerant of gastric feeds or at high risk for aspiration. Percutaneous access should be used for those patients anticipated to require EN for >4 weeks. Patients receiving EN should be monitored for risk of aspiration, tolerance, and adequacy of feeding (determined by percent of goal calories and protein delivered). Intentional permissive underfeeding (and even trophic feeding) is appropriate temporarily for certain subsets of hospitalized patients. Although a standard polymeric formula should be used routinely in most patients, an immune-modulating formula (with arginine and fish oil) should be reserved for patients who have had major surgery in a surgical ICU setting. Adequacy of nutrition therapy is enhanced by establishing nurse-driven enteral feeding protocols, increasing delivery by volume-based or top-down feeding strategies, minimizing interruptions, and eliminating the practice of gastric residual volumes. Parenteral nutrition should be used in patients at high nutritional risk when EN is not feasible or after the first week of hospitalization if EN is not sufficient. Because of their knowledge base and skill set, the gastroenterologist endoscopist is an asset to the Nutrition Support Team and should participate in providing optimal nutrition therapy to the hospitalized adult patient.

  12. A quantitative three-dimensional assessment of soft tissue facial asymmetry of cleft lip and palate adult patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Colombo, Anna; Carù, Armando

    2003-09-01

    The three-dimensional coordinates of 23 selected soft-tissue facial landmarks were digitized on 18 cleft lip and palate (CLP) white patients (11 male and 7 female patients aged 19-27 years) and 161 healthy controls (73 female and 89 male subjects aged 18-30 years) by an electromagnetic instrument. Facial asymmetry was quantified by detecting a plane of symmetry and the centers of gravity (CG) of the right and left hemifaces and by calculating the distance between the two CG (distance from symmetry [DFS]). Both absolute (millimeters) and percentage (of the nasion center of gravity distance) DFS was obtained. The asymmetry of single landmarks was also quantified. Overall, asymmetry in operated CLP patients appeared only moderately larger than that measured in the healthy reference population, with the largest value being only 5% larger than the maximum normal asymmetry. Female patients had a somewhat larger lateral asymmetry than male patients, and unilateral CLP patients (particularly the men) were more asymmetrical than bilateral CLP patients. Pronasale and subnasale landmarks were asymmetrical in 8 patients, whereas endocanthion, zygion, cheilion, and gonion landmarks were symmetrical in all patients. In conclusion, the facial soft-tissue structures of CLP patients operated on as adults were only moderately more asymmetrical than those measured in a reference group of the same age, sex, and ethnicity.

  13. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between left and right feet occur in both the foot breadth measurements (BBAL and BHEL). Foot length measurements (T1 to T5 lengths) did not show any statistically significant bilateral asymmetry. The correlation between stature and all the foot measurements was found to be positive and statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). Linear regression models and multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from the measurements of the foot. The present study indicates that anthropometric measurements of foot and its segments are valuable in the estimation of stature. Foot length measurements estimate stature with greater accuracy when compared to foot breadth measurements. Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the

  14. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  15. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  16. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Marshall, D.; Gehlen, M.K.

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  17. Transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype in embryo-transferred intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Garg, Meena; Oak, Shilpa; Rogers, Lisa M; Pan, Gerald; Sangiorgi, Frank; Lee, Paul W N; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2007-05-01

    To determine mechanisms underlying the transgenerational presence of metabolic perturbations in the intrauterine growth-restricted second-generation adult females (F2 IUGR) despite normalizing the in utero metabolic environment, we examined in vivo glucose kinetics and in vitro skeletal muscle postinsulin receptor signaling after embryo transfer of first generation (F1 IUGR) to control maternal environment. Female F2 rats, procreated by F1 pre- and postnatally nutrient- and growth-restricted (IUGR) mothers but embryo transferred to gestate in control mothers, were compared with similarly gestating age- and sex-matched control (CON) F2 progeny. Although there were no differences in birth weight or postnatal growth patterns, the F2 IUGR had increased hepatic weight, fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and unsuppressed hepatic glucose production, with no change in glucose futile cycling or clearance, compared with F2 CON. These hormonal and metabolic aberrations were associated with increased skeletal muscle total GLUT4 and pAkt concentrations but decreased plasma membrane-associated GLUT4, total pPKCzeta, and PKCzeta enzyme activity, with no change in total SHP2 and PTP1B concentrations in IUGR F2 compared with F2 CON. We conclude that transgenerational presence of aberrant glucose/insulin metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling of the adult F2 IUGR female offspring is independent of the immediate intrauterine environment, supporting nutritionally induced heritable mechanisms contributing to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  19. Comparing the executive attention of adult females with ADHD to that of females with sensory modulation disorder (SMD) under aversive and non-aversive auditory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mazor-Karsenty, Tal; Parush, Shula; Bonneh, Yoram; Shalev, Lilach

    2015-02-01

    Certain behavioral expressions of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) such as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are often similar to those of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric and adult populations. There is also a high comorbidity rate between these two diagnoses and absence of research regarding the objective neuropsychological differentiation between them. In the present study we employed a factorial design which enabled us to: (a) systematically examine the effects of SMD and ADHD on executive attention in a sample of adult females using a Stroop-like task, and (b) measure the effect of aversive conditions (sounds) on executive attention. The experimental measures used were the Stroop-like Location-Direction Task (SLDT) to assess executive attention and the battery of aversiveness to sounds (BAS), a standardized measure of aversive sounds that was developed for this study and enabled individual customization of aversive auditory sounds. Results revealed, as expected, a specific core deficit in executive attention for the ADHD factor. In addition to that, the present study provides an important, pioneering finding of SMD impairment in a unique combination of a cognitively demanding task with aversive sounds, providing preliminary objective evidence differentiating SMD from ADHD.

  20. Combined Subpectoral Implantation of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator and Augmentation Mammoplasty in a Young Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Jun; Park, Je Wook; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Dong Won; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous implantation of a cardiac implantable electronic device is the standard method. Occasionally, subpectoral cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation via axillary incisions is performed in young female patients for cosmetic purposes. Because subpectoral CIED implantation and augmentation mammoplasty involve the same layer, it is feasible to perform both procedures simultaneously. We report a case of combined subpectoral implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and augmentation mammoplasty via the axillary approach in a young female patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and small breasts. PMID:27721868

  1. Lifespan attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms in female patients: a latent class approach.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Fiona; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2011-12-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are frequently comorbid. To contribute to a better understanding of the associations regularly found between ADHD and BPD, on the one hand, and the developmental pathways for these disorders, on the other hand, latent class analyses (LCA) were undertaken to identify classes differing in profiles of childhood symptoms of ADHD and adult symptoms of ADHD and BPD. Diagnostic interviews with 103 female outpatients meeting the criteria for ADHD and/or BPD were used to assess current DSM-IV symptoms; childhood symptoms of ADHD were assessed in parent interviews. The latent classes were examined in relation to the DSM-IV conceptualizations of ADHD and BPD. And relations between childhood and adult classes were examined to hypothesize about developmental trajectories. LCA revealed an optimal solution with four distinct symptom profiles: only ADHD symptoms; BPD symptoms and only ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. All patients with BPD had some ADHD symptoms in both adulthood and childhood. Hyperactivity was least discriminative of adult classes. Adult hyperactivity was not always preceded by childhood hyperactivity; some cases of comorbid ADHD and BPD symptoms were not preceded by significant childhood ADHD symptoms; and some cases of predominantly BPD symptoms could be traced back to combined symptoms of ADHD in childhood. The results underline the importance of taking ADHD diagnoses into account with BPD. ADHD classification subtypes may not be permanent over time, and different developmental pathways to adult ADHD and BPD should therefore be investigated.

  2. Spring-summer survival rates of yearling versus adult mallard females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.E.; Blohm, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and cause of mortality in wildlife populations is imperative for developing management strategies that protect or improve the status of these populations. Age- and sex-specific population parameter estimates provide the most useful information for this purpose. Numerous studies have provided information about survival rates in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but little is known about age-related differences in female survival during the breeding period. We examined band-recovery data for female mallards banded in southern portions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba during spring and summer 1981-85. We used band-recovery models to test the hypothesis that yearling females would exhibit higher survival compared with that of older females during spring-summer. There was evidence (P = 0.08) that spring-summer survival rates of yearling females (0.728) were higher than that of older females (0.574). These findings support the hypothesis that age-specific differences in nesting behavior (e.g., later nest initiation and fewer nesting attempts by yearlings) influence losses to predators and are responsible for the difference in spring-summer survival. Management treatments that increase nest success, and consequently reduce the need for prolonged nesting, will increase mallard survival during spring-summer.

  3. Estimation of effective doses to adult and pediatric patients from multislice computed tomography: A method based on energy imparted

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Tzedakis, Antonis; Karantanas, Apostolos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a method and required data for the estimation of effective dose (E) values to adult and pediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) scans of the head, chest abdomen, and pelvis, performed on multi-slice scanners. Mean section radiation dose (d{sub m}) to cylindrical water phantoms of varying radius normalized over CT dose index free-in-air (CTDI{sub F}) were calculated for the head and body scanning modes of a multislice scanner with use of Monte Carlo techniques. Patients were modeled as equivalent water phantoms and the energy imparted ({epsilon}) to simulated pediatric and adult patients was calculated on the basis of measured CTDI{sub F} values. Body region specific energy imparted to effective dose conversion coefficients (E/{epsilon}) for adult male and female patients were generated from previous data. Effective doses to patients aged newborn to adult were derived for all available helical and axial beam collimations, taking into account age specific patient mass and scanning length. Depending on high voltage, body region, and patient sex, E/{epsilon} values ranged from 0.008 mSv/mJ for head scans to 0.024 mSv/mJ for chest scans. When scanned with the same technique factors as the adults, pediatric patients absorb as little as 5% of the energy imparted to adults, but corresponding effective dose values are up to a factor of 1.6 higher. On average, pediatric patients absorb 44% less energy per examination but have a 24% higher effective dose, compared with adults. In clinical practice, effective dose values to pediatric patients are 2.5 to 10 times lower than in adults due to the adaptation of tube current. A method is provided for the calculation of effective dose to adult and pediatric patients on the basis of individual patient characteristics such as sex, mass, dimensions, and density of imaged anatomy, and the technical features of modern multislice scanners. It allows the optimum selection of scanning

  4. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  5. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  6. Jejunal lymphangioma: an unusual cause of intussusception in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Limaiem, F; Khalfallah, T; Marsaoui, L; Bouraoui, S; Lahmar, A; Mzabi, S

    2015-03-01

    Adult intussusception is a relatively rare clinical entity. Almost 90% of cases of intussusception in adults are secondary to a pathologic condition that serves as a lead point. Lymphangioma of the small bowel is an unusual tumour that has been rarely reported to cause intussusception. In this paper, we present a rare case of adult intussusception due to jejunal lymphangioma. A 22-year-old female patient with a medical history significant for anaemia presented with intermittent colicky abdominal pain, diarrhoea and oedema of the inferior limbs for the past three months. Ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a typical target sign with dilated intestinal loops. At laparotomy, a jejuno-jejunal intussusception was found. Partial resection of the jejunum was performed. Macroscopic examination of the surgical specimen revealed a pedunculated polyp measuring 2 cm in diameter. Histological sections of the polyp revealed in the lamina propria and submucosal layer of the jejunum several markedly dilated thin-walled lymphatic spaces lined with single layers of flat endothelial cells. The final pathologic diagnosis was submucosal lymphangioma. This case report indicates that intussusception, although rare in adults, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. Moreover, it should be taken into consideration that lymphangioma is one of the possible lesions that can cause intussusception.

  7. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn.

  8. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress increase sensitivity to stress and gonadal hormone influences on cognition in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Wendy L; Lee, Kristen; Anderson, Katie; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal activity of stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA]), and gonadal hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG]) systems is reported following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). PAE increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in regulation of these systems to stressors or challenges during sensitive periods of development, such as adolescence. In addition, HPA and HPG functions are linked to higher order functions such as executive function (EF), with dysregulation of either system adversely affecting EF processes, including attention and response inhibition, that influence cognition. However, how HPA and HPG systems interact to influence cognitive performance in individuals with an FASD is not fully understood. To investigate, we used a rat model of moderate PAE. Adolescent female PAE and control offspring were exposed to 10days of chronic mild stress (CMS) and cognitive function was assessed on the radial arm maze (RAM) in adulthood. On the final test day, animals were sacrificed, with blood collected for hormone analyses, and vaginal smears taken to assess estrus stage at the time of termination. Analyses showed that adolescent CMS significantly increased levels of CORT and RAM errors during proestrus in adult PAE but not control females. Moreover, CORT levels were correlated with estradiol levels and with RAM errors, but only in PAE females, with outcome dependent on adolescent CMS condition. These results suggest that PAE increases sensitivity to the influences of stress and gonadal hormones on cognition, and thus, in turn, that HPA and HPG dysregulation may underlie some of the deficits in executive function described previously in PAE females.

  10. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations.

  11. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  12. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  13. Species differences in behavior and cell proliferation/survival in the adult brains of female meadow and prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Zhang, Z; Wang, Z

    2016-02-19

    Microtine rodents display diverse patterns of social organization and behaviors, and thus provide a useful model for studying the effects of the social environment on physiology and behavior. The current study compared the species differences and the effects of oxytocin (OT) on anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Furthermore, cell proliferation and survival in the brains of adult female meadow and prairie voles were compared. We found that female meadow voles displayed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior but lower levels of social affiliation and social recognition compared to female prairie voles. In addition, meadow voles showed lower levels of cell proliferation (measured by Ki67 staining) and cell survival (measured by BrdU staining) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG), than prairie voles. Interestingly, the numbers of new cells in the VMH and AMY, but not DG, also correlated with anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in a brain region-specific manner. Finally, central OT treatment (200 ng/kg, icv) did not lead to changes in behavior or cell proliferation/survival in the brain. Together, these data indicate a potential role of cell proliferation/survival in selected brain areas on different behaviors between vole species with distinct life strategies. PMID:26708743

  14. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use. PMID:27304855

  15. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use.

  16. Differential responses to salt supplementation in adult male and female rat adrenal glands following intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Karine; Otis, Mélissa; St-Louis, Jean; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Brochu, Michèle

    2011-04-01

    In low sodium-induced intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) rat, foetal adrenal steroidogenesis as well as the adult renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is altered. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo) and of angiotensin II receptor subtypes 1 (AT(1)R) and 2 (AT(2)R) in adult adrenal glands and whether this expression could be influenced by IUGR and by high-salt intake in a sex-specific manner. After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT(2)R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR.

  17. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Kowalski, Gabriele J.; Voigt, Christian C.; Orben, Rachael A.; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J.; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use. PMID:27304855

  18. Organ doses to adult patients for chest CT

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Walter; Sterzik, Alexander; Tipnis, Sameer; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to estimate organ doses for chest CT examinations using volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) data as well as accounting for patient weight. Methods: A CT dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator) was used to compute organ doses for a 70 kg patient undergoing chest CT examinations, as well as volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) in a body CT dosimetry phantom at the same CT technique factors. Ratios of organ dose to CTDI{sub vol} (f{sub organ}) were generated as a function of anatomical location in the chest for the breasts, lungs, stomach, red bone marrow, liver, thyroid, liver, and thymus. Values of f{sub organ} were obtained for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV for 1, 4, 16, and 64 slice CT scanners from two vendors. For constant CT techniques, we computed ratios of dose in water phantoms of differing diameter. By modeling patients of different weights as equivalent water cylinders of different diameters, we generated factors that permit the estimation of the organ doses in patients weighing between 50 and 100 kg who undergo chest CT examinations relative to the corresponding organ doses received by a 70 kg adult. Results: For a 32 cm long CT scan encompassing the complete lungs, values of f{sub organ} ranged from 1.7 (thymus) to 0.3 (stomach). Organs that are directly in the x-ray beam, and are completely irradiated, generally had f{sub organ} values well above 1 (i.e., breast, lung, heart, and thymus). Organs that are not completely irradiated in a total chest CT scan generally had f{sub organ} values that are less than 1 (e.g., red bone marrow, liver, and stomach). Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV resulted in modest increases in f{sub organ} for the heart (9%) and thymus (8%), but resulted in larger increases for the breast (19%) and red bone marrow (21%). Adult patient chests have been modeled by water cylinders with diameters between

  19. Depression in adult patients with biotin responsive basal ganglia disease.

    PubMed

    Bubshait, Dalal K; Rashid, Asif; Al-Owain, Mohammed A; Sulaiman, Raashda A

    2016-01-01

    Biotin responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD), is a potentially treatable inherited metabolic disorder which clinically presents as sub-acute encephalopathy in children. Early diagnosis and treatment of this disorder results in good clinical recovery in childhood. However, there is no report in the literature on the long term outcome of these treated patients in adult life. We report two patients with BBGD who were metabolically stable on treatment and developed depression later in life. These cases highlight the association of depression with basal ganglia disorders and demonstrate that depression is the potential long term complication of BBGD.

  20. Vaccination of Adult Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Moraes-Fontes, Maria Francisca; Antunes, Ana Margarida; Gruner, Heidi; Riso, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the Portuguese vaccination program 50th anniversary it seems appropriate to review vaccination in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Controversial issues as regards the association between autoimmune diseases, infections, and vaccines are discussed as well as vaccine safety and efficacy issues as regards chronic immunosuppressant (IS) drug therapy. After a brief overview of national policies, specific recommendations are made as regards vaccination for adult patients with SLE with a particular focus on current IS therapy and unmet needs. PMID:27069477

  1. [Nursing diagnosis in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Luccas Melo; Gorini, Maria Isabel Pinto Coelho

    2006-09-01

    This case study aimed at identifying Nursing Diagnosis (ND) in adult patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia, with the purpose of contributing to the Systematization of Nurse Care. Interviews and observation were used for data collection, in addition to Nursing Process application. During the three months of data collection, other NDs were obtained by searching the files of the 6 patients. The 32 ND found in this study were grouped according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Out of these 32 ND, 15 corresponded to changes in Physiological Needs, and 10 to changes in Protection and Safety Needs.

  2. Follicular lymphoma in young adults: a clinicopathological and molecular study of 200 patients.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ivison X; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Wludarski, Sheila C L; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Follicular lymphoma is clinically heterogenous, and therefore necessitates the identification of prognostic markers to stratify risk groups and optimize clinical management. It is relatively rare in patients younger than 40 years, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and biological behavior in this age group are poorly understood. In the current study, samples from a cohort of 200 patients between 19 and 40 years were evaluated retrospectively with respect to clinical, histologic, and genetic features. These were then correlated with clinical outcome. The median age at presentation was 35 years with a slight female prepoderance (56%). Most of the cases are presented with nodal disease (90%). Concomitant follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were observed in 7 (4%) patients. Immunohistologic studies showed the expression of CD10 (91%), BCL6 (97%), BCL2 (95%), MUM1/IRF4 (12%), MDM2 (17%), and CD23 (25%). BCL2 rearrangement was present in 74%, and BCL6 in 20%. The estimated overall survival of patients was 13 years (mean). The presence of anemia, elevated lactose dehydrogenase, bone marrow involvement, and high-risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index correlated with adverse overall survival. Our findings revealed that follicular lymphoma in young adults demonstrate similarities with that of older adults, including the frequency of presentation at various anatomic sites, grade, and adverse prognostic factors.

  3. Study of inhaler technique in asthma patients: differences between pediatric and adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Manríquez, Pablo; Acuña, Ana María; Muñoz, Luis; Reyes, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Inhaler technique comprises a set of procedures for drug delivery to the respiratory system. The oral inhalation of medications is the first-line treatment for lung diseases. Using the proper inhaler technique ensures sufficient drug deposition in the distal airways, optimizing therapeutic effects and reducing side effects. The purposes of this study were to assess inhaler technique in pediatric and adult patients with asthma; to determine the most common errors in each group of patients; and to compare the results between the two groups. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Using a ten-step protocol, we assessed inhaler technique in 135 pediatric asthma patients and 128 adult asthma patients. Results: The most common error among the pediatric patients was failing to execute a 10-s breath-hold after inhalation, whereas the most common error among the adult patients was failing to exhale fully before using the inhaler. Conclusions: Pediatric asthma patients appear to perform most of the inhaler technique steps correctly. However, the same does not seem to be true for adult patients. PMID:26578130

  4. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  5. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-07-21

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect.

  6. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1–14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg−1 subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  7. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  8. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  9. D2 antagonist during development decreases anxiety and infanticidal behavior in adult female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Harkey, Shanna L; Bales, Karen L

    2010-06-26

    On postnatal day 8, prairie vole pups were randomly assigned a treatment of 1mg/kg SKF38393 (D1 agonist), quinpirole (D2 agonist), SCH23390 (D1 antagonist), eticlopride (D2 antagonist), or saline vehicle. As adults, females treated with eticlopride exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze and a reduction in infanticidal behavior. These behavioral effects were not seen in males. These data demonstrate that a single exposure to a D2 antagonist during development can have persistent, sex-specific effects on behavior into adulthood. PMID:20152865

  10. The relationship between organ dose and patient size in tube current modulated adult thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatonabadi, Maryam; Zhang, Di; Yang, Jeffrey; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris C.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2012-03-01

    Recently published AAPM Task Group 204 developed conversion coefficients that use scanner reported CTDIvol to estimate dose to the center of patient undergoing fixed tube current body exam. However, most performed CT exams use TCM to reduce dose to patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between organ dose and a variety of patient size metrics in adult chest CT scans that use tube current modulation (TCM). Monte Carlo simulations were performed for 32 voxelized models with contoured lungs and glandular breasts tissue, consisting of females and males. These simulations made use of patient's actual TCM data to estimate organ dose. Using image data, different size metrics were calculated, these measurements were all performed on one slice, at the level of patient's nipple. Estimated doses were normalized by scanner-reported CTDIvol and plotted versus different metrics. CTDIvol values were plotted versus different metrics to look at scanner's output versus size. The metrics performed similarly in terms of correlating with organ dose. Looking at each gender separately, for male models normalized lung dose showed a better linear correlation (r2=0.91) with effective diameter, while female models showed higher correlation (r2=0.59) with the anterior-posterior measurement. There was essentially no correlation observed between size and CTDIvol-normalized breast dose. However, a linear relationship was observed between absolute breast dose and size. Dose to lungs and breasts were consistently higher in females with similar size as males which could be due to shape and composition differences between genders in the thoracic region.

  11. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  12. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  13. A Case Study on the Impacts of Connective Technology on Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning of Female Adult Students Managing Work-Life Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Adults frequently define their lives as "hectic" and "overextended;" yet, many make the decision to return to school and add the role of student into their busy lives. This research study explored and explained the impact of connective technology on self-efficacy and self-regulated learning of female adult students balancing…

  14. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Bullying Experiences on Female Adults as It Relates to Their Perception of Themselves and Their Relationships with Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcalow, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood bullying is a phenomenon that affects many individuals well beyond their childhood. This study looked specifically at female adults, and how the bullying they experienced in their childhood continues to have long-term effects on them in their adult lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term effects that bullying has on…

  15. A Sex-Linked Gene Controlling the Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female and Male Platyfish (XIPHOPHORUS MACULATUS), Fecundity in Females and Adult Size in Males

    PubMed Central

    Kallman, Klaus D.; Borkoski, Valerie

    1978-01-01

    A sex-linked gene, P, controls the onset of sexual maturity in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. The activity of this gene is correlated with the age and size at which the gonadotropic zone of the adenohypophysis differentiates and becomes physiologically active. Immature fish of all genotypes grow at the same rate; however, as adults, males with "early" genotypes are significantly smaller than males of "late" genotypes, since growth rate declines strongly under the influence of androgenic hormone. Five alleles, P1... P5, have been identified from natural populations that under controlled conditions cause gonad maturation between eight and 73 weeks. P1P1 males become mature at eight weeks and 21 mm, P2P2 and P3P3 males between eleven and 13.5 weeks and 25 to 29 mm, and P4P4 males at 25 weeks and 37 mm. Since P5 is X-linked, no males homozygous for P5 could be produced. The difference between P2 and P3 is largely based upon their interaction with P5. P3P5 males mature at 17.5 weeks and 33.5 mm and P2P5 males at 28 weeks and 38 mm. The rate of transformation of the unmodified anal fin into a gonopodium, which is under androgenic control, is directly related to the age at initiation of sexual maturity, ranging from 3.2 weeks in P1P1 males to seven weeks in P2P 5 males. These differences may reflect different levels of circulating gonadotropic and androgenic hormones.—In two genotypes of females, initiation of vitellogenesis was closely correlated with size and this critical size was independent of age (e.g., 21 mm for P1P1 ). In a third genotype (P1P5) the minimum size for vitellogenesis decreased with increasing age, so that females would mature as early as eleven weeks, provided they had attained at least 29 mm, but at 25 weeks even females as small as 23 mm possessed ripe gonads. For P5P5 females, which become mature between 34 and 73 weeks of age, there is no correlation between size and initiation of vitellogenesis. In all four genotypes of females examined

  16. Primary care management of the female patient presenting with nipple discharge.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Hilary S

    2015-03-12

    Nipple discharge is a common primary care finding in female patients. The nurse practitioner must possess the skills and knowledge to correctly and safely manage this clinical finding. The following is a review of the etiology of nipple discharge, the differential diagnoses, and treatment modalities.

  17. Postmortem Evaluation of Left Flank Laparoscopic Access in an Adult Female Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Pizzi, R; Cracknell, J; Dalrymple, L

    2010-01-01

    There are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. An 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650 kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. Safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (Visiport Plus, Tyco healthcare UK Ltd) without prior abdominal insufflation. A left paralumbar fossa approach allowed access to the spleen, rumen, left kidney, and intestines, but did not allow access to the reproductive tract which in nongravid females is intrapelvic in nature. PMID:20445792

  18. Experimental identification of potential falls in older adult hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, James; Pati, Debajyoti; Valipoor, Shabboo

    2016-05-01

    Patient falls within hospitals have been identified as serious but largely preventable incidents, particularly among older adult patients. Previous literature has explored intrinsic factors associated with patient falls, but literature identifying possible extrinsic or situational factors related to falls is lacking. This study seeks to identify patient motions and activities along with associated environmental design factors in a patient bathroom and clinician zone setting that may lead to falls. A motion capture experiment was conducted in a laboratory setting on 27 subjects over the age of seventy using scripted tasks and mockups of the bathroom and clinician zone of a patient room. Data were post-processed using Cortex and Visual3D software. A potential fall was characterized by a set of criteria based on the jerk of the upper body׳s center of mass (COM). Results suggest that only motion-related factors, particularly turning, pushing, pulling, and grabbing, contribute most significantly to potential falls in the patient bathroom, whereas only pushing and pulling contribute significantly in the clinician zone. Future work includes identifying and changing precise environmental design factors associated with these motions for an updated patient room and performing motion capture experiments using the new setup. PMID:26920507

  19. Clofarabine in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-04

    Solid Tumors; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Adult; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Adult; Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Adult

  20. Sexual dysfunction, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Kayhan, Fatih; Küçük, Adem; Satan, Yılmaz; İlgün, Erdem; Arslan, Şevket; İlik, Faik

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD), mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods This case–control study involved 96 patients with FM and 94 healthy women. The SD diagnosis was based on a psychiatric interview in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview. Personality disorders were diagnosed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders. Results Fifty of the 96 patients (52.1%) suffered from SD. The most common SD was lack of sexual desire (n=36, 37.5%) and arousal disorder (n=10, 10.4%). Of the 96 patients, 45 (46.9%) had a mood or anxiety disorder and 13 (13.5%) had a personality disorder. The most common mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were major depression (26%), generalized anxiety disorder (8.3%), and histrionic personality disorder (10.4%). Conclusion SD, mood, and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in female patients with FM. Pain plays a greater role in the development of SD in female patients with FM. PMID:26937190

  1. Prevalence of a history of sexual abuse among female psychiatric patients in a state hospital system.

    PubMed

    Craine, L S; Henson, C E; Colliver, J A; MacLean, D G

    1988-03-01

    Fifty-one percent of a sample of 105 female state hospital patients were found to have been sexually abused as children or adolescents. In the majority of cases, hospital staff were unaware that the patients had histories of sexual abuse, and only 20 percent of the abused patients believed they had been adequately treated for sexual abuse. Sixty-six percent of the abused patients met the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, although none had received that diagnosis. Compared with patients who had not been sexually abused, abused patients were significantly more likely to have 17 of 32 symptoms commonly linked with sexual abuse. Every patient who was positive for six symptoms--compulsive sexual behavior, chemical dependency, sadomasochistic sexual fantasy, sexual identity issues, chronic fatigue, and loss of interest in sex--had been sexually abused.

  2. Approach to the Patient: The Adult With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). When the nonclassical (mild) form is included, 21OHD is the most common genetic disease in human beings. With the advent of pharmaceutical preparation of glucocorticoids starting in the 1960s and newborn screening starting in the 1990s, the majority of children with 21OHD are reaching adulthood, which has yielded a cohort of patients with, in essence, a new disease. Only recently have some data emerged from cohorts of adults with 21OHD, and in some centers, experience with the management of these patients is growing. These patients suffer from poor health, infertility, characteristic tumors in the adrenal glands and gonads, and consequences of chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Their care is fragmented and inconsistent, and many stop taking their medications out of frustration. Internal medicine residents and endocrinology fellows receive little training in their care, which further discourages their seeking medical attention. Adults with 21OHD have a different physiology from patients with Addison's disease or other androgen excess states, and their needs are different than those of young children with 21OHD. Consequently, their care requires unorthodox treatment and monitoring strategies foreign to most endocrine practitioners. Our goal for this article is to review their physiology, complications, and needs in order to develop rational and effective treatment and monitoring strategies. PMID:23837188

  3. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  4. An Exploration of Female Travellers' Experiences of Guidance Counselling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Anne; Hearne, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The proposed changes in the further education sector, including the rationalisation of the VEC into Local Education and Training Boards (LETBs) and the closures of the Senior Traveller Training Centres (STTCs), have implications for guidance counselling provision to the Traveller community. This article discusses female Travellers' experiences of…

  5. Effectiveness of an intervention promoting the female condom to patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Artz, L; Macaluso, M; Brill, I; Kelaghan, J; Austin, H; Fleenor, M; Robey, L; Hook, E W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and reduce unprotected sex among women at high risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: The effect of the intervention on barrier use was evaluated with a pretest-posttest design with 1159 female STD clinic patients. RESULTS: Among participants with follow-up data, 79% used the female condom at least once and often multiple times. More than one third of those who completed the study used female condoms throughout follow-up. Use of barrier protection increased significantly after the intervention, and high use was maintained during a 6-month follow-up. To account for attrition, the use of protection by all subjects was projected under 3 conservative assumptions. The initial visit and termination visit projections suggest that use increased sharply after the intervention and declined during follow-up but remained elevated compared with the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Many clients of public STD clinics will try, and some will continue, to use female condoms when they are promoted positively and when women are trained to use them correctly and to promote them to their partners. A behavioral intervention that promotes both female and male condoms can increase barrier use. PMID:10667185

  6. Arrhythmias in Adult Congenital Patients With Bodily Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Gupta, Navdeep; Buelow, Matthew; Alla, Venkata; Arora, Rohit R; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-02-01

    There are an increasing number of adults with congenital heart disease, some of whom have bodily isomerism. Bodily isomerism or heterotaxy is a unique clinical entity associated with congenital malformations of the heart which further increases the risk for future cardiovascular complications. We aimed to investigate the frequency of arrhythmias in adults with bodily isomerism. We utilized the 2012 iteration of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify adult inpatient admissions associated with arrhythmias in patients with isomerism. Data regarding demographics, comorbidities, and various procedures were collected and compared between those with and without isomerism. A total of 6,907,109 admissions were analyzed with a total of 861 being associated isomerism. The frequency of arrhythmias was greater in those with isomerism (20.8 vs. 15.4 %). Those with isomerism were also more five times more likely to undergo invasive electrophysiology studies. Length and cost of hospitalization for patients with arrhythmias also tended to be greater in those with isomerism. Mortality did not differ between the two groups. Arrhythmias are more prevalent in those with isomerism, with a majority of arrhythmias in isomerism being atrial. Those with isomerism and arrhythmias also tended to have greater length and cost of hospitalization.

  7. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results. PMID:10327139

  8. Impact of maternal morphine and saline injections on behavioral responses to a cold water stressor in adult male and female progeny.

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Schindler, Cheryl J; Vathy, Ilona

    2002-04-15

    The purpose of the present study was to test the effects of maternal morphine and saline injections on chronic cold water stress responses in three groups of adult male and female rats: prenatally morphine-exposed adult progeny, prenatally saline-exposed adult progeny, and control groups. All male rats were gonadally intact, and female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) in adulthood, and half of them were injected with estradiol benzoate (EB). All animals were exposed to a cold water stressor daily for 2 weeks and tested before (baseline) and after (stress effects) the chronic cold water stressor in a swim test and an open field test. In the swim test, both adult males and OVX, EB-treated adult females born to mothers injected with morphine or saline displayed more floating behavior during the swim test than their controls, both before and after the cold water stressor. Male rats exposed to morphine or saline prenatally also spent more time struggling during the swim tests than controls, and this was further increased after the cold water stressor. In the open field test, males and OVX, EB-treated females born to morphine- or saline-injected mothers were less active and displayed fewer rearings than controls. No differences were observed in OVX females as a result of prenatal injections. Thus, the present study demonstrates that maternal injections, regardless of injection content, induce long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness in adult progeny.

  9. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  10. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-21

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  11. Flight Capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adult Females Based on Flight Mill Studies and Flight Muscle Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591

  12. Flight capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) adult females based on flight mill studies and flight muscle ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis.

  13. Iron Deficiency in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Obesity, Female Sex, and Low Serum Hepcidin

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Asma; Nelson, James E.; Aouizerat, Bradley; Yeh, Matthew M.; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Iron deficiency is often observed in obese individuals. The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is regulated by iron and cytokines IL6 and IL1β. We examine the relationship between obesity, circulating levels of hepcidin and IL6 and IL1β, and other risk factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with iron deficiency. Methods We collected data on 675 adult subjects (>18 y old) enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network. Subjects with transferrin saturation <20% were categorized as iron deficient, whereas those with transferrin saturation ≥20% were classified as iron normal. We assessed clinical, demographic, anthropometric, laboratory, dietary, and histologic data from patients, as well as serum levels of hepcidin and cytokines IL6 and IL1β. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify risk factors for iron deficiency. Results One third of patients (231/675; 34%) were iron deficient. Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were more common in subjects with iron deficiency (P<.01), compared with those that were iron normal. Serum levels of hepcidin were significantly lower in subjects with iron deficiency (61±45 vs 81±51 ng/mL; P<.0001). Iron deficiency was significantly associated with female sex, obesity, increased body mass index and waist circumference, presence of diabetes, lower alcohol consumption, Black or American Indian/Alaska Native race (P≤.018), and increased levels of IL6 and IL1β (6.6 vs 4.8 for iron normal; P≤.0001 and 0.45 vs 0.32 for iron normal; P≤.005). Conclusion Iron deficiency is prevalent in patients with NAFLD and associated with female sex, increased body mass index, and non-white race. Serum levels of hepcidin were lower in iron-deficient subjects, reflecting an appropriate physiological response to decreased circulating levels of iron, rather than a primary cause of iron deficiency in the setting of obesity and NAFLD. PMID:24269922

  14. Characteristics of and outcomes for elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction: differences between females and males

    PubMed Central

    Thang, Nguyen Dang; Karlson, Björn Wilgot; Karlsson, Thomas; Herlitz, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study analyzed age-adjusted sex differences among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients aged 75 years and above with regard to 7-year mortality (primary end point) and the frequency of angiograms and admission to the coronary care unit (CCU) as well as 1-year mortality (secondary end points). Methods A retrospective cohort study comprised 1,414 AMI patients (748 females and 666 males) aged at least 75 years, who were admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden, during two periods (2001/2002 and 2007). All comparisons between female and male patients were age adjusted. Results Females were older and their previous history included fewer AMIs, coronary artery bypass grafting procedures, and renal diseases, but more frequent incidence of hypertension. On the contrary, males had higher age-adjusted 7-year mortality in relation to females (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16 with corresponding 95% confidence interval [95% CI 1.03, 1.31], P=0.02). Admission to the CCU was more frequent among males than females (odds ratio [OR] 1.38 [95% CI 1.11, 1.72], P=0.004). There was a nonsignificant trend toward more coronary angiographies performed among males (OR 1.34 [95% CI 1.00, 1.79], P=0.05), as well as a nonsignificant trend toward higher 1-year mortality (HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.99, 1.39], P=0.06). Conclusion In an AMI population aged 75 years and above, males had higher age-adjusted 7-year mortality and higher rate of admission to the CCU than females. One-year mortality did not differ significantly between the sexes, nor did the frequency of performed coronary angiograms. PMID:27703339

  15. Schistosoma mansoni Egg, Adult Male and Female Comparative Gene Expression Analysis and Identification of Novel Genes by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Letícia; Amaral, Murilo S.; Beckedorff, Felipe; Silva, Lucas F.; Dazzani, Bianca; Oliveira, Katia C.; Almeida, Giulliana T.; Gomes, Monete R.; Pires, David S.; Setubal, João C.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is a public health problem. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread species responsible for schistosomiasis in the Americas, Middle East and Africa. Adult female worms (mated to males) release eggs in the hepatic portal vasculature and are the principal cause of morbidity. Comparative separate transcriptomes of female and male adult worms were previously assessed with using microarrays and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), thus limiting the possibility of finding novel genes. Moreover, the egg transcriptome was analyzed only once with limited bacterially cloned cDNA libraries. Methodology/Principal findings To compare the gene expression of S. mansoni eggs, females, and males, we performed RNA-Seq on these three parasite forms using 454/Roche technology and reconstructed the transcriptome using Trinity de novo assembly. The resulting contigs were mapped to the genome and were cross-referenced with predicted Smp genes and H3K4me3 ChIP-Seq public data. For the first time, we obtained separate, unbiased gene expression profiles for S. mansoni eggs and female and male adult worms, identifying enriched biological processes and specific enriched functions for each of the three parasite forms. Transcripts with no match to predicted genes were analyzed for their protein-coding potential and the presence of an encoded conserved protein domain. A set of 232 novel protein-coding genes with putative functions related to reproduction, metabolism, and cell biogenesis was detected, which contributes to the understanding of parasite biology. Conclusions/Significance Large-scale RNA-Seq analysis using de novo assembly associated with genome-wide information for histone marks in the vicinity of gene models constitutes a new approach to transcriptome analysis that has not yet been explored in schistosomes. Importantly, all data have been consolidated into a UCSC Genome Browser search

  16. Amelogenesis imperfecta - lifelong management. Restorative management of the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; McDonnell, S T; Iram, S; Chan, M F W-Y

    2013-11-01

    The biggest challenge restorative dentists face in rehabilitating patients with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is trying to restore aesthetics, function and occlusal stability while keeping the treatment as conservative as possible. The goals of treatment should be to prolong the life of the patient's own teeth and avoid or delay the need for extractions and subsequent replacement with conventional fixed, removable or implant retained prostheses. In order to achieve these goals a stepwise approach to treatment planning is required starting with the most conservative but aesthetically acceptable treatment. This article discusses the management of AI and presents the various treatment options available for restoring the adult patient who presents to the dentist with AI. PMID:24201615

  17. Correlation between female sex and allergy was significant in patients presenting with dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Lauriello, M; Angelone, A M; Businco, L Di Rienzo; Passali, D; Bellussi, L M; Passali, F M

    2011-06-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of allergy in patients affected by both organic and/or functional vocal fold disorders. The secondary aim was to assess the correlation between sex and allergy in dysphonic patients. A retrospective chart review was performed on dysphonic patients. A total of 76 patients underwent fiberoptic endoscopy to assess the objective picture. Logistic regression analyses have been conducted to assess the association between sex and the outcome variables. The laryngoscopic examination revealed the presence of poor glottic closure in 32.9%, hyperkinesias in 11.8%, redness in 11.84%, polyps in 5.3%, oedema in 3.95%, vocal fold hypertrophy in 5.3%, nodules in 42.1%, cordectomy in 2.6%. Allergic rhinitis was present in 56.6%, milk intolerance in 13.2%, asthma in 9.2%, atopic dermatitis in 3.9%, drugs intolerance in 11.8%. A total of 76.32% patients presenting with dysphonia were allergic. A statistically significant association was found between female sex and presence of allergy. In conclusion, allergy testing should be performed routinely on female professional voice users. Mild respiratory disorders must be taken into serious consideration in female professional voice users, who may primarily complain of vocal dysfunction rather than upper and lower respiratory diseases.

  18. Resiliency Determinants and Resiliency Processes among Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogar, Christine B.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard,…

  19. Exploring the Experiences of Female Emerging Adult Mentors: Building a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Julianne; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Sollie, Donna L.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    While mentoring programs are prevalent, limited research focused on the mentors' experiences exist, particularly during critical periods of development. Using a qualitative, grounded theory approach, this study explores the elements of the mentoring experience for a cohort of late adolescent/emerging adult women in a long-term program. Outcomes…

  20. Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Male and Female Young Adults: 1990 versus 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Laura; Nicodemus, Teresa; Pomante, Michael; Binasiewicz, Megan; Dheer, Rahul; Dugan, Amy; Madaras, Janice; Chambliss, Catherine

    The increase in maternal employment has affected society and children. Indications are that the increased numbers of working mothers had impacted the size of families and the birth intervals within them. In addition, as children experience life with a working mother, personal constructs of adult roles and attitudes towards maternal employment can…

  1. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  2. [Symptom portrayal and initial therapeutic relationship of female and male patients in the initial psychoanalytic interview].

    PubMed

    Grande, T; Wilke, S; Nübling, R

    1992-01-01

    The transcripts of psychoanalytic initial interviews are analyzed in using the "Structural Analysis of Social Behavior" (SASB) by L. S. Benjamin. This instrument was chosen to detect how male and female patients talk about their symptoms, and about previous treatments. The immediate interaction with the interviewer during the dialogue was also described by using SASB. On the basis of only the first patients' utterances after the initial request of the therapists (like "What brings you here?") we can distinguish female and male patients by the quality of the relations described (to the symptoms, the previous physicians, and to the therapist). The sex-specific readiness to establish relationships which becomes apparent in these descriptions can be related to the interview situation itself. In our further argumentation we interpret them as subtle messages to the interviewer. Finally we discuss their inherent potentials and risks for the psychotherapeutic cooperation. PMID:1561845

  3. Common reasons for hospitalization among adult patients with diabetes in a private medical college in Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P; Pathak, U N; Subedi, N

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is one of the important non communicable disease affecting the adult populations around the world. Incidence of diabetes increasing in South Asia. Nepal is also experiencing increasing in diabetes disease burden. Diabetes mellitus is one of the important causes of hospital admission in the western world. In this study we evaluated the causes of hospital admission amongst diabetic population. Most common cause is of diagnosis is some forms of infections commonest (20%) being urinary tract infections. Ten out of total 69 patients had septicemia. Six patients out of 69 had sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis only one patient presented with metabolic complications of diabetes i.e. diabetic ketoacidosis. Coronary artery disease with heart failure was present in 14 patients. Five patients had diabetic nephropathy and 3 had retinopathy. This shows that infections is the major cause of hospital admission for diabetics followed by heart failure. Tuberculosis is important diagnosis in person with diabetes. This study shows more female patients get admitted and amongst admitted patents glycemic control is poor. This signify that women had more complications than male counter parts. PMID:24579542

  4. Three-dimensional nasal morphology in cleft lip and palate operated adult patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Vizzotto, Laura; Carù, Armando

    2003-10-01

    Nasal morphology was assessed three-dimensionally in 18 cleft lip and palate operated patients aged 19 to 27 years, and in 161 sex- and age-matched control subjects. Comparisons were performed by Student t and Watson-Williams' tests. No differences were found in nasal volume or surface. Nasal width, alar base width, and inferior width of the nostrils were significantly larger in male patients than in the reference men. The nasal bridge was shorter. Similar differences were found in the female patients. In addition, the right nostril was larger and the nasal height shorter. In men, the nasolabial and the nasal tip angles were smaller in the patients than in the reference subjects, whereas the facial convexity angle was larger in the patients. In conclusion, the nose of adult operated cleft lip and palate patients differed from that of normal control subjects. Surgical corrections of the cleft lip and palate failed to provide a completely normal appearance. The methods might be used to indicate where additional procedures might be performed to approximate a reference population.

  5. Hypoalbuminaemia predicts outcome in adult patients with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Kempny, Aleksander; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Uebing, Anselm; Rafiq, Isma; Li, Wei; Swan, Lorna; Hooper, James; Donovan, Jackie; Wort, Stephen J; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with acquired heart failure, hypoalbuminaemia is associated with increased risk of death. The prevalence of hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia and their relation to outcome in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) remains, however, unknown. Methods Data on patients with ACHD who underwent blood testing in our centre within the last 14 years were collected. The relation between laboratory, clinical or demographic parameters at baseline and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results A total of 2886 patients with ACHD were included. Mean age was 33.3 years (23.6–44.7) and 50.1% patients were men. Median plasma albumin concentration was 41.0 g/L (38.0–44.0), whereas hypoalbuminaemia (<35 g/L) was present in 13.9% of patients. The prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia was significantly higher in patients with great complexity ACHD (18.2%) compared with patients with moderate (11.3%) or simple ACHD lesions (12.1%, p<0.001). During a median follow-up of 5.7 years (3.3–9.6), 327 (11.3%) patients died. On univariable Cox regression analysis, hypoalbuminaemia was a strong predictor of outcome (HR 3.37, 95% CI 2.67 to 4.25, p<0.0001). On multivariable Cox regression, after adjusting for age, sodium and creatinine concentration, liver dysfunction, functional class and disease complexity, hypoalbuminaemia remained a significant predictor of death. Conclusions Hypoalbuminaemia is common in patients with ACHD and is associated with a threefold increased risk of risk of death. Hypoalbuminaemia, therefore, should be included in risk-stratification algorithms as it may assist management decisions and timing of interventions in the growing ACHD population. PMID:25736048

  6. Assessment of fertility and reproductive toxicity in adult female mice after long-term exposure to Pueraria mirifica herb.

    PubMed

    Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Wattanasirmkit, Kingkaew; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2007-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of long-term administration of Pueraria mirifica (PM) at non-toxic doses on the ovarian function and fertility of adult female mice based on evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Female mice were divided into 4 groups (36 mice/group). Groups 1-3 were orally treated with a dose of 0 (PM-0), 10 (PM-10) or 100 mg/kg BW/day PM (PM-100), and group 4 was subcutaneously injected with 200 mug/kg BW/day of synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES). The treatment schedule was separated into treatment and post-treatment periods. The duration of each period was 8 weeks. The PM-10 mice exhibited regular estrous cycles, while the PM-100 and DES treatments induced prolonged estrous cycles. Although no changes were observed in the uterus and ovary weights of the mice after the PM-100 and DES treatments, hyperplasia of the uterine endothelium and a decrease in the number of growing ovarian follicles were detected. The changes in the ovarian histologies of the PM-100 and DES mice were related to reductions in the levels of LH and FSH, which subsequently caused a decrease in mating efficiency. Once the PM mice were able to copulate, they were capable of successfully becoming pregnant and mothering offspring. No abnormalities were observed in the external morphologies and reproductive organ weights of the 50-day-old offspring. In conclusion, our results suggest that long-term exposure to 100 mg/kg BW of PM has adverse effects on the mating efficiency and reproduction of adult female mice and that administration of 10 mg/kg BW of PM does not induce any changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-uterine axis.

  7. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".

  8. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of perinatal bisphenol A exposure during early development on radial arm maze behavior in adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Park, Pul; Neese, Steven L.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Schantz, Susan L.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) can affect anxiety behavior. However, no studies have examined whether administration of this endocrine disruptor during the perinatal period has the potential to induce alterations in cognitive behavior in both adult males and females as assessed in an appetitive task. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to different doses of BPA during early development alters performance on the 17-arm radial maze in adulthood in Long-Evans rats. Oral administration of corn oil (vehicle), 4 μg/kg, 40 μg/kg, or 400 μg/kg BPA to the dams occurred daily throughout pregnancy, and the pups received direct oral administration of BPA between postnatal days 1-9. Blood was collected from offspring at weaning age to determine levels of several hormones (thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone). One male and one female from each litter were evaluated on the 17-arm radial maze, a working/reference memory task, in adulthood. Results indicated that after exposure to BPA at both 4 and 400 μg/kg/day, rats of both sexes had decreased levels of FSH at weaning. There were no significant effects of BPA on performance on the radial arm maze in males or females. In conclusion, exposure to BPA during early development had modest effects on circulating hormones but did not affect a spatial learning and memory task. PMID:24440629

  10. Oral Spironolactone in Post-teenage Female Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    Oral spironolactone has been used for over two decades in the dermatological setting. Although it is not generally considered a primary option in the management of female patients with acne vulgaris, the increase in office visits by post-teenage women with acne vulgaris has recently placed a spotlight on the use of this agent in this subgroup of patients. This article reviews the literature focusing on the use of oral spironolactone in this subset of women with acne vulgaris, including discussions of the recommended starting dose, expected response time, adjustments in therapy, potential adverse effects, and patient monitoring. PMID:22468178

  11. [Clinical case report of a female patient with type IV takayasu arteritis].

    PubMed

    Suiumov, A S

    2016-01-01

    Described in the article is a case report concerning a female patient presenting with aortic valve insufficiency, lesions of the pulmonary artery, aortic arch branches, visceral and renal arteries, aneurysm of the whole aorta on the background of nonspecific aortoarteritis (NAA). Lesions of the pulmonary artery, aorta and its branches were diagnosed by means of MSCT angiography, which is the most informative method of study in this cohort of patients, making it possible to accurately diagnose both the degree of the lesion and its extent, as well as to carry out dynamic follow up of patients. PMID:27626265

  12. Description of female nymphal instars and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) based on specimens from Crete and mainland Greece, with a discussion on geographical variation.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Francesco; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2014-10-22

    The first-instar nymph, second- and third-instar female nymphs and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated; micrographs of morphological details are also provided. The species was collected on the island of Crete (Greece) and on mainland Greece, new localities for this species, and are compared with Israeli specimens from where it was originally described.

  13. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

  14. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species. PMID:24292399

  15. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure in rats: Evidence for cognitive deficits in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Fountain, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats would impair the cognitive capacity of a subsequent generation. Male and female rats in the parental F0 generation were given twice-daily i.p. injections of either 1.0mg/kg nicotine or an equivalent volume of saline for 35days during adolescence on postnatal days 25-59 (P25-59). After reaching adulthood, male and female nicotine-exposed rats were paired for breeding as were male and female saline control rats. Only female offspring were used in this experiment. Half of the offspring of F0 nicotine-exposed breeders and half of the offspring of F0 saline control rats received twice-daily i.p. injections of 1.0mg/kg nicotine during adolescence on P25-59. The remainder of the rats received twice-daily saline injections for the same period. To evaluate transgenerational effects of nicotine exposure on complex cognitive learning abilities, F1 generation rats were trained to perform a highly structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Beginning on P95, rats in the F1 generation were given either 4days of massed training (20patterns/day) followed by spaced training (10 patterns/day) or only spaced training. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure were observed as greater difficulty in learning a "violation element" of the pattern, which indicated that rats were impaired in the ability to encode and remember multiple sequential elements as compound or configural cues. The results indicated that for rats that received massed training, F1 generation rats with adolescent nicotine exposure whose F0 generation parents also experienced adolescent nicotine exposure showed poorer learning of the violation element than rats that experienced adolescent nicotine exposure only in the F1 generation. Thus, adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats produced a cognitive impairment in the next generation.

  16. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  17. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Mair, Jacqueline L; Nevill, Alan M; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  18. Updates in vaccination: Recommendations for adult inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudrey, Khadija; Salvaggio, Michelle; Ahmed, Aftab; Mahmood, Sultan; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimens for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incorporate the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents that increase the risk of infections. Prevention of many of these infections can be achieved by the timely and judicious use of vaccinations. IBD patients tend to be under-immunized. Some of the contributing factors are lack of awareness regarding the significance of vaccinating IBD patients, misperception about safety of vaccinations in immunocompromised patients, ambiguity about the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in contrast to the primary care physician and unavailability of vaccination guidelines focused on IBD population. In general, immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination recommendations. However there are special considerations for IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, IBD travelers and pregnant women with IBD. This review discusses current vaccination recommendations with updates for adult IBD patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 vaccination guidelines with 2014 updates and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations have been highlighted as a primary source of recommendations. PMID:25805924

  19. Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

  20. De novo SHANK3 mutation causes Rett syndrome-like phenotype in a female patient.

    PubMed

    Hara, Munetsugu; Ohba, Chihiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder predominantly affecting females. Females with the MECP2 mutations exhibit a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from classical Rett syndrome to asymptomatic carriers. Mutations of genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) are also found in early onset RTT variants. Here, we present the first report of a female patient with RTT-like phenotype caused by SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankylin repeat domain 3) mutation, indicating that the clinical spectrum of SHANK3 mutations may extend to RTT-like phenotype in addition to (severe) developmental delay, absence of expressive speech, autistic behaviors and intellectual disability.

  1. Association between estrogen receptor polymorphism and pain susceptibility in female temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, S-C; Lee, D-G; Choi, J-H; Kim, S T; Kim, Y-K; Ahn, H-J

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association between estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) polymorphism and pain susceptibility in female symptomatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) patients. A patient group of 100 women, diagnosed as TMJ OA according to the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders, were selected, and 74 women with no signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder were assigned to a control group. Pvu II and Xba I restriction fragment length polymorphisms were analyzed by direct haplotyping. The patient group was divided into three subgroups according to a visual analog scale (VAS): mild pain (0patient and control groups were compared, and the association between pain intensity and copy numbers of PX haplotype were evaluated using the chi-square test. No significant differences in genotype and haplotype frequencies were observed between the patient and control groups (p>.05). TMJ OA patients carrying the PX haplotype were found to have a significantly higher risk of moderate or severe pain compared to those without the PX haplotype, suggesting that ERalpha polymorphism may be associated with pain susceptibility in female TMJ OA patients. PMID:17391927

  2. Competencies for the Nurse Practitioner Working with Adult Urology Patients.

    PubMed

    Quallich, Susanne A; Bumpus, Sherry M; Lajiness, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The role of the nurse practitioner (NP) has expanded into specialty domains. This document proposes 24 competencies specific to the urology NP, which are also consistent with the recommendations of National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) and compliment the American Urologic Association (AUA) 2014 white paper on the incorporation of advanced practice providers in urology practices. It describes three levels of practice and experience progression for the urology NP working with adult patients, independent of specific clinical setting. These urology-specific competencies supplement and complement the core competencies and population-focused competencies of generalist nurse practitioners.

  3. Pediatric Patient Blood Management Programs: Not Just Transfusing Little Adults.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchika; Cushing, Melissa M; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell transfusions are a common life-saving intervention for neonates and children with anemia, but transfusion decisions, indications, and doses in neonates and children are different from those of adults. Patient blood management (PBM) programs are designed to assist clinicians with appropriately transfusing patients. Although PBM programs are well recognized and appreciated in the adult setting, they are quite far from standard of care in the pediatric patient population. Adult PBM standards cannot be uniformly applied to children, and there currently is significant variation in transfusion practices. Because transfusing unnecessarily can expose children to increased risk without benefit, it is important to design PBM programs to standardize transfusion decisions. This article assesses the key elements necessary for a successful pediatric PBM program, systematically explores various possible pediatric specific blood conservation strategies and the current available literature supporting them, and outlines the gaps in the evidence suggesting need for further/improved research. Pediatric PBM programs are critically important initiatives that not only involve a cooperative effort between pediatric surgery, anesthesia, perfusion, critical care, and transfusion medicine services but also need operational support from administration, clinical leadership, finance, and the hospital information technology personnel. These programs also expand the scope for high-quality collaborative research. A key component of pediatric PBM programs is monitoring pediatric blood utilization and assessing adherence to transfusion guidelines. Data suggest that restrictive transfusion strategies should be used for neonates and children similar to adults, but further research is needed to assess the best oxygenation requirements, hemoglobin threshold, and transfusion strategy for patients with active bleeding, hemodynamic instability, unstable cardiac disease, and cyanotic cardiac

  4. Salmonella typhimurium meningitis in an adult patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Swe, K Swe; Nagel, G; Van der Westhuizen, M; Hoosen, A A

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella meningitis is an unusual complication of Salmonella sepsis and occurs mainly in children. A rare case of Salmonella typhimurium meningitis occurring in an adult HIV positive man who presented with a history of fever and diarrhoea is reported. On examination he was dehydrated, and had oral thrush, weakness of lower limbs and neck stiffness. A septic diagnostic screen was performed and he was commenced on empiric intravenous cefotaxime therapy for meningitis. S typhimurium was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture specimens. It was non-lactose fermenting, oxidase negative, H(2)S positive and motile. Cefotaxime was continued for 14 days and the patient responded without neurological sequelae. PMID:17158637

  5. Care of the adult patient with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ross, Whitney Trotter; Olsen, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome have an increased risk for many conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, infections, and osteoporosis, and endocrine, neurological, orthopedic, auditory, and ophthalmic disorders. They also are at increased risk for abuse and human rights violations and receive fewer screenings and interventions than the population without Down syndrome. In this literature review, the most common health conditions associated with Down syndrome are examined, along with the topics of sexual abuse, menstrual hygiene, contraception, and human rights. Clinical guidelines for this population are summarized in an effort to assist practicing physicians in improving their provision of health care to the adult patient with Down syndrome.

  6. Pediatric Patient Blood Management Programs: Not Just Transfusing Little Adults.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchika; Cushing, Melissa M; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell transfusions are a common life-saving intervention for neonates and children with anemia, but transfusion decisions, indications, and doses in neonates and children are different from those of adults. Patient blood management (PBM) programs are designed to assist clinicians with appropriately transfusing patients. Although PBM programs are well recognized and appreciated in the adult setting, they are quite far from standard of care in the pediatric patient population. Adult PBM standards cannot be uniformly applied to children, and there currently is significant variation in transfusion practices. Because transfusing unnecessarily can expose children to increased risk without benefit, it is important to design PBM programs to standardize transfusion decisions. This article assesses the key elements necessary for a successful pediatric PBM program, systematically explores various possible pediatric specific blood conservation strategies and the current available literature supporting them, and outlines the gaps in the evidence suggesting need for further/improved research. Pediatric PBM programs are critically important initiatives that not only involve a cooperative effort between pediatric surgery, anesthesia, perfusion, critical care, and transfusion medicine services but also need operational support from administration, clinical leadership, finance, and the hospital information technology personnel. These programs also expand the scope for high-quality collaborative research. A key component of pediatric PBM programs is monitoring pediatric blood utilization and assessing adherence to transfusion guidelines. Data suggest that restrictive transfusion strategies should be used for neonates and children similar to adults, but further research is needed to assess the best oxygenation requirements, hemoglobin threshold, and transfusion strategy for patients with active bleeding, hemodynamic instability, unstable cardiac disease, and cyanotic cardiac

  7. Factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farid; Rehman, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad S.; Bari, Muhammad E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion remains the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus despite a high rate of complications. The predictors of shunt malfunction have been studied mostly in pediatric patients. In this study, we report our 11-year experience with VP shunts in adult patients with hydrocephalus. We also assess the various factors affecting shunt survival in a developing country setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for all adult patients who had undergone shunt placement between the years 2001 and 2011. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to determine the duration from shunt placement to first malfunction and log-rank (Cox–Mantel) tests were used to determine the factors affecting shunt survival. Results: A total of 227 patients aged 18–85 years (mean: 45.8 years) were included in the study. The top four etiologies of hydrocephalus included post-cranial surgery (23.3%), brain tumor or cyst (22.9%), normal pressure hydrocephalus (15%), and intracranial hemorrhage (13.7%). The overall incidence of shunt malfunction was 15.4% with the median time to first shunt failure being 120 days. Etiology of hydrocephalus (P = 0.030) had a significant association with the development of shunt malfunction. Early shunt failure was associated with age (P < 0.001), duration of hospital stay (P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 13 (P = 0.010), excision of brain tumors (P = 0.008), and placement of extra-ventricular drains (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Patients with increased age, prolonged hospital stay, GCS score of less than 13, extra-ventricular drains in situ, or excision of brain tumors were more likely to experience early shunt malfunction. PMID:25722930

  8. Reliability and feasibility of physical fitness tests in female fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Baeza, A; Álvarez-Gallardo, I C; Segura-Jiménez, V; Castro-Piñero, J; Ruiz, J R; Delgado-Fernández, M; Aparicio, V A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability and feasibility of physical fitness tests in female fibromyalgia patients. 100 female fibromyalgia patients (aged 50.6±8.6 years) performed the following tests twice (7 days interval test-retest): chair sit and reach, back scratch, handgrip strength, arm curl, chair stand, 8 feet up and go, and 6-min walk. Significant differences between test and retest were found in the arm curl (mean difference: 1.25±2.16 repetitions, Cohen d=0.251), chair stand (0.99±1.7 repetitions, Cohen d=0.254) and 8 feet up and go (-0.38±1.09 s, Cohen d=0.111) tests. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) range from 0.92 in the arm curl test to 0.96 in the back scratch test. The feasibility of the tests (patients able to complete the test) ranged from 89% in the arm curl test to 100% in the handgrip strength test. Therefore, the reliability and feasibility of the physical fitness tests examined is acceptable for female fibromyalgia patients.

  9. Estrogen receptor gene polymorphism and craniofacial morphology in female TMJ osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, D-G; Kim, T-W; Kang, S-C; Kim, S T

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) polymorphism on the craniofacial skeleton in female patients suffering from symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The sample comprised 76 genetically unrelated Korean women diagnosed with OA by research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC-TMD). Direct haplotyping procedure was used to analyze the PvuII and XbaI RFLPs. Twelve cephalometric measurements were taken to evaluate the spatial position and dimensions of the mandible. Mann-Whitney's U-test was used to identify the potential differences in the cephalometric measurements between the subjects grouped according to their carrier status for Px haplotype. In addition, an association study was carried out using chi(2)-test to further examine the relationship between Px haplotype and the craniofacial morphology of the symptomatic OA patients. Female symptomatic TMJ OA patients carrying Px haplotype showed significantly smaller facial axis angle (P<0.05) and mandibular body length (P<0.05) than the non-carriers. The association between the presence of Px haplotype and short mandibular body length was also ascertained. This study suggests that ERa polymorphism contributes to the altered mandibular dimensions in female symptomatic TMJ OA patients. Further studies on the role of the genetic markers relevant to the craniofacial growth and adaptation are expected to broaden our understanding of determinants of the craniofacial morphology. PMID:16154319

  10. Exercise increases serum endostatin levels in female and male patients with diabetes and controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels, most notably plaques. The angiostatic parameter endostatin is able to inhibit angiogenesis in tissue as well as in plaques and therefore plays an important role in physiological and pathological neovascularisation. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences and the influence of exercise on circulating endostatin levels in patients suffering from diabetes, and control subjects. Methods In total, 42 T2DM-patients and 45 control subjects were investigated. They underwent a graded physical stress test (ergometry). Serum endostatin levels were measured in venous blood at rest and directly after reaching maximum workload. Results Females showed significantly higher endostatin levels at baseline measurements compared to men, independently of their underlying disease. In both female and male T2DM-patients endostatin levels were significantly lower compared to controls. Both groups and sexes showed a significant increase of endostatin after physical stress, whereas the extent of endostatin-increase was between 10.59-15.05%. Conclusion Middle-aged healthy female individuals as well as female T2DM-patients showed higher circulating serum endostatin levels compared to males, suggesting a hormonal influence on baseline circulating endostatin amounts. Exercise-induced increase in endostatin is also observable in patients suffering from T2DM. Concerning vascularisation, lower endostatin levels in T2DM might be advantageous. Concerning plaque stability, lower levels might be prejudicial. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01165515 PMID:24393402

  11. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  12. A Prospective Study of Depression and Anxiety in Female Fertility Preservation and Infertility Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Angela K.; Klock, Susan C.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N.; Kazer, Ralph R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prospectively assess anxiety, depression, coping, and appraisal in female fertility preservation patients compared to infertile patients. Design Prospective pre- and post-treatment survey. Setting Academic medical center. Patients 47 women with cancer (FP) and 91 age-matched infertile patients. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Depression, anxiety, coping, infertility–related stress, appraisal of treatment, and medical outcomes. Results FP patients reported more symptoms of anxiety and depression than infertile patients, but infertile patients’ symptoms worsened over time. 44% of FP and 14% of infertile patients’ scores exceeded the clinical cut-off for depression at pre-treatment. The interval between surveys and medical treatment data did not predict changes in mood symptoms. Coping strategies and infertility-related stress did not differ between groups and avoidant coping predicted higher depression and anxiety scores. Conclusion FP patients reported more anxiety and depression than infertile patients at enrollment in treatment, with more than one third of FP patients reporting clinically significant depressive symptoms. However, infertile patients’ anxiety and depressive symptoms increased across treatment. This increase was not related to time between registration for IVF and oocyte retrieval or the medical aspects of treatment. FP and infertile patients should be provided psychological consultation prior to treatment to identify mood and anxiety symptoms and to refer patients for counseling as needed to prevent worsening of symptoms. PMID:25154674

  13. An unexpected affected female patient in a classical Lesch-Nyhan family.

    PubMed

    De Gregorio, L; Nyhan, W L; Serafin, E; Chamoles, N A

    2000-03-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease is a genetic disorder of purine metabolism caused by defective activity of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), resulting from mutation in the corresponding gene on the long arm of the X chromosome (Xq26). The classical phenotype, which includes spasticity, involuntary movements, developmental disability, and self-injurious behavior, occurs exclusively in males, while heterozygous, carrier females are clinically normal. We analyzed an Argentine family in which there were male and female siblings with clinically identical classic features of Lesch-Nyhan disease. The mother and an older daughter were carriers and had normal phenotypes. We identified the HPRT mutation in the family. It is a C --> T transition at position 508 of the cDNA (c.508 C --> T) that changes the CGA codon for Arg(169) to the TGA stop codon (R169X). The female patient was karyotypically normal and heterozygous for the mutation. She inherited the HPRT mutation from her mother, but she also had unexpected nonrandom inactivation of the paternal X chromosome carrying the normal HPRT gene. This additional genetic alteration is the cause of the clinical expression of disease in this female patient.

  14. FISH analysis of a subtle familial Xp deletion in a female patient with Madelung deformity

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, T.Y.; Gibson, L.H.; Pober, B.R.

    1994-09-01

    A subtle deletion of Xp [del(X)(p22.32)]was identified by high-resolution chromosome analysis in a twelve-year-old female with short stature (<2 percentile) and Madelung deformity suggestive of Turner syndrome. The proband`s mother, who has short stature (<2 percentile) and demyelinating disorder, also showed this deletion. The maternal grandmother is of normal height and carries two normal X chromosomes. Both the patient and her mother have no other physical abnormalities and are of normal intelligence. To confirm and delineate this Xp deletion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on metaphases from the patient and her mother using probes of DXYS20 (a pseudoautosomal locus), DXS232A, and a newly isolated Xp YAC clone, YHX2, whose relative map position is unknown. Hybridization signals of DXS232A were detected on both X chromosomes, and DXYS20 and YHX2 were missing from one of the X`s of both the patient and her mother. YHX2 was thus placed distal to DXS232A (tel-DXYS20-YHX2-S232A-cen). This familial deletion with a breakpoint distal to DXS232A, which is located at -900 Kb telomeric to STS locus, appears to be the smallest Xp deletion reported thus far. Short stature is consistently associated with females carrying Xp deletions. Madelung deformity has been found in some patients with Turner syndrome or Dyschondrosteosis but it has not been reported in patients with Xp deletion. Our results suggest that the phenotype of our patient is associated with her chromosome abnormality. Due to the subtlety of the deletion identified in our patient and her mother, females presenting with short stature warrant careful clinical and cytogenetic evaluation.

  15. Successful pregnancy and delivery in a patient with adult GH deficiency: role of GH replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Satoko; Wakasugi, Takanobu; Yagi, Kunimasa; Ohnishi, Akitsu; Ito, Naoko; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is a recently recognized endocrine disorder characterized by low peak GH levels during provocative tests. The AGHD has a negative impact on bone mineral density, skeletal muscle strength, physical capacity and psychosocial well-being. Furthermore, the girls with GHD have delayed pubertal development, and in adulthood present a condition of subfertility. Treatment for AGHD with GH replacement therapy has been officially approved since 2006 in Japan. The patient was diagnosed as pituitary dwarfism at age 9. She was treated with GH replacement therapy since diagnosis until her height reached 155cm at age 15. When she was 24 years old, she suffered from clinical symptoms relating to GH deficiency, and she visited our hospital for reintroduction of the therapy to alleviate these clinical symptoms. She has been treated with the replacement therapy since then. The patient's dysmenorrhea improved. And she was found to be 8 weeks pregnant at age 28 years 7 months. We immediately ceased replacement therapy and carefully observed the patient, because it is not indicated for female patient with pregnancy. She delivered a healthy girl at 40 weeks of pregnancy, no recognizable side-effects were observed in either mother or baby. To our knowledge, there are no other reports of a Japanese patient becoming pregnant during GH replacement therapy, and few cases have been reported in other countries. It remains uncertain whether the therapy is safe and essential for fetal development, fertility, and continuation of pregnancy in AGHD subjects.

  16. [Affective facial behavior of patients with anxiety disorders during the adult attachment interview: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; Benecke, Cord

    2007-08-01

    In this study we examined for the first time the difference between patients with an anxiety disorder and healthy controls in their attachment representation and facial affective behavior during the activation of the attachment system. 13 female patients und 14 healthy women were administered with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Facial affective behavior during 6 selected questions of the AAI was coded using the Emotional-Facial-Action-Coding-System (EMFACS). As expected patients with an anxiety disorder, especially panic disorders, were classified significantly more often as insecure-preoccupied with a high proportion of unresolved loss. Against our assumption anxiety patients, independent of their attachment category, did not differ in their facial affective behavior from the control group. A group comparison taking into account diagnosis and attachment status showed that duchenne smile (happiness) was significantly predominant in control subjects classified as secure. Attachment security in healthy subjects, characterized by an overall valuing of positive or negative attachment experiences and coherent discourse in the AAI, was associated with positive facial affectivity. In contrast insecure anxiety patients could be characterized by showing social smile when talking e. g. about former separation experiences from their attachment figures mostly in an incoherent manner. This could be interpreted as a self-regulating defense. Limitations of the study are the small sample size and the heterogeneous clinical group of anxiety disorders.

  17. A comprehensive Fabry-related pain questionnaire for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Magg, Barbara; Thomas, Phillip; Wiedmann, Silke; Heuschmann, Peter; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Pain may be the earliest symptom in Fabry disease and presents with a distinct phenotype including triggerable pain attacks, evoked pain, pain crises, and chronic pain. Current pain questionnaires do not reflect the special phenotype of Fabry disease-associated pain, which hampers its systematic evaluation as the basis of correct diagnosis and effective treatment. A questionnaire specifically designed to assess Fabry disease-associated pain is thus urgently needed. At the Würzburg Fabry Center for Interdisciplinary Therapy (FAZIT), Germany, we developed and validated the first face-to-face Fabry Pain Questionnaire (FPQ) for adult patients. The initial version of the FPQ was tested in a pilot study with 20 consecutive Fabry disease patients. The performance of the revised FPQ was assessed in a first (n=56) and second (n=20) validation phase in consecutive Fabry disease patients. For this, patients were interviewed at baseline and 2 weeks later. We determined the test-retest reliability and validity of the FPQ in comparison to data obtained with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. The FPQ contains 15 questions on the 4 pain phenotypes of Fabry disease (pain attacks, pain crises, evoked pain, chronic pain) in childhood and adulthood, on pain development during life with and without enzyme replacement therapy, and on everyday life impairment due to pain. This first disease-specific questionnaire is a valuable tool for baseline and follow-up assessment of pain in Fabry disease patients and may guide treatment in this distinct pain phenotype.

  18. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult. PMID:27578936

  19. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult. PMID:27578936

  20. Drugs in oral surgery. Brief guidelines for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Grassi, R F; Pappalardo, S; De Benedittis, M; Petruzzi, M; Giannetti, L; Cappello, V; Baglio, O A

    2004-06-01

    Drugs administrable in oral surgery for adult patients are antiseptics-antibiotics, antiinflammatory-analgesics and sedative-hypnotics. Such drugs can be administered before, during or after oral surgery. Sedative-hypnotics can be administered before or during oral surgery in order to control the patient's anxiety. Anti-inflammatory-analgesics, on the other hand, can be administered before or after oral surgery to lower edema and pain. For this purpose, FANS are the most commonly used drugs but, in more traumatic oral surgery, the administration of a single pre-surgery dose of corticosteroids is suitable. As regards, antibiotics have to be given from 15 min to 1 h before oral surgery and continued or otherwise for 24-48 h depending on the dosage. post-surgery infection onset, in fact, is higher within 3 h after oral surgery.

  1. MRI Assessment of Lean and Adipose Tissue Distribution in Female Patients with Cushing’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei; Gallagher, Dympna; Punyanitya, Mark; Looker, Helen C.; Post, Kalmon D.; Freda, Pamela U.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Chronic hypercortisolemia due to Cushing’s Disease (CD) results in abnormal adipose tissue (AT) distribution. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to examine lean and AT distribution in female patients with CD to further understand the role of glucocorticoid excess in the development of abnormal AT distribution and obesity. Design Cross-sectional and case control study. Patients 15 females with CD and 12 healthy controls. Measurements Mass of skeletal muscle (SM) and AT in the visceral (VAT), subcutaneous (SAT), and inter-muscular (IMAT) compartments from whole-body MRI and serum levels of insulin, glucose, and leptin were measured. Results CD patients had leptin values that correlated to total AT (TAT) and SAT (p < 0.05) but not to VAT. CD patients had higher VAT/TAT ratios (p < 0.01) and lower SAT/TAT ratios (p < 0.05) compared to controls. TAT, VAT, and trunk SAT (TrSAT) were greater in CD patients (p < 0.01). SM was less in CD (p < 0.001) but IMAT was not different. Conclusions TAT, VAT, trSAT, and the proportion of AT in the visceral depot were greater in CD, though the proportion in the subcutaneous depot was less. SM was less but IMAT was not different. These findings have implications for understanding the role of cortisol in the abnormal AT distribution and metabolic risk seen in patients exposed to chronic excess glucocorticoids. PMID:20550536

  2. Late-onset epileptic spasms in a female patient with a CASK mutation.

    PubMed

    Nakajiri, Tomoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Oka, Makio; Miya, Fuyuki; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2015-10-01

    We report a female patient with late-onset epileptic spasms (ESs) of a rare form, distinct from those seen in typical West syndrome, in association with a heterozygous frameshift CASK mutation (c.1896dupC (p.C633fs(∗)2)). She has a phenotype of microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), and has had intractable ESs in clusters since 3 years 8 months of age with multifocal, particularly bifrontal, epileptic discharges in electroencephalogram. The available literature on patients with both ESs and CASK mutations has been reviewed, revealing that four of the five female children, including the present girl, had late-onset ESs, in contrast to the four males, who tended toward early-onset ESs.

  3. Prolactin levels and autoantibodies in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kozáková, D; Rovenský, J; Cebecauer, L; Bosák, V; Jahnová, E; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between prolactin (PRL) levels and antibody occurrence in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No significant association between PRL levels and the majority of the autoantibodies studied (anti-U1 RNP, anti-rRNP, anti-Sm, anti-dsDNA, anti-DNP, auto-LCA, anti-EACA) could be confirmed (P > 0.05), anti-Ro/SSA antibodies being an exception. Our results showed significantly increased frequencies of these antibodies in the group of female SLE patients with normal PRL levels (< 20 micrograms/L): anti Ro/SSA in 53% (P < 0.025, chi 2 = 5.80, RR = 4.0) and anti-Ro/SSA + anti-Ro/La in 60% (P < 0.05, chi 2 = 4.05) compared with female SLE patients with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:11155810

  4. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S3 and S4, respectively). In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively). There was no significant difference between 46 XX DSD patients and 46 XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the seven findings. Two patients requested gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.

  5. Prior swimming exercise favors muscle recovery in adult female rats after joint immobilization.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Ana Claudia; Ramos, Douglas Massoni; Gomes de Oliveira, Luana; Alberto da Silva, Carlos; Pertille, Adriana

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise on immobilization and subsequent recovery of white gastrocnemius (WG) and soleus (SOL) muscles of female rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty, 8-month-old, female Wistar rats were randomly and evenly allocated to six groups: sedentary (S); immobilized sedentary (IS); immobilized/rehabilitated sedentary (IRS); trained (T); immobilized trained (IT); and immobilized/rehabilitated trained (IRT). For four months, T, IT and IRT group animals performed swimming exercise (three sessions per week, 60 minutes per session), while S, IS and IRS groups animals remained housed in cages. After this period, the left hindlimb of the animals from the IS, IRS, IT and IRT groups was immobilized for five days, with the ankle at 90°. After removal of the orthosis, animals from the IRS and IRT groups followed a rehabilitation program based on swimming (five sessions per week, 60 minutes per session) for two weeks. [Results] Immobilization significantly reduced the cross-sectional area of the white gastrocnemius muscle; no changes were observed in the soleus muscles of the trained animals. Transforming growth factor-β1 protein levels were similar among the trained groups. [Conclusion] Prior swimming prevents hypotrophy of the soleus muscle after immobilization, and protein levels reflected the adaptive capacity of the skeletal muscle. PMID:27512267

  6. Prior swimming exercise favors muscle recovery in adult female rats after joint immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Ana Claudia; Ramos, Douglas Massoni; Gomes de Oliveira, Luana; Alberto da Silva, Carlos; Pertille, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise on immobilization and subsequent recovery of white gastrocnemius (WG) and soleus (SOL) muscles of female rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty, 8-month-old, female Wistar rats were randomly and evenly allocated to six groups: sedentary (S); immobilized sedentary (IS); immobilized/rehabilitated sedentary (IRS); trained (T); immobilized trained (IT); and immobilized/rehabilitated trained (IRT). For four months, T, IT and IRT group animals performed swimming exercise (three sessions per week, 60 minutes per session), while S, IS and IRS groups animals remained housed in cages. After this period, the left hindlimb of the animals from the IS, IRS, IT and IRT groups was immobilized for five days, with the ankle at 90°. After removal of the orthosis, animals from the IRS and IRT groups followed a rehabilitation program based on swimming (five sessions per week, 60 minutes per session) for two weeks. [Results] Immobilization significantly reduced the cross-sectional area of the white gastrocnemius muscle; no changes were observed in the soleus muscles of the trained animals. Transforming growth factor-β1 protein levels were similar among the trained groups. [Conclusion] Prior swimming prevents hypotrophy of the soleus muscle after immobilization, and protein levels reflected the adaptive capacity of the skeletal muscle. PMID:27512267

  7. Effects of neonatal handling on the basal forebrain cholinergic system of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Pondiki, S; Stamatakis, A; Fragkouli, A; Philippidis, H; Stylianopoulou, F

    2006-10-13

    Neonatal handling is an early experience which results in improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increased adaptability and coping as a response to stress, as well as better cognitive abilities. In the present study, we investigated the effect of neonatal handling on the basal forebrain cholinergic system, since this system is known to play an important role in cognitive processes. We report that neonatal handling results in increased number of choline-acetyl transferase immunopositive cells in the septum/diagonal band, in both sexes, while no such effect was observed in the other cholinergic nuclei, such as the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, neonatal handling resulted in increased M1 and M2 muscarinic receptor binding sites in the cingulate and piriform cortex of both male and female rats. A handling-induced increase in M1 muscarinic receptor binding sites was also observed in the CA3 and CA4 (fields 3 and 4 of Ammon's horn) areas of the hippocampus. Furthermore, a handling-induced increase in acetylcholinesterase staining was found only in the hippocampus of females. Our results thus show that neonatal handling acts in a sexually dimorphic manner on one of the cholinergic parameters, and has a beneficial effect on BFCS function, which could be related to the more efficient and adaptive stress response and the superior cognitive abilities of handled animals.

  8. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient.

  9. Successful desensitization to imiglucerase of an adult patient diagnosed with type I Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Erdoğdu, Derya; Gelincik, Aslı; Canbaz, Bülent; Colakoğlu, Bahattin; Büyüköztürk, Suna; Tanakol, Refik

    2013-01-01

    Gaucher disease is the most common lysosomal storage disorder, and enzyme replacement therapy, such as administration of imiglucerase, is the standard therapy. Anaphylaxis to imiglucerase is rarely reported. Here, we report a 26-year-old female who was diagnosed with type 1 Gaucher disease and referred to our Allergy Outpatient Clinic because of an anaphylactic reaction due to imiglucerase enzyme therapy. A desensitization protocol was administered with two different dilutions with an increasing rate of administration delivered in 10 consecutive steps by intravenous infusion in an intensive care setting. No reactions occurred during the procedure, and the total final dose of 2,000 U was successfully administered. To our knowledge, this is the first adult case with successful desensitization to imiglucerase. Desensitization protocols to drugs in chronic disease patients for whom no alternative therapies are available can be lifesaving. PMID:23018845

  10. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient. PMID:27630505

  11. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient. PMID:27630505

  12. Association of Pulmonary Cysts and Nodules in a Young Female Patient.

    PubMed

    Dias, Olívia Meira; do Nascimento, Ellen Caroline Toledo; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Baldi, Bruno Guedes

    2016-06-01

    A 27-year-old female patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with a 1-year history of shortness of breath when walking fast on level ground or when climbing stairs. Symptoms worsened after a second episode of spontaneous left pneumothorax, when a chest tube was placed in another hospital for complete lung expansion. During this hospitalization, an open lung biopsy was performed. There was no history of rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, hemoptysis, wheezing, or expectoration. PMID:27287595

  13. Occurrence of epidermolysis bullosa along with Amelogenesis imperfecta in female patient of India

    PubMed Central

    Javed, A. P.; Shenai, Prashanth; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Veena, K. M.; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Prabhu, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited disorder, which is characteristically presented as skin blisters developing in response to minor injury. Junctional variety of EB is also associated with enamel hypoplasia. Amelogenesis imperfecta presents with abnormal formation of the enamel both in deciduous and permanent dentition. This article describes a previously unreported case of Amelogenesis imperfecta with complete loss of enamel in a young female patient with EB. PMID:24379873

  14. Intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Heller, Axel R

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oils have shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases due to their pleiotropic effects on inflammatory cell signalling pathways. In a variety of experimental and clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids attenuated hyperinflammatory conditions and induced faster recovery. This chapter will shed light on the effects of intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients and will discuss clinical data and recent meta-analyses on the topic. While significant beneficial effects on infection rates and the lengths of ICU and hospital stays have concordantly been identified in three recent meta-analyses on non-ICU surgical patients, the level of evidence is not so clear for critically ill patients. Three meta-analyses published in 2012 or 2013 explored data on the ICU population. Although the present data suggest the consideration of enteral nutrition enriched with fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants in mild to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, only one of the three meta-analyses found a trend (p = 0.08) of lower mortality in ICU patients receiving intravenous omega-3 fatty acids. Two of the meta-analyses indicated a significantly shorter hospital stay (5.17-9.49 days), and one meta-analysis found a significant reduction in ICU days (1.92). As a result of these effects, cost savings were postulated. Unlike in surgical patients, the effects of fish oil on infection rates were not found to be statistically significant in ICU patients, and dose-effect relationships were not established for any cohort. Thus, obvious positive secondary outcome effects with intravenous fish oil have not yet been shown to transfer to lower mortality in critically ill patients. There is a need for adequately powered, well-planned and well-conducted randomized trials to give clear recommendations on the individual utility and dosage of intravenous omega-3 fatty acids in critical illness. PMID:25471809

  15. The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in adult hypopituitary patients.

    PubMed

    Filipsson Nyström, Helena; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Kourides, Ione; Popovic, Vera; Koltowska-Häggström, Maria; Jonsson, Björn; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2012-12-01

    The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in patients with central hypothyroidism (CH) need to be evaluated. The aim was to examine the outcome of thyroxine replacement in CH. Adult hypopituitary patients (n = 1595) with and without CH from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) were studied before and after 2 years of GH replacement. CH patients (CH, n = 1080) were compared with TSH sufficient patients (TSHsuff n = 515) as one group and divided by thyroxine dose/kg/day into tertiles (CHlow-mid-high). Anthropometry, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, lipids, IGF-I SDS, quality of life and morbidity were studied. Analyses were standardized for gender, age, number and types of pituitary insufficiencies, stimulated GH peak, age at GH deficiency onset, aetiologies and, when appropriate, for weight and GH dose. At baseline, TSHsuff patients did not differ from CH or CHmid in any outcome. CHlow (≤ 1.18 μg thyroxine/kg/day) had increased weight, BMI and larger waist circumference (WC), CHhigh (≥ 1.58 μg thyroxine/kg/day) had lower weight, BMI, WC and IGF-I than TSHsuff and compared to their predicted weights, BMIs and WCs. For every 0.1 μg/kg/day increase of thyroxine dose, body weight decreased 1.0 kg, BMI 0.3 kg/m(2), and WC 0.65 cm. The GH sensitivity of the CH group was higher (0.76 ± 0.56 SDS/mg GH) than that of TSHsuff patients (0.58 ± 0.64 SDS/mg GH), P < 0.001. The middle thyroxine dose (1.19-1.57 μg/kg/day) seems to be the most physiological. This is equivalent to 70, 100, 125 μg thyroxine/day for hypopituitary patients of 50, 70 or 90 kg weight, respectively.

  16. Adrenocortical response to low-dose ACTH test in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Radikova, Zofia; Rovensky, Jozef; Vlcek, Miroslav; Penesova, Adela; Kerlik, Jana; Vigas, Milan; Imrich, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Alterations in adrenal steroid production have been suggested in females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to assess adrenocortical function in RA females. We examined 11 female RA patients (RA: age 30 +/- 2 years, BMI 21.0 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)) and 10 matched healthy controls (C: age 31 +/- 1 years, BMI 21.6 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2)). Low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test (i.v. bolus of 1 microg synthetic ACTH) was performed at 10.00 h with blood sampling every 15 min for 90 min. Cortisol, 17-OH-progesterone (17OHP), androstenedione (ASD), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were assayed in plasma. Baseline cortisol levels were higher in RA patients (RA: 385 +/- 38 versus C: 229 +/- 28 nmol/L, P= 0.007). In both study groups, ACTH administration increased all the four steroids measured (P < 0.001). Cortisol response to ACTH administration was diminished in RA patients when compared to controls (Delta(max): 284 +/- 24 in RA versus 424 +/- 31 nmol/L in C, P= 0.002). ACTH-induced maximal rise in plasma DHEA was significantly lower in RA patients when compared to controls (Delta(max): 2.59 +/- 0.68 in RA versus 5.57 +/- 1.25 ng/mL in C, P= 0.015). No significant between-groups differences were found in responses of ASD or 17OHP. The molar ratio of ASD:cortisol was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in RA patients at base line, but did not differ during ACTH test. After ACTH bolus, the cortisol:17OHP ratio decreased significantly in the RA group (P < 0.001), whereas there was no change in the control group. The present results show decreased secretion of cortisol and DHEA in RA patients in response to ACTH, suggesting a subtle HPA hypofunction at the adrenocortical level. PMID:19120158

  17. Shielding during x-ray examination of pediatric female patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Shan; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Chuang, Ming-Tsung; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Lai, Cheng-Shih; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Lin, Chii-Jeng; Lu, Chia-Hsing

    2014-12-01

    Patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) generally undergo multiple x-ray examinations of both hip joints. During these examinations, the gonads are completely exposed to radiation, unless shielded. Although many types and sizes of gonad shields exist, they often do not provide adequate protection because of size and placement issues; additionally, these shields are frequently omitted for female patients. Our aim was to assess gonad protection during x-ray examination that is provided by gonad shields designed for individual female patients with DDH.We retrospectively retrieved data from the Picture Archiving and Communication System database; pelvic plain x-ray films from 766 females, 18 years old or younger, were included in our analysis. Based on x-ray measurements of the anterior superior iliac spine, we developed a system of gonad shield design that depended on the distance between anterior superior iliac spine markers. We custom-made shields and then examined shielding rates and shielding accuracy before and after these new shields became available. Standard (general-purpose) shields were used before our custom design project was implemented. The shielding rate and shielding accuracy were, respectively, 14.5% and 8.4% before the project was implemented and 72.7% and 32.2% after it was implemented. A shield that is more anatomically correct and available in several different sizes may increase the likelihood of gonad protection during pelvic x-ray examinations. PMID:25325378

  18. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic irradiation in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohshiro, Taihei; Fujita, Shin

    2015-12-01

    In the report, we describe the first case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic radio-chemo therapy in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer in Japan. A 14-year-old female visited a hospital because of consistent diarrhea and melena. Colonoscopy examination showed a bulky tumor of the rectum, which was diagnosed as moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was cT3N2aM1a (due to lymph node in pelvic side wall), cStage IVA. In an attempt to improve local control and sphincter preservation, neoadjuvant concurrent radio-chemo therapy was planned. Considering that pelvic irradiation particularly in young female might cause ovarian failure, laparoscopic ovarian transposition was carried out prior to pelvic irradiation. Sequentially the patient underwent low anterior resection of the rectum and lymphadenectomy including pelvic side wall. The menstruation was maintained with delay for 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy. There is no evidence of cancer recurrence at 3 years after the surgery.In premenopausal patients with rectal cancer undergoing pelvic irradiation, laparoscopic ovarian transposition is one of the choices to prevent ovarian failure. PMID:26943437

  19. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    PubMed

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, p<.05) and impulsivity (β=.24, p<.05) were associated with the number of previous suicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. PMID:27352091

  20. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  1. Observations of a free-ranging adult female dingo (Canis dingo) and littermates' responses to the death of a pup.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Rob; Smith, Bradley; Jones, Darryl

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to several species of cetaceans and primates, behavioural responses to dead conspecifics have rarely been reported in wild canids. Here we provide details of the responses of an adult female and littermates to a dying and subsequently dead pup, including what appeared to be four instances of transport of the deceased pup by the mother over a two-day period, one of which was directly observed and filmed. We tentatively propose that, in the absence of any evidence of consumption of the pup, its transport by the mother could be interpreted as care-giving behaviour emanating from an enduring mother-infant bond, in a similar vein to what has been suggested for several other species exhibiting such behaviour. PMID:23500482

  2. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults: A French Nationwide Study Enrolling 41 Patients.

    PubMed

    Audemard-Verger, A; Descloux, E; Ponard, D; Deroux, A; Fantin, B; Fieschi, C; John, M; Bouldouyre, A; Karkowsi, L; Moulis, G; Auvinet, H; Valla, F; Lechiche, C; Davido, B; Martinot, M; Biron, C; Lucht, F; Asseray, N; Froissart, A; Buzelé, R; Perlat, A; Boutboul, D; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V; Isnard, S; Bienvenu, B

    2016-05-01

    Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies.A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis.Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15-67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1-10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35% (n = 14

  3. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  4. The motivational effects of social contagion on exercise participation in young female adults.

    PubMed

    Scarapicchia T, M F; Sabiston, Catherine M; Andersen, Ross E; Garcia Bengoechea, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Young inactive healthy-weight females (n = 42) were randomly assigned to exercise at a self-selected pace on a treadmill beside a confederate who was providing either intrinsic or externally regulated verbal primes. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percentage of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and exercise continuance were recorded. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing mood pre- and postexercise session and postexercise motivational outcomes. The intrinsic motivation group reported higher RPE values after 8 min of exercise, had higher recorded HR measures at all 5 recorded time points, exercised at a higher %HR max, spent more time in MVPA, and were more likely to continue to exercise than participants in the externally regulated motivation group. A time effect was noted for vigor. Based on these findings, exercise motivation can be "contagious" through verbal primes, suggesting that exercising with or around intrinsically motivated individuals may have beneficial outcomes.

  5. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  6. Postnatal experiences influence the behavior in adult male and female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Skripuletz, Thomas; Kruschinski, Carsten; Pabst, Reinhard; von Hörsten, Stephan; Stephan, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The postnatal environment with the rat pups' dam as the most important regulator, plays a central role in determining developmental processes of the offspring. Early disturbances of the dam-pup-dyade, like separation from the dam for hours (maternal deprivation, MD), or a short period of separation, and exposure to novelty, like the handling stimulation (HA), might induce long-lasting changes within the individual. To further investigate the susceptibility to these postnatal manipulations with regard to both, sex and genetic background, we used male and female Fischer (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats. F344 and LEW rats were daily subjected to either HA, MD, or were left undisturbed until weaning. The immediate effects of these manipulations were studied using the mother-pup-interaction-test on postnatal days 3-7. At the age of 4 months, animals were subjected to a behavioral test battery, determining activity, exploration, and anxiety-like behavioral parameters. Postnatal manipulations induced significant alterations of the mother-pup-interaction patterns that were more pronounced in F344 dams. MD and HA F344 dams were longer off pups than LEW dams. MD F344 pups were longer groomed than MD LEW pups and HA F344 pups were longer passive nursed than HA LEW pups. In adulthood, F344 rats showed increased anxiety-like behavior compared to LEW rats. Furthermore, females of both strains exhibited more anxiety-like behavior than males. Test independently, MD led to more anxiety-like behavior and less exploratory responses, while handled rats exhibited an anxiolytic-like behavior and increased exploratory responses. In conclusion, postnatal experiences specifically altered the behavioral phenotype in adulthood. While these changes were co-directional in the two strains and in both sexes, the degree of susceptibility varied.

  7. Increased Susceptibility to Metabolic Alterations in Young Adult Females Exposed to Early Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Miñana-Solis, María; Escobar, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    Early malnutrition during gestation and lactation modifies growth and metabolism permanently. Follow up studies using a nutritional rehabilitation protocol have reported that early malnourished rats exhibit hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that the effects of early malnutrition are permanent and produce a “programming” effect on metabolism. Deleterious effects have mainly been observed when early-malnutrition is followed by a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether following a balanced diet subsequent to malnutrition can deter the expression of metabolic disease and lead rats to exhibit metabolic responses, similar to those of well-nourished controls. Young rats, born from dams malnourished during gestation and lactation with a low protein diet, were provided with a regular balanced chow diet upon weaning. At 90 days of age, the effects of rehabilitation were determined under three different feeding conditions: ad libitum, fasting or fasting-reefed satiated. Early-malnourished rats showed an increased rate of body weight gain. Males under ad libitum conditions showed an elevated concentration of hepatic glycogen and low values of insulin. In the fasting-reefed satiated condition, only early-malnourished females showed an alteration in glucose response and glucagon level, compared with their well-nourished controls. Data indicate that a balanced diet along life after early malnutrition can mask the expression of metabolic disorders and that a metabolic challenges due to a prolonged fasting and reefed state unmask metabolic deficiencies in early-malnourished females. PMID:17200687

  8. Robotic gastrectomy with transvaginal specimen extraction for female gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Jiang; Zhao, Jian; Li, Jie-Shou

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the application of complete robotic gastrectomy with transvaginal specimen extraction (TVSE) for gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Between July and November 2014, eight female patients who were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma underwent a TVSE following a full robot-sewn gastrectomy. According to the tumor location, the patients were allocated to two different groups; two patients received robotic total gastrectomy with TVSE and the other six received robotic distal gastrectomy with TVSE. RESULTS: Surgical procedures were successfully performed in all eight cases without conversion. The mean age was 55.3 (range, 42-69) years, and the mean body mass index was 23.2 (range, 21.6-26.0) kg/m2. The mean total operative time and blood loss were 224 (range, 200-298) min and 62.5 (range, 50-150) mL, respectively. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.6 (range, 3-5) d. The mean number of lymph nodes resected was 23.6 (range, 17-27). None was readmitted within 30 d of postoperation. During the follow-up, no stricture developed nor was any anastomotic leakage detected. CONCLUSION: It is possible to perform a TVSE following a full robot-sewn gastrectomy with standard D2 lymph node resection for female gastric cancer patients. PMID:26715817

  9. One-year assessment of physical activity level in adult Qatari females: a pedometer-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Suzan; Van Der Walt, Mercia; Al-Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing health concern and has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. The Arab region includes countries with some of the world’s highest physical inactivity levels, such as Qatar, more specifically the Qatari female population. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the physical activity levels of Qatari national female adults during a 1-year pedometer-based program. Materials and methods A total of 549 Qatari national females aged between 18 years and 64 years were included. Data extracted from “Step into Health” program web database in Qatar were used for analyses. Daily habitual physical activity (daily total step count and aerobic steps) was assessed through the Omron HJ-324U pedometer. Step counts were classified as follows: <5,000 steps/d, sedentary; 5,000–7,499 steps/d, low active; and ≥7,500 steps/d, physically active. Statistical significance was set at P-value ≤0.05. Descriptive statistics were used, and habitual physical activity was calculated through repeated measures analysis of variance to determine the difference across the monitored days. Results Mean age was 37.4±11.7 years, and median body mass index of 28.8 kg/m2 (interquartile range 24.8–33.5). Daily steps for the overall population ranged from 3,505 steps/d to 10,010 steps/d, with a median of 6,008 steps/d. A total of 242 (44.1%) females were sedentary, 178 (32.4%) were low active, and 129 (23.5%) were physically active. The physically active group showed a median of 927 aerobic steps/d (interquartile range 0–4,248). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, Qatari females are not meeting the global recommendations of physical activity. Future research might need to consider barriers to physical activity as well as social, cultural, and environmental factors. PMID:27486343

  10. Increased hair testosterone but unaltered hair cortisol in female patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Spitzer, Carsten; Roepke, Stefan; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have reported on dysfunctions in steroid secretion, including altered cortisol and testosterone levels in borderline personality disorder (BDP) patients compared to healthy controls. The present study extends findings from blood and saliva studies to the cumulative measure of hair steroids. We investigated women with BPD (n=18) and age- and education-matched healthy women (n=17). We did not find differences between BPD patients and healthy women (p=0.40) concerning hair cortisol levels but increased hair testosterone levels among BPD patients compared to controls (p=0.03). These results remained when restricting the analyses to unmedicated patients. Our data indicate altered long-term testosterone but not cortisol levels in females with BPD. Future studies should address the possible impact of altered testosterone on medical illness processes including metabolic syndrome in this population. PMID:27290653

  11. A global research synthesis of HIV and STI biobehavioural risks in female-to-male transgender adults.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Murchison, Gabriel R

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in HIV infection and sexually transmitted infection (STI) disease burden and risk among transgender people globally; however, the majority of work has been conducted with male-to-female transgender populations. This research synthesis comprehensively reviews HIV and STI research in female-to-male (FTM) transgender adults. A paucity of research exists about HIV and STIs in FTMs. Only 25 peer-reviewed papers (18 quantitative, 7 qualitative) and 11 'grey literature' reports were identified, most in the US or Canada, that include data identifying HIV and STI risks in FTMs (five with fully laboratory-confirmed HIV and/or STIs, and five with partial laboratory confirmation). Little is known about the sexual and drug use risk behaviours contributing to HIV and STIs in FTMs. Future directions are suggested, including the need for routine surveillance and monitoring of HIV and STIs globally by transgender identity, more standardised sexual risk assessment measures, targeted data collection in lower- and middle-income countries, and explicit consideration of the rationale for inclusion/exclusion of FTMs in category-based prevention approaches with MSM and transgender people. Implications for research, policy, programming, and interventions are discussed, including the need to address diverse sexual identities, attractions, and behaviours and engage local FTM communities. PMID:26785800

  12. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, A B; Wall, M M; Choo, T-H J; Larson, N I; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-06-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2) and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; P=0.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=0.036; P=0.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted.

  13. A multifaceted intervention increases epinephrine use in adult emergency department anaphylaxis patients

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Veena; Hess, Erik P.; Bellamkonda, Venkatesh R.; Nestler, David M.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Hagan, John B.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Decker, Wyatt W.; Li, James T.C.; Scanlan-Hanson, Lori N.; Vukov, Samuel C.; Campbell, Ronna L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have documented inconsistent emergency anaphylaxis care and low compliance with published guidelines. Objective To evaluate anaphylaxis management before and after implementation of an emergency department (ED) anaphylaxis order set and introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and to measure the effect on anaphylaxis guideline adherence. Methods A cohort study was conducted from April 29, 2008-August 9, 2012. Adult ED patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis were included. ED management, disposition, self-injectable epinephrine prescriptions, allergy follow-up and incidence of biphasic reactions were evaluated. Results The study included 202 patients. Median age of patients was 45.3 years (IQR 31.3 – 56.4); 139 (69%) were female. Patients who presented after order set implementation were more likely to be treated with epinephrine (51% vs. 33%, OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.04- 4.04) and admitted to ED observation unit (EDOU) (65% vs. 44%, OR 2.38, 95%CI 1.23-4.60) and less likely to be dismissed home directly from ED (16% vs. 29%, OR: 0.47, 95%CI 0.22- 1.00). Eleven patients (5%) had a biphasic reaction. Of these, five (46%) had the biphasic reaction in EDOU; one patient was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Six patients (55%) had reactions within 6 hours of initial symptom resolution of whom two were admitted to ICU. Conclusion Significantly greater proportions of anaphylaxis patients received epinephrine and were admitted to EDOU after introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and order set implementation. Slightly over half of the biphasic reactions occurred within recommended observation time of 4-6 hours. These data suggest that the multifaceted approach to changing anaphylaxis management described here improved guideline adherence. PMID:24811020

  14. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism.

  15. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021

  16. A model for autumn pelagic distribution of adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Seas, 1987-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    We made predictions of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) autumn distribution in the Chukchi Sea with a Resource Selection Function (RSF) developed from 1198 satellite radio-collar locations on 124 adult female polar bears, 1987 – 1994. The RSF was created to assist in an aerial survey design for polar bears proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The RSF was based on bathymetry and daily sea ice covariates extracted from passive microwave satellite imagery within the pelagic region > 25 km from shore. The RSF indicated that polar bears selected habitats with intermediate amounts (~50%) of ice cover in close proximity to higher ice concentrations, and over relatively shallow waters. The RSF showed good predictive abilities for the years of its construct, worked best in October, and was robust to inter-annual variability. When evaluated with recent (1997 – 2005) data, the RSF performed well for October and November but poorly in September. This loss of predictive abilities appeared to be related to recent changes in habitat due to longer melt seasons and younger sea ice, and testing the retrospective model with a small sample of recent polar bears locations from a limited region of the Chukchi Sea. Contemporary applications of this RSF must consider three factors that could limit its utility: 1) 2 different sea ice phenology; 2) distributions of males and sub-adults; and 3) occupancy in nearshore habitats.

  17. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-09-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116.

  18. ICRP Publication 116--the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-09-21

    ICRP Publication 116 on 'Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the 'conventional' energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116. PMID:25144220

  19. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  20. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  1. The GH secretagogues ipamorelin and GH-releasing peptide-6 increase bone mineral content in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Svensson, J; Lall, S; Dickson, S L; Bengtsson, B A; Rømer, J; Ahnfelt-Rønne, I; Ohlsson, C; Jansson, J O

    2000-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is of importance for normal bone remodelling. A recent clinical study demonstrated that MK-677, a member of a class of GH secretagogues (GHSs), increases serum concentrations of biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the GHSs, ipamorelin (IPA) and GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), increase bone mineral content (BMC) in young adult female rats. Thirteen-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were given IPA (0.5 mg/kg per day; n=7), GHRP-6 (0.5 mg/kg per day; n=8), GH (3.5 mg/kg per day; n=7), or vehicle administered continuously s.c. via osmotic minipumps for 12 weeks. The animals were followed in vivo by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements every 4th week. After the animals were killed, femurs were analysed in vitro by mid-diaphyseal peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans. After this, excised femurs and vertebrae L6 were analysed by the use of Archimedes' principle and by determinations of ash weights. All treatments increased body weight and total tibial and vertebral BMC measured by DXA in vivo compared with vehicle-treated controls. However, total BMC corrected for the increase in body weight (total BMC:body weight ratio) was unaffected. Tibial area bone mineral density (BMD, BMC/area) was increased, but total and vertebral area BMDs were unchanged. The pQCT measurements in vitro revealed that the increase in the cortical BMC was due to an increased cross-sectional bone area, whereas the cortical volumetric BMD was unchanged. Femur and vertebra L6 volumes were increased but no effect was seen on the volumetric BMDs as measured by Archimedes' principle. Ash weight was increased by all treatments, but the mineral concentration was unchanged. We conclude that treatment of adult female rats with the GHSs ipamorelin and GHRP-6 increases BMC as measured by DXA in vivo. The results of in vitro measurements using pQCT and Archimedes' principle, in

  2. Individual differences in physical activity are closely associated with changes in body weight in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elinor L.; Koegler, Frank H.; Cameron, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    The increased prevalence of overweight adults has serious health consequences. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between low activity and being over-weight; however, few studies have objectively measured activity during a period of weight gain, so it is unknown whether low activity is a cause or consequence of being overweight. To determine whether individual differences in adult weight gain are linked to an individual's activity level, we measured activity, via accelerometry, over a prolonged period (9 mo) in 18 adult female rhesus monkeys. Weight, food intake, metabolic rate, and activity were first monitored over a 3-mo period. During this period, there was mild but significant weight gain (5.5 ± 0.88%; t =−6.3, df = 17, P < 0.0001), whereas caloric intake and activity remained stable. Metabolic rate increased, as expected, with weight gain. Activity level correlated with weight gain (r = −0.52, P = 0.04), and the most active monkeys gained less weight than the least active monkeys (t = −2.74, df = 8, P = 0.03). Moreover, there was an eightfold difference in activity between the most and least active monkeys, and initial activity of each monkey was highly correlated with their activity after 9 mo (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001). In contrast, food intake did not correlate with weight gain, and there was no difference in weight gain between monkeys with the highest vs. lowest caloric intake, total metabolic rate, or basal metabolic rate. We conclude that physical activity is a particularly important factor contributing to weight change in adulthood and that there are large, but stable, differences in physical activity among individuals. PMID:16614060

  3. Increased serum levels of C21 steroids in female patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kanceva, R; Stárka, L; Kancheva, L; Hill, M; Veliková, M; Havrdová, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological diseases. This neurodegenerative autoimmune disease manifests as inflammatory and demyelinating impairment of the central nervous system (CNS). Although some studies demonstrated associations between altered steroidogenesis and pathophysiology of MS as well as the importance of steroids in the pathophysiology of MS, the knowledge concerning the steroid metabolome in female patients is limited. Hence, 51 steroids and steroid polar conjugates were measured in the serum of 12 women with MS, untreated with steroids and 6 age-corresponding female controls with the use of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The data were processed using age adjusted ANCOVA, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). Our data show higher levels of circulating C21 steroids including steroid modulators of ionotropic type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA A) receptors and glutamate receptors. Furthermore, the levels of GABAergic androsterone and 5-androsten-3beta,7alpha,17beta-triol were also higher in the female MS patients. In conclusion, the data demonstrate higher levels of circulating C21 steroids and their polar conjugates and some bioactive C19 steroids in women with MS, which may influence neuronal activity and affect the balance between neuroprotection and excitotoxicity. PMID:26680486

  4. Increased serum levels of C21 steroids in female patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kanceva, R; Stárka, L; Kancheva, L; Hill, M; Veliková, M; Havrdová, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological diseases. This neurodegenerative autoimmune disease manifests as inflammatory and demyelinating impairment of the central nervous system (CNS). Although some studies demonstrated associations between altered steroidogenesis and pathophysiology of MS as well as the importance of steroids in the pathophysiology of MS, the knowledge concerning the steroid metabolome in female patients is limited. Hence, 51 steroids and steroid polar conjugates were measured in the serum of 12 women with MS, untreated with steroids and 6 age-corresponding female controls with the use of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The data were processed using age adjusted ANCOVA, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). Our data show higher levels of circulating C21 steroids including steroid modulators of ionotropic type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA A) receptors and glutamate receptors. Furthermore, the levels of GABAergic androsterone and 5-androsten-3beta,7alpha,17beta-triol were also higher in the female MS patients. In conclusion, the data demonstrate higher levels of circulating C21 steroids and their polar conjugates and some bioactive C19 steroids in women with MS, which may influence neuronal activity and affect the balance between neuroprotection and excitotoxicity.

  5. Attachment and Parenting in Adult Patients with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Gennaro, Giancarlo Di; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. Methods: A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results: The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother’s care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Conclusions: Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions. PMID:24155770

  6. Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Adult Patients in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Carme, B.; Bissuel, F.; Ajzenberg, D.; Bouyne, R.; Aznar, C.; Demar, M.; Bichat, S.; Louvel, D.; Bourbigot, A. M.; Peneau, C.; Neron, P.; Dardé, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The most common presentation of symptomatic postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients is painless cervical adenopathy. Acute visceral manifestations are associated in rare cases. We report 16 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis diagnosed in French Guiana during a 6.5-year period. All of the subjects were immunocompetent adults hospitalized with clinical presentations consisting of a marked, nonspecific infectious syndrome accompanied by an altered general status with at least one visceral localization, mainly pulmonary involvement (14 cases). Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. Recovery was rapid following specific antitoxoplasmosis treatment. Thirteen of the 16 patients had consumed game in the 2 weeks before the onset of the symptoms, and in eight cases the game was considered to have been undercooked. Toxoplasma strains, which were virulent in mice, were isolated from three patients. Microsatellite analysis showed that all of these isolates exhibited an atypical multilocus genotype, with one allele found only for isolates of this region. PMID:12409371

  7. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  8. Humidification during mechanical ventilation in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Al Ashry, Haitham S; Modrykamien, Ariel M

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions.

  9. Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Al Ashry, Haitham S.; Modrykamien, Ariel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions. PMID:25089275

  10. Primary Care for the Older Adult Patient: Common Geriatric Issues and Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine; Shi, Sandra; Kiraly, Carmela

    2016-06-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the US population and the majority of older adults are women. Primary care for the older adult patient requires a wide variety of skills, reflecting the complexity and heterogeneity of this patient population. Individualizing care through consideration of patients' goals, medical conditions, and prognosis is paramount. Quality care for the older adult patient requires familiarity with common geriatric syndromes, such as dementia, falls, and polypharmacy. In addition, developing the knowledge and communication skills necessary for complex care and end-of-life care planning is essential.

  11. [Comparison of serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients and healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Yin, D Z

    1990-05-01

    The contents of 15 trace elements in the sera of 30 liver cancer patients and 30 healthy adults were assayed by ICP-AES method. The data obtained were analysed by routine statistical tests, multi-variate discrimination analysis, multi-variate stepwise regression analysis and non-linear mapping algorithm. The results showed that the contents of copper, vanadium, cadmium, stannum, cobalt, nickel in liver cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy adults. The serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients was different from that of healthy adults. Hence, the liver cancer patients could be differentiated from healthy adults by serum trace element spectrum. PMID:2249593

  12. Adult patients with Fontan circulation: What we know and how to manage adults with Fontan circulation?

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    Most of patients after the Fontan operation can reach their adulthood, however, the management strategy for this complex pathophysiology has not been yet established. In general, elevated central venous pressure (CVP) and low cardiac output (CO) due to impaired ventricular preload characterize the Fontan circulation and the ideal hemodynamics could be a combination of a lower CVP with a higher CO. Thus, preserved functional systemic ventricle with low pulmonary artery resistance is thought to be crucial for better long-term outcome. However, on the other hand, because of the unique hemodynamics, these patients have significantly higher incidence of complications, sequelae, and even mortality. The major complications are supraventricular arrhythmias, heart failure, and Fontan-related problems, including protein-losing enteropathy and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae, both of which are refractory to the treatments, and most of these "Fontan inconveniences" increase as patients age. In addition, one of the recent emerging problems is Fontan-associated liver disease that includes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, women with Fontan circulation also reach childbearing age and there have been increasing numbers of reports showing a high incidence of pregnancy-associated complications. All these problems may be a part of "Fontan inconveniences" because most of the current Fontan patients are still "young" i.e. in their twenties or thirties and it may be not surprising that more new Fontan-associated pathophysiology emerges as patients age. Recent evidence reminds us of the concept that adult Fontan pathophysiology is not just a cardiovascular disease, rather, a multiorgan disease with many interactions between cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular organs. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to take care of and anticipate the better long-term outcome. PMID:27134136

  13. Pediatric and Young Adult Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated With Preradiation Cisplatin and Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Varan, Ali Ozyar, Enis; Corapcioglu, Funda; Koeksal, Yavuz; Aydin, Burca; Yazici, Nalan; Akyuez, Canan; Bueyuekpamukcu, Muenevver

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment results for pediatric and young adult (aged <21 years) patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant cisplatin + docetaxel and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who received diagnoses between 2004 and 2007 were treated with four cycles of cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} + docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 with premedication every 3 weeks. All patients were treated with fractionated external beam radiotherapy after chemotherapy to a median dose of 59.4 Gy (range, 54-59.4 Gy) to the primary disease and 40 Gy to the supraclavicular field with the clavicles shielded. Five children were monitored with serum EBV DNA quantification at diagnosis, after each cycle of chemotherapy, before radiotherapy, and at follow-up. Results: The median age of the patients was 14 years (range, 9-20 years), with a male:female ratio of 6:4. Stage distribution was as follows: 2 patients had Stage IIb disease, 2 had Stage III, 4 had Stage IVa, and 2 had Stage IVb disease. After cisplatin+docetaxel chemotherapy 1 patient had a complete response, 5 had a partial response, 3 had stable disease, and 1 had disease progression. The 2-year overall survival rate in our series was 90% and the event-free survival rate was 70%. No major chemotherapy toxicity was observed. The EBV DNA titers were higher in 2 of the 5 monitored patients at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion: As neoadjuvant chemotherapy before radiotherapy, the cisplatin+docetaxel combination is safe for use in the treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  14. Organ S values and effective doses for family members exposed to adult patients following I-131 treatment: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Mcguire, Lynn; Brown, Tracy L. Y.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To calculate organ S values (mGy/Bq-s) and effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv/Bq-s) for pediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult male or female patient treated with I-131 using a series of hybrid computational phantoms coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport technique.Methods: A series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantoms were employed in the study. Three different exposure scenarios were considered: (1) standing face-to-face exposures between an adult patient and pediatric or adult family phantoms at five different separation distances; (2) an adult female patient holding her newborn child, and (3) a 1-yr-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient. For the adult patient model, two different thyroid-related diseases were considered: hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with corresponding internal distributions of {sup 131}I. A general purpose Monte Carlo code, MCNPX v2.7, was used to perform the Monte Carlo radiation transport.Results: The S values show a strong dependency on age and organ location within the family phantoms at short distances. The S values and effective dose per time-integrated activity from the adult female patient phantom are relatively high at shorter distances and to younger family phantoms. At a distance of 1 m, effective doses per time-integrated activity are lower than those values based on the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) by a factor of 2 for both adult male and female patient phantoms. The S values to target organs from the hyperthyroid-patient source distribution strongly depend on the height of the exposed family phantom, so that their values rapidly decrease with decreasing height of the family phantom. Active marrow of the 10-yr-old phantom shows the highest S values among family phantoms for the DTC-patient source distribution. In the exposure scenario of mother and baby, S values and effective doses per time-integrated activity to

  15. Butachlor causes disruption of HPG and HPT axes in adult female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lifei; Li, Wei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Miao; Yuan, Lilai; Wang, Zijian

    2014-09-25

    Butachlor is a chloroacetamide herbicide widely used in Asia, and may enter the aquatic environment through agricultural application. In this study, plasma VTG and hormone levels (E2, 11-KT, T3 and T4) were determined after the female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to butachlor at environmental relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, and 10μg/L) for 40days. The mRNA levels of the HPG axis-related genes (gnrh, erα, vtg, star, lhr, 3β-hsd, cyp11a, cyp17, cyp19a and cyp19b), and the HPT axis-related genes (trα, dio1, dio2, and dio3) were quantified after 20 and 40days exposure to butachlor. For the HPG axis, the plasma 11-KT was increased at exposure concentration of 10μg/L, and VTG was significantly decreased at 1μg/L. Functional genes like gnrh and cyp19b in the brains, star, lhr, cyp11a, 3β-hsd, and cyp19a in the ovaries, and erα and vtg in livers were up-regulated. For the HPT axis, the results showed that plasma T4 levels were significantly increased, the gene expression of dio1 was up-regulated, dio2 showed no significant variation, and dio3 was down-regulated in the livers. These results indicated that butachlor may promote the accumulation of T4 in fish through inactive deiodinase type 3. The transcription of HPG axis-related genes could serve as an auto-regulation of hormone levels after exposure to butachlor. Furthermore, the activation of gnrh may play an important role as a feed-back mechanism in the regulation of hormone levels and crosstalk of endocrine axes.

  16. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood.

  17. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative

  18. Does long-term swimming participation have a deleterious effect on the adult female skeleton?

    PubMed

    Greenway, Kate Gwendoline; Walkley, Jeff Whenan; Rich, Peter Adrian

    2012-09-01

    Swimming is a popular activity for Australian women with proven cardiovascular benefits yet lacks the features thought necessary to stimulate positive adaptive changes in bone. Given that peak bone mass is attained close to the end of the second decade, we asked whether swimming was negatively associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women beyond this age. Bone mass and retrospective physical activity data were gathered from 43 female swimmers and 44 controls (mean ages 40.4 and 43.8 years, respectively). Swimmers were recruited from the Australian Union of Senior Swimmers International while controls were healthy community dwellers with similar lean mass, fat mass, height, weight and body mass index. None of the participants had a history of medical complaints nor use of medications known to affect bone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine areal bone mineral density at total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius and tibia while self-administered questionnaires were used to approximate historical and recent physical activity and calcium intake. Swimmers had averaged over 2 hours of swimming per week for the past 5 years and 1.45 h/week over lifetime with no systematic swimming exposure for controls. Lifetime exposure to weight bearing and impact exercise were similar. There were no intergroup differences for bone mass at any site though controls had higher incidence of low bone mass/osteoporosis. No differences in bone mass were detected between swimmers in the upper and lower quartiles for swim participation for any period. Long-term swim participation did not compromise areal bone mineral density.

  19. Glucose metabolic adaptations in the intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Rogers, Lisa; Bassilian, Sara; Lee, W N Paul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2006-06-01

    We studied glucose metabolic adaptations in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) rat offspring to decipher glucose homeostasis in metabolic programming. Glucose futile cycling (GFC), which is altered when there is imbalance between glucose production and utilization, was studied during a glucose tolerance test (GTT) in 2-day-old (n = 8), 2-mo-old (n = 22), and 15-mo-old (n = 22) female rat offspring. The IUGR rats exposed to either prenatal (CM/SP, n = 5 per age), postnatal (SM/CP, n = 6), or pre- and postnatal (SM/SP, n = 6) nutrient restriction were compared with age-matched controls (CM/CP, n = 5). At 2 days, IUGR pups (SP) were smaller and glucose intolerant and had increased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose disposal (P < 0.01) compared with controls (CP). At 2 mo, the GTT, glucose clearance, and GFC did not change. However, a decline in hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (P < 0.05) and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (P < 0.05) enzyme activities in the IUGR offspring was detected. At 15 mo, prenatal nutrient restriction (CM/SP) resulted in greater weight gain (P < 0.01) and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001) compared with postnatal nutrient restriction (SM/CP). A decline in GFC in the face of a normal GTT occurred in both the prenatal (CM/SP, P < 0.01) and postnatal calorie (SM/CP, P < 0.03) and growth-restricted offspring. The IUGR offspring with pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (SM/SP) were smaller, hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.03), and hypoleptinemic (P < 0.03), with no change in GTT, hepatic glucose production, GFC, or glucose clearance. We conclude that there is pre- and postnatal programming that affects the postnatal compensatory adaptation of GFC and disposal initiated by changes in circulating insulin concentrations, thereby determining hepatic insulin sensitivity in a phenotype-specific manner. PMID:16449299

  20. First comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild adult male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Christina B; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Diambra, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative

  1. Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient.

    PubMed Central

    Stabin, M G

    1997-01-01

    The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern in evaluating radiation dose and risk in nuclear medicine. The female's overall body size and organ sizes generally are smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics); female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry (urinary bladder, liver, kidneys, intestines); risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; and in the case of pregnancy, exposure to radiation of the embryo/fetus and the nursing infant are of special concern in such an analysis. All these concerns are addressed in this study through a comparative study of radiation doses for males and females over a large number (approximately 60) of nuclear medicine studies and through a study of what is known about radiation dosimetry in pregnancy and breast feeding. It was found that women's critical organ doses and effective doses (as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 [ICRP 60] are about 25% higher than those for men across all these studies. Women's gonad doses, however, may be as much as 10 to 30 times higher than those in men, although 2- to 3-fold differences are common. Many radiopharmaceuticals are administered to women of childbearing age; however, little is known about how much activity crosses the placenta and about the biokinetics in the fetus should it occur. Nonetheless, dose estimates are provided at four stages of pregnancy (early, 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month gestation) for a large number of radiopharmaceuticals, whether or not quantitative estimates of placental crossover can be made. Many radiopharmaceuticals are also excreted in breast milk of nursing mothers. Breast feeding interruption schedules are suggested through analysis of the observed kinetics of these pharmaceuticals and

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics of Benznidazole in Adult Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, E.; Guerrero, L.; Posada, E.; Serret, N.; Mejía, T.; Urbina, J. A.; Gascón, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to characterize benznidazole (BNZ) pharmacokinetics in adults with chronic Chagas disease. This study was a prospective, open-label, single-center clinical trial approved by the local ethics committee. Patients received BNZ at 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (Abarax, Elea Laboratory, Argentina) for 60 days. Plasma BNZ samples were taken several times during the study and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection (HPLC-UV). The popPK analysis was done with NONMEMv.7.3. Demographic and biological data were tested as covariates. Intraindividual, interoccasion, and residual variabilities were modeled. Internal and external validations were completed to assess the robustness of the model. Later on, simulations were performed to generate BNZ concentration-time course profiles for different dosage regimens. A total of 358 plasma BNZ concentrations from 39 patients were included in the analysis. A one-compartment PK model characterized by clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F), with first-order absorption (Ka) and elimination, adequately described the data (CL/F, 1.73 liters/h; V/F, 89.6 liters; and Ka, 1.15 h−1). No covariates were found to be significant for CL/F and V/F. Internal and external validations of the final model showed adequate results. Data from simulations revealed that a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/12 h might lead to overexposure in most patients. A lower dose (2.5 mg/kg/24 h) was able to achieve trough BNZ plasma concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range of 3 to 6 mg/liter. In summary, we developed a population PK model for BNZ in adults with chronic Chagas disease. Dosing simulations showed that a BNZ dose of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h will adequately keep BNZ trough plasma concentrations within the recommended target range for the majority of patients. (This study has been registered at EudraCT under number 2011

  3. Phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in female patients with goiter.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Dowli, Alexander; Jabbour, Jad; Sabri, Alain; Azar, Sami T

    2016-07-01

    Our objective is to report on the prevalence of phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in a group of female patients with goiter who had not been selected for surgery or who had not presented to the emergency room with respiratory distress. A total of 40 patients with goiter and 14 controls were enrolled in this study. Demographic data included age, sex, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, allergy, smoking, duration of disease, presence or absence of compressive symptoms, presence or absence of thyroid gland nodules, vascular status, presence or absence of calcifications, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Phonatory symptoms included hoarseness, vocal fatigue, vocal straining, lump sensation, and aphonia. The Voice Handicap Index 10 was used to assess the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life. The most common phonatory symptom in the patients with goiter was vocal fatigue followed by lump sensation. The only phonatory symptom that was significantly more present in patients with goiter was vocal straining. As for the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life, 15.8% of goiter patients had a Voice Handicap Index score >7 compared with 7.7% of controls. Phonatory symptoms are common in patients with goiter, with vocal straining occurring significantly more frequently than in controls. In 1 of 6 patients, the presence of phonatory symptoms had an impact on quality of life. PMID:27434485

  4. [Manifestation of malakoplakia in a urethral diverticulum in a female patient].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Vöge, D; Häfele, J; Alken, P; Sohn, M

    2008-01-01

    We report about a rare case of malakoplakia in a female urethral diverticulum. A 25-year-old patient with a long history of recurrent urinary tract infections and a plum-sized, painful swelling on the vaginal roof presented for operative treatment. In the anamnesis the patient reported about two spontaneous perforations, emptying several millilitres of pus each time. After total operative excision using a vaginal approach the histology showed malakoplakia in a urethral diverticulum. We found the typical intracytoplasmatic "Michaelis-Gutmann bodies" as well as "von Hansemann cells". Postoperatively we excluded an underlying tumour disease or a chronic infection. The further urological diagnostics (cystoscopy and MRI) were without any pathological findings. In patients with atypical cystic tumours of the urogenital tract, especially with an immune deficiency, malakoplakia should be taken in consideration. The preferred therapy is surgical management followed by long-term antibiosis as well as a close follow-up as recurrences are frequent. PMID:18228192

  5. The Principal Components of Adult Female Insole Shape Align Closely with Two of Its Classic Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Domjanic, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The plantar surface of the human foot transmits the weight and dynamic force of the owner’s lower limbs to the ground and the reaction forces back to the musculoskeletal system. Its anatomical variation is intensely studied in such fields as sports medicine and orthopedic dysmorphology. Yet, strangely, the shape of the insole that accommodates this surface and elastically buffers these forces is neither an aspect of the conventional anthropometrics of feet nor an informative label on the packet that markets supplementary insoles. In this paper we pursue an earlier suggestion that insole form in vertical view be quantified in terms of the shape of the foot not at the plane of support (the “footprint”) but some two millimeters above that level. Using such sections extracted from laser scans of 158 feet of adult women from the University of Zagreb, in conjunction with an appropriate modification of today’s standard geometric morphometrics (GMM), we find that the sectioned form can be described by its size together with two meaningful relative warps of shape. The pattern of this shape variation is not novel. It is closely aligned with two of the standard footprint measurements, the Chippaux-Šmiřák arch index and the Clarke arch angle, whose geometrical foci (the former in the ball of the foot, the latter in the arch) it apparently combines. Thus a strong contemporary analysis complements but does not supplant the simpler anthropometric analyses of half a century ago, with implications for applied anthropology. PMID:26308442

  6. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the posture modification of Adult Male (AM) and Adult Female (AF) reference phantoms of ICRP 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Alves, M. C.; Souza, D. N.; Carvalho, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to modify the standing posture of the anthropomorphic reference phantoms of ICRP publication 110, AM (Adult Male) and AF (Adult Female), to the sitting posture. The change of posture was performed using the Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the phantoms and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. Scion Image software was used to reconstruct and smooth the knee and hip contours of the phantoms in a sitting posture. For 3D visualization of phantoms, the VolView software was used. In the change of postures, the organ and tissue masses were preserved. The MCNPX was used to calculate the equivalent and effective dose conversion coefficients (CCs) per fluence for photons for six irradiation geometries suggested by ICRP publication 110 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO) and energy range 0.010-10 MeV. The results were compared between the standing and sitting postures, for both sexes, in order to evaluate the differences of scattering and absorption of radiation for different postures. Significant differences in the CCs for equivalent dose were observed in the gonads, colon, prostate, urinary bladder and uterus, which are present in the pelvic region, and in organs distributed throughout the body, such as the lymphatic nodes, muscle, skeleton and skin, for the phantoms of both sexes. CCs for effective dose showed significant differences of up to 16% in the AP irradiation geometry, 27% in the PA irradiation geometry and 13% in the ROT irradiation geometry. These results demonstrate the importance of using phantoms in different postures in order to obtain more precise conversion coefficients for a given exposure scenario.

  7. Radiation dosimetry for the adult female and fetus from iodine-131 administration in hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Marcus, C.S.; Salk, R.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Through a study of the iodine kinetics of 127 patients, we have developed radiation dose estimates to major organs and the fetus for patients with varying degrees of hyperthyroidism. We observed a negative correlation between maximum thyroid uptake and biologic half-time of iodine in the thyroid and used this correlation to predict the biologic half-time at fixed values of maximum thyroid uptake. Dose estimates to the bladder, gonads, marrow, thyroid, uterus, and whole body were estimated for maximum thyroid uptakes from 20% to 100%. Bladder dose varied from 0.6 to 1.0 mGy/MBq and dose to the uterus varied from 0.036 to 0.063 mGy/MBq under different model assumptions. Dose estimates to the fetus and fetal thyroid were approximated at all stages of pregnancy. Average fetal dose was a maximum between 0 and 2 mo of pregnancy, with the maximum ranging from 0.048 mGy/MBq to 0.083 mGy/MBq, depending on model assumptions. Some radiation risks for irradiation of the fetus and the fetal thyroid are discussed.

  8. Radiographic Parameters in Adult Degenerative Scoliosis and Different Parameters Between Sagittal Balanced and Imbalanced ADS Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changwei; Yang, Mingyuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wei, Xianzhao; Ni, Haijian; Chen, Ziqiang; Li, Jingfeng; Bai, Yushu; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Ming

    2015-07-01

    A retrospective study. To summarize and describe the radiographic parameters of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) and explore the radiological parameters which are significantly different in sagittal balanced and imbalanced ADS patients. ADS is the most common type of adult spinal deformity. However, no comprehensive description of radiographic parameters in ADS patients has been made, and few studies have been performed to explore which radiological parameters are significantly different between sagittal balanced and imbalanced ADS patients. Medical records of ADS patients in our outpatient clinic from January 2012 to January 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data including age and sex, and radiographic data including the coronal Cobb angle, location of apical vertebra/disc, convexity of the curve, degree of apical vertebra rotation, curve segments, thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracolumbar kyphosis (TL), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and PI minus LL (PI-LL) were reviewed to make comprehensive description of radiographic parameters of ADS. Furthermore, patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether the patients' sagittal plane was balanced: Group A (imbalanced, SVA > 5 cm) and Group B (balanced, SVA  ≤ 5 cm). Demographic and radiological parameters were compared between these 2 groups. A total of 99 patients were included in this study (Group A = 33 and Group B = 66; female = 83 and male = 16; sex ratio = 5:1). The median of age were 67 years (range: 41-92 years). The median of coronal Cobb angle and length of curve was 23 (range: 10-75°) and 5 segments (range: 3-7), respectively. The most common location of apical vertebra was at L2 to L3 (81%) and the median of degree of apical vertebra rotation was 2° (range: 1-3). Our study also showed significant correlations between coronal Cobb angle and curve segments (r = 0.23, P < 0.005) and degree of apical vertebra rotation (r

  9. Impact of Radiotherapy on Fertility, Pregnancy, and Neonatal Outcomes in Female Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wo, Jennifer Y.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation has many potential long-term effects on cancer survivors. Female cancer patients may experience decreased fertility depending on the site irradiated. Oncologists should be aware of these consequences and discuss options for fertility preservation before initiating therapy. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive review of the existing literature was conducted. Studies reporting the outcomes for female patients treated with cranio-spinal, abdominal, or pelvic radiation reporting fertility, pregnancy, or neonatal-related outcomes were reviewed. Results: Cranio-spinal irradiation elicited significant hormonal changes in women that affected their ability to become pregnant later in life. Women treated with abdomino-pelvic radiation have an increased rate of uterine dysfunction leading to miscarriage, preterm labor, low birth weight, and placental abnormalities. Early menopause results from low-dose ovarian radiation. Ovarian transposition may decrease the rates of ovarian dysfunction. Conclusions: There is a dose-dependent relationship between ovarian radiation therapy (RT) and premature menopause. Patients treated with RT must be aware of the impact of treatment on fertility and explore appropriate options.

  10. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  11. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  12. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults.

  13. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Wansu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  14. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to iden...

  15. Assessing the Long-Term Effec