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Sample records for adult female sea

  1. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.; Rees, Alan F.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  2. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  3. A model for autumn pelagic distribution of adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Seas, 1987-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    We made predictions of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) autumn distribution in the Chukchi Sea with a Resource Selection Function (RSF) developed from 1198 satellite radio-collar locations on 124 adult female polar bears, 1987 – 1994. The RSF was created to assist in an aerial survey design for polar bears proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The RSF was based on bathymetry and daily sea ice covariates extracted from passive microwave satellite imagery within the pelagic region > 25 km from shore. The RSF indicated that polar bears selected habitats with intermediate amounts (~50%) of ice cover in close proximity to higher ice concentrations, and over relatively shallow waters. The RSF showed good predictive abilities for the years of its construct, worked best in October, and was robust to inter-annual variability. When evaluated with recent (1997 – 2005) data, the RSF performed well for October and November but poorly in September. This loss of predictive abilities appeared to be related to recent changes in habitat due to longer melt seasons and younger sea ice, and testing the retrospective model with a small sample of recent polar bears locations from a limited region of the Chukchi Sea. Contemporary applications of this RSF must consider three factors that could limit its utility: 1) 2 different sea ice phenology; 2) distributions of males and sub-adults; and 3) occupancy in nearshore habitats.

  4. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use. PMID:27304855

  5. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use.

  6. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Kowalski, Gabriele J.; Voigt, Christian C.; Orben, Rachael A.; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J.; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use. PMID:27304855

  7. Long-term behavior at foraging sites of adult female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from three Florida rookeries.

    PubMed

    Foley, Allen M; Schroeder, Barbara A; Hardy, Robert; MacPherson, Sandra L; Nicholas, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to study behavior at foraging sites of 40 adult female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from three Florida (USA) rookeries. Foraging sites were located in four countries (USA, Mexico, the Bahamas, and Cuba). We were able to determine home range for 32 of the loggerheads. One turtle moved through several temporary residence areas, but the rest had a primary residence area in which they spent all or most of their time (usually >11 months per year). Twenty-four had a primary residence area that was <500 km(2) (mean = 191). Seven had a primary residence area that was ≥500 km(2) (range = 573-1,907). Primary residence areas were mostly restricted to depths <100 m. Loggerheads appeared to favor areas with larger-grained sediment (gravel and rock) over areas with smaller-grained sediment (mud). Short-term departures from primary residence areas were either looping excursions, typically involving 1-2 weeks of continuous travel, or movement to a secondary residence area where turtles spent 25-45 days before returning to their primary residence area. Ten turtles had a secondary residence area, and six used it as an overwintering site. For those six turtles, the primary residence area was in shallow water (<17 m) in the northern half of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and overwintering sites were farther offshore or farther south. We documented long winter dive times (>4 h) for the first time in the GOM. Characterizing behaviors at foraging sites helps inform and assess loggerhead recovery efforts. PMID:24882883

  8. Seasonal variation in plasma catecholamines and adipose tissue lipolysis in adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Hamann, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Whittier, Joan M

    2003-02-15

    We investigated three aspects of potential interrenal regulation of reproduction in female green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas. First, seasonal trends in plasma catecholamines were examined from female C. mydas at different stages of their reproductive cycles. Second, variation in catecholamine levels during a nesting season were analysed in relation to restraint time, and ecological variables such as nesting habitat, body size, and reproductive investment. Third, catecholamine and corticosterone (CORT) induced lipolysis was investigated with adipose tissue collected from gravid green turtles, using in vitro incubations. Plasma epinephrine (EPI) was lowest in non-vitellogenic (1.55 +/- 0.26 ng/ml) and post-breeding (1.57 +/- 0.22 ng/ml) females, and highest in courting females (2.87 +/- 0.28). Concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and EPI were relatively constant throughout a nesting season, and not significantly related to restraint time, reproductive investment or nesting habitat. In vitro concentrations of CORT (>3 ng/ml) and NE (2 ng/ml) induced significant release of glycerol after 6h of incubation. Epinephrine tended to induce an antilipolytic affect at low concentrations (0.25 ng/ml) and a net lipolytic response at higher concentrations (>1 ng/ml). Our data suggest that EPI may play a role in regulating body condition during vitellogenesis, and maintaining energy stores during prolonged aphagia during courtship and nesting in female green sea turtles. Furthermore, we provide preliminary evidence that suggests that catecholamine production may be either down regulated or de-sensitised in gravid female C. mydas.

  9. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  10. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  11. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

  12. Technical report: Marine mammals study number 6. Movements of weanling and adult female sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-12. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    Ninety-six adult female sea otters and 64 weanling sea otters were instrumented with implanted radio-transmitters in Prince William Sound during 1989-1990 and monitored until November, 1991. Observations of the movements of adult female and weanling sea otters in prince William Sound indicated no tendency for individuals to emigrate from, or immigrate to, the area affected by oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. This finding indicates that the study groups of sea otters categorized as `western Prince William Sound oil-spill treatment` otters and `eastern Prince William Sound control` otters are indeed distinct groups of individuals. No tendency was observed for recently weaned sea otters to exhibit a preference for habitat units based on the likelihood that they would encounter spilled oil therein. Finally, data reported suggest that the recovery of the sea otter population in the oil spill affected region of Prince William Sound will likely be a direct function of the rates of survival and reproduction of the sea otters in the affected habitat with little or no influence from emigration or immigration.

  13. The Spiritual Journey: Black Female Adult Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones Tinner, LaShanta Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the experience of Black female adult learners and how spirituality influenced their academic journeys. Research concerning Black female adult learners in higher education is ostensibly partial. These data offered an extended understanding of Black female adult learners' academic experiences, while also investigating common…

  14. Treatment of adult female acne: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Dréno, B

    2015-06-01

    Acne is affecting an increasing number of adult females and so can no longer be considered as a disease of adolescence. The disease has a greater negative impact on the quality of life of adult females than their younger counterparts. Adult female acne may persist from adolescence or may have its first occurrence once adulthood has been reached. The clinical presentation and pathogenesis of adult female acne may be somewhat different to that of adolescent acne and this may require a different treatment approach. Genetic and hormonal factors are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of adult female acne and the disease is characterized by a chronic evolution with frequent relapses requiring long-term maintenance therapy. Fixed-dose retinoid/antimicrobial combinations may be of interest for the treatment of adult female acne given that subgroup analysis of clinical trials has indicated that they are effective against both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions in these patients. These treatments may also be of interest, given the chronic course of the disease in adult females, the high likelihood of the presence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes and the poor adherence of patients to other long-term therapies. Oral hormonal treatment or isotretinoin may be required in patients with severe acne or disease that is refractory to other treatments. Additional clinical studies of acne treatments specifically conducted in adult female patients are required to increase the evidence base on which future treatment recommendations can be based.

  15. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

  16. Islands in the sea: extreme female natal site fidelity in the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R A; Gales, N J; Lento, G M; Baker, C S

    2008-02-23

    Pinnipeds (seals, fur seals, sea lions and walrus) form large breeding aggregations with females often remaining faithful to a natal site or area. In these cases, females are philopatric to regional areas on broad geographical scales of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. An investigation of variation in a control region sequence of mtDNA in the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) has shown a case of extreme female natal site fidelity that has resulted in almost fixed population differentiation across its range (PhiST=0.93). This high level of population subdivision over short geographical distances (approx. 60 km) is unparalleled in any social marine mammal and reflects the unique life-history traits of this rare species. The high level of population subdivision and exclusive female natal site fidelity has important ramifications for conservation management, and poses many interesting questions of both academic and applied interest. PMID:18042512

  17. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  18. Foraging Behaviour of Juvenile Female New Zealand Sea Lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in Contrasting Environments

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Elaine S.; Augé, Amélie A.; Chilvers, B. Louise; Moore, Antoni B.; Robertson, Bruce C.

    2013-01-01

    Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ) sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. Most of the species is based at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (AI; considered to be marginal foraging habitat), with a recolonizing population on the Otago Peninsula, NZ mainland (considered to be more optimal habitat). We investigated how juvenile NZ sea lions adjust their foraging behaviour in contrasting environments by deploying satellite-linked platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) and time-depth recorders (TDRs) on 2–3 year-old females at AI (2007–2010) and Otago (2009–2010). Juvenile female NZ sea lions exhibited plasticity in body size and behaviour. Otago juveniles were significantly heavier than AI juveniles. Linear mixed effects models showed that study site had the most important effect on foraging behaviour, while mass and age had little influence. AI juveniles spent more time at sea, foraged over larger areas, and dove deeper and longer than Otago juveniles. It is difficult to attribute a specific cause to the observed contrasts in foraging behaviour because these differences may be driven by disparities in habitat/prey characteristics, conspecific density levels or interseasonal variation. Nevertheless, the smaller size and increased foraging effort of AI juveniles, combined with the lower productivity in this region, support the hypothesis that AI are less optimal habitat than Otago. It is more difficult for juveniles to forage in suboptimal habitats given their restricted foraging ability and lower tolerance for food limitation compared to adults. Thus, effective management measures should consider the impacts of low resource environments, along with changes that can alter food

  19. Foraging behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in contrasting environments.

    PubMed

    Leung, Elaine S; Augé, Amélie A; Chilvers, B Louise; Moore, Antoni B; Robertson, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ) sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. Most of the species is based at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (AI; considered to be marginal foraging habitat), with a recolonizing population on the Otago Peninsula, NZ mainland (considered to be more optimal habitat). We investigated how juvenile NZ sea lions adjust their foraging behaviour in contrasting environments by deploying satellite-linked platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) and time-depth recorders (TDRs) on 2-3 year-old females at AI (2007-2010) and Otago (2009-2010). Juvenile female NZ sea lions exhibited plasticity in body size and behaviour. Otago juveniles were significantly heavier than AI juveniles. Linear mixed effects models showed that study site had the most important effect on foraging behaviour, while mass and age had little influence. AI juveniles spent more time at sea, foraged over larger areas, and dove deeper and longer than Otago juveniles. It is difficult to attribute a specific cause to the observed contrasts in foraging behaviour because these differences may be driven by disparities in habitat/prey characteristics, conspecific density levels or interseasonal variation. Nevertheless, the smaller size and increased foraging effort of AI juveniles, combined with the lower productivity in this region, support the hypothesis that AI are less optimal habitat than Otago. It is more difficult for juveniles to forage in suboptimal habitats given their restricted foraging ability and lower tolerance for food limitation compared to adults. Thus, effective management measures should consider the impacts of low resource environments, along with changes that can alter food

  20. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  1. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory.

  2. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults

    PubMed Central

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  3. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  4. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs.

  5. Survival of adult female elk in yellowstone following wolf restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, S.B.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival records for 85 radiocollared adult female elk 1-19 years old to estimate annual survival from March 2000 to February 2004. Weighted average annual survival rates were approximately 0.83 (95% CI = 0.77-0.89) for females 1-15 years old and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.73-0.86) for all females. Our estimates were much lower than the rate of 0.99 observed during 1969-1975 when fewer elk were harvested by hunters, wolves were not present, and other predators were less numerous. Of 33 documented deaths included in our analysis, we attributed 11 to hunter harvest, 14 to predation (10 wolf, 2 unknown, 1 cougar [Puma concolor], and 1 bear [Ursus sp.]), 6 to unknown causes, and 2 to winter-kill. Most deaths occurred from December through March. Estimates of cause-specific annual mortality rates were 0.09 (0.05-0.14) for all predators, 0.08 (0.04-0.13) for hunting, and 0.07 (0.03-0.11) for wolves specifically. Wolf-killed elk were typically older (median = 12 yr) than hunter-killed elk (median = 9 yr, P = 0.03). However, elk that winter outside the park where they were exposed to hunting were also younger (median = 7 yr) than elk that we did not observe outside the park (median = 9 yr, P < 0.01). Consequently, differences in ages of elk killed by wolves and hunters may reflect characteristics of elk exposed to various causes of mortality, as well as differences in susceptibility. Unless survival rates of adult females increase, elk numbers are likely to continue declining. Hunter harvest is the only cause of mortality that is amenable to management at the present time.

  6. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  7. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by

  8. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, T.C.; Mondragon, J.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

  9. Litter Size Predicts Adult Stereotypic Behavior in Female Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice. PMID:23043805

  10. A spontaneous depressive pattern in adult female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Chu, Xunxun; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Lü, Longbao; Yang, Lichuan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Chen, Lin; Feng, Xiaoli; Hu, Xintian

    2015-01-01

    Non-human primates offer unique opportunities to study the development of depression rooted in behavioral and physiological abnormalities. This study observed adult female rhesus macaques within social hierarchies and aimed to characterize the physiological and brain abnormalities accompanying depressive-like behavior. The behaviors of 31 female rhesus macaques from 14 different breeding groups were video recorded, and the footage was analyzed using the focal animal technique. There were 13 monkeys who never displayed huddling behavior (non-huddlers). The remaining 18 monkeys were divided into two groups according the mean time spent in the huddle posture. Four monkeys were designated as high huddlers, whereas the other 14 monkeys were low huddlers. An inverse relationship was discovered between social rank and depression. High huddlers spent more time engaging in physical contact and in close proximity to other monkeys, as well as less time spontaneously and reactively locomoting, than low huddlers and/or non-huddlers. Cortisol levels measured from the hair were elevated significantly in high huddlers compared with low huddlers and non-huddlers, and the measured cortisol levels were specifically higher in high huddlers than subordinate or dominant control monkeys. Regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant and widespread decreases in high huddlers compared with non-huddlers. PMID:26059851

  11. Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting Online, except for the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) that was completed over the telephone. Subjects Participants were 306 female university students aged 18–25 years. Measures MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

  12. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  13. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  14. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  15. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  16. Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  17. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  18. Modeling depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Willard, Stephanie L; Shively, Carol A

    2012-06-01

    Depressive disorders are prevalent, costly, and poorly understood. Male rodents in stress paradigms are most commonly used as animal models, despite the two-fold increased prevalence of depression in women and sex differences in response to stress. Although these models have provided valuable insights, new models are needed to move the field forward. Social stress-associated behavioral depression in adult female cynomolgus macaques closely resembles human depression in physiological, neurobiological, and behavioral characteristics, including reduced body mass, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis perturbations, autonomic dysfunction, increased cardiovascular disease risk, reduced hippocampal volume, altered serotonergic function, decreased activity levels, and increased mortality. In addition, behaviorally depressed monkeys also have low ovarian steroid concentrations, even though they continue to have menstrual cycles. Although this type of ovarian dysfunction has not been reported in depressed women and is difficult to identify, it may be the key to understanding the high prevalence of depression in women. Depressive behavior in female cynomolgus monkeys is naturally occurring and not induced by experimental manipulation. Different social environmental challenges, including isolation vs. subordination, may elicit the depression-like response in some animals and not others. Similarly, social subordination is stressful and depressive behavior is more common in socially subordinate monkeys. Yet, not all subordinates exhibit behavioral depression, suggesting individual differences in sensitivity to specific environmental stressors and enhanced risk of behavioral depression in some individuals. The behavior and neurobiology of subordinates is distinctly different than that of behaviorally depressed monkeys, which affords the opportunity to differentiate between stressed and depressed states. Thus, behaviorally depressed monkeys exhibit numerous physiological

  19. Survival of adult female northern pintails in Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.; Newton, Wesley E.; Gilmer, David S.

    1995-01-01

    North American populations of northern pintails (Anas acuta) declined between 1979 and the early 1990s. To determine if low survival during winter contributed to declines, we estimated winter (last week of Aug-Feb 1987-90) survival for 190 adult (after hatching yr [AHY]) female radio-tagged pintails in late summer in Sacramento Valley (SACV), California. Survival rates did not vary by winter (P = 0.808), among preseason, hunting season, or postseason intervals (P = 0.579), or by body mass at time of capture (P = 0.127). Premolt (wing) pintails (n = 10) tended to survive at a lower rate (0.622, SE = 0.178) than pintails that had already replaced flight feathers (0.887, SE = 0.030) (P = 0.091). The pooled survival (all years) estimate for the 180-day winter was 0.874 (SE = 0.031). Hunting mortality rate (0.041-0.087) and nonhunting mortality rate (0.013-0.076) did not differ among years (P = 0.332) or within years (all P > 0.149). Legal hunting (n = 7), predation (n = 4), cholera (n = 2), illegal shooting (n = 2), botulism (n = 1), and unknown cause (n = 1) accounted for all mortality. Nonwintering survival (annu. survival/winter survival = 0.748) was lower than winter survival; thus, if gains in annual survival are desired for this population, managers should first examine the breeding-migration period for opportunities to achieve increases.

  20. Survival of Common Eider Somateria mollissima adult females and ducklings during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Moran, C.L.; Schamber, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied survival of adult female and duckling Common Eiders during brood rearing at two sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in 1997. Duckling survival to 30 days of age was 19% ?? 10% (95% CI). Seventy-three percent of radio-marked adult females had lost all their ducklings by 30 days after hatch. Duckling survival was not related to hatch date. We estimate an average of 0.84 ducklings fledged per adult female radio-marked at hatch. Most broods moved to salt water within 15 days of hatch. Adult female survival during the first 30 days of brood rearing was 96 ?? 6% (95% CI). Mortality of adult females during brood rearing is probably higher than during other times of the year.

  1. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    PubMed

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women.

  2. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  3. Stature estimation from craniofacial anthropometry in Bangladeshi Garo adult females.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Z; Banu, L A; Alam, M M; Rahman, M F

    2012-07-01

    Estimation of stature is an important tool in forensic examination especially in unknown, highly decomposed, fragmentary and mutilated human remains. When the evidences are skeletal remains; forensic anthropology has put forward means to estimate the stature from the skeletal and even from fragmentary bones. Sometimes, craniofacial remains are brought in for forensic and postmortem examination. In such a situation, estimation of stature becomes equally important along with other parameters like age, sex, race, etc. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. It is well established that a single standard of craniofacial aesthetics is not appropriate for application to diverse racial and ethnic groups. Bangladesh is a country not only for the Bengalis; the country harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Like other ethnic groups, the Garos (study subjects) have their own set of language, social structure, cultures and economic activities and religious values. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Bangladeshi Garo adult females. The study also attempted to find out the correlation of the craniofacial dimensions with stature and to determine multiplication factors. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components. The study was carried out with a total number of one hundred Garo adult females, aged between 25-45 years. Craniofacial dimension such as head circumference, head length, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth and stature were measured using a measuring tape, spreading caliper, steel plate and steel tape and sliding caliper. The data were then statistically

  4. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  5. Oestradiol modulation of cognition in adult female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, A; Chang, J; Metevier, C M; LaClair, M; Meyer, J S; Ferris, C M

    2014-05-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) provides many advantages over traditional rodent and macaque species as a model for human ageing and may be very useful for studying the effects of sex steroids on cognitive and brain ageing. We present the first study examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function in female marmosets. Adult monkeys (3-5 years of age) were trained to a specific learning criterion on a battery of cognitive tasks preoperatively (object discrimination, delayed response with increasing delays and detour reaching with opaque box) and were tested on different versions of these tasks (object reversals, delayed response with randomised delays and detour reaching with clear box) after ovariectomy and simultaneous implantation with 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) (n = 6) or blank (n = 6) Silastic capsules. Acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position task with a 1-s delay was also administered after completion of these tests. E2 -treated monkeys were significantly impaired on the second reversal and showed an increase in perseverative responding from reversals 1-3. Their performance also tended to be worse than that of control monkeys on the delayed response task. Performance acquisition on the delayed matching-to-position tended to be better in E2 -treated relative to control monkeys, although the group difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect of treatment was detected for detour reaching or affiliative behaviours. Overall, the findings indicate that E2 compromises performance on prefrontally-mediated tasks. The suggestion that E2 may improve acquisition on tasks dependent on the hippocampus will require further validation. These results are discussed in the context of dopaminergic and serotonergic signalling. We conclude that the marmoset is a useful new primate model for examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function.

  6. Oestradiol modulation of cognition in adult female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Chang, Jeemin; Metevier, Christina M.; LaClair, Matthew; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Ferris, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) provides many advantages over traditional rodent and macaque species as a model for human aging and may be very valuable to study the effects of sex steroids on cognitive and brain aging. We present the first study examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function in female marmosets. Adult monkeys (3-5 years of age) were trained to a specific learning criterion on a battery of cognitive tasks preoperatively (object discrimination, delayed response with increasing delays and detour reaching with opaque box) and tested on different versions of these tasks (object reversals, delayed response with randomised delays and detour reaching with clear box) following ovariectomy and simultaneous implantation with 17β-oestradiol (E2, n=6) or blank (n=6) Silastic capsules. Acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position task with a 1s delay was also administered following completion of these tests. E2-treated monkeys were significantly impaired on the second Reversal and showed an increase in perseverative responding from Reversals 1 to 3. Their performance also tended to be worse than that of control monkeys on the Delayed Response task. Performance acquisition on the DMP tended to be better in E2-treated relative to control monkeys, but the group difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect of treatment was detected for Detour Reaching or affiliative behaviours. Overall, the findings indicate that E2 compromises performance on prefrontally-mediated tasks. The suggestion that E2 may improve acquisition on tasks dependent on the hippocampus will require further validation. These results are discussed in the context of dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling. We conclude that the marmoset is a useful new primate model to examine the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function. PMID:24617856

  7. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  8. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  9. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott Smith, Emma A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter’s home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization.

  10. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma A Elliott; Newsome, Seth D; Estes, James A; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter's home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization.

  11. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma A Elliott; Newsome, Seth D; Estes, James A; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter's home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization. PMID:25669450

  12. [Characteristics of electrocardiogram in Black Sea bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) females].

    PubMed

    Bohdanova, L M; Matisheva, S K

    2011-01-01

    Methods and technical devices to record ECG are developed. There've been studied ECG traits in sexually mature Black Sea bottlenose dolphin females kept in captivity. It's been shown that sick dolphins have tachycardia, heart rate disturbance, change in directivity of waves and their polarity and extrasystoles. PMID:22420165

  13. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for lifelong neurological decline.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99 (60%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their life-span. PMID:26788781

  14. Juvenile play conditions sexual partner preference in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2011-10-24

    Rats can display a conditioned partner preference for individuals that bear an odor previously associated with sexual reward. Herein we tested the possibility that odors associated with the reward induced by social play in prepubescent rats would induce a conditioned partner preference in adulthood. Two groups of 31-day-old, single-housed female rats were formed, and were given daily 30-min periods of social play with scented females. In one group, almond scent was paired with juvenile play during conditioning trials, whereas lemon scent functioned as a novel odor in the final test. The counterbalanced group received the opposite association. At age 42, females were tested for play partner preference with two males, one almond-scented and one lemon-scented. In both groups females displayed a play partner preference only for males scented with the paired odor. They were ovariectomized, hormone-primed, and at age 55 were tested for sexual partner preference with two scented stud males. Females displayed a sexual preference towards males scented with the paired odor as observed with more visits, solicitations, hops and darts, intromissions and ejaculations. These results indicate that olfactory stimuli paired with juvenile play affects later partner choice for play as well as for sex in female rats.

  15. Depressive Symptoms in Older Female Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C-Y.; Fu, L-Y.; Kroger, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This survey study aims to examine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among primary older female family carers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In total, 350 female family carers aged 55 and older took part and completed the interview in their homes. The survey package contained…

  16. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  17. A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

    To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

  18. To Tell the Truth: What Names Mean to Female Characters in Young Adult Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Caroline S.

    1998-01-01

    Considers the small but important motif of female characters (in young adult books) seeking their appropriate names. Discusses how this step expresses the search to define authenticity in their own terms, an important step toward developing inner voice and self-esteem that adolescent girls can take. Offers examples from several young adult books…

  19. Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

  20. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  1. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Buchinger, T J; Wang, H; Li, W; Johnson, N S

    2013-11-22

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  2. Underwater hearing sensitivity of a male and a female Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; van Schie, Robbert; Verboom, Wim C; de Haan, Dick

    2005-09-01

    The unmasked underwater hearing sensitivities of an 8-year-old male and a 7-year-old female Steller sea lion were measured in a pool, by using behavioral psychophysics. The animals were trained with positive reinforcement to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they did not. The signals were narrow-band, frequency-modulated stimuli with a duration of 600 ms and center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 32 kHz for the male and from 4 to 32 kHz for the female. Detection thresholds at each frequency were measured by varying signal amplitude according to the up-down staircase method. The resulting underwater audiogram (50% detection thresholds) for the male Steller sea lion showed the typical mammalian U-shape. His maximum sensitivity (77 dB re: 1 microPa, rms) occurred at 1 kHz. The range of best hearing (10 dB from the maximum sensitivity) was from 1 to 16 kHz (4 octaves). Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed below 1 kHz and above 16 kHz. The maximum sensitivity of the female (73 dB re: 1 microPa, rms) occurred at 25 kHz. Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed for signals below 16 kHz and above 25 kHz. At frequencies for which both subjects were tested, hearing thresholds of the male were significantly higher than those of the female. The hearing sensitivity differences between the male and female Steller sea lion in this study may be due to individual differences in sensitivity between the subjects or due to sexual dimorphism in hearing. PMID:16240840

  3. Underwater hearing sensitivity of a male and a female Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; van Schie, Robbert; Verboom, Wim C.; de Haan, Dick

    2005-09-01

    The unmasked underwater hearing sensitivities of an 8-year-old male and a 7-year-old female Steller sea lion were measured in a pool, by using behavioral psychophysics. The animals were trained with positive reinforcement to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they did not. The signals were narrow-band, frequency-modulated stimuli with a duration of 600 ms and center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 32 kHz for the male and from 4 to 32 kHz for the female. Detection thresholds at each frequency were measured by varying signal amplitude according to the up-down staircase method. The resulting underwater audiogram (50% detection thresholds) for the male Steller sea lion showed the typical mammalian U-shape. His maximum sensitivity (77 dB re: 1 μPa, rms) occurred at 1 kHz. The range of best hearing (10 dB from the maximum sensitivity) was from 1 to 16 kHz (4 octaves). Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed below 1 kHz and above 16 kHz. The maximum sensitivity of the female (73 dB re: 1 μPa, rms) occurred at 25 kHz. Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed for signals below 16 kHz and above 25 kHz. At frequencies for which both subjects were tested, hearing thresholds of the male were significantly higher than those of the female. The hearing sensitivity differences between the male and female Steller sea lion in this study may be due to individual differences in sensitivity between the subjects or due to sexual dimorphism in hearing.

  4. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    PubMed

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations.

  5. Second-Language Acquisition, Culture Shock, and Language Stress of Adult Female Latina Students in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the educational, cultural, and linguistic adjustments and experiences encountered by Hispanic adult females in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the relation of these experiences to the variables of language, culture, and education of adult Hispanic females. Adult ESL learners…

  6. Adult: young ratio influences song acquisition in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Hausberger, Martine; Henry, Laurence; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2009-05-01

    One parallel between humans and most songbirds is the fact that young require social interactions with an adult to acquire specific vocalizations. Songbirds are considered good models for comparative studies, although reports to date concern almost exclusively male songbirds. In addition, adult influence on vocal communication is generally investigated only in restricted social contexts (usually dyads). Here, the authors analyzed song learning and spatial associations among young female starlings that were maintained for 1 year in dyads (1 adult, 1 young), triads (2 adults, 1 young) or a larger group (7 young, 2 adults). Segregation by age was seen in the triads and in the larger group. The influence of adults (proportion of songs copied from adults) decreased as the young adult ratio increased. Unusual temporal features were observed in young maintained in triads and young neglected copying adult songs in the presence of peers. These results are among the first to explore the circumstances under which females learn and from whom they learn. They also add new insight to a wide range of questions about social influences on learning. PMID:19450026

  7. Female Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Female Reproductive Complications

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Monika L.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Patterson, Briana; Casillas, Jacqueline S.; Constine, Louis S.; Hijiya, Nobuko; Kenney, Lisa B.; Leonard, Marcia; Lockart, Barbara A.; Likes, Wendy; Green, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As more young female patients with cancer survive their primary disease, concerns about reproductive health related to primary therapy gain relevance. Cancer therapy can often affect reproductive organs, leading to impaired pubertal development, hormonal regulation, fertility, and sexual function, affecting quality of life. Methods The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) are evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of late effects of therapeutic exposures. The guidelines are updated every 2 years by a multidisciplinary panel based on current literature review and expert consensus. Results This review summarizes the current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of female reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Experimental pretreatment as well as post-treatment fertility preservation strategies, including barriers and ethical considerations, which are not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Conclusion Ongoing research will continue to inform COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care of female survivors of childhood cancer to improve their health and quality of life. PMID:23382474

  8. Asthma in an Adult Female Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Liza S; Simon, Bradley; Rawlins, Gilda; Beierschmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    A 9-y-old, colony-bred, female vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) presented with a 6-y history of open-mouth breathing, tachypnea, and sibilant wheezing. These symptoms did not significantly affect her activity or quality of life. Thoracic radiographs and results of bronchoalveolar lavage supported the diagnosis of asthma. Treatment comprising intramuscular prednisolone (tapered over 2 mo from twice daily to every other day), inhaled salmeterol–fluticasone (25 µg–250 µg per actuation twice daily) by mask, and a metered dose inhaler was successful in restoring a normal respiratory pattern. Despite the availability of several primate models of human asthma, this case represents the first report of spontaneous asthma in a NHP. PMID:26884413

  9. p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation in female sea lions of the California Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, John P.; Glaser, David

    2002-05-01

    An area of sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf and in Santa Monica Bay off Los Angeles, CA is contaminated with DDE and other breakdown products of DDT as a result of discharges of DDT through the Whites Point outfall. Elevated concentrations of DDE have been found in the water column of the Palos Verdes Shelf and in various fish species inhabiting the shelf and Santa Monica Bay. High concentrations have also been found in California sea lions from San Miguel Island and sea lion carcasses on Santa Catalina Island. These islands are located some distance from the Palos Verdes shelf and Santa Monica Bay. It was the purpose of this study to determine if it is likely that the Palos Verdes Shelf/Santa Monica Bay sediments were the principal source of the DDE in the Channel Island sea lions via a pathway from sediments to water and fish preyed on by sea lions. A time variable, age dependent, physiologically based toxicokinetic model of female California sea lions was developed. Mass and energy balance equations describe the uptake and loss of contaminants. The contaminants are partitioned among multiple body compartments, including lipid and non-lipid body tissue and milk. Contaminants are distributed into a fetus of females. Physiological and toxicokinetic data were used to establish rates of growth, respiration, reproduction and lactation, internal partitioning of DDE, efficiency of DDE uptake and rates of DDE excretion. The model was used to estimate the likely DDE exposure history of the sea lions in view of their DDE body burdens. Field-measured dietary composition and prey contaminant levels were then used to establish potential exposure to DDE from various regions within the Southern California Bight. Comparison of the estimated exposure history with that attainable from the various regions indicated that the more highly contaminated lactating females were exposed to prey at levels found only on the Palos Verdes Shelf and in Santa Monica Bay. Thus, it is likely

  10. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  11. Motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment: an application of Q-methodology

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xia; Cai, Jiaxin; Lin, Beibei; Yao, Linjie; Lin, Feiou

    2015-01-01

    Background Motivation is the impetus for patients to seek orthodontic treatment, affecting adherence, treatment outcomes, and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment, and classify the patients according to their motivations. Methods This study used Q-methodology as the main tool. Q-samples were collected and categorized (35 items). Forty-two adult female patients were interviewed before treatment as the P-sample, and their responses were categorized into the Q-methodology grid. Participants were asked to rank-order a set of 35 statements (Q-sample) from “agree most” to “disagree most” (Q-sorting). The finished Q-grids were analyzed using PQ method 2.35. Results Four main factors were identified based on how adult female patients ranked statements: factor 1, patients who focus on their self-perception of their appearance; factor 2, patients who are concerned about the esthetics and function of their teeth; factor 3, patients who are easily influenced by others; factor 4, patients who want to improve their confidence and avoid negative thoughts caused by their teeth. The remaining patients who had other views did not match any of the above four groups. Conclusion The motivations of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. This study found that most adult female patients fell into one of four typical factor groups. Our findings may improve the adherence of adult female patients by developing a more ideal treatment program. PMID:25709410

  12. Differential stress reactivity in intact and ovariectomized prepubertal and adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Russell D; Lee, Susan J; McEwen, Bruce S

    2004-01-01

    The pubertal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has received relatively little experimental attention. As puberty is marked by an increase in the susceptibility to various psychiatric disorders that may be related to HPA dysfunction, it is imperative to elucidate the pubertal development of this neuroendocrine axis. To date, the limited research in this area has been conducted primarily on males. Presently, we investigated stress responsiveness, as measured by both stress hormones (e.g., corticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone) and gonadal steroids, in intact and ovariectomized prepubertal and adult female rats before and after a 30-min session of restraint stress. We report here that intact prepubertal females exhibit an extended corticosterone stress response (30-45 min longer) compared to intact adults. Moreover, ovariectomized prepubertal females continue to exhibit a prolonged stress-induced corticosterone and progesterone response compared to ovariectomized adults, indicating these protracted responses prior to puberty are independent of ovarian hormones. ACTH levels were not significantly different between intact and ovariectomized prepubertal and adult animals at all the post-stress time points measured, suggesting that the prolonged corticosterone response in prepubertal females is due to an enhanced sensitivity to ACTH at the level of the adrenal cortex. Taken together, these data indicate that stress reactivity changes dramatically during puberty in females. Furthermore, these data demonstrate additional development of the HPA axis during pubertal maturation, resulting in a more quickly terminated stress response in adulthood.

  13. Female sea lamprey shift orientation toward a conspecific chemical cue to escape a sensory trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas; Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    The sensory trap model of signal evolution hypothesizes that signalers adapt to exploit a cue used by the receiver in another context. Although exploitation of receiver biases can result in conflict between the sexes, deceptive signaling systems that are mutually beneficial drive the evolution of stable communication systems. However, female responses in the nonsexual and sexual contexts may become uncoupled if costs are associated with exhibiting a similar response to a trait in both contexts. Male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) signal with a mating pheromone, 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), which may be a match to a juvenile cue used by females during migration. Upstream movement of migratory lampreys is partially guided by 3kPZS, but females only move toward 3kPZS with proximal accuracy during spawning. Here, we use in-stream behavioral assays paired with gonad histology to document the transition of female preference for juvenile- and male-released 3kPZS that coincides with the functional shift of 3kPZS as a migratory cue to a mating pheromone. Females became increasingly biased toward the source of synthesized 3kPZS as their maturation progressed into the reproductive phase, at which point, a preference for juvenile odor (also containing 3kPZS naturally) ceased to exist. Uncoupling of female responses during migration and spawning makes the 3kPZS communication system a reliable means of synchronizing mate search. The present study offers a rare example of a transition in female responses to a chemical cue between nonsexual and sexual contexts, provides insights into the origins of stable communication signaling systems.

  14. Early prenatal androgenization results in diminished ovarian reserve in adult female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, D.A.; Patankar, M.S.; Barnett, D.K.; Lesnick, T.G.; Hutcherson, B.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early prenatal androgenization (PA) accelerates follicle differentiation and impairs embryogenesis in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) undergoing FSH therapy for IVF. To determine whether androgen excess in utero affects follicle development over time, this study examines whether PA exposure, beginning at gestational days 40–44 (early treated) or 100–115 (late treated), alters the decline in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels with age in adult female rhesus monkeys and perturbs their ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) therapy for IVF. METHODS Thirteen normal (control), 11 early-treated and 6 late-treated PA adult female monkeys had serum AMH levels measured at random times of the menstrual cycle or anovulatory period. Using some of the same animals, basal serum AMH, gonadotrophins and steroids were also measured in six normal, five early-treated and three late-treated PA female monkeys undergoing FSH therapy for IVF during late-reproductive life (>17 years); serum AMH also was measured on day of HCG administration and at oocyte retrieval. RESULTS Serum AMH levels in early-treated PA females declined with age to levels that were significantly lower than those of normal (P ≤ 0.05) and late-treated PA females (P ≤ 0.025) by late-reproductive life. Serum AMH levels positively predicted numbers of total/mature oocytes retrieved, with early-treated PA females having the lowest serum AMH levels, fewest oocytes retrieved and lowest percentage of females with fertilized oocytes that cleaved. CONCLUSIONS Based on these animals, early PA appears to program an exaggerated decline in ovarian reserve with age, suggesting that epigenetically induced hormonal factors during fetal development may influence the cohort size of ovarian follicles after birth. PMID:19740899

  15. The Experiences and Needs of Female Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-01-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data from n = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health,…

  16. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  17. Balancing Work, Family, and Student Roles: A Phenomenological Study of the Adult Female Graduate Online Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Charlene X.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of female adult learners pursuing graduate degrees online. As online graduate programs have become increasingly popular and more readily available in the last decade, more women than men are enrolling in online graduate programs in addition to…

  18. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  19. When Your "Problem" Becomes Mine: Adult Female Siblings' Perspectives of Having a Brother with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompeo, Michelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study is a retrospective look at adult female siblings' perspectives of their childhoods and present identities based on having a brother with a disability. This paper focuses on siblings' experiences within educational and public domains, and how such experiences have shaped their personalities and career choices. Qualitative findings were…

  20. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  1. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  2. Are Males and Females Sexually Abused as Children Socially Anxious Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N.

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250…

  3. Consequences of long-distance swimming and travel over deep-water pack ice for a female polar bear during a year of extreme sea ice retreat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.; Ben-David, M.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) prefer to live on Arctic sea ice but may swim between ice floes or between sea ice and land. Although anecdotal observations suggest that polar bears are capable of swimming long distances, no data have been available to describe in detail long distance swimming events or the physiological and reproductive consequences of such behavior. Between an initial capture in late August and a recapture in late October 2008, a radio-collared adult female polar bear in the Beaufort Sea made a continuous swim of 687 km over 9 days and then intermittently swam and walked on the sea ice surface an additional 1,800 km. Measures of movement rate, hourly activity, and subcutaneous and external temperature revealed distinct profiles of swimming and walking. Between captures, this polar bear lost 22% of her body mass and her yearling cub. The extraordinary long distance swimming ability of polar bears, which we confirm here, may help them cope with reduced Arctic sea ice. Our observation, however, indicates that long distance swimming in Arctic waters, and travel over deep water pack ice, may result in high energetic costs and compromise reproductive fitness. ?? 2011 US Government.

  4. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-11-09

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility.

  5. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  6. Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things.

  7. Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things. PMID:22549480

  8. Tickling in juvenile but not adult female rats conditions sexual partner preference.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Pfaus, James G; López-Meraz, Maria Leonor; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-20

    Female rats display a conditioned partner preference for males that bear odors paired with different types of rewarding unconditioned stimuli (UCS). Here we examined whether tickling constitutes a rewarding UCS that supports the development of partner preferences. In Experiment 1, we tested the possibility that odors associated with a tickling UCS in prepubescent rats would induce a conditioned partner preference in adulthood. Two groups were formed with 31-day-old, single-housed females, tickled for 6 min daily for 10 days, by a hand that wore a scented glove (almond or lemon). At 47 days of age, females were ovariectomized (OVX), hormone-primed (EB+P), and tested for sexual partner preference with two scented stud males (one almond and one lemon). In each group, females displayed a sexual preference toward males bearing the odor paired with tickling, as observed with longer visits, more solicitations, hops & darts, and receiving more intromissions and ejaculations from the preferred male. In Experiment 2, we used 3-month old, OVX, hormone-primed rats conditioned every 4 days for 10 trials. In contrast to juvenile females, adult females failed to prefer males that bore the odor paired with tickling but instead preferred the novel male. These results suggest that tickling has opposite age-dependent effects in the conditioning of partner preference. Tickling in juvenile females appears to act as a rewarding UCS, whereas in adult females it may act as an aversive UCS. Further research is needed to understand brain mechanisms that might account for such differences.

  9. The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17β-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success.

  10. The Maternal Legacy: Female Identity Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

    PubMed

    Reneker, Jaymie L; Kamel, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination, the incubation environment plays a key role in determining offspring sex ratios. Given that global temperatures have warmed approximately 0.6 °C in the last century, it is necessary to consider how organisms will adjust to climate change. To better understand the degree to which mothers influence the sex ratios of their offspring, we use 24 years of nesting data for individual female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) observed on Bald Head Island, North Carolina. We find that maternal identity is the best predictor of nest sex ratio in univariate and multivariate predictive models. We find significant variability in estimated nest sex ratios among mothers, but a high degree of consistency within mothers, despite substantial spatial and temporal thermal variation. Our results suggest that individual differences in nesting preferences are the main driver behind divergences in nest sex ratios. As such, a female's ability to plastically adjust her nest sex ratios in response to environmental conditions is constrained, potentially limiting how individuals behaviorally mitigate the effects of environmental change. Given that many loggerhead populations already show female-biased offspring sex ratios, understanding maternal behavioral responses is critical for predicting the future of long-lived species vulnerable to extinction. PMID:27363786

  11. The Maternal Legacy: Female Identity Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

    PubMed

    Reneker, Jaymie L; Kamel, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination, the incubation environment plays a key role in determining offspring sex ratios. Given that global temperatures have warmed approximately 0.6 °C in the last century, it is necessary to consider how organisms will adjust to climate change. To better understand the degree to which mothers influence the sex ratios of their offspring, we use 24 years of nesting data for individual female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) observed on Bald Head Island, North Carolina. We find that maternal identity is the best predictor of nest sex ratio in univariate and multivariate predictive models. We find significant variability in estimated nest sex ratios among mothers, but a high degree of consistency within mothers, despite substantial spatial and temporal thermal variation. Our results suggest that individual differences in nesting preferences are the main driver behind divergences in nest sex ratios. As such, a female's ability to plastically adjust her nest sex ratios in response to environmental conditions is constrained, potentially limiting how individuals behaviorally mitigate the effects of environmental change. Given that many loggerhead populations already show female-biased offspring sex ratios, understanding maternal behavioral responses is critical for predicting the future of long-lived species vulnerable to extinction.

  12. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart.

  13. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M.; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well

  14. Protein Restriction during Pregnancy Induces Hypertension in Adult Female Rat Offspring—Influence of Estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Sathishkumar, K; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that gestational dietary protein restriction in rats causes gender-related differences in development of offspring's blood pressure (BP) that is more pronounced in the males than females. Since such effects may depend on sex hormones, we investigated the role of estradiol in the development of hypertension in female offspring of protein restricted dams. Female offspring of pregnant rats fed normal (20%) or protein restricted (6%) casein diets throughout pregnancy were kept either, intact, ovariectomized or ovariectomized with estradiol supplementation. BP, estradiol and testosterone levels and vascular estrogen receptor (ER) were examined. BP was significantly higher and plasma estradiol levels were significantly lower by 34% in intact protein restricted female offspring compared to corresponding controls. Further decrease in estradiol levels by ovariectomy exacerbated hypertension in the protein restricted females with an earlier onset and more prominent elevation in BP compared to controls. Estradiol supplementation in ovariectomized protein restricted females significantly reversed ovariectomy-induced hypertension but did not normalize BP to control levels. The hypertensive protein restricted females have reduced vascular ERα expression that was unaffected by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement. In addition, the testosterone levels were significantly higher by 2.4-, 3.4-, and 2.8-fold in intact, ovariectomized and estradiol replaced protein restricted females compared to corresponding controls. Our data show that: 1) hypertension in protein restricted adult female offspring is associated with reduced plasma estradiol levels, 2) estradiol protects and limits the severity of hypertension in protein restricted females and contribute for sexual dimorphism, and 3) Estradiol replacement fails to completely reverse hypertension, which may be related to limited availability of vascular ERα receptors and/or increased circulating testosterone

  15. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    PubMed

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  16. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3μg/L as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1928, 89, and 435 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis. PMID:25929836

  17. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  18. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Weber, Gregory J.; Sepúlveda, Maria S.; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3 µg/L as defined by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 µg/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7 dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1853, 84, and 419 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30 µg/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis. PMID:25929836

  19. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3μg/L as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1928, 89, and 435 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

  20. Social stress-associated depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Register, Thomas C; Friedman, David P; Morgan, Timothy M; Thompson, Jalonda; Lanier, Tasha

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a behavior pattern in adult female cynomolgus monkeys that has several behavioral and physiological characteristics in common with human depression including reduced body fat, low levels of activity, high heart rate, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, and increased mortality. Under certain circumstances, this depressive behavior appears more common in socially stressed subordinate, than dominant, females. This is the first animal model of social stress-related depression in females and the first primate model of adult depression. It is important to have a female animal model of depression because women are more likely to experience a clinically significant depression than men, and depression in women is often associated with changes in reproductive system function. This model is particularly useful because these monkeys have menstrual cycles that are similar to those of women, and those that exhibit depressive behavior have relatively low levels of ovarian steroids. These monkeys may be a useful model of reproductive system-associated mood disorders in females.

  1. Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-03-01

    Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms

  2. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  3. Young Women's Leadership Alliance: Youth-Adult Partnerships in an All-Female After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Meyer, Beth; Bean, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article describes program strategies and adult practices that can build youth-adult partnerships. In particular, it focuses on strategies to empower girls in all-female after-school programs. The Young Women's Leadership Alliance has involved 164 girl leaders and five adult women leaders over three years. To build the partnerships, adults…

  4. Individual and molecular level effects of produced water contaminants on nauplii and adult females of Calanus finmarchicus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Louise Kiel; Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Song, You; Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Hansen, Elisabeth Lindbo; Brooks, Steven J; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and extraction of petroleum products is expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishment of the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea may potentially introduce a new source of contamination to the area, as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine effects of exposure to several compounds found in produced water-a mixture of selected organic compounds (APW), radium-226 ((226)Ra), barium (Ba), and a scale inhibitor-on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus. Experiments were performed using exposure concentrations at realistic levels based on those detected in the vicinity of known discharge points. The influence of lethal and sublethal effects on early life stages was determined and significantly lower survival in the APW exposure groups was found. In the Ba treatment the life stage development did not proceed to the same advanced stages as observed in the control (filtered sea water). The scale inhibitor and (226)Ra treatments showed no significant difference from control. In addition, adult females were exposed to APW, (226)Ra, and a mixture of the two. Both individual-level effects (egg production and feeding) and molecular-level effects (gene expression) were assessed. On the individual level endpoints, only treatments including APW produced an effect compared to control. However, on the molecular level the possibility that also (226)Ra induced toxicologically relevant effects cannot be ruled out. PMID:27484140

  5. [Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

    2014-01-01

    A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

  6. Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.

  7. A Case of Strangulated Urethral Prolapse in a Premenopausal Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Morris L.; Al-Omar, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Urethral prolapse in a premenopausal adult female is exceedingly rare. This paper describes a case of strangulated urethral prolapse presenting as a urethral mass in an unusual demographic and reviews the literature on etiology and management. Only a few cases have occurred in women of reproductive age. The etiology is likely multifactorial. Treatment with surgical excision provides good results in the majority of cases. PMID:27413572

  8. Pesticide Methoxychlor Promotes the Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult-Onset Disease through the Female Germline

    PubMed Central

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M. Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

  9. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  10. Perinatal iron deficiency affects locomotor behavior and water maze performance in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Stephane L; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Adams, Michael A; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2008-05-01

    Iron deficiency during early growth and development adversely affects multiple facets of cognition and behavior in adult rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the learning and locomotor behavioral deficits observed in male and female rats in the absence of depressed brain iron levels at the time of testing. Adult female Wistar rats were fed either an iron-enriched diet (>225 mg/kg Fe) or an iron-restricted diet (3 mg/kg Fe) for 2 wk prior to and throughout gestation, and a nonpurified diet (270 mg/kg Fe) thereafter. Open-field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM) testing began when the offspring reached early adulthood (12 wk). At birth, perinatal iron-deficient (PID) offspring had reduced (P < 0.001) hematocrits (-33%), liver iron stores (-83%), and brain iron concentrations (-38%) compared with controls. Although there were no differences in iron status in adults, the PID males and females exhibited reduced OF exploratory behavior, albeit only PID males had an aversion to the center of the apparatus (2.5 vs. 6.9% in controls, P < 0.001). Additionally, PID males required greater path lengths to reach the hidden platform in the MWM, had reduced spatial bias for the target quadrant, and had a tendency for greater thigmotactic behavior in the probe trials (16.5 vs. 13.0% in controls; P = 0.06). PID females had slower swim speeds in all testing phases (-6.2%; P < 0.001). These results suggest that PID has detrimental programming effects in both male and female rats, although the behaviors suggest different mechanisms may be involved in each sex.

  11. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  12. The effects of water temperature on the energetic costs of juvenile and adult California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): the importance of skeletal muscle thermogenesis for thermal balance.

    PubMed

    Liwanag, H E M; Williams, T M; Costa, D P; Kanatous, S B; Davis, R W; Boyd, I L

    2009-12-01

    As highly mobile marine predators, many pinniped species routinely encounter a wide range of water temperatures during foraging and in association with seasonal, geographical and climatic changes. To determine how such variation in environmental temperature may impact energetic costs in otariids, we determined the thermal neutral zone of adult and juvenile California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) by measuring resting metabolic rate using open-flow respirometry. Five adult female (body mass range =82.2-107.2 kg) and four juvenile (body mass=26.2-36.5 kg) sea lions were examined over experimental water temperatures ranging from 0 to 20 degrees C (adults) or 5 to 20 degrees C (juveniles). The metabolic rate of adult sea lions averaged 6.4+/-0.64 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1) when resting within the thermal neutral zone. The lower critical temperature of adults was 6.4+/-2.2 degrees C, approximately 4 degrees C lower than sea surface temperatures routinely encountered off coastal California. In comparison, juvenile sea lions did not demonstrate thermal neutrality within the range of water temperatures examined. Resting metabolic rate of the younger animals, 6.3+/-0.53 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1), increased as water temperature approached 12 degrees C, and suggested a potential thermal limitation in the wild. To determine whether muscle thermogenesis during activity could mitigate this limitation, we measured the active metabolic rate of juveniles swimming at water temperature (T(water))=5, 12 and 20 degrees C. No significant difference (F=0.377, P=0.583) in swimming metabolic rate was found among water temperatures, suggesting that thermal disadvantages due to small body size in juvenile sea lions may be circumvented by recycling endogenous heat during locomotor activity.

  13. The Maternal Legacy: Female Identity Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Reneker, Jaymie L.; Kamel, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination, the incubation environment plays a key role in determining offspring sex ratios. Given that global temperatures have warmed approximately 0.6 °C in the last century, it is necessary to consider how organisms will adjust to climate change. To better understand the degree to which mothers influence the sex ratios of their offspring, we use 24 years of nesting data for individual female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) observed on Bald Head Island, North Carolina. We find that maternal identity is the best predictor of nest sex ratio in univariate and multivariate predictive models. We find significant variability in estimated nest sex ratios among mothers, but a high degree of consistency within mothers, despite substantial spatial and temporal thermal variation. Our results suggest that individual differences in nesting preferences are the main driver behind divergences in nest sex ratios. As such, a female’s ability to plastically adjust her nest sex ratios in response to environmental conditions is constrained, potentially limiting how individuals behaviorally mitigate the effects of environmental change. Given that many loggerhead populations already show female-biased offspring sex ratios, understanding maternal behavioral responses is critical for predicting the future of long-lived species vulnerable to extinction. PMID:27363786

  14. Steady as He Goes: At-Sea Movement of Adult Male Australian Sea Lions in a Dynamic Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Andrew D.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region. PMID:24086338

  15. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Andrew D; Harcourt, Robert G; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  16. Prepubertal exposure to bisphenol-A induces ERα upregulation and hyperplasia in adult gerbil female prostate.

    PubMed

    Campos, Mônica S; Galvão, André L V; Rodríguez, Daniel A O; Biancardi, Manoel F; Marques, Mara R; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-06-01

    Prostate physiology is highly dependent on oestrogenic and androgenic homeostasis. Interferences in this equilibrium, especially in early periods of life, may disrupt the prostate and increase the susceptibility to the development of diseases with ageing. Taking this into account, and considering the increase of environmental chemicals with endocrine-disrupting potential such as bisphenol-A (BPA), this study aimed to evaluate the prostates of adult female gerbils exposed to BPA and BPA plus testosterone from pubertal to adult periods. Morphological, stereological and chemical analyses revealed that long-term BPA exposure, even in environmental dosages, increases the proliferative status of the prostate, increases the number of ERα-positive stromal cells and elicits the development of prostatic hyperplasia in adult female gerbils. Moreover, we also observed that the association with testosterone did not increase the proliferative status of the gland, which shows that low levels of BPA are enough to cause an oestrogenic disruption of the prostate in young adults. This evidence suggests that this oestrogenic endocrine disruptor may increase the susceptibility to prostatic disorders with ageing. PMID:26098999

  17. Males and females gonad fatty acids of the sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula (Echinodermata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pita, Inés; García, Francisco J.; Pita, María-Luisa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 was higher in testes than in ovaries. These differences between sexes probably indicate different requirements of males and females during gametogenesis although the presence of a large number of gametes in the mature gonad may also have influences on fatty acid composition. Significant differences in gonad fatty acid profiles where also found when individuals of P. lividus collected at a location of the Mediterranean region were compared with specimens collected at the Atlantic coast. The most remarkable changes were the lower levels of 14:0, 18:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 and the higher values of 20:1n-11, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 found in males and females of the Mediterranean specimens compared to those of the Atlantic coast. These differences probably reflect the differences in potential food sources at each location.

  18. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  19. Fine-scale pathways used by adult sea lampreys during riverine spawning migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson; McLaughlin, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Better knowledge of upstream migratory patterns of spawning Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive species in the Great Lakes, is needed to improve trapping for population control and assessment. Although trapping of adult Sea Lampreys provides the basis for estimates of lake-wide abundance that are used to evaluate the Sea Lamprey control program, traps have only been operated at dams due to insufficient knowledge of Sea Lamprey behavior in unobstructed channels. Acoustic telemetry and radiotelemetry were used to obtain movement tracks for 23 Sea Lampreys in 2008 and 18 Sea Lampreys in 2009 at two locations in the Mississagi River, Ontario. Cabled hydrophone arrays provided two-dimensional geographic positions from acoustic transmitters at 3-s intervals; depth-encoded radio tag detections provided depths. Upstream movements occurred at dusk or during the night (2015–0318 hours). Sea Lampreys were closely associated with the river bottom and showed some preference to move near banks in shallow glide habitats, suggesting that bottom-oriented gears could selectively target adult Sea Lampreys in some habitats. However, Sea Lampreys were broadly distributed across the river channel, suggesting that the capture efficiency of nets and traps in open channels would depend heavily on the proportion of the channel width covered. Lack of vertical movements into the water column may have reflected lamprey preference for low water velocities, suggesting that energy conservation was more beneficial for lampreys than was vertical searching in rivers. Improved understanding of Sea Lamprey movement will assist in the development of improved capture strategies for their assessment and control in the Great Lakes.

  20. Television viewing is not predictive of Body Mass Index in Black and Hispanic young adult females

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Walls, Courtney; Gooding, Holly C.; Field, Alison E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have observed that television viewing is predictive of obesity and weight gain. We examined whether the cross-sectional association between television viewing and body mass index (BMI) varied by racial/ethnic subgroups among young women in Wave III (collected in 2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the relationship between TV viewing and BMI among 6,049 females while controlling for socio-demographic and health attributes. We stratified the sample by race/ethnicity to better understand the association between TV viewing and BMI across different groups. Black and Hispanic females had higher BMIs (Black: 28.5 kg/m2, Hispanic: 27.3 kg/m2, White: 26.0kg/m2) than White females while Black females reported higher numbers of hours spent watching TV (Black: 14.7 hrs/wk, Hispanic: 10.6 hrs/wk, White: 11.2 hrs/wk) when compared to their White and Hispanic peers. TV viewing was positively associated with BMI (β=0.79, p=0.003 for 8–14 v. ≤7 hrs/wk; β=1.18, p=0.01 for >14 v. ≤ 7 hrs/wk) independent of race/ethnicity, age, maternal education, history of pregnancy, parental obesity, and household income. However, in models stratified by race/ethnicity, increased TV viewing was associated with increased BMI only among White females. TV viewing was not predictive of higher BMI in Black or Hispanic young adult females. Among Black and Hispanic females, counseling to decrease TV viewing may be important but insufficient for promoting weight loss. PMID:19876003

  1. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  2. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  3. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  4. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  5. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  6. Salivary Testosterone Measurement by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Adult Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Keevil, BG; MacDonald, P; Macdowall, W; Lee, DM; Wu, FCW

    2016-01-01

    Background Salivary testosterone (Sal-T) may be a useful surrogate of serum free testosterone. The study aims were to use a novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to determine whether Sal-T concentrations accurately reflect Sal-T concentrations in both sexes and to investigate practical aspects of sample collection. Methods Saliva and serum samples were collected in 104 male and 91 female subjects. A more sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was developed to enable Sal-T quantitation in the low concentrations found in females. Saliva (200 μL) was extracted with 1 mL of methyl-tert-butyl ether following the addition of D5-testosterone. Quantitation was performed using a Waters TQ-S mass spectrometer. Results The assay achieved a lower limit of quantification of 5pmol/L, sufficiently sensitive to measure testosterone in female saliva. Sal-T showed a diurnal variation but samples taken at weekly and monthly intervals showed no significant differences. Sal-T was stable at ambient temperature for up to 5 days, after freeze-thawing and 3 years frozen storage. Reference intervals for Sal-T were 93-378 pmol/L in males and 5-46 pmol/L in females. Sal-T correlated significantly with serum calculated free-T in males (r=0.71, P<0.001) and in females (r=0.39, P<0.001). Conclusions These results confirm that testosterone can be reliably and accurately measured by LC-MS/MS in both adult male and female saliva samples. These results lay the foundation for further exploration of the clinical application of Sal- T as a reliable alternative to serum testosterone in the diagnosis and management of androgen disorders and assessment of androgen status in clinical research. PMID:24194586

  7. A novel hormone is required for the development of reproductive phenotypes in adult female crabs.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Chung, J Sook

    2014-01-01

    The crustacean male-specific androgenic hormone is widely accepted as a key factor in sexual differentiation and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. However, the mechanism by which the plethora of different reproductive strategies are controlled and executed in crustaceans is not known. We discovered in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, a hitherto unknown neurohormone, named crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), in distinct neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk ganglia. CFSH is highly expressed in females but weakly in males, and its crucial role in developing adult female phenotypes has now been established. CFSH cDNA encodes a 225-amino acid (aa) novel protein composed of a 23-aa predicted signal peptide, 33-aa precursor-related peptide and 167-aa mature protein that did not match any other sequence in GenBank. CFSH RNA interference knockdown by multiple administrations of double-stranded RNA at the prepubertal stage causes abnormal development of brooding and mating systems upon puberty. These systems include a pair of gonopores and an egg attachment system for brooding, comprised of an enlarged semicircular abdomen and ovigerous setae. The ovigerous setae in CFSH knocked-down females were fewer and 50% shorter and the gonopores were either significantly smaller than those of controls, misplaced, or absent. We also identified CFSH in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, a species that shares a similar reproductive strategy with C. sapidus. Together, our data provide the first evidence for the presence of a female hormone in crustaceans and its importance in positively controlling anatomic features associated with brooding and mating systems. From an evolutionary standpoint, the endocrine control supporting a female-specific reproductive strategy, as previously described for many vertebrate species, has now been demonstrated for the first time in crustaceans. PMID:24280057

  8. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  9. The effects of prenatal PCBs on adult female paced mating reproductive behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Rebecca M.; Juenger, Thomas E.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of toxicants that persist in measurable quantities in human and wildlife tissues, despite their ban in production in 1977. Some PCB mixtures can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of hormones in the brain and periphery. When exposure to hormonally active substances such as PCBs occurs during vulnerable developmental periods, particularly prenatally or in early postnatal life, they can disrupt sex-specific patterning of the brain, inducing permanent changes that can later be manifested as improper sexual behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor (A) 1221 on adult female reproductive behaviors in a dose-response model in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Using a paced mating paradigm that permits the female to set the timing of mating and control contact with the male during copulation, we were able to uncover significant differences in female-typical sexual activities in A1221-exposed females. Specifically, A1221 causes significant effects on mating trial pacing, vocalizations, ambulation and the female’s likelihood to mate. The results further demonstrate that the intermediate treatment group has the greatest number of disrupted endpoints, suggestive of non-linear dose responses to A1221. These data demonstrate that the behavioral phenotype in adulthood is disrupted by low, ecologically relevant exposures to PCBs, and the results have implications for reproductive success and health in wildlife and women. PMID:17274994

  10. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  11. Sexual Abuse Perpetrated by Adult and Juvenile Females: An Ultimate Attempt to Resolve a Conflict Associated with Maternal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, M.; Auclair, N.; Jacob, M.; Carpentier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The purpose of this article is to report the descriptive and phenomenological aspects of adult females (AF) and juvenile females (JF) who sexually abuse children and adolescents. A major focus is to study the relational problems during childhood and adulthood of this specific population and how they echo the relational aspects of their…

  12. Mixed-Gender Group Co-Leadership on Group Counseling with Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threadcraft, Hal L.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    1993-01-01

    Conducted study to investigate whether group cofacilitated by male and female counselor could provide therapeutic benefit to women survivors of childhood sexual victimization. Findings seem to provide preliminary evidence contradicting assumption that male counselors should not be involved in counseling female adult survivors of sexual…

  13. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A

    2003-11-11

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.

  14. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod. PMID:14597702

  15. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  16. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  17. Gene expression profiling of adult female tissues in feeding Rhipicephalus microplus cattle ticks.

    PubMed

    Stutzer, Christian; van Zyl, Willem A; Olivier, Nicholas A; Richards, Sabine; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is an economically important pest, especially for resource-poor countries, both as a highly adaptive invasive species and prominent vector of disease. The increasing prevalence of resistance to chemical acaricides and variable efficacy of current tick vaccine candidates highlight the need for more effective control methods. In the absence of a fully annotated genome, the wealth of available expressed sequence tag sequence data for this species presents a unique opportunity to study the genes that are expressed in tissues involved in blood meal acquisition, digestion and reproduction during feeding. Utilising a custom oligonucleotide microarray designed from available singletons (BmiGI Version 2.1) and expressed sequence tag sequences of R. microplus, the expression profiles in feeding adult female midgut, salivary glands and ovarian tissues were compared. From 13,456 assembled transcripts, 588 genes expressed in all three tissues were identified from fed adult females 20 days post infestation. The greatest complement of genes relate to translation and protein turnover. Additionally, a number of unique transcripts were identified for each tissue that relate well to their respective physiological/biological function/role(s). These transcripts include secreted anti-hemostatics and defense proteins from the salivary glands for acquisition of a blood meal, proteases as well as enzymes and transporters for digestion and nutrient acquisition from ingested blood in the midgut, and finally proteins and associated factors involved in DNA replication and cell-cycle control for oogenesis in the ovaries. Comparative analyses of adult female tissues during feeding enabled the identification of a catalogue of transcripts that may be essential for successful feeding and reproduction in the cattle tick, R. microplus. Future studies will increase our understanding of basic tick biology, allowing the identification of shared proteins

  18. Post-parturition habitat selection by elk calves and adult female elk in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, J.; Cain, James W.; Liley, Stewart; Gould, William R.; Quintana, Nichole T.; Ballard, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal survival and juvenile recruitment are crucial to maintaining viable elk (Cervus elaphus) populations. Neonate survival is known to be influenced by many factors, including bed-site selection. Although neonates select the actual bed-site location, they must do so within the larger calf-rearing area selected by the mother. As calves age, habitat selection should change to meet the changing needs of the growing calf. Our main objectives were to characterize habitat selection at 2 spatial scales and in areas with different predator assemblages in New Mexico. We evaluated bed-site selection by calves and calf-rearing area selection by adult females. We captured 108 elk calves by hand and fitted them with ear tag transmitters in two areas in New Mexico: the Valle Vidal and Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area. In both study areas, we found that concealing cover structure and distance to that cover influenced bed-site selection of young calves (i.e., <2 weeks of age). Older calves (i.e., 3–10 weeks of age) still selected areas in relation to distance to cover, but also preferred areas with higher visibility. At the larger spatial scale of calf-rearing habitat selection by the adult female, concealing cover (e.g., rocks, shrubs, and logs) and other variables important to the hiding calves were still in the most supported models, but selection was also influenced by forage availability and indices of forage quality. Studies that seek to obtain insight into microhabitat selection of ungulate neonates should consider selection by the neonate and selection by the adult female, changes in selection as neonates age, and potential selection differences in areas of differing predation risk. By considering these influences together and at multiple scales, studies can achieve a broader understanding of neonatal ungulate habitat requirements. 

  19. Acne-Related Quality of Life Among Female Adults of Different Races/Ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, Joe; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Degboe, Arnold; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Douse-Dean, Tracee

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Acne impairs quality of life, but its effect on different races/ethnicities is unclear. This study evaluated racial/ethnic differences in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms among female adults. Methods A Web-based survey was conducted with U.S. female adults (25–45 years old) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, acne-related quality of life (Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire), psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/school productivity. Racial/ethnic differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance/chi-square analyses. Results Three-hundred twelve subjects (Black = 30.8%, Hispanic = 17.6%, Asian/other = 17.3%, White = 34.3%) completed the survey (mean age = 35.3 ± 5.9 years). Acne negatively impacted quality of life for all subjects. Black subjects reported significantly less negative impact on self-perception versus Asian/other (Black = 12.6 ± 9.9, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 8.6; p = .05). Social functioning was less negatively impacted in White and Black subjects versus Asian/other (White = 12.7 ± 7.5, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p < .05; Black = 12.1 ± 9.2, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p = .06). Over one third (total sample = 40.7%, Black = 31.3%, Hispanic = 36.4%, Asian/other = 50.0%, White = 46.7%) reported moderate/severe anxiety/depression symptoms. Acne also impacted ability to concentrate on work/school. Conclusion Racial/ethnic differences were observed in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms in female adults; acne negatively impacted self-perceptions and social/emotional functioning. PMID:26097643

  20. Bimodal Winter Haul-Out Patterns of Adult Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Southern Weddell Sea.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Lars; Baker, Amy; Fedak, Mike; Årthun, Marius; Nicholls, Keith; Robinson, Patrick; Costa, Dan; Biuw, Martin; Photopoulou, Theoni

    2016-01-01

    Hauling out is an essential component of pinniped life-history. Haul-out behaviour may be affected by biological (e.g. sex, age and condition) and physical factors (e.g. food availability and environmental conditions), and identifying these factors may help explain the spatio-temporal distribution and habitat use of pinnipeds. The aim of this study is to describe observed winter haul-out patterns of adult Weddell seals in the Weddell Sea and investigate the role of potential predictors to gain insight into the way these animals interact with the physical environment in this region. We examined the haul-out behaviour in relation to available biological (i.e., diving effort, sex) and physical information (i.e., sun angle). Thirty-three satellite telemetry tags were deployed on adult Weddell seals in the southern Weddell Sea during February 2007, 2009 and 2011, following their annual moult recording information on the behavioural mode of the animal: at surface, hauled out or diving. At the end of the austral summer Weddell seals spent, on average, more than 40% of their time hauled out on the ice. Under constant light conditions, it appears that physiological factors drive sex differences in the timing and duration of haul-out behaviour, with females spending on average more time hauled out than males during daylight hours. This time spent hauled-out declined to around 15% in both sexes by the beginning of autumn and remained at this level with a clear nocturnal haul-out pattern during the winter. The time spent diving increased during this period, indicating an increase in foraging effort during the winter months, and led to a common haul-out pattern in both sexes over winter. We found a positive relationship between haul-out duration and the percentage of time spent diving prior to a haul-out in both sexes, with the exception of female daytime haul-outs early in the year. PMID:27196097

  1. Bimodal Winter Haul-Out Patterns of Adult Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Southern Weddell Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fedak, Mike; Årthun, Marius; Nicholls, Keith; Robinson, Patrick; Costa, Dan; Biuw, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hauling out is an essential component of pinniped life-history. Haul-out behaviour may be affected by biological (e.g. sex, age and condition) and physical factors (e.g. food availability and environmental conditions), and identifying these factors may help explain the spatio-temporal distribution and habitat use of pinnipeds. The aim of this study is to describe observed winter haul-out patterns of adult Weddell seals in the Weddell Sea and investigate the role of potential predictors to gain insight into the way these animals interact with the physical environment in this region. We examined the haul-out behaviour in relation to available biological (i.e., diving effort, sex) and physical information (i.e., sun angle). Thirty-three satellite telemetry tags were deployed on adult Weddell seals in the southern Weddell Sea during February 2007, 2009 and 2011, following their annual moult recording information on the behavioural mode of the animal: at surface, hauled out or diving. At the end of the austral summer Weddell seals spent, on average, more than 40% of their time hauled out on the ice. Under constant light conditions, it appears that physiological factors drive sex differences in the timing and duration of haul-out behaviour, with females spending on average more time hauled out than males during daylight hours. This time spent hauled-out declined to around 15% in both sexes by the beginning of autumn and remained at this level with a clear nocturnal haul-out pattern during the winter. The time spent diving increased during this period, indicating an increase in foraging effort during the winter months, and led to a common haul-out pattern in both sexes over winter. We found a positive relationship between haul-out duration and the percentage of time spent diving prior to a haul-out in both sexes, with the exception of female daytime haul-outs early in the year. PMID:27196097

  2. The Experience of Resilience for Adult Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Phenomenological Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C

    2016-06-01

    While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention.

  3. Delayed Recognition of an Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in a Young Adult Female.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Ariel; Wuilleumier, Jean Paul; Teper, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    A percentage of ureteropelvic junction obstruction cases are clinically silent in childhood and manifest symptoms in adults. Herein we present a 25-year-old female with several years of intermittent flank pain and abdominal symptoms with prior inconclusive diagnostic workup including abdominal imaging without hydronephrosis. Ultimately, a CT scan performed during an acute pain crisis clearly identified right-sided hydronephrosis. The keys to diagnosis are awareness of this entity, a detailed history, and obtaining imaging studies during a crisis. The patient subsequently underwent a right robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty with preservation of a lower pole crossing vessel. We highlight noteworthy features of the clinical presentation and surgical repair. PMID:26221562

  4. Elevation of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the hair of adult black female hypertensives

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Pellum, L.K.

    1984-05-01

    The southern portion of the United States has the highest mortality due to cardiovascular disease of any region of the country. The prevalence of hypertension in the South is also higher. Dietary intake of sodium, an overweight condition, and genetic factors may contribute to the problem. The role of trace elements is also a factor in producing hypertension. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship of selected trace elements with tensive status using hair as a biopsy material. The study examined the differences in hair elemental concentrations between adult black female hypertensives and normotensives from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

  5. Age at Trauma Exposure and PTSD Risk in a Young Adult Female Sample

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of age at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent/early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by age remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence. PMID:20963847

  6. Racial Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Perceptions and Behaviors, and Psychosocial Impact of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Alexis, Andrew F.; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Taylor, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Limited data are available on racial differences in clinical characteristics and burden in adult female acne. The objective was to describe racial differences in clinical characteristics, psychosocial impact, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction in facial adult female acne. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Diverse sample of United States women. Participants: Women between the ages of 25 and 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial impacts, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. Racial differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and t-test/chi-square analyses. Results: 208 females participated (mean age 35±6 years); 51.4 percent were White/Caucasian and 48.6 percent were non-White/Caucasian women [Black/African American (n=51); Hispanic/Latina (n=23); Asian (n=16); Other (n=ll)]. Age of acne onset (mean 14.8±5 vs. 17.0±8 years, p<0.05) and acne concern occurred earlier (16.6±7 vs. 19.3±9 years, p<0.05) in White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian subjects. Facial acne primarily presented on chin (28.0%) and cheeks (30.8%) for White/Caucasian women versus cheeks (58.4%) for non-White/Caucasian women. Non-White/Caucasian women experienced more postinflammatory hyperpigmentation than White/Caucasian women (p<0.0001). Facial acne negatively affected quality of life (QoL) in both groups, and most participants (>70%) reported some depression/anxiety symptoms. More White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian women were troubled by facial acne (88.8% vs. 76.2%, p<0.05). Lesion clearance was most important to White/Caucasian women (57.9 vs. non-White/Caucasian 31.7%, p<0.001); non-White/Caucasian females focused on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation clearance (41.6% vs. Caucasian 8.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Results highlight racial differences in participant-reported clinical characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, and

  7. Male-by-female interactions influence fertilization success and mediate the benefits of polyandry in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Marshall, Dustin J

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that females benefit from mating with multiple males (polyandry) by minimizing the probability of fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm. Few, however, have directly attributed variation in female reproductive success to the fertilizing capacity of sperm. In this study we report on two experiments that investigated the benefits of polyandry and the interacting effects of males and females at fertilization in the free-spawning Australian sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. In the first experiment we used a paired (split clutch) experimental design and compared fertilization rates within female egg clutches under polyandry (eggs exposed to the sperm from two males simultaneously) and monandry (eggs from the same female exposed to sperm from each of the same two males separately). Our analysis revealed a significant fertilization benefit of polyandry and strong interacting effects of males and females at fertilization. Further analysis of these data strongly suggested that the higher rates of fertilization in the polyandry treatment were due to an overrepresentation of fertilizations due to the most compatible male. To further explore the interacting effects of males and females at fertilization we performed a second factorial experiment in which four males were crossed with two females (in all eight combinations). In addition to confirming that fertilization success is influenced by male x female interactions, this latter experiment revealed that both sexes contributed significant variance to the observed patterns of fertilization. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of male x female interactions at fertilization and suggest that polyandry will enable females to reduce the cost of fertilization by incompatible gametes.

  8. Male-by-female interactions influence fertilization success and mediate the benefits of polyandry in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Marshall, Dustin J

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that females benefit from mating with multiple males (polyandry) by minimizing the probability of fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm. Few, however, have directly attributed variation in female reproductive success to the fertilizing capacity of sperm. In this study we report on two experiments that investigated the benefits of polyandry and the interacting effects of males and females at fertilization in the free-spawning Australian sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. In the first experiment we used a paired (split clutch) experimental design and compared fertilization rates within female egg clutches under polyandry (eggs exposed to the sperm from two males simultaneously) and monandry (eggs from the same female exposed to sperm from each of the same two males separately). Our analysis revealed a significant fertilization benefit of polyandry and strong interacting effects of males and females at fertilization. Further analysis of these data strongly suggested that the higher rates of fertilization in the polyandry treatment were due to an overrepresentation of fertilizations due to the most compatible male. To further explore the interacting effects of males and females at fertilization we performed a second factorial experiment in which four males were crossed with two females (in all eight combinations). In addition to confirming that fertilization success is influenced by male x female interactions, this latter experiment revealed that both sexes contributed significant variance to the observed patterns of fertilization. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of male x female interactions at fertilization and suggest that polyandry will enable females to reduce the cost of fertilization by incompatible gametes. PMID:15792231

  9. Elimination of super(14)C-bisazir residues in adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Dawson, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    Bisazir (P.P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide), a chemosterilant, was administered to sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus ) by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg or by immersion for 2 h in a 100- mg/L aqueous solution of the chemical. Whole body analysis of the injected lampreys showed that total residue concentrations decreased to 4.65 in males and 10.07 in females during the first day after injection, and to 1.46 in males and 3.74 in females after 10 days of withdrawal. Lampreys exposed by bath immersion contained residues of about 25 mu g/g of tissue immediately after exposure. The concentration ( mu g/g) decreased to 1.02 in males and 2.11 in females after 1 day of withdrawal and to 0.51 in males and 0.85 in females after 10 days.

  10. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  11. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  12. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  13. Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.

    PubMed

    McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system. The margin of stability (MoS) at foot touchdown was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support (BoS) and extrapolated center of mass. Older participants showed lower MoS adaptation magnitude in the early adaptation phase (steps 1-3) compared to the young and middle-aged groups. However, in the late adaptation phase (steps 16-18) there were no significant differences in adaptation magnitude between the three age groups. After removing the resistance, all three age groups showed similar aftereffects (i.e. increased BoS). The current results suggest that in old age, the ability to recalibrate locomotion to control stability is preserved, but the rate of adaptive improvement in locomotor stability is diminished.

  14. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  15. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Marta I; Rodriguez, David A; Kawata, Ariane K; Degboe, Arnold N; Wilcox, Teresa K; Burk, Caroline T; Daniels, Selena R; Roberts, Wendy E

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years), comprising black (30.8%), Hispanic (17.6%), Asian/other (17.3%), and white (34.3%). More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%). Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC) (47.4%) versus prescription medications (16.6%). OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05). The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA) (34.3%) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) (32.1%). Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05), Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0.05), and Asian/other (57.0±32.4 vs 46.9±37.2 days, P>0.05) subjects. Most subjects expected OTC (73.7%) and prescription (74.7%) treatments to work quickly. Fewer than half of the subjects were satisfied with OTC treatment (BP, 47.0%; SA, 43.0%), often due to skin dryness (BP, 26.3%; SA, 44.3%) and flakiness (BP, 12.3%; SA, 31.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups in their level of satisfaction with OTC or

  16. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Fortune, Eric S.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female Starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for three weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  17. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Rouse, Melvin L; Stevenson, Tyler J; Fortune, Eric S; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-06-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for 3 weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  18. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  19. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults.

    PubMed

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284-0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202-0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  20. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284–0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202–0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  1. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  2. Myocardial macronutrient transporter adaptations in the adult pregestational female intrauterine and postnatal growth-restricted offspring

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Afshan; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Shin, Bo-Chul; Jordan, Maria C.; Roos, Kenneth P.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Associations between exponential childhood growth superimposed on low birth weight and adult onset cardiovascular disease with glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes mellitus exist in epidemiological investigations. To determine the metabolic adaptations that guard against myocardial failure on subsequent exposure to hypoxia, we compared with controls (CON), the effect of intrauterine (IUGR), postnatal (PNGR), and intrauterine and postnatal (IPGR) calorie and growth restriction (n = 6/group) on myocardial macronutrient transporter (fatty acid and glucose) -mediated uptake in pregestational young female adult rat offspring. A higher myocardial FAT/CD36 protein expression in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR, with higher FATP1 in IUGR, FATP6 in PNGR, FABP-c in PNGR and IPGR, and no change in GLUT4 of all groups was observed. These adaptive macronutrient transporter protein changes were associated with no change in myocardial [3H]bromopalmitate accumulation but a diminution in 2-deoxy-[14C]glucose uptake. Examination of the sarcolemmal subfraction revealed higher basal concentrations of FAT/CD36 in PNGR and FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. CON. Exogenous insulin uniformly further enhanced sarcolemmal association of these macronutrient transporter proteins above that of basal, with the exception of insulin resistance of FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR and FAT/CD36 in PNGR. The basal sarcolemmal macronutrient transporter adaptations proved protective against subsequent chronic hypoxic exposure (7 days) only in IUGR and PNGR, with notable deterioration in IPGR and CON of the echocardiographic ejection fraction. We conclude that the IUGR and PNGR pregestational adult female offspring displayed a resistance to insulin-induced translocation of FATP1, GLUT4, or FAT/CD36 to the myocardial sarcolemma due to preexistent higher basal concentrations. This basal adaptation of myocardial macronutrient transporters ensured adequate fatty acid uptake, thereby proving protective against chronic

  3. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.

    PubMed

    Gobush, K S; Mutayoba, B M; Wasser, S K

    2008-12-01

    Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented.

  4. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.

    PubMed

    Gobush, K S; Mutayoba, B M; Wasser, S K

    2008-12-01

    Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented. PMID:18759771

  5. Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres

    2014-08-01

    There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio.

  6. Comparative assessment of the reproductive status of female Atlantic bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica M; Aranda, Guillermo; Medina, Antonio; Lutcavage, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Despite attention focused on the population status and rebuilding trajectory of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), the reproduction and spawning biology remains poorly understood, especially in the NW Atlantic. At present, the eastern and western spawning populations are believed to exhibit different reproductive characteristics and, consequently, stock productivity. However, our study suggests that the two spawning populations, the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, could show similar reproductive features and spawning strategies. Between 2007 and 2009, gonad samples from female Atlantic bluefin tuna were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (n = 147) and in the western Mediterranean Sea (n = 40). The histological and stereological analysis confirmed that sampled eastern and western bluefin tuna exhibit the same spawning duration (three months) but the spawning in the Gulf of Mexico begins one month earlier than in the Mediterranean Sea. Western bluefin tuna caught in the peak of the spawning season (May) showed a similar spawning frequency (60%) to the spawning peak observed in the Mediterranean Sea (June). Fecundity for the Gulf of Mexico fish (28.14 eggs · g(-1)) was lower but not significantly different than for fish sampled in the Mediterranean Sea (45.56 eggs · g(-1)). Our study represents the first comparative histological analysis of the eastern and western spawning stocks whose findings, combined with new determinations of size/age at maturity and possible alternative spawning areas, might suggest basic life history attributes warrant further scientific and management attention.

  7. Comparative Assessment of the Reproductive Status of Female Atlantic Bluefin Tuna from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Jessica M.; Aranda, Guillermo; Medina, Antonio; Lutcavage, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Despite attention focused on the population status and rebuilding trajectory of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), the reproduction and spawning biology remains poorly understood, especially in the NW Atlantic. At present, the eastern and western spawning populations are believed to exhibit different reproductive characteristics and, consequently, stock productivity. However, our study suggests that the two spawning populations, the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, could show similar reproductive features and spawning strategies. Between 2007 and 2009, gonad samples from female Atlantic bluefin tuna were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (n = 147) and in the western Mediterranean Sea (n = 40). The histological and stereological analysis confirmed that sampled eastern and western bluefin tuna exhibit the same spawning duration (three months) but the spawning in the Gulf of Mexico begins one month earlier than in the Mediterranean Sea. Western bluefin tuna caught in the peak of the spawning season (May) showed a similar spawning frequency (60%) to the spawning peak observed in the Mediterranean Sea (June). Fecundity for the Gulf of Mexico fish () was lower but not significantly different than for fish sampled in the Mediterranean Sea (). Our study represents the first comparative histological analysis of the eastern and western spawning stocks whose findings, combined with new determinations of size/age at maturity and possible alternative spawning areas, might suggest basic life history attributes warrant further scientific and management attention. PMID:24911973

  8. The experiences and needs of female adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-05-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data from n = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health, education, employment, social and community activities. Where relevant, comparisons are provided with the male subset of the same study population; however, in the majority of analyses, no discernible gender differences emerged. The findings highlight the diverse and complex challenges faced by women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, including high levels of mental health disorder, unmet support needs in education settings and the workplace, and social exclusion and isolation.

  9. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    CHU, Xun-Xun; Rizak, Joshua Dominic; YANG, Shang-Chuan; WANG, Jian-Hong; MA, Yuan-Ye; HU, Xin-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction—similar to humans—as well as much greater homology to

  10. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  12. Sexual harassment and female gregariousness in the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappozzo, Humberto L.; Túnez, Juan I.; Cassini, Marcelo H.

    2008-07-01

    Most colonial pinnipeds form extreme clusters of breeding females that cannot be entirely explained by the distribution of sites for reproduction. Avoidance of male harassment has been postulated as an important determinant of reproductive aggregation in this group of mammals. Female gregariousness can reduce harassment by resident males by two mechanisms; directly by the ‘dilution effect’ or indirectly because resident males that defend large female groups are less harassing. In order to investigate the relationship between male harassment and female gregariousness in relation to the size of breeding groups, we analysed the behaviour of dominant males and their females in a breeding colony of Otaria flavescens. Females in large breeding groups received less harassment by resident males due to dilution effects and because males that defended a large group interacted less frequently with females than males with small groups.

  13. Social experience modulates ocular dominance plasticity differentially in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Balog, Jenny; Matthies, Ulrike; Naumann, Lisa; Voget, Mareike; Winter, Christine; Lehmann, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to regulate brain plasticity. We investigated the potential influence of social experience on ocular dominance plasticity. Fully adult female or male mice were monocularly deprived for four days and kept a) either alone or in pairs of the same sex and b) either in a small cage or a large, featureless arena. While mice kept alone did not show ocular dominance plasticity, no matter whether in a cage or in an arena, paired female mice in both environmental conditions displayed a shift of ocular dominance towards the open eye. Paired male mice, in contrast, showed no plasticity in the cage, but a very strong ocular dominance shift in the arena. This effect was not due to increased locomotion, since the covered distance was similar in single and paired male mice in the arena, and furnishing cages with a running wheel did not enable ocular dominance plasticity in cage-housed mice. Confirming recent results in rats, the plasticity-enhancing effect of the social environment was shown to be mediated by serotonin. Our results demonstrate that social experience has a strong effect on cortical plasticity that is sex-dependent. This has potential consequences both for animal research and for human education and rehabilitation.

  14. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: identification and characterization of microRNAs in male and female adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Xin; Ai, Lin; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhang, Ren-Li; Chen, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Yong-Nian; Guo, Jian; Cai, Yu-Chun; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2011-06-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis causes eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic pleocytosis in humans and is of significant socio-economic importance globally. microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis and pathogenesis. They have been identified in a diverse range of organisms. The objective of this study was to determine and characterize miRNAs of female and male adults of A. cantonensis by Solexa deep sequencing. A total of 8,861,260 and 10,957,957 high quality reads with 20 and 23 conserved miRNAs were obtained in females and males, respectively. No new miRNA sequence was found. Nucleotide bias analysis showed that uracil was the prominent nucleotide, particularly at positions of 1, 10, 14, 17 and 22, approximately at the beginning, middle and the end of the conserved miRNAs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in A. cantonensis, which may represent a new platform for studying regulation of genes and their networks in A. cantonensis.

  15. Differences in Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae) hemolymph proteome between subadult and adult females.

    PubMed

    Trabalon, Marie; Carapito, Christine; Voinot, Florian; Martrette, Jean-Marc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Gilbert, Caroline; Bertile, Fabrice

    2010-12-01

    The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a combination of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The different structures determined along with possible post-translational modifications may reflect a role of hemocyanin in molting, immunity, and reproduction. In addition, despite no precise identification, additional peptide sequences from eight protein bands (four bands >200 kDa and four bands in the 95-200 kDa mass range) were determined. As reported in other spider species, the putative corresponding structures are the coagulogen protein and/or lipoproteins (HDL-1, HDL-2, VHDL) for which quantitative differences between adult and subadult individuals could be related to the molting process and/or cuticle lipid and protein composition according to the developmental stage. PMID:20717997

  16. Blocking and guiding adult sea lamprey with pulsed direct current from vertical electrodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Thompson, Henry T.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Tix, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the invasion front of aquatic nuisance species is of high importance to resource managers. We tested the hypothesis that adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a destructive invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, would exhibit behavioral avoidance to dual-frequency pulsed direct current generated by vertical electrodes and that the electric field would not injure or kill sea lamprey or non-target fish. Laboratory and in-stream experiments demonstrated that the electric field blocked sea lamprey migration and directed sea lamprey into traps. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), species that migrate sympatrically with sea lamprey, avoided the electric field and had minimal injuries when subjected to it. Vertical electrodes are advantageous for fish guidance because (1) the electric field produced varies minimally with depth, (2) the electric field is not grounded, reducing power consumption to where portable and remote deployments powered by solar, wind, hydro, or a small generator are feasible, and (3) vertical electrodes can be quickly deployed without significant stream modification allowing rapid responses to new invasions. Similar dual-frequency pulsed direct current fields produced from vertical electrodes may be advantageous for blocking or trapping other invasive fish or for guiding valued fish around dams.

  17. Prenatal Testosterone Induces Sex-Specific Dysfunction in Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Pathways in Adult Male and Female Rats1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone (T) exposure impacts postnatal cardiovascular function, leading to increases in blood pressure with associated decreased endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in adult females. Endothelial function in males is not known. Furthermore, which of the endothelial pathways contributes to endothelial dysfunction and if there exists sex differences are not known. The objective of this study was to characterize the relative contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in prenatal T-exposed adult males and females. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with T propionate or its vehicle were examined. Telemetric blood pressure levels and endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity were assessed with wire myography. Levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and Kcnn3 and Kcnn4 channel expression were examined in mesenteric arteries. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in T males and females than in controls. Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine relaxation was significantly lower in both T males and females. EDHF-mediated relaxation was specifically blunted in T males (Emax = 48.64% ± 3.73%) compared to that in control males (Emax = 81.71% ± 3.18%); however, NO-mediated relaxation was specifically impaired in T females (Emax = 36.01% ± 4.29%) compared with that in control females (Emax = 54.56% ± 6.37%). Relaxation to sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim were unaffected with T-treatment. NOS3 protein was decreased in T females but not in T males. Kcnn3 expression was decreased in both T males and females compared to controls. These findings suggest that prenatal T leads to an increase in blood pressure in the adult offspring, associated with blunting of endothelial cell-associated relaxation and that the effects are sex-specific: EDHF-related in males and NO-related in females. PMID:23966325

  18. [Parasitologic significance of the alteration of the causative Anisakidae worm and of the Pseudoterranova decipiens female immature adult worm, casting off the cuticles, and excreted from human in Kanazawa City].

    PubMed

    Ishikura, H; Kikuchi, K; Akao, N; Doutei, M; Yagi, K; Takahashi, S; Sato, N

    1995-09-01

    We have been studying Anisakidae larvae, their intermediate hosts and their final hosts in the northern Japan Sea area. These larvae cause anisakidosis. According to the investigation, the recent burst of pseudoterranovosis in this area can be attributed to the increased presence of sea lions, which proliferate in the Arctic region, then migrate to the northern Japan Sea and eat the intermediate host fish. In a stomach of a male sea lion that was captured in February 1995, we found more than 4,500 Pseudoterranova decipiens. Although there is no known circumstance in which a human would consume an adult worm of Anisakis nematode, an astonishing case of this was found in Kanazawa; a female young adult Pseudoterranova decipiens undergoing the final metamorphosis was emitted from a patient. This indicates that the Anisakis larva can mature into the adult worm in humans. It is postulated that the Pseudoterranova decipiens larva is in the process of adapting to use humans as the final host. PMID:8543275

  19. Female Adult Learners in Rural Community Colleges: A Case Study of Role Perception and Navigation for Student Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tara Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Female adult learners, the fastest growing subpopulation in community colleges, face challenges navigating domestic, professional, and academic roles and take time off from school to reconcile issues with multiple role navigation; thus, their education is disjointed and staggered, creating barriers to persistence. This interpretive design…

  20. Analysis of Factors Causing Adult Female Learners to Drop out of E-Learning Courses in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Park, Soon-Shin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adult female learners' dropout in e-learning courses, and to suggest possible solutions to problem of high dropout rates in Korea. To identify the factors, we analyzed the literature and developed a questionnaire consisting of 9 possible factors and 16 items. Data gathered…

  1. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  2. Adult Female Rats Altered Diurnal Locomotor Activity Pattern Following Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T.; Kohllepin, S; Yang, P.B.; Burau, K.D.; Dafny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed pharmacological agents and also used as cognitive enhancement and for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the repetitive dose-response effects of MPD on rhythm locomotor activity pattern of female WKY rats and compare to prior study done on male. The hypothesis is that change in the circadian activity pattern indicates a long-lasting effect of the drug. Four animal groups (saline control, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD dose groups) were housed in a sound-controlled room at 12:12 light/dark cycle. All received saline injections on experimental day 1 (ED 1). On EDs 2-7, the control group received saline injection; the other groups received 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg MPD, respectively. On ED 8-10, injections were withheld. On ED 11, each group received the same dose as EDs 2-7. Hourly histograms and cosine statistical analyses calculating the acrophase (ϕ), amplitude (A), and MESOR (M) were applied to assess the 24-hour circadian activity pattern. The 0.6 and 2.5 mg/kg MPD groups exhibited significant (p<0.05) change in their circadian activity pattern on ED 11. The 10.0 mg/kg MPD group exhibited tolerance on ED 11 and also a significant change in activity pattern on ED 8 compared to ED 1, consistent with withdrawal behavior (p<0.007). In conclusion, chronic MPD administration alters circadian locomotor activity of adult female WKY rats and confirms that chronic MPD use elicits long lasting effects PMID:23893293

  3. Determination of body composition in conscious adult female Wistar utilising total body electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, K; North, T J; Telford, G; Smith, S; Brammer, R; Jones, R B; Heal, D J

    2001-01-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a noninvasive method for estimating fat free mass (FFM) in live animals. In this study, we have evaluated the use of the Em-Scan SA-3000, which is claimed by the manufacturers to perform better than earlier analysers. Previous studies in rats using these earlier versions of the TOBEC analyser have always used anaesthesia to minimise movement artefacts. As repeated anaesthesia also has the potential to induce artefacts by disrupting food intake, for example, we have also attempted to determine if this TOBEC analyser can be used to predict body composition in conscious adult weight-stable female Wistar rats. A simplified cafeteria diet was used to produce large variations in body composition (40-350 g fat/carcass) and a full chemical body composition analysis was performed to generate a TOBEC calibration equation. The TOBEC parameter was more strongly correlated to FFM (r(2)=.785) than it was to body weight (r(2)=.669) or other body composition parameters. Using the TOBEC calibration equation to predict fat mass on these data, there was an excellent correlation with the value obtained by chemical analyses (r(2)=.952, slope=0.958). To determine if the TOBEC calibration equation derived from this calibration study would then be useful for the routine estimation of body composition an additional, validation study was performed. This validation study was performed 6 months later, used an independent group of obese female Wistar rats and was undertaken by different TOBEC operators. This validation study, again, showed a good correlation between the TOBEC- and chemical-derived fat mass (r(2)=.918, slope=1.003) indicating stability of the calibration equation with time and independence from operator. We therefore conclude that it is possible to meaningfully estimate body fat changes in conscious rats using this TOBEC analysis system.

  4. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    It is generally believed that butterflies (and other holometabolous insects) rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction, whereas the carbohydrate-rich adult diet is thought to mainly cover energy requirements. In at least some species though, realization of the full reproductive potential is extensively affected by post-eclosion nutrition. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of adult-derived amino acids and micronutrients is controversial and largely unknown, respectively. We here focus on the effects of different adult diets on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). Carbohydrates were the most important adult-derived nutrients affecting reproduction. Adding amino acids, vitamins or minerals to sucrose-based solutions did not yield a reproductive output equivalent to that of fruit-fed females, which showed the highest performance throughout. This suggests that either not yet identified compounds of fruit substantially contribute to reproduction, or that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance. Apart from adult income, realized fecundity depended on egg size and longevity, with the former dominating when dietary quality was low, but the latter when quality was high. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off seems to be affected by female nutrition.

  5. Photo-anthropometric study on face among Garo adult females of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Z; Banu, M L A; Alam, M M; Hossain, S; Nazneen, M

    2013-08-01

    Facial anthropometry has well-known implications in health-related fields. Measurement of human face is used in identification of person in Forensic medicine, Plastic surgery, Orthodontics, Archeology, Hair-style design and examination of the differences between races and ethnicities. Facial anthropometry provides an indication of the variations in facial shape in a specified population. Bangladesh harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Standards based on ethnic or racial data are desirable because these standards reflect the potentially different patterns of craniofacial growth resulting from racial, ethnic and sexual differences. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Christian Garo adult females of Bangladesh. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components and it was carried out with a total number of 100 Christian Garo adult females aged between 25-45 years. Three vertical facial dimensions such as facial height from 'trichion' to 'gnathion', nasal length and total vermilion height were measured by photographic method. Though these measurements were taken by photographic method but they were converted into actual size using one of the physically measured variables between two angles of the mouth (chilion to chilion). The data were then statistically analyzed by computation to find out its normatic value. The study also observed the possible 'correlation' between the facial height from 'trichion' to 'gnathion' with nasal length and total vermilion height. Multiplication factors were estimated for estimating facial height from nasal length and total vermilion height. Comparison were made between 'estimated' values with the 'measured' values by using't' test. The mean (+/- SD) of nasal length and total vermilion height were 4.53 +/- 0.36 cm and 1.63 +/- 0.23 cm

  6. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013.

  7. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dranow, Daniel B; Hu, Kevin; Bird, April M; Lawry, S Terese; Adams, Melissa T; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F; Draper, Bruce W

    2016-09-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle.

  8. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kevin; Lawry, S. Terese; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle. PMID:27642754

  9. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dranow, Daniel B; Hu, Kevin; Bird, April M; Lawry, S Terese; Adams, Melissa T; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F; Draper, Bruce W

    2016-09-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle. PMID:27642754

  10. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  11. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Decreases Aldosterone Production but Maintains Normal Plasma Volume and Increases Blood Pressure in Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    More, Amar S; Mishra, Jay S; Hankins, Gary D; Kumar, Sathish

    2016-08-01

    Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia and polycystic ovaries; their offspring are at increased risk for hypertension during adult life. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg(8)-vasopressin. The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. Accordingly, plasma aldosterone levels were lower in testosterone females. Plasma volume and serum and urine Na(+) and K(+) levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone females; however, prenatal testosterone exposure significantly increased plasma vasopressin and angiotensin II levels and arterial pressure in adult females. In testosterone females, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, while contractile responses to vasopressin were unaffected. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor expression was increased, while angiotensin II type-2 receptor was decreased in testosterone arteries. These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. Elevated angiotensin II and vasopressin levels along with enhanced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II may serve as an underlying mechanism to maintain plasma volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels and mediate hypertension in adult testosterone females. PMID:27385784

  12. Impact of Sediment on Agrichemical Fate and Bioavailability to Adult Female Fathead Minnows: A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Krysl, Ryan G; Ali, Jonathan M; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Kolok, Alan S

    2015-08-01

    Precipitation induced runoff is an important pathway for agrichemicals to enter surface water systems and expose aquatic organisms to endocrine-disrupting compounds such as pesticides and steroid hormones. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of agrichemicals between dissolved and sediment-bound phases during spring pulses of agrichemicals and to evaluate the role of suspended sediment in agrichemical bioavailability to aquatic organisms. To accomplish these objectives, suspended sediment and water samples were collected every 3 days from a field site along the Elkhorn River, located at the downstream end of a heavily agricultural watershed, and were screened for 21 pesticides and 21 steroids. Adult female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed in field mesocosms to river water containing varying sediment loads. Changes in organism hepatic gene expression of two estrogen-responsive genes, vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), as well as the androgen receptor (AR) were analyzed during periods of both low and high river discharge. Trends in agrichemical concentrations of both the dissolved and sediment phases as a function of time show that, while sediment may act as both a source and a sink for agrichemicals following precipitation events, the overall driver for molecular defeminization in this system is direct exposure to the sediment-associated compounds. This study suggests that endocrine disrupting effects observed in organisms in turbid water could be attributed to direct exposure of contaminated sediment. PMID:26151375

  13. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English

    PubMed Central

    Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17 500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [ɹ] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

  14. The relationship between religiosity and health behaviors in female caregivers of older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Yaron G; Mausbach, Brent T; Atkinson, Philip J; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2009-11-01

    The current study explored the relationship between three dimensions of religiosity: (a) organizational religiosity (e.g. attendance at religious events), (b) non-organizational religiosity (e.g. prayer), and (c) subjective religiosity (e.g. importance of religion) and caregiver health behavior patterns in a sample of Latina and Caucasian female caregivers of older adult relatives with dementia. It was hypothesized that religiosity would have a significant association with reduced cumulative health risk as determined by an index of health behaviors. It was also hypothesized that, when examining the individual health behaviors subsumed in the overarching index, religiosity would be positively associated with adaptive health behaviors like exercise and negatively associated with health risk behaviors like smoking. Amongst Caucasians, increased subjective religiosity was related to increased cumulative health risk. Conversely, in Latinas, non-organizational religiosity was positively correlated with improved dietary practices (reduced dietary restriction). Increased levels of subjective religiosity were significantly associated with decreased maintenance of a routine exercise regimen across ethnic groups. Recommendations for clinicians and religious leaders, and avenues of future research are discussed.

  15. Survival and other observations of adult female northern pintails molting in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Fleskes, J.P.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Survival rates of nine adult female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) that became flightless after being radio-marked in the Sacramento Valley, California in August 1987-1989 were estimated. Seven of the radio-marked pintails molted in the Sacramento Valley, a nontraditional molting region, and two flew 280 km north to the Klamath Basin to molt. Molting marshes were dominated by emergent vegetation in both locations. Two ducks, while flightless in the Sacramento Valley, were killed by predators. Molting pintails remained sedentary (did not fly) for an average of 36 d, and the daily survival rate during this period was 0.9934. The resulting sedentary-period survival rate was 0.79. Primary feather 9 on two captive ducks grew an average of 4.2 mm per day. Mean body mass of molting ducks that died was lower than that for molting ducks that survived (P < 0.10). The number of pintails molting on Sacramento Valley refuges is probably <200.

  16. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  17. Effect of an Eight-Week Ballroom Dancing Program on Muscle Architecture in Older Adults Females.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Christina C P; Lodovico, Angélica; Fowler, Neil; Rodacki, André L F

    2015-10-01

    Aging is related to a progressive remodeling of the neuromuscular system, which includes muscle mass, strength, and power reductions. This study investigated the effect of an eight-week dance program on fascicle pennation angle, fascicle length, and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles using ultrasound images. Thirty-four healthy older women were randomly assigned to either a dancing (DG: n = 19, 69.1 ± 6.5 years, 72.5 ± 11.7 kg) or control group (CG: n = 15, 71.5 ± 7.4 years, 70.9 ± 9.3 kg). After training, the DG showed greater (p < .05) thickness for VL (16%), TA (17%), BF (19%), and GM (15%); pennation angle for VL (21%), TA (23%), BF (21%), and GM (17%); and fascicle length for VL (11%), TA (12%), BF (10%), and GM (10%). These findings suggest that dance training was effective to change the lower limb muscle architecture in older female adults.

  18. Round and Round and Round We Go: Behavior of Adult Female Mice on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011) emphasized the importance of long duration rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at Ames Research Center. Here we present a video-based behavioral analysis of ten C57BL6 female adult mice exposed to a total of 37 days in space compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight and Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including feeding, drinking, exploratory behavior, grooming, and social interactions. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice. Spontaneous, organized circling or race-tracking behavior emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. I will summarize qualitative observations and quantitative comparisons of mice in microgravity and 1g conditions. Behavioral phenotyping revealed important insights into the overall health and adaptation of mice to the space environment, and identified unique behaviors that can guide future habitat development and research on rodents in space.

  19. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  20. Perinatal Exposure of Mice to the Pesticide DDT Impairs Energy Expenditure and Metabolism in Adult Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R.; Newman, John W.; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring. PMID:25076055

  1. Perinatal exposure of mice to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R; Newman, John W; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring.

  2. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  3. Cloning of calves from various somatic cell types of male and female adult, newborn and fetal cows.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Tani, T; Tsunoda, Y

    2000-11-01

    Twenty-four calves were cloned from six somatic cell types of female and male adult, newborn and fetal cows. The clones were derived from female cumulus (n = 3), oviduct (n = 2) and uterine (n = 2) cells, female and male skin cells (n = 10), and male ear (n = 5) and liver (n = 2) cells. On the basis of the number of cloned embryos transferred (n = 172) to surrogate cows, the overall rate of success was 14%, but based on the number of surrogate mothers that became pregnant (n = 50), the success rate was 48%. Cell nuclei from uterus, ear and liver cells, which have not been tested previously, developed into newborn calves after nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes. To date, seven female and six male calves have survived: six of the females were from adult cells (cumulus (n = 3), oviduct (n = 2) and skin (n = 1) cells) and one was from newborn skin cells, whereas the male calves were derived from adult ear cells (n = 3), newborn liver and skin cells (n = 2), and fetal cells (n = 1). Clones derived from adult cells frequently aborted in the later stages of pregnancy and calves developing to term showed a higher number of abnormalities than did those derived from newborn or fetal cells. The telomeric DNA lengths in the ear cells of three male calves cloned from the ear cells of a bull aged 10 years were similar to those of the original bull. However, the telomeric DNA lengths from the white blood cells of the clones, although similar to those in an age-matched control, were shorter than those of the original bull, which indicates that telomeric shortening varies among tissues.

  4. Same size--same niche? Foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions and adult Galapagos fur seals.

    PubMed

    Jeglinski, Jana W E; Goetz, Kimberley T; Werner, Christiane; Costa, Daniel P; Trillmich, Fritz

    2013-05-01

    1. In vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. Thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. 2. Adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. Resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such interactions have received little attention in studies of mammalian communities. 3. Using GPS tracking devices, time-depth recorders and stable isotope data, we compared diving depth, activity time, trophic position and foraging habitat characteristics to investigate foraging niche overlap between similar-sized sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) and adult Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and compared each group with much larger-bodied adult Galapagos sea lions. 4. We found little indication for direct competition but a complex pattern of foraging niche segregation: juvenile sea lions and adult fur seals dived to shallow depths at night, but foraged in different habitats with limited spatial overlap. Conversely, juvenile and adult sea lions employed different foraging patterns, but their foraging areas overlapped almost completely. 5. Consistency of foraging habitat characteristics between juvenile and adult sea lions suggests that avoidance of competition may be important in shaping foraging habitat utilization. Resultant specialization on a limited habitat could contribute to low sea lion numbers that contrast with high fur seal abundance. Our data suggest that exploitation by multiple predators within spatially restricted foraging ranges of juveniles might negatively impact juvenile foraging success and ultimately influence population dynamics.

  5. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  6. Hypothyroidism increases prolactin secretion and decreases the intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Taya, K; Watanabe, G; Voogt, J L

    In order to understand the mechanism by which thyroid hormones alter prolactin (PRL) secretion, we investigated the role of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons and pituitary and hypothalamus vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in thiouracil- (0. 03% in drinking water for 16 days) induced-hypothyroid adult female rats. The intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy also was examined to evaluate the PRL response to coital stimulation in hypothyroid rats. Hypothyroidism in adult female rats did not affect TIDA neuronal activity as measured by tyrosine hydroxylase activity (DOPA accumulation 30 min after administration of m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine dihydrochloride, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the stalk-median eminence compared with that in euthyroid rats, whereas pituitary concentration of VIP was dramatically increased. Plasma concentration of PRL was higher at 1100 h of proestrus and estrus in hypothyroid rats as compared with that of euthyroid rats. The proportion of female rats exhibiting pseudopregnancy was higher in hypothyroid animals (100%) receiving seven intromissions than in euthyroid animals (43%). Administration of L-thyroxine in hypothyroid rats decreased the proportion of pseudopregnancy (40%) to the level of euthyroid animals. These results indicate that the increased level of pituitary VIP probably affects PRL secretion in a paracrine or autocrine manner and account for the hyperprolactinemia induced in hypothyroid female rats. No role for TIDA neurons in PRL elevation can be ascribed. A decrease in the intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy might be due to increased levels of PRL in hypothyroid female rats.

  7. Reproductive morphology and status of female Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) fatally injured by adult male seals.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Becker, B L; Johanos, T C; Pietraszek, J R; Kuhn, B C

    1994-01-01

    Female Hawaiian monk seals at Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands seasonally risk aggressive mating attempts by groups of adult male monk seals. These attacks, which also target immature female and male seals at a lower frequency, result in injuries that are often fatal and are termed mobbings. This study was undertaken to assess the reproductive status of nine female seals that died after mobbing attacks and to obtain basic morphological data of reproductive tracts from ten females. Reproductive morphology of the seals indicated that the lengths of the uterine body and both uterine horns were significantly shorter in nulliparous than in parous seals. Seven of the nine seals were periovulatory, on the basis of gross morphology of the ovaries at death. The ovaries of the other two seals possessed immature follicles. Histological studies of the vagina and uterus confirmed the reproductive status of the seals. When the reproductive status at the time of first injury was estimated, all seals were in the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle. At least four of these seals were estimated to be in oestrus at the time of their first injury, and seven of the seals sustained at least one injury during the estimated period of oestrus (2-6 days). These results support the hypothesis that most adult female Hawaiian monk seals that die following an attack by male monk seals are periovulatory, and that the majority of the attacks occur during oestrus. PMID:8182594

  8. Cytochrome P450 differences in normal and imposex-affected female whelk Buccinum undatum from the open North Sea.

    PubMed

    Santos, M M; ten Hallers-Tjabbes, C C; Vieira, N; Boon, J P; Porte, C

    2002-01-01

    Normal and imposex-affected female Buccinum undatum were sampled from the open North Sea at three locations, one with low, and two with high shipping densities. Cytochrome P450 components and P450 aromatase activity were determined in the microsomal fractions isolated from pooled digestive gland/gonads. Cytochrome P450 aromatase activity was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in normal females collected in the low shipping density area (1,325 +/- 295 fmol/h/mg protein) than levels from imposex animals from a high shipping density area (620 +/- 287 fmol/h/mg protein). A negative correlation was found between aromatase activity and organotin body burden (r = -0.99). Levels of CYP450, cytochrome b5 and NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity did not show differences among groups. This is the first field evidence of depressed aromatase activity in imposex affected females, although additional research under laboratory controlled conditions is required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the development of imposex in this species.

  9. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  10. Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C

    2013-02-17

    Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber

  11. Olfactory-mediated stream-finding behavior of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vrieze, L.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-finding behavior of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an anadromous fish that relies on pheromones to locate spawning streams, was documented in the vicinity of an important spawning river in the Great Lakes. Untreated and anosmic migrating sea lampreys were implanted with acoustic transmitters and then released outside the Ocqueoc River. Lampreys swam only at night and then actively. When outside of the river plume, lampreys pursued relatively straight bearings parallel to the shoreline while making frequent vertical excursions. In contrast, when within the plume, lampreys made large turns and exhibited a weak bias towards the river mouth, which one-third of them entered. The behavior of anosmic lampreys resembled that of untreated lampreys outside of the plume, except they pursued a more northerly compass bearing. To locate streams, sea lampreys appear to employ a three-phase odor-mediated strategy that involves an initial search along shorelines while casting vertically, followed by river-water-induced turning that brings them close to the river's mouth, which they then enter using rheotaxis. This novel strategy differs from that of salmonids and appears to offer this poor swimmer adaptive flexibility and suggests ways that pheromonal odors might be used to manage this invasive species.

  12. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26844865

  13. Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2012-07-21

    The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study.

  14. Altered hypothalamic-pituitary function in the adult female rat with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Spindler-Vomachka, M; Johnson, D C

    1985-01-01

    Infertility associated with anovulation and loss of regular oestrous cyclicity is a consequence of diabetes mellitus in the rat. In an attempt to define loci of altered function, studies were undertaken to examine various aspects of hypothalamic-pituitary function in rats treated with streptozotocin. Medial basal hypothalamic fragments from adult female diabetic rats contained the same amount of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone but, with depolarization, released slightly but insignificantly (p greater than 0.05) more than did those from control animals. Furthermore, release of luteinizing hormone from pituitaries exposed to hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone was not altered by diabetes. Removal of the negative feedback effect of gonadal steroids upon the hypothalamic-pituitary axis produced an increase in luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone concentrations in the serum of normal rats within 6h (p less than 0.05), whereas 24h were required for similar increases in diabetic rats. However, the same concentrations of gonadotrophins were found in diabetic and control animals 120 h after ovariectomy. The inhibitory action of oestradiol benzoate on the secretion of gonadotrophins was more pronounced in ovariectomized diabetic than in control rats. A 74% depression in serum luteinizing hormone (p less than 0.01) was produced by 0.5 microgram oestradiol benzoate per day in diabetic rats, while 5 micrograms was required in control animals. Similar reductions in follicle stimulating hormone concentrations (50%, p less than 0.05) were obtained by injecting 5 micrograms of the oestrogen into diabetic or 50 micrograms into control rats. Increases in serum prolactin were greater in the control animals however.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Fluid absorption in the isolated midgut of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Onken, Horst; Moffett, David F

    2015-07-01

    The transepithelial voltage (Vte) and the volume of isolated posterior midguts of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were monitored. In all experiments, the initial Vte after filling the midgut was lumen negative, but subsequently became lumen positive at a rate of approximately 1 mV min(-1). Simultaneously, the midgut volume decreased, indicating spontaneous fluid absorption. When the midguts were filled and bathed with mosquito saline, the average rate of fluid absorption was 36.5±3.0 nl min(-1) (N=4, ±s.e.m.). In the presence of theophylline (10 mmol l(-1)), Vte reached significantly higher lumen-positive values, but the rate of fluid absorption was not affected (N=6). In the presence of NaCN (5 mmol l(-1)), Vte remained close to 0 mV (N=4) and fluid absorption was reduced (14.4±1.3 nl min(-1), N=3, ±s.e.m.). When midguts were filled with buffered NaCl (154 mmol l(-1) plus 1 mmol l(-1) HEPES) and bathed in mosquito saline with theophylline, fluid absorption was augmented (50.0±5.8 nl min(-1), N=12, ±s.e.m.). Concanamycin A (10 µmol l(-1)), ouabain (1 mmol l(-1)), and acetazolamide (1 mmol l(-1)) affected Vte in different ways, but all reduced fluid absorption by 60-70% of the value before addition of the drugs.

  16. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  18. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  19. Effects of age on cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Hoffman, Christy L.; Hyde, Shellie A.; Cummings, Carl S.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying oxytocin biology in the context of social functioning in human and non-human primates. Studies of human subjects are typically restricted to peripheral oxytocin assessments because opportunities to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are rare. A few studies have examined CSF oxytocin levels in captive adult primates, but none to our knowledge have been conducted under free-ranging conditions and inclusive of young infants. The main goal of the present study was to establish feasibility of quantifying CSF oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus monkeys living on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. CSF oxytocin levels were examined in relation to individuals’ demographic and reproductive characteristics, as well as in relation to plasma cortisol levels. CSF oxytocin concentrations ranged from 36.02 to 134.41 pg/ml in adult females (ages 7–26 years; N = 31) and 35.94 to 77.3 pg/ml in infants (ages 38–134 days; N = 17). CSF oxytocin levels were positively correlated with adult female age and negatively correlated with infant age. The former correlation was driven by reproductive status. CSF oxytocin levels were unrelated to dominance rank or plasma cortisol levels. In contrast to a previous study of plasma oxytocin concentrations in this population, CSF oxytocin levels did not differ significantly between lactating and non-lactating females. In summary, these findings: 1) provide feasibility data for examining CSF oxytocin biology in free-ranging nonhuman primates and 2) indicate that CSF oxytocin levels may be a biomarker of age-related central nervous system changes across lifespan development. Although our study did not report significant associations between CSF oxytocin levels and socially-relevant demographic variables, the relationships between CSF oxytocin levels and assessments of social functioning warrant future investigation. PMID:20528088

  20. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. PMID:26972154

  1. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice. PMID:26524146

  2. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice.

  3. Phenotypic plasticity in age at first reproduction of female northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Biela, V.R.; Gill, V.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that within a species, reproduction and survival rates will differ among populations that differ in resource availability or predation rates through phenotypic plasticity. When populations are near carrying capacity (K) or when they are declining due to reduced prey resources, the average age at 1st reproduction (average AFR) is predicted to be older than in populations below K. Differences between the trajectories of northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) populations in Alaska provides an opportunity to examine phenotypic plasticity. Using premolar teeth or reproductive tracts, we estimated average AFR from demographically distinct populations of sea otters in Alaska. We obtained samples from 2 populations near K, Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Aleutian Archipelago (archived samples), and from 2populations below K, the Kodiak Archipelago and Sitka. The average AFR was lower in populations below K (3.60 years ??0.16 SD)compared to those near K (4.21 ?? 0.13 years, P <0.001), and differed among all populations, with the Aleutian population possessing the oldest average AFR (4.29 ?? 0.09 years) followed by PWS (4.05 ?? 0.24 years), Sitka (3.80 ?? 0.21 years), and Kodiak (3.19 ?? 0.37 years). The difference in average AFR among populations supports life-history theory and provides evidence of phenotypic plasticity in sea otters. Our findings highlight the value of using average AFR as a tool for monitoring mammalian populations. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  5. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

  6. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days.

  7. Social relationships of nulliparous young adult females beyond the ordinary age of the first birth in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Katsu, Noriko; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We describe the social relationships of young adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging troop in Arashiyama, Kyoto, Japan, who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth because of contraceptive administration. We observed 12 young nulliparous adult females (6-9 years old) for 270 h and 10 min from 2 February to 5 October 2010. The majority maintained close relationships with their mothers through proximity and grooming, whereas a few had very infrequent social interactions with their mothers. Most had asymmetrical grooming relationships; the grooming they received from unrelated adult females was less than the grooming they gave. Young adult females who had less frequent interactions with their mothers by either proximity or grooming received more grooming from a larger number of unrelated adult females than did those who had more frequent social interactions with their mothers. These results indicate that most young adult females who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth tended to maintain close relationships with their mothers, and their grooming relationships with unrelated adult females were inversely related to the degree of closeness with their mothers.

  8. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    PubMed Central

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students. PMID:20098584

  9. Females of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus differ in the structures of their egg jelly sulfated fucans.

    PubMed

    Alves, A P; Mulloy, B; Moy, G W; Vacquier, V D; Mourão, P A

    1998-09-01

    The egg jelly coats of sea urchins contain sulfated fucans which bind to a sperm surface receptor glycoprotein to initiate the signal transduction events resulting in the sperm acrosome reaction. The acrosome reaction is an ion channel regulated exocytosis which is an obligatory event for sperm binding to, and fusion with, the egg. Approximately 90% of individual females of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus spawned eggs having only one of two possible sulfated fucan electrophoretic isotypes, a slow migrating (sulfated fucan I), or a fast migrating (sulfated fucan II) isotype. The remaining 10% of females spawned eggs having both sulfated fucan isotypes. The two sulfated fucan isotypes were purified from egg jelly coats and their structures determined by NMR spectroscopy and methylation analysis. Both sulfated fucans are linear polysaccharides composed of 1-->3-linked alpha-L-fucopyranosyl units. Sulfated fucan I is entirely sulfated at the O -2 position but with a heterogeneous sulfation pattern at O -4 position. Sulfated fucan II is composed of a regular repeating sequence of 3 residues, as follows: [3-alpha-L-Fuc p -2,4(OSO3)-1-->3-alpha-L-Fuc p -4(OSO3)-1-->3-alpha-L-Fuc p -4(OSO3)-1]n. Both purified sulfated fucans have approximately equal potency in inducing the sperm acrosome reaction. The significance of two structurally different sulfated fucans in the egg jelly coat of this species could relate to the finding that the sperm receptor protein which binds sulfated fucan contains two carbohydrate recognition modules of the C-type lectin variety which differ by 50% in their primary structure.

  10. Adult consequences of post-weaning high fat feeding on the limbic-HPA axis of female rats.

    PubMed

    Boukouvalas, George; Gerozissis, Kyriaki; Kitraki, Efthimia

    2010-05-01

    The peripubertal period is critical for the final maturation of circuits controlling energy homeostasis and stress response. However, the consequence of juvenile fat consumption on adult physiology is not clear. This study analyzed the adult consequences of post-weaning fat feeding on limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis components and on metabolic regulators of female rats. Wistar rats were fed either a high fat (HF) diet or the normal chow from weaning to puberty or to 3 months of age. Additional groups crossed their diets at puberty onset. Plasma leptin, insulin, and corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and their brain receptors by western blot analysis. Adult HF-fed animals though not overweight, had higher corticosterone and reduced glucocorticoid receptor levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, compared to the controls. The alterations in HPA axis emerged already at puberty onset. Leptin receptor levels in the hypothalamus were reduced only by continuous fat feeding from weaning to adulthood. The pre-pubertal period appeared more vulnerable to diet-induced alterations in adulthood than the post-pubertal one. Switching from fat diet to normal chow at puberty onset restored most of the diet-induced alterations in the HPA axis. The corticosteroid circuit rather than the leptin or insulin system appears as the principal target for the peripubertal fat diet-induced effects in adult female rats.

  11. Dynamic stability control during perturbed walking can be assessed by a reduced kinematic model across the adult female lifespan.

    PubMed

    Süptitz, Florian; Moreno Catalá, María; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to determine potential differences in dynamic stability control during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan and to test the hypothesis that such differences can be assessed by a reduced kinematic model. 11 young-aged (22-30years), 9 middle-aged (41-59years) and 14 old-aged (62-75years) female adults walked on a treadmill while the right leg was unexpectedly perturbed once during the swing phase. Margin of stability (MS) at touchdown was investigated using a full body and a reduced kinematic model. After the perturbation, all age groups showed a lower MS compared to non-perturbed gait (baseline), leading to negative MS. Four old-aged adults failed to cope with the task (only preventing a fall by grasping). The remaining ten old-aged and the middle-aged subjects required three more recovery steps than the young-aged adults to get back to baseline MS. Moreover, there were no differences between kinematic models, and both methods demonstrated similar age-related findings. We concluded that the ability to control dynamic stability during perturbed walking by enlarging the base of support has already begun to deteriorate by middle age. Further, the valid agreement between kinematic models shows that such differences can be assessed by using just four body markers.

  12. Risk and Protective Factors for Adult and Child Hunger Among Low-Income Housed and Homeless Female-Headed Families

    PubMed Central

    Wehler, Cheryl; Weinreb, Linda F.; Huntington, Nicholas; Scott, Richard; Hosmer, David; Fletcher, Kenneth; Goldberg, Robert; Gundersen, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify factors associated with adult or child hunger. Methods. Low-income housed and homeless mothers were interviewed about socioeconomic, psychosocial, health, and food sufficiency information. Multinomial logistic regression produced models predicting adult or child hunger. Results. Predictors of adult hunger included mothers’ childhood sexual molestation and current parenting difficulties, or “hassles.” Risk factors for child hunger included mothers’ childhood sexual molestation, housing subsidies, brief local residence, having more or older children, and substandard housing. Conclusions. This study found that the odds of hunger, although affected by resource constraints in low-income female-headed families, were also worsened by mothers’ poor physical and mental health. Eliminating hunger thus may require broader interventions than food programs. PMID:14713707

  13. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and < 0.01, respectively) and moist ( < 0.01) foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML, and LAL in the dry foods ( < 0.01, < 0.01, and = 0.08, respectively) and for CML and LAL in the moist foods ( < 0.01). The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism

  14. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  15. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  16. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  17. Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB/c mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude

    In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.

  18. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID

  19. Characteristic features of reproductive hormone profiles in late adolescent and adult females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doehnert, Ulla; Bertelloni, Silvano; Werner, Ralf; Dati, Eleonora; Hiort, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about gonadotropins and sex steroid levels in postpubertal women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). In order to define reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS and intact gonads, 42 postpubertal females with proven CAIS (age range 14-50 years) with testes in situ were examined. Reproductive hormone values [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] were assessed by commercially available immunoassays. In women with CAIS, LH levels (median 18.5 IU/l, range 5.5-51.1 IU/l) were elevated above the usual adult reference ranges, whereas FSH values (3.5 IU/l, 0.4-16.3 IU/l) were not. Basal T (20 nmol/l, 6-52 nmol/l) and E2 values (113 pmol/l; 18-257 pmol/l) were found in the usual adult male reference ranges; SHBG levels (53 nmol/l, 15-180 nmol/l) were in the adult female reference range. Calculated free androgen indices (Tx10³/SHBG: 380, 114-863) and aromatization indices (E2/T: 0.052, 0.020-0.196) did not differ from the reference ranges for adult men given in the literature (Tx10³/SHBG: 315-936; E2/T: 0.03-0.07). Reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS do not follow the usual male/female pattern, suggesting a specific postpubertal hormone milieu. Albeit calculation of CAIS-specific reference ranges requires larger series and standardization of laboratory methods, these results may be a prerequisite for the identification of pathologic hormone patterns in women with CAIS and gonads in situ. The present data will also be useful to monitor hormone replacement therapy in individuals with removed gonads.

  20. Sleep apnea and oxygen saturation in adults at 2640 m above sea level☆

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto Zapata, Maria Angelica; Dueñas Meza, Elida; Jaramillo, Claudia; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres Duque, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the SpO2 in wakefulness, sleep and during the apnea–hypopnea in adults living in Bogotá, located at 2640 m above sea level. Methods Descriptive observational study in adults referred for polysomnogram (PSG). A normal Apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was defined as ≤5 and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was classified as mild (AHI 5–15), moderate (AHI 15–30), and severe (AHI >30). T-test or ANOVA test for SpO2 differences between groups was used. Results 1799 patients, 33% women. 222 (12.8%) did not have OSA (normal IAH), 268 (14.9%) mild OSA, 315 (17.5%) moderate ,and 993 (55.2%) severe. In all cases a low SpO2 (SpO2<90%) was found. The SpO2 was lower when the AHI was higher, in wakefulness, in non-REM and in REM (p<0.001). For all grades of severity, SpO2 decreased significantly from wakefulness to non-REM sleep and to REM sleep (p<0.001). Patients with severe OSA had higher desaturation during wakefulness (85.2±6.6%), non-REM sleep (83.1±7.7%), REM sleep (78.8±10.2), and during events (75.1±9.1%). Conclusions Patients with OSA at 2640 m have nocturnal desaturation lower than 88%, which decreases with higher severity of OSA. The clinical impact of sleep disorders at this point may be greater than at sea level and should be studied. PMID:26483911

  1. Measuring Energy Expenditure in Sub-Adult and Hatchling Sea Turtles via Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Lewis G.; Jones, T. Todd; Jones, David R.; Liebsch, Nikolai; Booth, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the metabolic of sea turtles is fundamental to understanding their ecology yet the presently available methods are limited. Accelerometry is a relatively new technique for estimating metabolic rate that has shown promise with a number of species but its utility with air-breathing divers is not yet established. The present study undertakes laboratory experiments to investigate whether rate of oxygen uptake (o2) at the surface in active sub-adult green turtles Chelonia mydas and hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta correlates with overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), a derivative of acceleration used as a proxy for metabolic rate. Six green turtles (25–44 kg) and two loggerhead turtles (20 g) were instrumented with tri-axial acceleration logging devices and placed singly into a respirometry chamber. The green turtles were able to submerge freely within a 1.5 m deep tank and the loggerhead turtles were tethered in water 16 cm deep so that they swam at the surface. A significant prediction equation for mean o2 over an hour in a green turtle from measures of ODBA and mean flipper length (R2 = 0.56) returned a mean estimate error across turtles of 8.0%. The range of temperatures used in the green turtle experiments (22–30°C) had only a small effect on o2. A o2-ODBA equation for the loggerhead hatchling data was also significant (R2 = 0.67). Together these data indicate the potential of the accelerometry technique for estimating energy expenditure in sea turtles, which may have important applications in sea turtle diving ecology, and also in conservation such as assessing turtle survival times when trapped underwater in fishing nets. PMID:21829613

  2. Measuring energy expenditure in sub-adult and hatchling sea turtles via accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Jones, T Todd; Jones, David R; Liebsch, Nikolai; Booth, David T

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the metabolic of sea turtles is fundamental to understanding their ecology yet the presently available methods are limited. Accelerometry is a relatively new technique for estimating metabolic rate that has shown promise with a number of species but its utility with air-breathing divers is not yet established. The present study undertakes laboratory experiments to investigate whether rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at the surface in active sub-adult green turtles Chelonia mydas and hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta correlates with overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), a derivative of acceleration used as a proxy for metabolic rate. Six green turtles (25-44 kg) and two loggerhead turtles (20 g) were instrumented with tri-axial acceleration logging devices and placed singly into a respirometry chamber. The green turtles were able to submerge freely within a 1.5 m deep tank and the loggerhead turtles were tethered in water 16 cm deep so that they swam at the surface. A significant prediction equation for mean VO2 over an hour in a green turtle from measures of ODBA and mean flipper length (R(2) = 0.56) returned a mean estimate error across turtles of 8.0%. The range of temperatures used in the green turtle experiments (22-30 °C) had only a small effect on Vo₂. A VO2-ODBA equation for the loggerhead hatchling data was also significant (R(2) = 0.67). Together these data indicate the potential of the accelerometry technique for estimating energy expenditure in sea turtles, which may have important applications in sea turtle diving ecology, and also in conservation such as assessing turtle survival times when trapped underwater in fishing nets.

  3. Food utilization of adult flatfishes co-occurring in the Bohai Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuozeng, Dou

    Stomach contents were examined of 4527 adult individuals of 12 flatfish species collected during the 1982-1983 Bohai Sea Fisheries Resources Investigation. Their food habits, diet diversity, similarity of prey taxa, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap were systematically analysed. Ninety-seven prey species belonging to the Coelenterata, Nemertinea, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and fish were found and five of them were considered to be principal prey for flatfishes: Alpheus japonicus, Oratosquilla oratoria, Alpheus distinguendus, Loligo japonicus and Crangon affinis. Among the flatfishes, Paralichthys olivaceus was piscivorous, whereas Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini both had polychaetes and molluscs as their main prey groups. Pleuronichthys cornutus was classified as a polychaete-mollusc eater, with a strong preference for crustaceans. Verasper variegatus, Cynoglossus semilaevis, Eopsetta grigorjewi and Cleisthenes herzensteini ate crustaceans. Kareius bicoloratus was classified as a mollusc-crustacean eater. Cynoglossus abbreviatus, Cynoglossus joyneri and Zebrias zebra were grouped as crustacean-fish eaters. However, Z. zebra also took polychaetes and C. abbreviatus and C. joyneri preyed on some molluscs. Trophic relationships among the flatfishes were complicated, but they occupied distinctive microhabitats in different seasons and selected their specific prey items, which was favourable to the stability of the flatfish community in the Bohai Sea.

  4. Establishment of long term cultures of neural stem cells from adult sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Servili, Arianna; Bufalino, Mary Rose; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Sanchez de Melo, Ivan; Muñoz-Cueto, Jose A; Lee, Lucy E J

    2009-02-01

    Long term cell cultures could be obtained from brains of adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) up to 5 days post mortem. On three different occasions, sea bass brain tissues were dissected, dispersed and cultured in Leibovitz's L-15 media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The resulting cellular preparations could be passaged within 2 or 3 weeks of growth. The neural cells derived from the first trial (SBB-W1) have now been passaged over 24 times within two years. These cells have been cryopreserved and thawed successfully. SBB-W1 cells are slow growing with doubling times requiring at least 7 days at 22 degrees C. These long term cell cultures could be grown in suspension as neurospheres that were immunopositive for nestin, a marker for neural stem cells, or grown as adherent monolayers displaying both glial and neural morphologies. Immunostaining with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (a glial marker) and anti-neurofilament (a neuronal marker), yielded positive staining in most cells, suggesting their possible identity as neural stem cells. Furthermore, Sox 2, a marker for neural stem cells, could be detected from these cell extracts as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker for proliferating cells. SBB-W1 could be transfected using pEGFP-N1 indicating their viability and suitability as convenient models for neurophysiological or neurotoxicological studies.

  5. Attendance patterns of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) females and pups during the non-breeding season at San Miguel Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melin, S.R.; DeLong, R.L.; Thomason, J.R.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    The attendance patterns of California sea lions were studied during the non-breeding seasons from 1991 to 1994. Lactating females frequented the rookery to nurse their pups until weaning; most non-lactating females left the rookery for the season. Females spent over 70% of their time at sea except in 1993 when they spent 59% of their time at sea. The mean foraging trip length in the winter and spring ranged from 3.3 to 4.6 d; the mean nursing visit ranged from 1.2 to 1.4 d. The duration of foraging trips and nursing visits was variable over the season for individuals but no pattern of change was detected. Interannual and seasonal differences were not significant for time at sea, visits ashore, or foraging-trip duration before, during, or after the 1992-1993 El Nino event. Pups spent an average of 66.6% of their time ashore and up to three days away from the rookery during their mother's absence. Most females and pups stayed associated until April or May. The results suggest that seasonal movement of prey is more important in determining attendance patterns late in the lactation period than increasing energy demands of the pup.

  6. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  7. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between left and right feet occur in both the foot breadth measurements (BBAL and BHEL). Foot length measurements (T1 to T5 lengths) did not show any statistically significant bilateral asymmetry. The correlation between stature and all the foot measurements was found to be positive and statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). Linear regression models and multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from the measurements of the foot. The present study indicates that anthropometric measurements of foot and its segments are valuable in the estimation of stature. Foot length measurements estimate stature with greater accuracy when compared to foot breadth measurements. Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the

  8. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  9. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  10. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Marshall, D.; Gehlen, M.K.

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  11. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of the gonads and paramesonephric ducts of male and female hatchlings of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Sarı, F; Kaska, Y

    2016-08-01

    The sex of neonatal sea turtles is difficult to determine, because neonates lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes and dimorphic external characteristics; internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We used histochemical staining and made measurements in the gonads and paramesonephric ducts (PD) of both sexes to determine structural differences in female and male loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) hatchlings. We detected differences in the gonads and PD between the sexes including the amounts of mucopolysaccharides, collagen and elastic fibers. We determined that the thickness of the gonadal cortex and the diameter of the PD lumen are reliable sex-specific characteristics. We also assessed immunolocalization of aromatase, an enzyme complex that converts androgens to estrogens, and found differences in the localization and intensity of aromatase immunostaining in the gonads and PD of female and male hatchlings. Comprehensive studies of the sexual differences of sea turtles are important for conservation programs. PMID:27437606

  12. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of the gonads and paramesonephric ducts of male and female hatchlings of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Sarı, F; Kaska, Y

    2016-08-01

    The sex of neonatal sea turtles is difficult to determine, because neonates lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes and dimorphic external characteristics; internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We used histochemical staining and made measurements in the gonads and paramesonephric ducts (PD) of both sexes to determine structural differences in female and male loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) hatchlings. We detected differences in the gonads and PD between the sexes including the amounts of mucopolysaccharides, collagen and elastic fibers. We determined that the thickness of the gonadal cortex and the diameter of the PD lumen are reliable sex-specific characteristics. We also assessed immunolocalization of aromatase, an enzyme complex that converts androgens to estrogens, and found differences in the localization and intensity of aromatase immunostaining in the gonads and PD of female and male hatchlings. Comprehensive studies of the sexual differences of sea turtles are important for conservation programs.

  13. Transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype in embryo-transferred intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Garg, Meena; Oak, Shilpa; Rogers, Lisa M; Pan, Gerald; Sangiorgi, Frank; Lee, Paul W N; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2007-05-01

    To determine mechanisms underlying the transgenerational presence of metabolic perturbations in the intrauterine growth-restricted second-generation adult females (F2 IUGR) despite normalizing the in utero metabolic environment, we examined in vivo glucose kinetics and in vitro skeletal muscle postinsulin receptor signaling after embryo transfer of first generation (F1 IUGR) to control maternal environment. Female F2 rats, procreated by F1 pre- and postnatally nutrient- and growth-restricted (IUGR) mothers but embryo transferred to gestate in control mothers, were compared with similarly gestating age- and sex-matched control (CON) F2 progeny. Although there were no differences in birth weight or postnatal growth patterns, the F2 IUGR had increased hepatic weight, fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and unsuppressed hepatic glucose production, with no change in glucose futile cycling or clearance, compared with F2 CON. These hormonal and metabolic aberrations were associated with increased skeletal muscle total GLUT4 and pAkt concentrations but decreased plasma membrane-associated GLUT4, total pPKCzeta, and PKCzeta enzyme activity, with no change in total SHP2 and PTP1B concentrations in IUGR F2 compared with F2 CON. We conclude that transgenerational presence of aberrant glucose/insulin metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling of the adult F2 IUGR female offspring is independent of the immediate intrauterine environment, supporting nutritionally induced heritable mechanisms contributing to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  15. Comparing the executive attention of adult females with ADHD to that of females with sensory modulation disorder (SMD) under aversive and non-aversive auditory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mazor-Karsenty, Tal; Parush, Shula; Bonneh, Yoram; Shalev, Lilach

    2015-02-01

    Certain behavioral expressions of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) such as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are often similar to those of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric and adult populations. There is also a high comorbidity rate between these two diagnoses and absence of research regarding the objective neuropsychological differentiation between them. In the present study we employed a factorial design which enabled us to: (a) systematically examine the effects of SMD and ADHD on executive attention in a sample of adult females using a Stroop-like task, and (b) measure the effect of aversive conditions (sounds) on executive attention. The experimental measures used were the Stroop-like Location-Direction Task (SLDT) to assess executive attention and the battery of aversiveness to sounds (BAS), a standardized measure of aversive sounds that was developed for this study and enabled individual customization of aversive auditory sounds. Results revealed, as expected, a specific core deficit in executive attention for the ADHD factor. In addition to that, the present study provides an important, pioneering finding of SMD impairment in a unique combination of a cognitively demanding task with aversive sounds, providing preliminary objective evidence differentiating SMD from ADHD.

  16. Mortality and reproduction of female sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-13. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    Ninety-six female sea otters were instrumeted with implanted radio-transmitters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 1989-1990. Females in eastern Prince William Sound exhibited a lower survival rate than those in western Prince William Sound. No differences were observed between rates of pupping or between rates of survival of dependent pups for sea otters in the two areas.

  17. Spring-summer survival rates of yearling versus adult mallard females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.E.; Blohm, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and cause of mortality in wildlife populations is imperative for developing management strategies that protect or improve the status of these populations. Age- and sex-specific population parameter estimates provide the most useful information for this purpose. Numerous studies have provided information about survival rates in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but little is known about age-related differences in female survival during the breeding period. We examined band-recovery data for female mallards banded in southern portions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba during spring and summer 1981-85. We used band-recovery models to test the hypothesis that yearling females would exhibit higher survival compared with that of older females during spring-summer. There was evidence (P = 0.08) that spring-summer survival rates of yearling females (0.728) were higher than that of older females (0.574). These findings support the hypothesis that age-specific differences in nesting behavior (e.g., later nest initiation and fewer nesting attempts by yearlings) influence losses to predators and are responsible for the difference in spring-summer survival. Management treatments that increase nest success, and consequently reduce the need for prolonged nesting, will increase mallard survival during spring-summer.

  18. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn.

  19. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress increase sensitivity to stress and gonadal hormone influences on cognition in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Wendy L; Lee, Kristen; Anderson, Katie; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal activity of stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA]), and gonadal hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG]) systems is reported following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). PAE increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in regulation of these systems to stressors or challenges during sensitive periods of development, such as adolescence. In addition, HPA and HPG functions are linked to higher order functions such as executive function (EF), with dysregulation of either system adversely affecting EF processes, including attention and response inhibition, that influence cognition. However, how HPA and HPG systems interact to influence cognitive performance in individuals with an FASD is not fully understood. To investigate, we used a rat model of moderate PAE. Adolescent female PAE and control offspring were exposed to 10days of chronic mild stress (CMS) and cognitive function was assessed on the radial arm maze (RAM) in adulthood. On the final test day, animals were sacrificed, with blood collected for hormone analyses, and vaginal smears taken to assess estrus stage at the time of termination. Analyses showed that adolescent CMS significantly increased levels of CORT and RAM errors during proestrus in adult PAE but not control females. Moreover, CORT levels were correlated with estradiol levels and with RAM errors, but only in PAE females, with outcome dependent on adolescent CMS condition. These results suggest that PAE increases sensitivity to the influences of stress and gonadal hormones on cognition, and thus, in turn, that HPA and HPG dysregulation may underlie some of the deficits in executive function described previously in PAE females.

  1. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations.

  2. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  3. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  4. Species differences in behavior and cell proliferation/survival in the adult brains of female meadow and prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Zhang, Z; Wang, Z

    2016-02-19

    Microtine rodents display diverse patterns of social organization and behaviors, and thus provide a useful model for studying the effects of the social environment on physiology and behavior. The current study compared the species differences and the effects of oxytocin (OT) on anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Furthermore, cell proliferation and survival in the brains of adult female meadow and prairie voles were compared. We found that female meadow voles displayed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior but lower levels of social affiliation and social recognition compared to female prairie voles. In addition, meadow voles showed lower levels of cell proliferation (measured by Ki67 staining) and cell survival (measured by BrdU staining) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG), than prairie voles. Interestingly, the numbers of new cells in the VMH and AMY, but not DG, also correlated with anxiety-like, social affiliation, and social recognition behaviors in a brain region-specific manner. Finally, central OT treatment (200 ng/kg, icv) did not lead to changes in behavior or cell proliferation/survival in the brain. Together, these data indicate a potential role of cell proliferation/survival in selected brain areas on different behaviors between vole species with distinct life strategies. PMID:26708743

  5. Differential responses to salt supplementation in adult male and female rat adrenal glands following intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Karine; Otis, Mélissa; St-Louis, Jean; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Brochu, Michèle

    2011-04-01

    In low sodium-induced intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) rat, foetal adrenal steroidogenesis as well as the adult renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is altered. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo) and of angiotensin II receptor subtypes 1 (AT(1)R) and 2 (AT(2)R) in adult adrenal glands and whether this expression could be influenced by IUGR and by high-salt intake in a sex-specific manner. After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT(2)R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR.

  6. All about FAX: a Female Adult voXel phantom for Monte Carlo calculation in radiation protection dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Loureiro, E C M; Lima, V J M; Lima, F R A; Hoff, G

    2004-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a task group on dose calculations, which, among other objectives, should replace the currently used mathematical MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real persons by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to the mathematical MIRD phantoms, voxel phantoms are true to the natural representations of a human body. Connected to a radiation transport code, voxel phantoms serve as virtual humans for which equivalent dose to organs and tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation can be calculated. The principal database for the construction of the FAX (Female Adult voXel) phantom consisted of 151 CT images recorded from scanning of trunk and head of a female patient, whose body weight and height were close to the corresponding data recommended by the ICRP in Publication 89. All 22 organs and tissues at risk, except for the red bone marrow and the osteogenic cells on the endosteal surface of bone ('bone surface'), have been segmented manually with a technique recently developed at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the UFPE in Recife, Brazil. After segmentation the volumes of the organs and tissues have been adjusted to agree with the organ and tissue masses recommended by ICRP for the Reference Adult Female in Publication 89. Comparisons have been made with the organ and tissue masses of the mathematical EVA phantom, as well as with the corresponding data for other female voxel phantoms. The three-dimensional matrix of the segmented images has eventually been connected to the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for exposures to photons, and compared to data determined for the mathematical MIRD-type phantoms, as well as for other voxel phantoms.

  7. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  8. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-07-21

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect.

  9. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1–14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg−1 subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  10. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  11. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  12. D2 antagonist during development decreases anxiety and infanticidal behavior in adult female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Harkey, Shanna L; Bales, Karen L

    2010-06-26

    On postnatal day 8, prairie vole pups were randomly assigned a treatment of 1mg/kg SKF38393 (D1 agonist), quinpirole (D2 agonist), SCH23390 (D1 antagonist), eticlopride (D2 antagonist), or saline vehicle. As adults, females treated with eticlopride exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze and a reduction in infanticidal behavior. These behavioral effects were not seen in males. These data demonstrate that a single exposure to a D2 antagonist during development can have persistent, sex-specific effects on behavior into adulthood. PMID:20152865

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  15. Space-use strategy is an important determinant of PCB concentrations in female polar bears in the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gro H; Mauritzen, Mette; Derocher, Andrew E; Sørmo, Eugen G; Skaare, Janneche U; Wiig, Oystein; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-11-01

    Space-use was examined in 54 female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea that were collared with satellite transmitters to provide information on their spatial positions and annual home range sizes. Plasma samples from the same animals were analyzed for concentrations of six relevant PCB congeners (PCB-99, -153, -156, -180, -194, and -118). Factors related to space-use strategy (such as home range size; annual, spring, and winter longitudinal position; and spring and summer latitudinal position) were important determinants of PCB concentrations in plasma. In addition, reproductive status of the polar bears and plasma lipid content affected PCB concentrations. Among the tested variables, annual home range size was the variable that affected sigmaPCB5 (sum of PCB-99, -153, -156, -180, and -194) to the largest degree (r2 = 0.22). We propose that the positive effect of home range size on sigmaPCB5 in female polar bears is related to the higher energetic costs required to occupy large home range sizes as compared to small home range sizes. Polar bears with large home range sizes would need to consume more prey than bears with small home range sizes, and increased feeding without a change in elimination of persistent compounds can explain their higher sigmaPCB5 concentrations. Polar bears with large home range sizes were also more pelagic, inhabiting areas further east, closer to the ice-edge zone than animals with small home range sizes. Thus, prey choice associated with a pelagic space-use strategy may also explain the higher sigmaPCB5 in polar bears with large home range sizes.

  16. A Case Study on the Impacts of Connective Technology on Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning of Female Adult Students Managing Work-Life Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Adults frequently define their lives as "hectic" and "overextended;" yet, many make the decision to return to school and add the role of student into their busy lives. This research study explored and explained the impact of connective technology on self-efficacy and self-regulated learning of female adult students balancing…

  17. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Bullying Experiences on Female Adults as It Relates to Their Perception of Themselves and Their Relationships with Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcalow, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood bullying is a phenomenon that affects many individuals well beyond their childhood. This study looked specifically at female adults, and how the bullying they experienced in their childhood continues to have long-term effects on them in their adult lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term effects that bullying has on…

  18. A Sex-Linked Gene Controlling the Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female and Male Platyfish (XIPHOPHORUS MACULATUS), Fecundity in Females and Adult Size in Males

    PubMed Central

    Kallman, Klaus D.; Borkoski, Valerie

    1978-01-01

    A sex-linked gene, P, controls the onset of sexual maturity in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. The activity of this gene is correlated with the age and size at which the gonadotropic zone of the adenohypophysis differentiates and becomes physiologically active. Immature fish of all genotypes grow at the same rate; however, as adults, males with "early" genotypes are significantly smaller than males of "late" genotypes, since growth rate declines strongly under the influence of androgenic hormone. Five alleles, P1... P5, have been identified from natural populations that under controlled conditions cause gonad maturation between eight and 73 weeks. P1P1 males become mature at eight weeks and 21 mm, P2P2 and P3P3 males between eleven and 13.5 weeks and 25 to 29 mm, and P4P4 males at 25 weeks and 37 mm. Since P5 is X-linked, no males homozygous for P5 could be produced. The difference between P2 and P3 is largely based upon their interaction with P5. P3P5 males mature at 17.5 weeks and 33.5 mm and P2P5 males at 28 weeks and 38 mm. The rate of transformation of the unmodified anal fin into a gonopodium, which is under androgenic control, is directly related to the age at initiation of sexual maturity, ranging from 3.2 weeks in P1P1 males to seven weeks in P2P 5 males. These differences may reflect different levels of circulating gonadotropic and androgenic hormones.—In two genotypes of females, initiation of vitellogenesis was closely correlated with size and this critical size was independent of age (e.g., 21 mm for P1P1 ). In a third genotype (P1P5) the minimum size for vitellogenesis decreased with increasing age, so that females would mature as early as eleven weeks, provided they had attained at least 29 mm, but at 25 weeks even females as small as 23 mm possessed ripe gonads. For P5P5 females, which become mature between 34 and 73 weeks of age, there is no correlation between size and initiation of vitellogenesis. In all four genotypes of females examined

  19. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  20. Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

    2014-12-01

    Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-, 20β-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage.

  1. Postmortem Evaluation of Left Flank Laparoscopic Access in an Adult Female Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Pizzi, R; Cracknell, J; Dalrymple, L

    2010-01-01

    There are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. An 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650 kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. Safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (Visiport Plus, Tyco healthcare UK Ltd) without prior abdominal insufflation. A left paralumbar fossa approach allowed access to the spleen, rumen, left kidney, and intestines, but did not allow access to the reproductive tract which in nongravid females is intrapelvic in nature. PMID:20445792

  2. The Relationship of Sexual Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors among Heterosexual Adult Female STD Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to high-risk sexual behavior and between sexual abuse and expectations for condom use. Among 83 female clinic patients with sexually transmitted diseases, those sexually abused in childhood had more sexual partners, more positive hedonic outcome expectations for condom use, and fewer…

  3. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  4. An Exploration of Female Travellers' Experiences of Guidance Counselling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Anne; Hearne, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The proposed changes in the further education sector, including the rationalisation of the VEC into Local Education and Training Boards (LETBs) and the closures of the Senior Traveller Training Centres (STTCs), have implications for guidance counselling provision to the Traveller community. This article discusses female Travellers' experiences of…

  5. The distribution of lamprey GnRH-III in brains of adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Nozaki, M; Ominato, K; Gorbman, A; Sower, S A

    2000-04-01

    In the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, two forms of GnRH, lamprey GnRH-I and -III, have been demonstrated to be neurohormones regulating the pituitary-gonadal axis. The objective of the present study was to determine the distribution of lamprey GnRH-III in the brains of adult sea lampreys and to compare it to the distribution of lamprey GnRH-I. For this purpose, two kinds of immunostaining were employed: one was a single immunostaining by one of two GnRH antibodies using two successive sections; the other was double immunostaining of a single section. A dense accumulation of neuronal cells immunoreactive (ir) to antisera against either lamprey GnRH-I or -III was found in the arc-shaped preoptico-anterior hypothalamic area. Additional smaller numbers of irGnRH cells were found in the periventricular zone of the posterior hypothalamus. In the above-mentioned locations, the distribution of both irGnRH-I and -III cells was intermixed and very similar, but the cells exhibiting GnRH-III immunoreactivity were distinctly different from those exhibiting GnRH-I immunoreactivity. The relative numbers of irGnRH-III cells were larger than those of irGnRH-I cells in the preoptico-anterior hypothalamic area, and more than 90% of GnRH cells in the posterior hypothalamus were irGnRH-III cells. Both irGnRH-I and -III cells projected their fibers primarily into the neurohypophysis. The relative densities of the accumulated irGnRH-III fibers were similar to those of irGnRH-I fibers in the anterior neurohypophysis but higher than those of irGnRH-I fibers in the posterior neurohypophysis. The present study provides further immunocytochemical data to the already compelling physiological evidence that indicates that both lamprey GnRH-I and -III act through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to modulate reproductive processes in the sea lamprey.

  6. Impact of maternal morphine and saline injections on behavioral responses to a cold water stressor in adult male and female progeny.

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Schindler, Cheryl J; Vathy, Ilona

    2002-04-15

    The purpose of the present study was to test the effects of maternal morphine and saline injections on chronic cold water stress responses in three groups of adult male and female rats: prenatally morphine-exposed adult progeny, prenatally saline-exposed adult progeny, and control groups. All male rats were gonadally intact, and female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) in adulthood, and half of them were injected with estradiol benzoate (EB). All animals were exposed to a cold water stressor daily for 2 weeks and tested before (baseline) and after (stress effects) the chronic cold water stressor in a swim test and an open field test. In the swim test, both adult males and OVX, EB-treated adult females born to mothers injected with morphine or saline displayed more floating behavior during the swim test than their controls, both before and after the cold water stressor. Male rats exposed to morphine or saline prenatally also spent more time struggling during the swim tests than controls, and this was further increased after the cold water stressor. In the open field test, males and OVX, EB-treated females born to morphine- or saline-injected mothers were less active and displayed fewer rearings than controls. No differences were observed in OVX females as a result of prenatal injections. Thus, the present study demonstrates that maternal injections, regardless of injection content, induce long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness in adult progeny.

  7. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  8. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-21

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  9. Flight Capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adult Females Based on Flight Mill Studies and Flight Muscle Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591

  10. Flight capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) adult females based on flight mill studies and flight muscle ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni Egg, Adult Male and Female Comparative Gene Expression Analysis and Identification of Novel Genes by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Letícia; Amaral, Murilo S.; Beckedorff, Felipe; Silva, Lucas F.; Dazzani, Bianca; Oliveira, Katia C.; Almeida, Giulliana T.; Gomes, Monete R.; Pires, David S.; Setubal, João C.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is a public health problem. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread species responsible for schistosomiasis in the Americas, Middle East and Africa. Adult female worms (mated to males) release eggs in the hepatic portal vasculature and are the principal cause of morbidity. Comparative separate transcriptomes of female and male adult worms were previously assessed with using microarrays and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), thus limiting the possibility of finding novel genes. Moreover, the egg transcriptome was analyzed only once with limited bacterially cloned cDNA libraries. Methodology/Principal findings To compare the gene expression of S. mansoni eggs, females, and males, we performed RNA-Seq on these three parasite forms using 454/Roche technology and reconstructed the transcriptome using Trinity de novo assembly. The resulting contigs were mapped to the genome and were cross-referenced with predicted Smp genes and H3K4me3 ChIP-Seq public data. For the first time, we obtained separate, unbiased gene expression profiles for S. mansoni eggs and female and male adult worms, identifying enriched biological processes and specific enriched functions for each of the three parasite forms. Transcripts with no match to predicted genes were analyzed for their protein-coding potential and the presence of an encoded conserved protein domain. A set of 232 novel protein-coding genes with putative functions related to reproduction, metabolism, and cell biogenesis was detected, which contributes to the understanding of parasite biology. Conclusions/Significance Large-scale RNA-Seq analysis using de novo assembly associated with genome-wide information for histone marks in the vicinity of gene models constitutes a new approach to transcriptome analysis that has not yet been explored in schistosomes. Importantly, all data have been consolidated into a UCSC Genome Browser search

  12. Resiliency Determinants and Resiliency Processes among Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogar, Christine B.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard,…

  13. Exploring the Experiences of Female Emerging Adult Mentors: Building a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Julianne; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Sollie, Donna L.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    While mentoring programs are prevalent, limited research focused on the mentors' experiences exist, particularly during critical periods of development. Using a qualitative, grounded theory approach, this study explores the elements of the mentoring experience for a cohort of late adolescent/emerging adult women in a long-term program. Outcomes…

  14. Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Male and Female Young Adults: 1990 versus 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Laura; Nicodemus, Teresa; Pomante, Michael; Binasiewicz, Megan; Dheer, Rahul; Dugan, Amy; Madaras, Janice; Chambliss, Catherine

    The increase in maternal employment has affected society and children. Indications are that the increased numbers of working mothers had impacted the size of families and the birth intervals within them. In addition, as children experience life with a working mother, personal constructs of adult roles and attitudes towards maternal employment can…

  15. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  16. Assessment of fertility and reproductive toxicity in adult female mice after long-term exposure to Pueraria mirifica herb.

    PubMed

    Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Wattanasirmkit, Kingkaew; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2007-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of long-term administration of Pueraria mirifica (PM) at non-toxic doses on the ovarian function and fertility of adult female mice based on evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Female mice were divided into 4 groups (36 mice/group). Groups 1-3 were orally treated with a dose of 0 (PM-0), 10 (PM-10) or 100 mg/kg BW/day PM (PM-100), and group 4 was subcutaneously injected with 200 mug/kg BW/day of synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES). The treatment schedule was separated into treatment and post-treatment periods. The duration of each period was 8 weeks. The PM-10 mice exhibited regular estrous cycles, while the PM-100 and DES treatments induced prolonged estrous cycles. Although no changes were observed in the uterus and ovary weights of the mice after the PM-100 and DES treatments, hyperplasia of the uterine endothelium and a decrease in the number of growing ovarian follicles were detected. The changes in the ovarian histologies of the PM-100 and DES mice were related to reductions in the levels of LH and FSH, which subsequently caused a decrease in mating efficiency. Once the PM mice were able to copulate, they were capable of successfully becoming pregnant and mothering offspring. No abnormalities were observed in the external morphologies and reproductive organ weights of the 50-day-old offspring. In conclusion, our results suggest that long-term exposure to 100 mg/kg BW of PM has adverse effects on the mating efficiency and reproduction of adult female mice and that administration of 10 mg/kg BW of PM does not induce any changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-uterine axis.

  17. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".

  18. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effects of perinatal bisphenol A exposure during early development on radial arm maze behavior in adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Park, Pul; Neese, Steven L.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Schantz, Susan L.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) can affect anxiety behavior. However, no studies have examined whether administration of this endocrine disruptor during the perinatal period has the potential to induce alterations in cognitive behavior in both adult males and females as assessed in an appetitive task. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to different doses of BPA during early development alters performance on the 17-arm radial maze in adulthood in Long-Evans rats. Oral administration of corn oil (vehicle), 4 μg/kg, 40 μg/kg, or 400 μg/kg BPA to the dams occurred daily throughout pregnancy, and the pups received direct oral administration of BPA between postnatal days 1-9. Blood was collected from offspring at weaning age to determine levels of several hormones (thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone). One male and one female from each litter were evaluated on the 17-arm radial maze, a working/reference memory task, in adulthood. Results indicated that after exposure to BPA at both 4 and 400 μg/kg/day, rats of both sexes had decreased levels of FSH at weaning. There were no significant effects of BPA on performance on the radial arm maze in males or females. In conclusion, exposure to BPA during early development had modest effects on circulating hormones but did not affect a spatial learning and memory task. PMID:24440629

  20. Description of female nymphal instars and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) based on specimens from Crete and mainland Greece, with a discussion on geographical variation.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Francesco; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2014-10-22

    The first-instar nymph, second- and third-instar female nymphs and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated; micrographs of morphological details are also provided. The species was collected on the island of Crete (Greece) and on mainland Greece, new localities for this species, and are compared with Israeli specimens from where it was originally described.

  1. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

  2. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species. PMID:24292399

  3. Pre-Partum Diet of Adult Female Bearded Seals in Years of Contrasting Ice Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hindell, Mark A.; Lydersen, Christian; Hop, Haakon; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2012-01-01

    Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007) with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The δ15N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005), the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006), the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals. PMID:22693616

  4. Pre-partum diet of adult female bearded seals in years of contrasting ice conditions.

    PubMed

    Hindell, Mark A; Lydersen, Christian; Hop, Haakon; Kovacs, Kit M

    2012-01-01

    Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007) with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The δ(15)N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005), the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006), the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals. PMID:22693616

  5. Pre-partum diet of adult female bearded seals in years of contrasting ice conditions.

    PubMed

    Hindell, Mark A; Lydersen, Christian; Hop, Haakon; Kovacs, Kit M

    2012-01-01

    Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007) with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The δ(15)N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005), the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006), the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals.

  6. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure in rats: Evidence for cognitive deficits in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Fountain, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats would impair the cognitive capacity of a subsequent generation. Male and female rats in the parental F0 generation were given twice-daily i.p. injections of either 1.0mg/kg nicotine or an equivalent volume of saline for 35days during adolescence on postnatal days 25-59 (P25-59). After reaching adulthood, male and female nicotine-exposed rats were paired for breeding as were male and female saline control rats. Only female offspring were used in this experiment. Half of the offspring of F0 nicotine-exposed breeders and half of the offspring of F0 saline control rats received twice-daily i.p. injections of 1.0mg/kg nicotine during adolescence on P25-59. The remainder of the rats received twice-daily saline injections for the same period. To evaluate transgenerational effects of nicotine exposure on complex cognitive learning abilities, F1 generation rats were trained to perform a highly structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Beginning on P95, rats in the F1 generation were given either 4days of massed training (20patterns/day) followed by spaced training (10 patterns/day) or only spaced training. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure were observed as greater difficulty in learning a "violation element" of the pattern, which indicated that rats were impaired in the ability to encode and remember multiple sequential elements as compound or configural cues. The results indicated that for rats that received massed training, F1 generation rats with adolescent nicotine exposure whose F0 generation parents also experienced adolescent nicotine exposure showed poorer learning of the violation element than rats that experienced adolescent nicotine exposure only in the F1 generation. Thus, adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats produced a cognitive impairment in the next generation.

  7. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  8. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Mair, Jacqueline L; Nevill, Alan M; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  9. Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

  10. Management of acne vulgaris with hormonal therapies in adult female patients.

    PubMed

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common condition affecting up of 93% of adolescents. Although rare, this disease may persist in adulthood. In adult women with acne (those older than 25 years old), this condition is particularly relevant because of the refractory to conventional therapies, which makes acne a challenge for dermatologists in this group of patients. In order to its potential risk for chronicity and the involvement of visible anatomical sites such as face and upper torso, acne has been associated with a wide spectrum of psychological and social dysfunction such as depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and social inhibition. In particular, adult women with acne have been shown to be adversely impacted by the effect of acne on their quality of life. For the last four decades, dermatologists have used hormonal therapies for the management of acne vulgaris in adult women, which are considered a rational choice given the severity and chronicity of this condition in this group of patients. The aim of this work is to review the hormonal drugs for management of acne.

  11. Neurokinin B is critical for normal timing of sexual maturation but dispensable for adult reproductive function in female mice.

    PubMed

    True, Cadence; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Cox, Kimberly; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2015-04-01

    Humans carrying mutations in neurokinin B (NKB) or the NKB receptor fail to undergo puberty due to decreased secretion of GnRH. Despite this pubertal delay, many of these patients go on to achieve activation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adulthood, a phenomenon termed reversal, indicating that NKB signaling may play a more critical role for the timing of pubertal development than adult reproductive function. NKB receptor-deficient mice are hypogonadotropic but have no defects in the timing of sexual maturation. The current study has performed the first phenotypic evaluation of mice bearing mutations in Tac2, the gene encoding the NKB ligand, to determine whether they have impaired sexual development similar to their human counterparts. Male Tac2-/- mice showed no difference in the timing of sexual maturation or fertility compared with wild-type littermates and were fertile. In contrast, Tac2-/- females had profound delays in sexual maturation, with time to vaginal opening and first estrus occurring significantly later than controls, and initial abnormalities in estrous cycles. However, cycling recovered in adulthood and Tac2-/- females were fertile, although they produced fewer pups per litter. Thus, female Tac2-/- mice parallel humans harboring NKB pathway mutations, with delayed sexual maturation and activation of the reproductive cascade later in life. Moreover, direct comparison of NKB ligand and receptor-deficient females confirmed that only NKB ligand-deficient animals have delayed sexual maturation, suggesting that in the absence of the NKB receptor, NKB may regulate the timing of sexual maturation through other tachykinin receptors.

  12. Expression of two different sulfated fucans by females of Lytechinus variegatus may regulate the seasonal variation in the fertilization of the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Leonardo P; Castro, Michelle O; Santos, Livia L; Garcia, Clarice R; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2007-08-01

    The egg jellies of sea urchins contain sulfated polysaccharides with unusual structures, composed of linear chains of l-fucose or l-galactose with well-defined repetitive units. The specific pattern of sulfation and the position of the glycosidic bond vary among sulfated polysaccharides from different species. These polysaccharides show species specificity in inducing the acrosome reaction, which is a critical event for fertilization. Females of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus spawn eggs containing a sulfated fucan with the repetitive sequence [3-alpha-L-Fucp-2(OSO(3))-1 --> 3-alpha-L-Fucp-4(OSO(3))-1 --> 3-alpha-L-Fucp-2,4(OSO(3))-1 --> 3-alpha-L-Fucp-2(OSO(3))-1](n). We now observe that, close to winter, a period of decreased fertility for the sea urchin, the females synthesize a distinct sulfated fucan with a simple structure, composed of 4-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-fucose residues. This sulfated fucan is inactive when tested in vitro for the acrosome reaction using homologous sperm. The amount of egg jellies spawned by females (and their constituent sulfated polysaccharides) varied greatly throughout the year. Apparently, there is a correlation between the temperature of the sea water and the expression of the 4-sulfated, 3-linked sulfated fucan. Overall, we described the occurrence of two isotypes of sulfated fucan in the egg jelly of the sea urchin L. variegatus, which differ in their biological activity and may be involved in the periodicity of the reproductive cycle of the invertebrate.

  13. Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Helene; Kwan, Donna

    2008-09-01

    The extensive sea grass meadows in Torres Strait enable it to be a globally important habitat for the dugong, Dugong dugon, a marine mammal of cultural and dietary significance to Torres Strait Islanders and the basis for the substantial island-based fishery in the Torres Strait Protected Zone. Torres Strait sea grass communities are subjected to episodic diebacks which are now believed to be largely natural events. Information on dugong life history was obtained from specimens obtained from female dugongs as they were butchered for food by Indigenous hunters at two major dugong hunting communities in Torres Strait: Daru (9.04°S, 143.21°E) in 1978-1982 (a time of sea grass dieback and recovery) and Mabuiag Island (9.95°S, 142.15°E) in 1997-1999 (when sea grasses were abundant). Dugongs sampled in 1997-1999 had their first calf at younger ages (minimum of 6 cf. 10 years), and more frequently (interbirth interval based on all possible pregnancies 2.6±0.4 (S.E.) yr cf. 5.8±1.0 yr) than the dugongs sampled in 1978-1982. Pregnancy rates increased monotonically during 1978-1982, coincident with sea grass recovery. The age distribution of the female dugongs collected in 1997-1999 also suggested a low birth rate between 1973 and 1983 and/or or a high level of mortality for animals born during this period. These results add to the evidence from other regions that the life history and reproductive rate of female dugongs are adversely affected by sea grass loss, the effect of which cannot be separated from a possible density-dependent response to changes in dugong population size. Many green turtles in Torres Strait were also in poor body condition coincident with the 1970s sea grass dieback. The impacts of future sea grass diebacks need to be anticipated when management options for the traditional Torres Strait fisheries for dugongs and green turtles are evaluated.

  14. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  15. Prior swimming exercise favors muscle recovery in adult female rats after joint immobilization.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Ana Claudia; Ramos, Douglas Massoni; Gomes de Oliveira, Luana; Alberto da Silva, Carlos; Pertille, Adriana

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise on immobilization and subsequent recovery of white gastrocnemius (WG) and soleus (SOL) muscles of female rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty, 8-month-old, female Wistar rats were randomly and evenly allocated to six groups: sedentary (S); immobilized sedentary (IS); immobilized/rehabilitated sedentary (IRS); trained (T); immobilized trained (IT); and immobilized/rehabilitated trained (IRT). For four months, T, IT and IRT group animals performed swimming exercise (three sessions per week, 60 minutes per session), while S, IS and IRS groups animals remained housed in cages. After this period, the left hindlimb of the animals from the IS, IRS, IT and IRT groups was immobilized for five days, with the ankle at 90°. After removal of the orthosis, animals from the IRS and IRT groups followed a rehabilitation program based on swimming (five sessions per week, 60 minutes per session) for two weeks. [Results] Immobilization significantly reduced the cross-sectional area of the white gastrocnemius muscle; no changes were observed in the soleus muscles of the trained animals. Transforming growth factor-β1 protein levels were similar among the trained groups. [Conclusion] Prior swimming prevents hypotrophy of the soleus muscle after immobilization, and protein levels reflected the adaptive capacity of the skeletal muscle. PMID:27512267

  16. Prior swimming exercise favors muscle recovery in adult female rats after joint immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Ana Claudia; Ramos, Douglas Massoni; Gomes de Oliveira, Luana; Alberto da Silva, Carlos; Pertille, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise on immobilization and subsequent recovery of white gastrocnemius (WG) and soleus (SOL) muscles of female rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty, 8-month-old, female Wistar rats were randomly and evenly allocated to six groups: sedentary (S); immobilized sedentary (IS); immobilized/rehabilitated sedentary (IRS); trained (T); immobilized trained (IT); and immobilized/rehabilitated trained (IRT). For four months, T, IT and IRT group animals performed swimming exercise (three sessions per week, 60 minutes per session), while S, IS and IRS groups animals remained housed in cages. After this period, the left hindlimb of the animals from the IS, IRS, IT and IRT groups was immobilized for five days, with the ankle at 90°. After removal of the orthosis, animals from the IRS and IRT groups followed a rehabilitation program based on swimming (five sessions per week, 60 minutes per session) for two weeks. [Results] Immobilization significantly reduced the cross-sectional area of the white gastrocnemius muscle; no changes were observed in the soleus muscles of the trained animals. Transforming growth factor-β1 protein levels were similar among the trained groups. [Conclusion] Prior swimming prevents hypotrophy of the soleus muscle after immobilization, and protein levels reflected the adaptive capacity of the skeletal muscle. PMID:27512267

  17. Effects of neonatal handling on the basal forebrain cholinergic system of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Pondiki, S; Stamatakis, A; Fragkouli, A; Philippidis, H; Stylianopoulou, F

    2006-10-13

    Neonatal handling is an early experience which results in improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increased adaptability and coping as a response to stress, as well as better cognitive abilities. In the present study, we investigated the effect of neonatal handling on the basal forebrain cholinergic system, since this system is known to play an important role in cognitive processes. We report that neonatal handling results in increased number of choline-acetyl transferase immunopositive cells in the septum/diagonal band, in both sexes, while no such effect was observed in the other cholinergic nuclei, such as the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, neonatal handling resulted in increased M1 and M2 muscarinic receptor binding sites in the cingulate and piriform cortex of both male and female rats. A handling-induced increase in M1 muscarinic receptor binding sites was also observed in the CA3 and CA4 (fields 3 and 4 of Ammon's horn) areas of the hippocampus. Furthermore, a handling-induced increase in acetylcholinesterase staining was found only in the hippocampus of females. Our results thus show that neonatal handling acts in a sexually dimorphic manner on one of the cholinergic parameters, and has a beneficial effect on BFCS function, which could be related to the more efficient and adaptive stress response and the superior cognitive abilities of handled animals.

  18. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  19. Observations of a free-ranging adult female dingo (Canis dingo) and littermates' responses to the death of a pup.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Rob; Smith, Bradley; Jones, Darryl

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to several species of cetaceans and primates, behavioural responses to dead conspecifics have rarely been reported in wild canids. Here we provide details of the responses of an adult female and littermates to a dying and subsequently dead pup, including what appeared to be four instances of transport of the deceased pup by the mother over a two-day period, one of which was directly observed and filmed. We tentatively propose that, in the absence of any evidence of consumption of the pup, its transport by the mother could be interpreted as care-giving behaviour emanating from an enduring mother-infant bond, in a similar vein to what has been suggested for several other species exhibiting such behaviour. PMID:23500482

  20. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  1. The motivational effects of social contagion on exercise participation in young female adults.

    PubMed

    Scarapicchia T, M F; Sabiston, Catherine M; Andersen, Ross E; Garcia Bengoechea, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Young inactive healthy-weight females (n = 42) were randomly assigned to exercise at a self-selected pace on a treadmill beside a confederate who was providing either intrinsic or externally regulated verbal primes. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percentage of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and exercise continuance were recorded. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing mood pre- and postexercise session and postexercise motivational outcomes. The intrinsic motivation group reported higher RPE values after 8 min of exercise, had higher recorded HR measures at all 5 recorded time points, exercised at a higher %HR max, spent more time in MVPA, and were more likely to continue to exercise than participants in the externally regulated motivation group. A time effect was noted for vigor. Based on these findings, exercise motivation can be "contagious" through verbal primes, suggesting that exercising with or around intrinsically motivated individuals may have beneficial outcomes.

  2. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  3. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age. PMID:27630474

  4. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age.

  5. Postnatal experiences influence the behavior in adult male and female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Skripuletz, Thomas; Kruschinski, Carsten; Pabst, Reinhard; von Hörsten, Stephan; Stephan, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The postnatal environment with the rat pups' dam as the most important regulator, plays a central role in determining developmental processes of the offspring. Early disturbances of the dam-pup-dyade, like separation from the dam for hours (maternal deprivation, MD), or a short period of separation, and exposure to novelty, like the handling stimulation (HA), might induce long-lasting changes within the individual. To further investigate the susceptibility to these postnatal manipulations with regard to both, sex and genetic background, we used male and female Fischer (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats. F344 and LEW rats were daily subjected to either HA, MD, or were left undisturbed until weaning. The immediate effects of these manipulations were studied using the mother-pup-interaction-test on postnatal days 3-7. At the age of 4 months, animals were subjected to a behavioral test battery, determining activity, exploration, and anxiety-like behavioral parameters. Postnatal manipulations induced significant alterations of the mother-pup-interaction patterns that were more pronounced in F344 dams. MD and HA F344 dams were longer off pups than LEW dams. MD F344 pups were longer groomed than MD LEW pups and HA F344 pups were longer passive nursed than HA LEW pups. In adulthood, F344 rats showed increased anxiety-like behavior compared to LEW rats. Furthermore, females of both strains exhibited more anxiety-like behavior than males. Test independently, MD led to more anxiety-like behavior and less exploratory responses, while handled rats exhibited an anxiolytic-like behavior and increased exploratory responses. In conclusion, postnatal experiences specifically altered the behavioral phenotype in adulthood. While these changes were co-directional in the two strains and in both sexes, the degree of susceptibility varied.

  6. Increased Susceptibility to Metabolic Alterations in Young Adult Females Exposed to Early Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Miñana-Solis, María; Escobar, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    Early malnutrition during gestation and lactation modifies growth and metabolism permanently. Follow up studies using a nutritional rehabilitation protocol have reported that early malnourished rats exhibit hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that the effects of early malnutrition are permanent and produce a “programming” effect on metabolism. Deleterious effects have mainly been observed when early-malnutrition is followed by a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether following a balanced diet subsequent to malnutrition can deter the expression of metabolic disease and lead rats to exhibit metabolic responses, similar to those of well-nourished controls. Young rats, born from dams malnourished during gestation and lactation with a low protein diet, were provided with a regular balanced chow diet upon weaning. At 90 days of age, the effects of rehabilitation were determined under three different feeding conditions: ad libitum, fasting or fasting-reefed satiated. Early-malnourished rats showed an increased rate of body weight gain. Males under ad libitum conditions showed an elevated concentration of hepatic glycogen and low values of insulin. In the fasting-reefed satiated condition, only early-malnourished females showed an alteration in glucose response and glucagon level, compared with their well-nourished controls. Data indicate that a balanced diet along life after early malnutrition can mask the expression of metabolic disorders and that a metabolic challenges due to a prolonged fasting and reefed state unmask metabolic deficiencies in early-malnourished females. PMID:17200687

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, C P; Johnson, N S; Binder, T R; Rediske, R R; O'Keefe, J P

    2013-11-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native. PMID:23864162

  8. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  9. Predictors of Successful Quitting among Thai Adult Smokers: Evidence from ITC-SEA (Thailand) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jampaklay, Aree; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fotuhi, Omid; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia (ITC-SEA Thailand) survey to explore patterns and predictors of successful quitting among Thai adult smokers as a function of time quit. A cohort of a representative sample of 2000 smokers was surveyed four times from 2005 to 2009. A sample of 1533 individuals provided data for at least one of the reported analyses. Over the four years of follow-up, 97% made attempts to quit. Outcomes were successful quitting/relapse: (a) quit attempts of at least one month (short-term relapse, 43%) (57% remaining quit); (b) surviving at least six months (medium-term) (31%); (c) relapse between one and six months (45%); (d) having continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (sustained abstinence) (14%); and (e) relapse from six months on (44%) compared to those who continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (56%). Predictors for early relapse (<1 month) differ from longer-term relapse. Age was associated with reduced relapse over all three periods, and was much stronger for longer periods of abstinence. Cigarette consumption predicted relapse for short and medium terms. Self-assessed addiction was predictive of early relapse, but reversed to predict abstinence beyond six months. Previous quit history of more than one week was predictive of early abstinence, but became unrelated subsequently. Self-efficacy was strongly predictive of abstinence in the first month but was associated with relapse thereafter. Some determinants of relapse change with time quit, but this may be in somewhat different to patterns found in the West. PMID:26404335

  10. One-year assessment of physical activity level in adult Qatari females: a pedometer-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Suzan; Van Der Walt, Mercia; Al-Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing health concern and has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. The Arab region includes countries with some of the world’s highest physical inactivity levels, such as Qatar, more specifically the Qatari female population. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the physical activity levels of Qatari national female adults during a 1-year pedometer-based program. Materials and methods A total of 549 Qatari national females aged between 18 years and 64 years were included. Data extracted from “Step into Health” program web database in Qatar were used for analyses. Daily habitual physical activity (daily total step count and aerobic steps) was assessed through the Omron HJ-324U pedometer. Step counts were classified as follows: <5,000 steps/d, sedentary; 5,000–7,499 steps/d, low active; and ≥7,500 steps/d, physically active. Statistical significance was set at P-value ≤0.05. Descriptive statistics were used, and habitual physical activity was calculated through repeated measures analysis of variance to determine the difference across the monitored days. Results Mean age was 37.4±11.7 years, and median body mass index of 28.8 kg/m2 (interquartile range 24.8–33.5). Daily steps for the overall population ranged from 3,505 steps/d to 10,010 steps/d, with a median of 6,008 steps/d. A total of 242 (44.1%) females were sedentary, 178 (32.4%) were low active, and 129 (23.5%) were physically active. The physically active group showed a median of 927 aerobic steps/d (interquartile range 0–4,248). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, Qatari females are not meeting the global recommendations of physical activity. Future research might need to consider barriers to physical activity as well as social, cultural, and environmental factors. PMID:27486343

  11. A global research synthesis of HIV and STI biobehavioural risks in female-to-male transgender adults.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Murchison, Gabriel R

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in HIV infection and sexually transmitted infection (STI) disease burden and risk among transgender people globally; however, the majority of work has been conducted with male-to-female transgender populations. This research synthesis comprehensively reviews HIV and STI research in female-to-male (FTM) transgender adults. A paucity of research exists about HIV and STIs in FTMs. Only 25 peer-reviewed papers (18 quantitative, 7 qualitative) and 11 'grey literature' reports were identified, most in the US or Canada, that include data identifying HIV and STI risks in FTMs (five with fully laboratory-confirmed HIV and/or STIs, and five with partial laboratory confirmation). Little is known about the sexual and drug use risk behaviours contributing to HIV and STIs in FTMs. Future directions are suggested, including the need for routine surveillance and monitoring of HIV and STIs globally by transgender identity, more standardised sexual risk assessment measures, targeted data collection in lower- and middle-income countries, and explicit consideration of the rationale for inclusion/exclusion of FTMs in category-based prevention approaches with MSM and transgender people. Implications for research, policy, programming, and interventions are discussed, including the need to address diverse sexual identities, attractions, and behaviours and engage local FTM communities. PMID:26785800

  12. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, A B; Wall, M M; Choo, T-H J; Larson, N I; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-06-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2) and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; P=0.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=0.036; P=0.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted.

  13. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism.

  14. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021

  15. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-09-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116.

  16. ICRP Publication 116--the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-09-21

    ICRP Publication 116 on 'Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the 'conventional' energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116. PMID:25144220

  17. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  18. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  19. The GH secretagogues ipamorelin and GH-releasing peptide-6 increase bone mineral content in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Svensson, J; Lall, S; Dickson, S L; Bengtsson, B A; Rømer, J; Ahnfelt-Rønne, I; Ohlsson, C; Jansson, J O

    2000-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is of importance for normal bone remodelling. A recent clinical study demonstrated that MK-677, a member of a class of GH secretagogues (GHSs), increases serum concentrations of biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the GHSs, ipamorelin (IPA) and GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), increase bone mineral content (BMC) in young adult female rats. Thirteen-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were given IPA (0.5 mg/kg per day; n=7), GHRP-6 (0.5 mg/kg per day; n=8), GH (3.5 mg/kg per day; n=7), or vehicle administered continuously s.c. via osmotic minipumps for 12 weeks. The animals were followed in vivo by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements every 4th week. After the animals were killed, femurs were analysed in vitro by mid-diaphyseal peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans. After this, excised femurs and vertebrae L6 were analysed by the use of Archimedes' principle and by determinations of ash weights. All treatments increased body weight and total tibial and vertebral BMC measured by DXA in vivo compared with vehicle-treated controls. However, total BMC corrected for the increase in body weight (total BMC:body weight ratio) was unaffected. Tibial area bone mineral density (BMD, BMC/area) was increased, but total and vertebral area BMDs were unchanged. The pQCT measurements in vitro revealed that the increase in the cortical BMC was due to an increased cross-sectional bone area, whereas the cortical volumetric BMD was unchanged. Femur and vertebra L6 volumes were increased but no effect was seen on the volumetric BMDs as measured by Archimedes' principle. Ash weight was increased by all treatments, but the mineral concentration was unchanged. We conclude that treatment of adult female rats with the GHSs ipamorelin and GHRP-6 increases BMC as measured by DXA in vivo. The results of in vitro measurements using pQCT and Archimedes' principle, in

  20. Individual differences in physical activity are closely associated with changes in body weight in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elinor L.; Koegler, Frank H.; Cameron, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    The increased prevalence of overweight adults has serious health consequences. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between low activity and being over-weight; however, few studies have objectively measured activity during a period of weight gain, so it is unknown whether low activity is a cause or consequence of being overweight. To determine whether individual differences in adult weight gain are linked to an individual's activity level, we measured activity, via accelerometry, over a prolonged period (9 mo) in 18 adult female rhesus monkeys. Weight, food intake, metabolic rate, and activity were first monitored over a 3-mo period. During this period, there was mild but significant weight gain (5.5 ± 0.88%; t =−6.3, df = 17, P < 0.0001), whereas caloric intake and activity remained stable. Metabolic rate increased, as expected, with weight gain. Activity level correlated with weight gain (r = −0.52, P = 0.04), and the most active monkeys gained less weight than the least active monkeys (t = −2.74, df = 8, P = 0.03). Moreover, there was an eightfold difference in activity between the most and least active monkeys, and initial activity of each monkey was highly correlated with their activity after 9 mo (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001). In contrast, food intake did not correlate with weight gain, and there was no difference in weight gain between monkeys with the highest vs. lowest caloric intake, total metabolic rate, or basal metabolic rate. We conclude that physical activity is a particularly important factor contributing to weight change in adulthood and that there are large, but stable, differences in physical activity among individuals. PMID:16614060

  1. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  2. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  3. A Rare Occurrence of Enchondroma in Neck of Femur in an Adult Female: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kejariwal, Ujjwal; Chugh, Ankush

    2015-01-01

    Enchondroma is a solitary, benign, intramedullary cartilaginous tumour occurring most commonly in small bones of hands and feet. Distal femur and proximal humerus are other less common locations. Enchondroma consists of 3-10% of all bone tumours, while they constitute 12-24% of benign bone tumours. They originate from the growth plate cartilage which later on proliferates to form enchondroma. Radiographs reveal a localized, radiolucent lytic bone defect usually with punctuate calcifications. Lesions are central or eccentric and metaphyseal involvement most commonly for long bones. MRI and histopathological examination can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Asymptomatic cases can be managed conservatively with serial radiological follow ups. Cases with symptoms are managed operatively. Recurrence rate is very low (<5%), it suggests malignancy. We here present a case of a 30-year-old female patient who presented with a history of pain in right hip since 7 months. Radiological examination showed the lesion to be enchondroma. The patient was managed by curettage with autogenous iliac bone graft & prophylactic 6.5 mm cannulated screws fixation. Histopathology confirmed the lesion to be enchondroma. At the latest follow up after 6 months, the patient was symptom free and there was no evidence of any recurrence. The current case report of enchondroma located in the neck of femur signifies the importance of early diagnosis, timely intervention and treatment. Also, this case report represents one of the very rare cases reported in literature. PMID:26816956

  4. Effect of anger and trait forgiveness on cardiovascular risk in young adult females.

    PubMed

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Batchelor, Wayne B; Fincham, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    High trait anger is linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A potential antidote to the cardiotoxic influence of anger is trait forgiveness (TF), as it has shown associations with improved blood pressure (BP) and cardiovagal tone regulation in cardiac patients. However, it has yet to be determined if anger and forgiveness independently predict cardiovascular parameters. Trait anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2) and TF (Tendency to Forgive Scale) were evaluated in 308 (M = 21.11years ± SD = 2.52) healthy female volunteers allocated to 3 related, yet distinct, studies. Hierarchical multiple regressions tested the incremental contribution of TF after accounting for anger. Study 1 assessed autonomic modulation through beat-to-beat BP and spectral analysis to examine sympathovagal balance and baroreflex functioning. Study 2 used tonometry and pulse wave analysis for aortic hemodynamics. Study 3 assessed 24-hour ambulatory BP and ambulatory arterial stiffness index. Hierarchical models demonstrated that anger was significantly associated with increased sympathovagal tone, increased hemodynamic indices, high ambulatory BPs, and attenuated BP variability and baroreflex. In contrast, TF was associated with more favorable hemodynamic effects (i.e., decreased ventricular work and myocardial oxygen consumption). In conclusion, these results demonstrate divergent cardiovascular effects of anger and forgiveness, such that anger is associated with a more cardiotoxic autonomic and hemodynamic profile, whereas TF is associated with a more cardioprotective profile. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at decreasing anger while increasing forgiveness may be clinically relevant.

  5. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  6. Butachlor causes disruption of HPG and HPT axes in adult female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lifei; Li, Wei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Miao; Yuan, Lilai; Wang, Zijian

    2014-09-25

    Butachlor is a chloroacetamide herbicide widely used in Asia, and may enter the aquatic environment through agricultural application. In this study, plasma VTG and hormone levels (E2, 11-KT, T3 and T4) were determined after the female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to butachlor at environmental relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, and 10μg/L) for 40days. The mRNA levels of the HPG axis-related genes (gnrh, erα, vtg, star, lhr, 3β-hsd, cyp11a, cyp17, cyp19a and cyp19b), and the HPT axis-related genes (trα, dio1, dio2, and dio3) were quantified after 20 and 40days exposure to butachlor. For the HPG axis, the plasma 11-KT was increased at exposure concentration of 10μg/L, and VTG was significantly decreased at 1μg/L. Functional genes like gnrh and cyp19b in the brains, star, lhr, cyp11a, 3β-hsd, and cyp19a in the ovaries, and erα and vtg in livers were up-regulated. For the HPT axis, the results showed that plasma T4 levels were significantly increased, the gene expression of dio1 was up-regulated, dio2 showed no significant variation, and dio3 was down-regulated in the livers. These results indicated that butachlor may promote the accumulation of T4 in fish through inactive deiodinase type 3. The transcription of HPG axis-related genes could serve as an auto-regulation of hormone levels after exposure to butachlor. Furthermore, the activation of gnrh may play an important role as a feed-back mechanism in the regulation of hormone levels and crosstalk of endocrine axes.

  7. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood.

  8. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative

  9. Does long-term swimming participation have a deleterious effect on the adult female skeleton?

    PubMed

    Greenway, Kate Gwendoline; Walkley, Jeff Whenan; Rich, Peter Adrian

    2012-09-01

    Swimming is a popular activity for Australian women with proven cardiovascular benefits yet lacks the features thought necessary to stimulate positive adaptive changes in bone. Given that peak bone mass is attained close to the end of the second decade, we asked whether swimming was negatively associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women beyond this age. Bone mass and retrospective physical activity data were gathered from 43 female swimmers and 44 controls (mean ages 40.4 and 43.8 years, respectively). Swimmers were recruited from the Australian Union of Senior Swimmers International while controls were healthy community dwellers with similar lean mass, fat mass, height, weight and body mass index. None of the participants had a history of medical complaints nor use of medications known to affect bone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine areal bone mineral density at total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius and tibia while self-administered questionnaires were used to approximate historical and recent physical activity and calcium intake. Swimmers had averaged over 2 hours of swimming per week for the past 5 years and 1.45 h/week over lifetime with no systematic swimming exposure for controls. Lifetime exposure to weight bearing and impact exercise were similar. There were no intergroup differences for bone mass at any site though controls had higher incidence of low bone mass/osteoporosis. No differences in bone mass were detected between swimmers in the upper and lower quartiles for swim participation for any period. Long-term swim participation did not compromise areal bone mineral density.

  10. Glucose metabolic adaptations in the intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Rogers, Lisa; Bassilian, Sara; Lee, W N Paul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2006-06-01

    We studied glucose metabolic adaptations in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) rat offspring to decipher glucose homeostasis in metabolic programming. Glucose futile cycling (GFC), which is altered when there is imbalance between glucose production and utilization, was studied during a glucose tolerance test (GTT) in 2-day-old (n = 8), 2-mo-old (n = 22), and 15-mo-old (n = 22) female rat offspring. The IUGR rats exposed to either prenatal (CM/SP, n = 5 per age), postnatal (SM/CP, n = 6), or pre- and postnatal (SM/SP, n = 6) nutrient restriction were compared with age-matched controls (CM/CP, n = 5). At 2 days, IUGR pups (SP) were smaller and glucose intolerant and had increased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose disposal (P < 0.01) compared with controls (CP). At 2 mo, the GTT, glucose clearance, and GFC did not change. However, a decline in hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (P < 0.05) and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (P < 0.05) enzyme activities in the IUGR offspring was detected. At 15 mo, prenatal nutrient restriction (CM/SP) resulted in greater weight gain (P < 0.01) and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001) compared with postnatal nutrient restriction (SM/CP). A decline in GFC in the face of a normal GTT occurred in both the prenatal (CM/SP, P < 0.01) and postnatal calorie (SM/CP, P < 0.03) and growth-restricted offspring. The IUGR offspring with pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (SM/SP) were smaller, hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.03), and hypoleptinemic (P < 0.03), with no change in GTT, hepatic glucose production, GFC, or glucose clearance. We conclude that there is pre- and postnatal programming that affects the postnatal compensatory adaptation of GFC and disposal initiated by changes in circulating insulin concentrations, thereby determining hepatic insulin sensitivity in a phenotype-specific manner. PMID:16449299

  11. First comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild adult male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Christina B; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Diambra, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative

  12. Reduced Long-Term Relative Survival in Females and Younger Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Enger, Tone Bull; Pleym, Hilde; Stenseth, Roar; Greiff, Guri; Wahba, Alexander; Videm, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess long-term survival and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. Methods 8,564 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Trondheim, Norway from 2000 until censoring 31.12.2014 were prospectively followed. Observed long-term mortality following surgery was compared to the expected mortality in the Norwegian population, matched on gender, age and calendar year. This enabled assessment of relative survival (observed/expected survival rates) and relative mortality (observed/expected deaths). Long-term mortality was compared across gender, age and surgical procedure. Predictors of reduced survival were assessed with multivariate analyses of observed and relative mortality. Results During follow-up (median 6.4 years), 2,044 patients (23.9%) died. The observed 30-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality rates were 2.2%, 4.4%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively, and remained constant throughout the study period. Comparing observed mortality to that expected in a matched sample from the general population, patients undergoing cardiac surgery showed excellent survival throughout the first seven years of follow-up (relative survival ≥ 1). Subsequently, survival decreased, which was more pronounced in females and patients undergoing other procedures than isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Relative mortality was higher in younger age groups, females and patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The female survival advantage in the general population was obliterated (relative mortality ratio (RMR) 1.35 (1.19–1.54), p<0.001). Increasing observed long-term mortality seen with ageing was due to population risk, and younger age was independently associated with increased relative mortality (RMR per 5 years 0.81 (0.79–0.84), p<0.001)). Conclusions Cardiac surgery patients showed comparable survival to that expected in the general Norwegian population, underlining the benefits of cardiac surgery in appropriately selected patients. The

  13. The Principal Components of Adult Female Insole Shape Align Closely with Two of Its Classic Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Domjanic, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The plantar surface of the human foot transmits the weight and dynamic force of the owner’s lower limbs to the ground and the reaction forces back to the musculoskeletal system. Its anatomical variation is intensely studied in such fields as sports medicine and orthopedic dysmorphology. Yet, strangely, the shape of the insole that accommodates this surface and elastically buffers these forces is neither an aspect of the conventional anthropometrics of feet nor an informative label on the packet that markets supplementary insoles. In this paper we pursue an earlier suggestion that insole form in vertical view be quantified in terms of the shape of the foot not at the plane of support (the “footprint”) but some two millimeters above that level. Using such sections extracted from laser scans of 158 feet of adult women from the University of Zagreb, in conjunction with an appropriate modification of today’s standard geometric morphometrics (GMM), we find that the sectioned form can be described by its size together with two meaningful relative warps of shape. The pattern of this shape variation is not novel. It is closely aligned with two of the standard footprint measurements, the Chippaux-Šmiřák arch index and the Clarke arch angle, whose geometrical foci (the former in the ball of the foot, the latter in the arch) it apparently combines. Thus a strong contemporary analysis complements but does not supplant the simpler anthropometric analyses of half a century ago, with implications for applied anthropology. PMID:26308442

  14. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the posture modification of Adult Male (AM) and Adult Female (AF) reference phantoms of ICRP 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Alves, M. C.; Souza, D. N.; Carvalho, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to modify the standing posture of the anthropomorphic reference phantoms of ICRP publication 110, AM (Adult Male) and AF (Adult Female), to the sitting posture. The change of posture was performed using the Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the phantoms and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. Scion Image software was used to reconstruct and smooth the knee and hip contours of the phantoms in a sitting posture. For 3D visualization of phantoms, the VolView software was used. In the change of postures, the organ and tissue masses were preserved. The MCNPX was used to calculate the equivalent and effective dose conversion coefficients (CCs) per fluence for photons for six irradiation geometries suggested by ICRP publication 110 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO) and energy range 0.010-10 MeV. The results were compared between the standing and sitting postures, for both sexes, in order to evaluate the differences of scattering and absorption of radiation for different postures. Significant differences in the CCs for equivalent dose were observed in the gonads, colon, prostate, urinary bladder and uterus, which are present in the pelvic region, and in organs distributed throughout the body, such as the lymphatic nodes, muscle, skeleton and skin, for the phantoms of both sexes. CCs for effective dose showed significant differences of up to 16% in the AP irradiation geometry, 27% in the PA irradiation geometry and 13% in the ROT irradiation geometry. These results demonstrate the importance of using phantoms in different postures in order to obtain more precise conversion coefficients for a given exposure scenario.

  15. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  16. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  17. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults.

  18. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Wansu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  19. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to iden...

  20. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  1. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  2. Effect of leaded glasses and thyroid shielding on cone beam CT radiation dose in an adult female phantom

    PubMed Central

    Goren, AD; Prins, RD; Dauer, LT; Quinn, B; Al-Najjar, A; Faber, RD; Patchell, G; Branets, I; Colosi, DC

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of leaded glasses in reducing the lens of eye dose and of lead thyroid collars in reducing the dose to the thyroid gland of an adult female from dental cone beam CT (CBCT). The effect of collimation on the radiation dose in head organs is also examined. Methods: Dose measurements were conducted by placing optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters in an anthropomorphic female phantom. Eye lens dose was measured by placing a dosemeter on the anterior surface of the phantom eye location. All exposures were performed on one commercially available dental CBCT machine, using selected collimation and exposure techniques. Each scan technique was performed without any lead shielding and then repeated with lead shielding in place. To calculate the percent reduction from lead shielding, the dose measured with lead shielding was divided by the dose measured without lead shielding. The percent reduction from collimation was calculated by comparing the dose measured with collimation to the dose measured without collimation. Results: The dose to the internal eye for one of the scans without leaded glasses or thyroid shield was 0.450 cGy and with glasses and thyroid shield was 0.116 cGy (a 74% reduction). The reduction to the lens of the eye was from 0.396 cGy to 0.153 cGy (a 61% reduction). Without glasses or thyroid shield, the thyroid dose was 0.158 cGy; and when both glasses and shield were used, the thyroid dose was reduced to 0.091 cGy (a 42% reduction). Conclusions: Collimation alone reduced the dose to the brain by up to 91%, with a similar reduction in other organs. Based on these data, leaded glasses, thyroid collars and collimation minimize the dose to organs outside the field of view. PMID:23412460

  3. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  4. Epigenetic abnormality of SRY gene in the adult XY female with pericentric inversion of the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Warita, Katsuhiko; Sugawara, Teruo; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Takasaki, Ichiro; Kondo, Takashi; Hayashi, Fumio; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Miki, Takanori; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Nanmori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kant, Jeffrey A; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2010-06-01

    In normal ontogenetic development, the expression of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene, involved in the first step of male sex differentiation, is spatiotemporally regulated in an elaborate fashion. SRY is expressed in germ cells and Sertoli cells in adult testes. However, only few reports have focused on the expressions of SRY and the other sex-determining genes in both the classical organ developing through these genes (gonad) and the peripheral tissue (skin) of adult XY females. In this study, we examined the gonadal tissue and fibroblasts of a 17-year-old woman suspected of having disorders of sexual differentiation by cytogenetic, histological, and molecular analyses. The patient was found to have the 46,X,inv(Y)(p11.2q11.2) karyotype and streak gonads with abnormally prolonged SRY expression. The sex-determining gene expressions in the patient-derived fibroblasts were significantly changed relative to those from a normal male. Further, the acetylated histone H3 levels in the SRY region were significantly high relative to those of the normal male. As SRY is epistatic in the sex-determination pathway, the prolonged SRY expression possibly induced a destabilizing effect on the expressions of the downstream sex-determining genes. Collectively, alterations in the sex-determining gene expressions persisted in association with disorders of sexual differentiation not only in the streak gonads but also in the skin of the patient. The findings suggest that correct regulation of SRY expression is crucial for normal male sex differentiation, even if SRY is translated normally.

  5. Daytime avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues by adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Imre, István; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) avoid damage-released and predator chemosensory cues at night, but their response to these cues during the day is unknown. Here, we explored (i) whether sea lamprey avoid these cues during the day and (ii) the effect of water temperature on the avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues in two diurnal laboratory experiments. We hypothesized that daytime activity would be temperature-dependent and that only sea lamprey vulnerable to predation (i.e., not hiding) would behaviourally respond to chemosensory alarm cues. Ten groups of ten sea lamprey were exposed to one of a variety of potential chemosensory cues. The experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures to quantify the effect of temperature on avoidance behaviour. Consistent with our hypothesis, a higher proportion of animals were active during daytime as water temperature increased. Moving sea lamprey showed an avoidance response to 2-phenylethylamine (a compound found in mammalian urine) and human saliva once water temperatures had risen to mean (±SD) = 13.7 (±1.4) °C. Resting and hiding sea lamprey did not show an avoidance response to any of the experimental stimuli.

  6. Posture-specific phantoms representing female and male adults in Monte Carlo-based simulations for radiological protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Brayner, C.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-08-01

    Does the posture of a patient have an effect on the organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by x-ray examinations? This study aims to find the answer to this question, based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of commonly performed x-ray examinations using adult phantoms modelled to represent humans in standing as well as in the supine posture. The recently published FASH (female adult mesh) and MASH (male adult mesh) phantoms have the standing posture. In a first step, both phantoms were updated with respect to their anatomy: glandular tissue was separated from adipose tissue in the breasts, visceral fat was separated from subcutaneous fat, cartilage was segmented in ears, nose and around the thyroid, and the mass of the right lung is now 15% greater than the left lung. The updated versions are called FASH2_sta and MASH2_sta (sta = standing). Taking into account the gravitational effects on organ position and fat distribution, supine versions of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms have been developed in this study and called FASH2_sup and MASH2_sup. MC simulations of external whole-body exposure to monoenergetic photons and partial-body exposure to x-rays have been made with the standing and supine FASH2 and MASH2 phantoms. For external whole-body exposure for AP and PA projection with photon energies above 30 keV, the effective dose did not change by more than 5% when the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. Apart from that, the supine posture is quite rare in occupational radiation protection from whole-body exposure. However, in the x-ray diagnosis supine posture is frequently used for patients submitted to examinations. Changes of organ absorbed doses up to 60% were found for simulations of chest and abdomen radiographs if the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. A further increase of differences between posture-specific organ and tissue absorbed doses with increasing whole-body mass is to be expected.

  7. Low-dose bisphenol A disrupts gonad development and steroidogenic genes expression in adult female rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Gao, Jiancao; Xu, Peng; Yuan, Cong; Qin, Fang; Liu, Shaozhen; Zheng, Yao; Yang, Yanping; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic monomer, has attracted many researchers to study its adverse effects in animal reproduction, especially in fish. To explore the effects of low dose BPA on adult female rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus, we exposed the fish to BPA at nominal concentrations of 5, 15, and 50 μg L(-1) for 14 and 35 d. The 35-d BPA exposure at 50 μg L(-1) had obviously suppressive effects on oocyte development, and BPA at all the three concentrations in both exposure durations of 14 and 35 d had stimulative effects on hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) transcription. BPA at lower concentrations (5 and 15 μg L(-1)) exhibited stimulative effects on the expressions of ovarian steroidogenic genes while at higher concentration (50 μg L(-1)) displayed inhibitive effects. Analysis of ovarian steroidogenic genes 5'-flanking regions and mRNA expressions of their potential regulatory factors revealed that the BPA-mediated actions on steroidogenesis in G. rarus ovary probably involve estrogen receptor (Esr) and androgen receptor (Ar) signaling, nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, number 1 (Nr5a1) pathway, and epigenetic regulation. PMID:25048937

  8. Ovarian dysfunctions in adult female rat offspring born to mothers perinatally exposed to low doses of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Clarisa; Durando, Milena; Muñoz de Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H; Rodriguez, Horacio A

    2016-04-01

    The study of oral exposure to the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) during the perinatal period and its effects on ovarian functionality in adulthood has generated special interest. Thus, our objective was to investigate ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in adult female rat offspring born to mothers exposed to low doses of BPA (BPA50: 50μg/kgday; BPA0.5: 0.5μg/kgday) by the oral route during gestation and breastfeeding. Ovaries from both BPA-treated groups showed reduced primordial follicle recruitment and a greater number of corpora lutea, indicating an increased number of ovulated oocytes, coupled with higher levels of mRNA expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and serum progesterone. BPA50-treated animals had lower expression of androgen receptor (AR) at different stages of the growing follicle population. BPA0.5-treated rats evidenced an imbalance of AR expression between primordial/primary follicles, with higher mRNA-follicle-stimulating hormone receptor expression. These results add to the growing evidence that folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis are targets of BPA within the ovary. PMID:26658420

  9. Depression-Like Behavioral Phenotypes by Social and Social Plus Visual Isolation in the Adult Female Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qinmin; Wang, Tao; Shively, Carol; Wu, Qingyuan; Gong, Wei; Fang, Liang; Zhan, Qunlin; Melgiri, N. D.; Xie, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric mood disorder that affects millions of individuals globally. Our understanding of the biological basis of MDD is poor, and current treatments are ineffective in a significant proportion of cases. This current situation may relate to the dominant rodent animal models of depression, which possess translational limitations due to limited homologies with humans. Therefore, a more homologous primate model of depression is needed to advance investigation into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression and to conduct pre-clinical therapeutic trials. Here, we report two convenient methods – social isolation and social plus visual isolation – which can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in the adult female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Both social and social plus visual isolation were shown to be effective in inducing depression-like behavior by significantly reducing socially dominant aggressive conflict behavior, communicative behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. The addition of visual isolation produced more profound behavioral changes than social isolation alone by further reducing parental behavior and sexual behavior. Thus, the degree of behavioral pathology may be manipulated by the degree of isolation. These methods can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in order to assess physiological, behavioral, and social phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. PMID:24023857

  10. Anthropometric measurements of the arm span and their correlation with the stature of bangladeshi adult muslim females.

    PubMed

    Laila, S Z; Begum, J A; Ferdousi, R; Parveen, S; Husain, M S; Holy, S Z; Islam, M S

    2010-10-01

    Anthropometry is the science that deals with the measurement of size, weight and proportion of the human body. Stature is natural heights of a person in an upright position. This can be estimated from arm span length. In the last 50 years of the 20th century various mass disasters such as different powerful storm, flood, plane crash, train accident was increased. Very recently in Chittagong and southern Bangladesh many people were killed through land slides and Seder. As so many disasters were occurring it is possible to identify a missing person if a part of his or her body is available. The arm span lengths can be used as a basis for estimating age-related loss in stature and as an alternative measure to stature. The study was done for the estimation of stature from the arm span on one hundred and fifty Bangladeshi adult Muslim females. Subject was collected from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka and some urban region of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The present study showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and the arm span. PMID:20956900

  11. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Geary, James F.; Agnew, Dalen W.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R) on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM–10 μM) for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. PMID:26288741

  12. Metal contamination as a possible etiology of fibropapillomatosis in juvenile female green sea turtles Chelonia mydas from the southern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2016-01-01

    Environmental contaminants have been suggested as a possible cause of fibropapillomatosis (FP) in green sea turtles. In turn, a reduced concentration of serum cholesterol has been indicated as a reliable biomarker of malignancy in vertebrates, including marine turtles. In the present study, metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations, oxidative stress parameters [antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), protein carbonyls (PC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), frequency of micronucleated cells (FMC)], water content, cholesterol concentration and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity were analyzed in the blood/serum of juvenile (29.3-59.5cm) female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) with FP (n=14) and without FP (n=13) sampled at Ubatuba coast (São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil). Green sea turtles were grouped and analyzed according to the severity of tumors. Individuals heavily afflicted with FP showed significantly higher blood Cu, Pb and Fe concentrations, blood LPO levels, as well as significantly lower serum cholesterol concentrations and HMGR activity than turtles without FP. Significant and positive correlations were observed between HMGR activity and cholesterol concentrations, as well as LPO levels and Fe and Pb concentrations. In turn, Cu and Pb concentrations were significantly and negatively correlated with HMGR activity and cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, Cu, Fe and Pb were positively correlated with each other. Therefore, the reduced concentration of serum cholesterol observed in green sea turtles heavily afflicted with FP is related to a Cu- and Pb-induced inhibition of HMGR activity paralleled by a higher LPO rate induced by increased Fe and Pb concentrations. As oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, our findings support the idea that metal contamination, especially by Cu, Fe and Pb, may be implicated in the etiology of FP in green sea turtles through oxidative stress

  13. Metal contamination as a possible etiology of fibropapillomatosis in juvenile female green sea turtles Chelonia mydas from the southern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2016-01-01

    Environmental contaminants have been suggested as a possible cause of fibropapillomatosis (FP) in green sea turtles. In turn, a reduced concentration of serum cholesterol has been indicated as a reliable biomarker of malignancy in vertebrates, including marine turtles. In the present study, metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations, oxidative stress parameters [antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), protein carbonyls (PC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), frequency of micronucleated cells (FMC)], water content, cholesterol concentration and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity were analyzed in the blood/serum of juvenile (29.3-59.5cm) female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) with FP (n=14) and without FP (n=13) sampled at Ubatuba coast (São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil). Green sea turtles were grouped and analyzed according to the severity of tumors. Individuals heavily afflicted with FP showed significantly higher blood Cu, Pb and Fe concentrations, blood LPO levels, as well as significantly lower serum cholesterol concentrations and HMGR activity than turtles without FP. Significant and positive correlations were observed between HMGR activity and cholesterol concentrations, as well as LPO levels and Fe and Pb concentrations. In turn, Cu and Pb concentrations were significantly and negatively correlated with HMGR activity and cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, Cu, Fe and Pb were positively correlated with each other. Therefore, the reduced concentration of serum cholesterol observed in green sea turtles heavily afflicted with FP is related to a Cu- and Pb-induced inhibition of HMGR activity paralleled by a higher LPO rate induced by increased Fe and Pb concentrations. As oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, our findings support the idea that metal contamination, especially by Cu, Fe and Pb, may be implicated in the etiology of FP in green sea turtles through oxidative stress

  14. Effects of neuron-specific estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ deletion on the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Rachel Y; Porteous, Robert; Chambon, Pierre; Abrahám, István; Herbison, Allan E

    2014-04-01

    The negative feedback mechanism through which 17β-estradiol (E2) acts to suppress the activity of the GnRH neurons remains unclear. Using inducible and cell-specific genetic mouse models, we examined the estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms expressed by neurons that mediate acute estrogen negative feedback. Adult female mutant mice in which ERα was deleted from all neurons in the neonatal period failed to exhibit estrous cycles or negative feedback. Adult mutant female mice with neonatal neuronal ERβ deletion exhibited normal estrous cycles, but a failure of E2 to suppress LH secretion was seen in ovariectomized mice. Mutant mice with a GnRH neuron-selective deletion of ERβ exhibited normal cycles and negative feedback, suggesting no critical role for ERβ in GnRH neurons in acute negative feedback. To examine the adult roles of neurons expressing ERα, an inducible tamoxifen-based Cre-LoxP approach was used to ablate ERα from neurons that express calmodulin kinase IIα in adults. This resulted in mice with no estrous cycles, a normal increase in LH after ovariectomy, but an inability of E2 to suppress LH secretion. Finally, acute administration of ERα- and ERβ-selective agonists to adult ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that activation of ERα suppressed LH secretion, whereas ERβ agonists had no effect. This study highlights the differences in adult reproductive phenotypes that result from neonatal vs adult ablation of ERα in the brain. Together, these experiments expand previous global knockout studies by demonstrating that neurons expressing ERα are essential and probably sufficient for the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in female mice. PMID:24476134

  15. In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Zabka, Tanja S.

    2008-01-01

    California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT) poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970’s and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion. PMID:18728728

  16. A Single Neonatal Injection of Ethinyl Estradiol Impairs Passive Avoidance Learning and Reduces Expression of Estrogen Receptor α in the Hippocampus and Cortex of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Tatsuomi; Nakamura, Takahiro J.; Komine, Chiaki; Goto, Yoshikuni; Mizoguchi, Yasushi; Yoshida, Midori; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Kawaguchi, Maiko

    2016-01-01

    Although perinatal exposure of female rats to estrogenic compounds produces irreversible changes in brain function, it is still unclear how the amount and timing of exposure to those substances affect learning function, or if exposure alters estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in the hippocampus and cortex. In adult female rats, we investigated the effects of neonatal exposure to a model estrogenic compound, ethinyl estradiol (EE), on passive avoidance learning and ERα expression. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats were subcutaneously injected with oil, 0.02 mg/kg EE, 2 mg/kg EE, or 20 mg/kg 17β-estradiol within 24 h after birth. All females were tested for passive avoidance learning at the age of 6 weeks. Neonatal 0.02 mg/kg EE administration significantly disrupted passive avoidance compared with oil treatment in gonadally intact females. In a second experiment, another set of experimental females, treated as described above, was ovariectomized under pentobarbital anesthesia at 10 weeks of age. At 15–17 weeks of age, half of each group received a subcutaneous injection of 5 μg estradiol benzoate a day before the passive avoidance learning test. Passive avoidance learning behavior was impaired by the 0.02 mg/kg EE dose, but notably only in the estradiol benzoate-injected group. At 17–19 weeks of age, hippocampal and cortical samples were collected from rats with or without the 5 μg estradiol benzoate injection, and western blots used to determine ERα expression. A significant decrease in ERα expression was observed in the hippocampus of the estradiol-injected, neonatal EE-treated females. The results demonstrated that exposure to EE immediately after birth decreased learning ability in adult female rats, and that this may be at least partly mediated by the decreased expression of ERα in the hippocampus. PMID:26741502

  17. A Single Neonatal Injection of Ethinyl Estradiol Impairs Passive Avoidance Learning and Reduces Expression of Estrogen Receptor α in the Hippocampus and Cortex of Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Tatsuomi; Nakamura, Takahiro J; Komine, Chiaki; Goto, Yoshikuni; Mizoguchi, Yasushi; Yoshida, Midori; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Kawaguchi, Maiko

    2016-01-01

    Although perinatal exposure of female rats to estrogenic compounds produces irreversible changes in brain function, it is still unclear how the amount and timing of exposure to those substances affect learning function, or if exposure alters estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in the hippocampus and cortex. In adult female rats, we investigated the effects of neonatal exposure to a model estrogenic compound, ethinyl estradiol (EE), on passive avoidance learning and ERα expression. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats were subcutaneously injected with oil, 0.02 mg/kg EE, 2 mg/kg EE, or 20 mg/kg 17β-estradiol within 24 h after birth. All females were tested for passive avoidance learning at the age of 6 weeks. Neonatal 0.02 mg/kg EE administration significantly disrupted passive avoidance compared with oil treatment in gonadally intact females. In a second experiment, another set of experimental females, treated as described above, was ovariectomized under pentobarbital anesthesia at 10 weeks of age. At 15-17 weeks of age, half of each group received a subcutaneous injection of 5 μg estradiol benzoate a day before the passive avoidance learning test. Passive avoidance learning behavior was impaired by the 0.02 mg/kg EE dose, but notably only in the estradiol benzoate-injected group. At 17-19 weeks of age, hippocampal and cortical samples were collected from rats with or without the 5 μg estradiol benzoate injection, and western blots used to determine ERα expression. A significant decrease in ERα expression was observed in the hippocampus of the estradiol-injected, neonatal EE-treated females. The results demonstrated that exposure to EE immediately after birth decreased learning ability in adult female rats, and that this may be at least partly mediated by the decreased expression of ERα in the hippocampus. PMID:26741502

  18. Gestational N-hexane inhalation alters the expression of genes related to ovarian hormone production and DNA methylation states in adult female F1 rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Chenyun; Ni, Feng; Guo, Suhua; Wang, Wenxiang; Liu, Jing; Lu, Xiaoli; Huang, Huiling; Zhang, Wenchang

    2015-12-15

    Research has revealed that n-hexane can disrupt adult female endocrine functions; however, few reports have focused on endocrine changes in adult F1 females after maternal exposure during gestation. In this study, female Wistar rats inhaled 100, 500, 2500, or 12,500 ppm n-hexane for 4 h daily during their initial 20 gestational days. The F1 female offspring exhibited abnormal oestrus cycles. Compared with the controls, the in vitro-cultured ovarian granulosa cells of the 12,500 ppm group showed significantly reduced in vitro progesterone and oestradiol secretion. Elevated progesterone secretion was observed in the 500 ppm group, and decreased and significantly upregulated mRNA expression of the Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd3b genes was observed in the 12,500 ppm and 500 ppm groups, respectively. The protein expression levels were consistent with the mRNA expression levels. Methylation screening of the promoter regions of these genes was performed using MeDIP-chip and confirmed by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM), and the observed methylation state changes of the promoter regions were correlated with the gene expression levels. The results suggest that the hormone levels in the female offspring after gestational n-hexane inhalation correspond to the expression levels and DNA methylation states of the hormone production genes. PMID:26410608

  19. Midwater trawl catches of adolescent and adult anguilliform fishes during the Sargasso Sea Eel Expedition 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, A.; Tesch, F.-W.

    1982-09-01

    During the research program on the biology and migration of Anguilla spp. carried out with F.R.V. “Anton Dohrn” in 1979, approximately 1300 adolescent and adult anguilliform individuals were caught covering 8 families, 10 genera and 12 species. Observations on each of these species, including horizontal and vertical distributional patterns, are dealt with herein. The appearance of various species in hauls and the absence of adult Anguilla spp. in the catches obtained are discussed.

  20. Assessment of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Dioxide/Oxygen, Isoflurane and Pentobarbital Killing Methods in Adult Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a killing method is aversive and exposure to high concentrations is likely to be painful. Bradycardia during exposure to CO2 is associated with nociception and pain. However, it is unclear if bradycardia occurs before loss of consciousness as definitions of loss of consciousness vary in the literature. The objectives of this study were to explore the relationship between recumbency, loss of righting reflex (LORR) and a quiescent electromyograph as measures of loss of consciousness, and identify the onset of bradycardia in relation to these measures. Our primary hypothesis was that CO2 exposure would result in bradycardia, which would precede LORR. Methods Thirty-two adult, female Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with a telemetry device and randomly assigned to one of four killing methods (concentrations of 100% CO2, CO2 (70%)/O2 (30%), isoflurane (5%) and intraperitoneal pentobarbital (200 mg/kg). Time to achieve recumbency, LORR, quiescent electromyograph, isoelectric electrocorticograph, heart rate and apnea were recorded. Results The general order of progression was recumbency, LORR, quiescent electromyograph, isoelectric electrocorticograph and apnea. Recumbency preceded LORR in the majority of animals (CO2; 7/8, CO2/O2; 8/8, isoflurane; 5/8, pentobarbital; 4/8). Bradycardia occurred before recumbency in the CO2 (p = 0.0002) and CO2/O2 (p = 0.005) groups, with a 50% reduction in heart rate compared to baseline. The slowest (time to apnea) and least consistent killing methods were CO2/O2 (1180 ± 658.1s) and pentobarbital (875 [239 to 4680]s). Conclusion Bradycardia, and consequently nociception and pain, occurs before loss of consciousness during CO2 exposure. Pentobarbital displayed an unexpected lack of consistency, questioning its classification as an acceptable euthanasia method in rats. PMID:27648836

  1. Substance Use to Cope with Stigma in Healthcare Among U.S. Female-to-Male Trans Masculine Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Seth T.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Hughto, Jaclyn M. White; Pardee, Dana J.; Keo-Meier, Colton L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Enacted and anticipated stigma exist within healthcare settings for transgender people, but research has yet to examine the effects of these forms of stigma on the substance use behaviors of female-to-male (FTM) trans masculine people. Methods: Data were analyzed from the cross-sectional U.S. National Transgender Discrimination Survey, a convenience sample of transgender adults purposively sampled in 2008. Trans masculine respondents (n=2,578) were identified using a two-step method: Step 1, Assigned birth sex; Step 2, Current gender identity. A gender minority stress model of substance use was tested to examine the relation of enacted and anticipated stigma with substance use to cope with mistreatment. Results: Overall, 14.1% of the sample reported having been refused care by a provider (enacted stigma), 32.8% reported delaying needed medical care when sick/injured, and 39.1% delayed routine preventive care (anticipated stigma). Having been refused care was significantly associated with avoidance of healthcare, including delaying needed medical care when sick/injured and delaying routine preventive medical care. Substance use to cope with mistreatment was self-reported by 27.6% of the sample. Enacted stigma by providers was associated with self-reported substance use to cope. Delays in both needed and preventive care (anticipated stigma) were highly associated with substance use, and attenuated the effect of enacted stigma. Conclusion: Gender minority-related stressors, particularly enacted and anticipated stigma in healthcare, should be integrated into substance use and abuse prevention and intervention efforts with this underserved population. PMID:26788773

  2. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species. PMID:25118426

  3. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species.

  4. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  5. Expression level and immunolocalization of de novo methyltransferase 3 protein (TuDNMT3) in adult females and males of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Xia; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Sun, Jing-Tao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for regulating developmental and other important processes in eukaryotes. Several essential components of the DNA methylation machinery have been identified, such as DNA methyltransferases. In the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, we have identified one DNA methyltransferase 3 gene (Tudnmt3) and tentatively investigated its potential role in adult females and males. Here, to better elucidate the functional role of Tudnmt3, its protein structure, expression and localization were subjected to more detailed analyses. Bioinformatic analyses clearly showed that the structure of TuDNMT3 was highly conserved, with several vital amino acid residues for the activation and stabilization of its confirmation. Western blot analyses revealed that this protein was expressed in both genders, with higher expression in adult females, which was inconsistent with the gene expression, suggesting translational regulation of Tudnmt3. Subsequent immunodetection provided supportive evidence for higher expression of the TuDNMT3 protein in adult females and indicated that this protein was generally localized in the cytoplasm and that its expression was predominantly confined to the genital region of spider mites, strengthening the hypothesis that de novo methylation mediated by Tudnmt3 in gonad development or gametogenesis has a different mechanism from maintenance methyltransferase.

  6. Adult Neurogenesis in the Female Mouse Hypothalamus: Estradiol and High-Fat Diet Alter the Generation of Newborn Neurons Expressing Estrogen Receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jane; Nettles, Sabin A.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens and leptins act in the hypothalamus to maintain reproduction and energy homeostasis. Neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hypothalamus has been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, high-fat diet (HFD) and estradiol (E2) have been shown to alter cell proliferation and the number of newborn leptin-responsive neurons in the hypothalamus of adult female mice. The current study tested the hypothesis that new cells expressing estrogen receptor α (ERα) are generated in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) of the adult female mouse, hypothalamic regions that are critical in energy homeostasis. Adult mice were ovariectomized and implanted with capsules containing E2 or oil. Within each hormone group, mice were fed an HFD or standard chow for 6 weeks and treated with BrdU to label new cells. Newborn cells that respond to estrogens were identified in the ARC and VMH, of which a subpopulation was leptin sensitive, indicating that the subpopulation consists of neurons. Moreover, there was an interaction between diet and hormone with an effect on the number of these newborn ERα-expressing neurons that respond to leptin. Regardless of hormone treatment, HFD increased the number of ERα-expressing cells in the ARC and VMH. E2 decreased hypothalamic fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) gene expression in HFD mice, suggesting a role for Fgf10 in E2 effects on neurogenesis. These findings of newly created estrogen-responsive neurons in the adult brain provide a novel mechanism by which estrogens can act in the hypothalamus to regulate energy homeostasis in females. PMID:27679811

  7. Adult Neurogenesis in the Female Mouse Hypothalamus: Estradiol and High-Fat Diet Alter the Generation of Newborn Neurons Expressing Estrogen Receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jane; Nettles, Sabin A.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens and leptins act in the hypothalamus to maintain reproduction and energy homeostasis. Neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hypothalamus has been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, high-fat diet (HFD) and estradiol (E2) have been shown to alter cell proliferation and the number of newborn leptin-responsive neurons in the hypothalamus of adult female mice. The current study tested the hypothesis that new cells expressing estrogen receptor α (ERα) are generated in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) of the adult female mouse, hypothalamic regions that are critical in energy homeostasis. Adult mice were ovariectomized and implanted with capsules containing E2 or oil. Within each hormone group, mice were fed an HFD or standard chow for 6 weeks and treated with BrdU to label new cells. Newborn cells that respond to estrogens were identified in the ARC and VMH, of which a subpopulation was leptin sensitive, indicating that the subpopulation consists of neurons. Moreover, there was an interaction between diet and hormone with an effect on the number of these newborn ERα-expressing neurons that respond to leptin. Regardless of hormone treatment, HFD increased the number of ERα-expressing cells in the ARC and VMH. E2 decreased hypothalamic fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) gene expression in HFD mice, suggesting a role for Fgf10 in E2 effects on neurogenesis. These findings of newly created estrogen-responsive neurons in the adult brain provide a novel mechanism by which estrogens can act in the hypothalamus to regulate energy homeostasis in females.

  8. A new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first adult record of Feia nympha from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. nanus sp. nov. is described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops nanus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners in having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,10; anal-fin rays I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12-14 (lowest count known for the genus), two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form an emarginate disc, no pelvic frenum; predorsal area and narrow area at base of first dorsal fin naked; longitudinal scale series 26-29; transverse scale rows counted forward 6-7; transverse scale rows counted backward 7-8; circumpeduncular scale rows 11-12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without flap at its tip, posterior nostril pore-like; body semitranslucent, covered with small scattered orange-yellow spots and speckles, those in predorsal area contain black dots; an internal row of white spots along ventral part of body above anal-fin base and on caudal peduncle; head with small scattered orange to yellowish brown spots; first dorsal fin with two broad white bands at base of fin and distally, and with hyaline area densely dotted with melanophores in the middle of fin; preserved specimens opaque white to yellowish with sparse melanophores. An adult specimen of Feia nympha is recorded for the first time in the Red Sea and the lateral line system of this species is described. PMID:27394550

  9. Expression of spicule matrix protein gene SM30 in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitajima, T.; Tomita, M.; Killian, C. E.; Akasaka, K.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone for spicule matrix protein, SM30, from sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and have studied the expression of this gene in comparison with that of another spicule matrix protein gene, SM50. In cultured micromeres as well as in intact embryos transcripts of SM30 were first detectable around the onset of spicule formation and rapidly increased with the growth of spicules, which accompanied accumulation of glycosylated SM30 protein(s). When micromeres were cultured in the presence of Zn2+, spicule formation and SM30 expression were suppressed, while both events resumed concurrently after the removal of Zn2+ from the culture medium. Expression of SM50, in contrast, started before the appearance of spicules and was not sensitive to Zn2+. Differences were also observed in adult tissues; SM30 mRNA was detected in spines and tube feet but not in the test, while SM50 mRNA was apparent in all of these mineralized tissues at similar levels. These results strongly suggest that the SM30 gene is regulated by a different mechanism to that of the SM50 gene and that the products of these two genes are differently involved in sea urchin biomineralization. A possible role of SM30 protein in skeleton formation is discussed.

  10. A new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first adult record of Feia nympha from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-03-31

    A new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. nanus sp. nov. is described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops nanus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners in having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,10; anal-fin rays I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12-14 (lowest count known for the genus), two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form an emarginate disc, no pelvic frenum; predorsal area and narrow area at base of first dorsal fin naked; longitudinal scale series 26-29; transverse scale rows counted forward 6-7; transverse scale rows counted backward 7-8; circumpeduncular scale rows 11-12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without flap at its tip, posterior nostril pore-like; body semitranslucent, covered with small scattered orange-yellow spots and speckles, those in predorsal area contain black dots; an internal row of white spots along ventral part of body above anal-fin base and on caudal peduncle; head with small scattered orange to yellowish brown spots; first dorsal fin with two broad white bands at base of fin and distally, and with hyaline area densely dotted with melanophores in the middle of fin; preserved specimens opaque white to yellowish with sparse melanophores. An adult specimen of Feia nympha is recorded for the first time in the Red Sea and the lateral line system of this species is described.

  11. Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure

  12. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  13. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be unreliable

  14. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Yack, Jayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an “accommodating” type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that ‘steer’ the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be

  15. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be unreliable

  16. The role of adolescent behaviors in the female-male disparity in obesity incidence in US black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Whitney R; Stevens, June; Kaufman, Jay S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, black women are at much greater risk for obesity than black men. We explored whether adolescent behaviors (family dinners, hours of television, playing sports with mother, playing sports with father, bouts of physical activity) were associated with gender disparity in 6-year obesity incidence in young adulthood. We used data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine adolescent behaviors in nonimmigrant black (n = 1,503) and white (n = 4,452) youths in 1994-95 (aged 11-19 years) and 1995-96 (aged 12-20). We assessed gender disparity in obesity incidence (female incidence minus male incidence) during young adulthood (2001-02; aged 18-26). Standardized gender disparities were calculated using race- and gender-stratified, covariate-adjusted logistic regression models in which males and females were set to the same distributions of adolescent behaviors. In adolescence, black females reported less leisure-time physical activity and lower likelihood of playing sports with either parent compared with black males. Setting adolescent behaviors equal for black males and females did not reduce the estimated gender disparity in obesity incidence (nonstandardized: 9.8 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5, 15.1); fully standardized: 10.2 percentage points (5.2, 15.2)). There was little gender disparity in whites before or after adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine to what extent behavioral differences during adolescence might account for gender disparity in obesity incidence in black young adults. Male-female differences in these adolescent behaviors did not appear to underlie the gender gap in young adult obesity.

  17. Reduced vasorelaxation to estradiol and G-1 in aged female and adult male rats is associated with GPR30 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Sarah H; da Silva, Ariel S; Silva, Mauro S; Chappell, Mark C

    2013-07-01

    Previously, we reported that chronic activation of the estrogen receptor GPR30 by its selective agonist G-1 decreases blood pressure in ovariectomized hypertensive mRen2.Lewis (mRen2) rats but not intact male littermates. Furthermore, G-1 relaxes female mesenteric resistance arteries via both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Because of the lack of a blood pressure-lowering effect by G-1 in males and the potential influence of aging on estrogen receptor expression, we hypothesized that GPR30-dependent vasodilation and receptor expression are altered in males and aged females. Thus, we assessed the response to 17β-estradiol or G-1 in mesenteric arteries obtained from 15-wk-old normotensive Lewis and hypertensive mRen2 females and males as well as 52-wk-old Lewis females. Vasodilation to 17β-estradiol (E₂) and G-1 was significantly attenuated in 15-wk-old Lewis and mRen2 males compared with age-matched females. Pretreatment of male vessels with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME had no significant effect on the estradiol or G-1 response. In aged females, E₂ and G-1 vasorelaxation was also significantly blunted; however, L-NAME essentially abolished the response. Associated with the reduced vascular responses, GPR30 expression in mesenteric arteries was approximately 50% lower in males and aged females compared with young females. We conclude that alterations in GPR30 expression and signaling may contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging females and a greater blood pressure in hypertensive males.

  18. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M; McCool, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions.

  19. Effects of Dicto-Comp and Dictation on the Writing Skill of Female Adult Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adel, Rahil; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    This study was an attempt to clarify and remind L2 learners/teachers of 2 kinds of writing: dicto-comp and dictation. We explored the effect of controlled writing on the accuracy of the writing of adult Iranian EFL learners. Prior to the study, the homogeneity of 30 adult EFL learners was checked through an OPT test. Thirty participants were…

  20. The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Avonda C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

  1. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  2. Effects of adult nutrition on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly: the role of fruit decay and dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus; Hartstein, Steffi; Janowitz, Susann; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

    2007-09-01

    It was generally believed that butterflies and other holometabolous insects rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction. Recent studies, however, highlight the often fundamental importance of adult nutrition to realize the full reproductive potential. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of most other adult-derived substances is only partially resolved. We here focus on the effects of dietary lipids (cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids) and fruit decay (dietary yeast, ethanol) on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). We found that banana-fed control females outperformed all other groups fed on sucrose-based diets. Lipids, yeast or ethanol added to a sugar solution did not yield a similarly high reproductive output compared to fruit-fed females. Groups fed fresh or decaying banana showed no differences in reproductive performance. As we could not identify a single pivotal substance, we conclude that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance for maximum reproductive output. Further, dietary quality may affect egg hatching success in spite of no obvious effects on egg size and number. Thus, any implications about potential fitness effects of different diets need to consider egg (and hatchling) viability in addition to fecundity.

  3. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Campi, Katharine L.; Florez, Stefani A.; Greenberg, Gian D.; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A.; Orr, Veronica N.; Silva, Andrea L.; Steinman, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. PMID:23384773

  4. Attitudes Toward and Sexual Partnerships With Drug Dealers Among Young Adult African American Females in Socially Disorganized Communities

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Leah J.; Brown, Qiana

    2015-01-01

    Drug markets in disadvantaged African American neighborhoods have altered social and sexual norms as well as sexual networks, which impact an individual’s risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Presently, we describe the prevalence of sexual partnerships with males involved with illegal drugs among a sample of non-drug-dependent females. In 2010, 120 Black females aged 18 to 30 years completed a semistructured HIV-risk interview. Descriptive statistics revealed approximately 80% of females perceived neighborhood drug activity as a major problem, 58% had sex with a male drug dealer, 48% reported sex with a male incarcerated for selling drugs, and 56% believed drug dealers have the most sexual partners. Our results suggest sexual partnerships with males involved in the distribution of drugs are prevalent. These partnerships may play a substantial role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections among low-risk females, as drug dealers likely serve as a bridge between higher HIV-risk drug and prison populations and lower HIV-risk females. However, the significance of partnerships with males involved in drug dealing has received little attention in HIV and drug abuse literature. Presently, there is a need for more research focused on understanding the extent to which the drug epidemic affects the HIV risk of non-drug-dependent Black female residents of neighborhoods inundated with drugs. Special consideration should be given to the role of the neighborhood drug dealer in the spread of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25797963

  5. The Inhibitory Effects of RFamide-Related Peptide 3 on Luteinizing Hormone Release Involves an Estradiol-Dependent Manner in Prepubertal but Not in Adult Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wei; Zhang, Baoyun; Lv, Fenglin; Ma, Yunxia; Chen, Hang; Chen, Long; Yang, Fang; Wang, Pingqing; Chu, Mingxing

    2015-08-01

    The mammalian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) ortholog, RFamide-related peptide (RFRP), is considered to act on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and the pituitary to inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release. However, there is little evidence documenting whether RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3) plays a primary role in inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis prior to the onset of puberty. The present study aimed to understand the functional significance of the neuropeptide on pubertal development. The developmental changes in reproductive-related gene expression at the mRNA level were investigated in the hypothalamus of female mice. The results indicated that RFRP-3 may be an endogenous inhibitory factor for the activation of the HPG axis prior to the onset of puberty. In addition, centrally administered RFRP-3 significantly suppressed plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in prepubertal female mice. Surprisingly, centrally administered RFRP-3 had no effects on plasma LH levels in ovariectomized (OVX) prepubescent female mice. In contrast, RFRP-3 also inhibited plasma LH levels in OVX prepubescent female mice that were treated with 17beta-estradiol replacement. Our study also examined the effects of RFRP-3 on plasma LH release in adult female mice that were ovariectomized at dioestrus, with or without estradiol (E2). Our results showed that the inhibitory effects of RFRP-3 were independent of E2 status. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that RFRP-3 inhibited GnRH expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in the hypothalamus. These data demonstrated that RFRP-3 could effectively suppress pituitary LH release, via the inhibition of GnRH transcription and translation in prepubescent female mice, which is associated with estrogen signaling pathway and developmental stages.

  6. Increased allocation of adult-acquired carbohydrate to egg production results in its decreased allocation to sex pheromone production in mated females of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Harmon, J P

    2014-02-15

    Females of most species of moths produce a volatile sex pheromone that attracts conspecific males over distance. In females of the polyandrous moth Heliothis virescens, feeding on carbohydrate (e.g. nectar) supplies precursor, via hemolymph trehalose, for both sex pheromone and egg production. With limited carbohydrate acquisition these two reproductive physiologies might compete for hemolymph trehalose, resulting in an allocation deficit to either sex pheromone or egg production. Using virgin and mated females, which have low and high egg maturation rates, respectively, we fed females a limited diet of (13)C-labeled glucose daily and, using mass isotopomer distribution analysis, determined allocations of adult-acquired carbohydrate (AAC) to newly synthesized pheromone and ovarian and egg fats, our proxies for allocation to egg production. With increased number of feeds, AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose increased, as expected. This led to mated females increasing their proportional allocation of AAC to ovarian and egg fats, but decreasing their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production. By contrast, virgins increased their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production with increased feeds, consistent with increasing AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose. These results show that with limited AAC intake, enhanced egg maturation in mated females results in reduced AAC allocation to pheromone production; this does not occur in virgins because of their lower egg maturation rate. This physiological competition for AAC corresponded with decreased pheromone production in mated moths to levels unlikely to attract mates. Therefore, the availability and/or allocation of AAC may be a proximate mechanism underlying the incidence of polyandry in this and other species of moths.

  7. A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency and blood meal host preferences. Methods We assembled a comprehensive database describing adult female MMRR experiments. Bibliographic searches were used to build a digital library of MMRR studies and selected data describing the reported outcomes were extracted. Results The resulting database contained 774 unique adult female MMRR experiments involving 58 vector mosquito species from the three main genera of importance to human health: Aedes, Anopheles and Culex. Crude examination of these data revealed patterns associated with geography as well as mosquito genus, consistent with bionomics varying by species-specific life history and ecological context. Recapture success varied considerably and was significantly different amongst genera, with 8, 4 and 1% of adult females recaptured for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species, respectively. A large proportion of experiments (59%) investigated dispersal and survival and many allowed disaggregation of the release and recapture data. Geographic coverage was limited to just 143 localities around the world. Conclusions This MMRR database is a substantial contribution to the compilation of global data that can be used to better inform basic research and public health interventions, to identify and fill knowledge gaps and to enrich theory and evidence-based ecological and epidemiological studies of mosquito vectors, pathogen transmission and disease prevention. The database revealed limited geographic coverage and a relative scarcity of information for vector species of substantial public health relevance. It represents, however, a wealth of entomological information not previously compiled and of particular interest for mosquito

  8. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  9. Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  10. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  11. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8-/- mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15635.001 PMID:27328324

  12. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8(-/-) mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. PMID:27328324

  13. Effect of perinatal synthetic steroid hormone (allylestrenol, diethylstilbestrol) treatment (hormonal imprinting) on the bone mineralization of the adult male and female rat.

    PubMed

    Karabélyos, C; Horváth, C; Holló, I; Csaba, G

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal treatment with allylestrenol or diethylstilbestrol (DES) reduced the bone mineral content (BMC/bw) of the adult (four months old) female rats, without influencing bone mineral density (BMD/bw). In males these neonatal treatments elevated BMC and BMD alike. Ovariectomy alone decreased BMC and BMD alike; however the neonatal hormone treatments did not influence this reduced value. Ovariectomy of two months old animals increased body weight without the influence of neonatal hormone treatments. In adult males, the body weight was reduced significantly by neonatal DES and non-significantly by neonatal allylestrenol treatment. The experiments call attention to the possible human bone-effects of allylestrenol, which was used in the last decades as medication protecting endangered pregnancies. PMID:10075115

  14. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Agonists on Regulation of the Inflammatory Response in Astrocytes from Young Adult and Middle-Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Danielle K; Johnson, Adam B.; Stohlgren, Shannon; Simpson, Ashley; Sohrabji, Farida

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory response following injury or lipopolysaccharide treatment in several organ systems. Estrogen's actions are transduced through two estrogen receptor sub-types, estrogen receptor (ER) -alpha and estrogen receptor-beta, whose actions may be overlapping or independent of each other. The present study examined the effects of ERα- and ERβ-specific ligands in regulating the inflammatory response in primary astrocyte cultures. Pre-treatment with 17β-estradiol (ERα/ERβ agonist), HPTE (ERα agonist/ERβ antagonist) and DPN (ERβ agonist) led to attenuation of IL-1β, TNFα, and MMP-9 in astrocyte media derived from young adult (3-4 mos.) and reproductive senescent female (9-11 mos., acyclic) astrocyte cultures, while pretreatment with PPT (ERα agonist) attenuated IL-1β (but not TNFα or MMP-9) in both young and senescent-derived astrocyte cultures. Our previous work determined that 17β-estradiol was unable to attenuate the LPS-induced increase in IL-1β in olfactory bulb primary microglial cultures derived from either young adult or reproductive senescent females. In young adult-derived microglial cultures, the LPS-induced increase in IL-1β was not attenuated by pre-treatment with 17β-estradiol, PPT or HPTE. Interestingly, the ERβ agonist, DPN significantly decreased IL-1β following LPS treatment in young adult-derived microglia. Thus while both microglia and astrocytes synthesize and release inflammatory mediators, the present data shows that compounds which bind ERβ are more effective in attenuating proinflammatory cytokines in both cell types and may therefore be a more effective agent for future therapeutic use. PMID:18328572

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice.

  16. Intrauterine low-functional programming of IGF1 by prenatal nicotine exposure mediates the susceptibility to osteoarthritis in female adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Tie, Kai; Zhang, Xianrong; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether female adult offspring born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) are susceptible to osteoarthritis (OA) and to explore the underlying programming mechanisms. Pregnant rats were treated with nicotine or saline at 2.0 mg/kg/d from gestational d 11 to 20. The female adult offspring with or without PNE were forced with a strenuous treadmill running for 6 wk to induce OA. Nicotine's effects on fetal articular chondrocytes were studied by exposing chondrocytes to nicotine for 10 d, and dihydro-β-erythroidine, a selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibitor, was used to identify the change of nicotine's effect. For adult offspring, increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression were observed in the PNE group with running; the expression of α1 chain of type II collagen (Col2A1), aggrecan, SRY-type high mobility group box 9 (Sox9), and IGF1 signaling molecules in the cartilage of PNE offspring were decreased. For fetuses, elevated serum corticosteroid and nicotine levels and suppressed IGF1 levels were observed; expression of Col2A1, aggrecan, Sox9, and IGF1 were reduced. The result of chondrocytes revealed that nicotine impeded the expression of Col2A1, aggrecan, and IGF1; blocking α4β2-nAChR rescued nicotine's suppression. In conclusion, PNE increases the susceptibility of adult offspring to OA; the potential mechanism involves IGF1 low-functional programming in articular cartilage caused directly by the action of nicotine on α4β2-nAChR.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. PMID:24398264

  18. Reduced coenzyme Q10 in female smokers and its association with lipid profile in a young healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bazi, Maha M.; Elshal, Mohamed F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking has a negative effect on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant synthesized as part of the cholesterol pathway, is a potential biomarker for systemic oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate gender variation in plasma lipid profile and CoQ10 concentrations in healthy non-smokers and in smokers. Material and methods The study included 55 cigarette smokers (25 females and 30 males) and 51 non-smokers (25 females and 26 males) with the age range from 21 to 45 years, and who had no history of alcohol abuse or chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or obesity. Coenzyme Q10 plasma concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard colorimetric methods. Results Our results showed that CoQ10 concentrations were significantly decreased in smokers, especially in females, than their non-smoker counterparts. Female smokers also exhibited a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, and atherogenic ratios HDL-C/TC and CoQ10/LDL-C than male counterparts. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased in smokers irrespective of gender. Plasma CoQ10 was relatively more associated with TC and LDL-C in female smokers than male smokers. Conclusions The adverse effects of smoking on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism are greater in females than in males, partially as a result of decreased CoQ10 plasma concentrations, HDL-C and total-cholesterol and abnormal atherogenicity indices. PMID:22328876

  19. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

  20. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Dana A; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

    2012-05-01

    Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of "non-traditional" mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

  1. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Dana A.; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of “non-traditional” mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

  2. Timing and size of daily pollen meals eaten by adult females of a solitary bee (Nomia melanderi)(Apiformes: Halictidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solitary bees daily provision nest cells with pollen and nectar for their progeny, but little is known of their own eating habits for self-maintenance. The alimentary canals of nesting female alkali bees (Nomia melanderi) were dissected daily at different hours and days throughout their nesting live...

  3. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  4. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  5. Effect of arm position and foot placement on the five times sit-to-stand test completion times of female adults older than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shamay S.M.; Kwong, Patrick W.H.; Chau, Michael S.P.; Luk, Isaac C.Y.; Wan, Sam S.; Fong, Shirley S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The five times-sit-to stand test (FTSTS) is a clinical test which is commonly used to assessed the functional muscle strength of the lower limbs of older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different arm positions and foot placements on the FTSTS completion times of older female adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy female subjects, aged 63.1±5.3 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The times required to complete the FTSTS with 3 different arm positions (hands on thighs, arms crossed over chest, and an augmented arm position with the arms extended forward) and 2 foot placements (neutral and posterior) were recorded. The interaction effect and main effect of arm positions and foot placements were examined using a 3 (arm position) × 2 (foot placement) two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). [Results] There was no interaction effect among the 3 arm positions in the 2 foot placements. A significant main effect was identified for foot placement, but not arm position. Posterior foot placement led to a shorter FTSTS time compared to that of normal foot placement. [Conclusion] With the same arm position, FTSTS completion times with posterior foot placement tended to be shorter. Therefore, the standard foot placement should be used for FTSTS administration. PMID:26180314

  6. Synergistic effect of estradiol and fluoxetine in young adult and middle-aged female rats in two models of experimental depression.

    PubMed

    Récamier-Carballo, Soledad; Estrada-Camarena, Erika; Reyes, Rebeca; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2012-08-01

    The antidepressant effect of estrogens combined with antidepressants is controversial: some preclinical data showed that estrogens facilitate the effect of antidepressants in the forced swimming test (FST) in young adult rats, while others failed to find such effect in middle-aged rats in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model. In clinics similar differences were reported and may be due to the compounds, the depression model or type of depression, the experimental design, and the age of the subjects or the women's menopause stage. The objective of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of 17β-estradiol (E(2)) and fluoxetine (FLX) in young adults (2-4 months) and middle-aged (12-14 months) ovariectomized (OVX) rats in two experimental models: FST and CMS. E(2) (5 and 10 μg/rat) and FLX (2.5 and 10 mg/kg) per se dose-dependently reduced immobility in both age groups and, in young adults both compounds increased swimming, whereas in middle-aged rats they increased swimming and climbing. Analysis of the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of suboptimal doses of FLX (1.25 mg/kg) and E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) showed a decrease in immobility and an increase in swimming in both age groups. In the CMS, chronic E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) with FLX (1.25 mg/kg) augmented relative sucrose intake, but middle-aged rats responded 2 weeks earlier than young adults. These results show that the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of E(2) and FLX in young adult and middle-aged female rats is evidenced in the two animal models of depression: FST and CMS.

  7. Behavioral responses of adult male and female fathead minnows to a model estrogenic effluent and its effects on exposure regime and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Candice; Sorensen, Peter W

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory studies of adult male fathead minnows have shown that when they are exposed to estrogens, they lose their ability to compete for access to females and sire young, suggesting that estrogenic effluents may reduce the genetic fitness of populations of wild fishes. However, it is unknown whether wild fish which are exposed to effluent actually compete with unexposed fishes, how long effects of estrogen exposure last, and whether females are affected by estrogens. This study addressed these issues using the fathead minnow (FHM) and effluent from the Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP) a well-studied source of environmental estrogens (EEs) in the Mississippi River. Maze tests found that adult FHMs are neither attracted nor repelled by MWTP effluent while previous studies have shown that minnows are attracted to the warmer waters which characterize effluents; it is realistic that previously unexposed fish enter MWTP effluent in the spring and then compete with exposed individuals. Competitive spawning experiments showed that male FHMs exposed to 44ng E2/l (a high but realistic level) for three weeks failed to compete with unexposed males while males exposed to 4ng E2/l outcompeted and sired more young than unexposed males (p<0.05). The effects of estrogen exposure disappeared within a week of moving fish into uncontaminated water. Female FHM reproductive output and behavior were unaffected by exposure to estrogen. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the behavior of wild fishes likely determines their exposure to EEs and that while the effects of this exposure are likely significant to populations of wild fish, they will be location specific because of factors which determine the duration and intensity of male exposure. We conclude that the role of fish behavior in endocrine disruption strongly warrants additional consideration.

  8. Behavioral responses of adult male and female fathead minnows to a model estrogenic effluent and its effects on exposure regime and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Candice; Sorensen, Peter W

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory studies of adult male fathead minnows have shown that when they are exposed to estrogens, they lose their ability to compete for access to females and sire young, suggesting that estrogenic effluents may reduce the genetic fitness of populations of wild fishes. However, it is unknown whether wild fish which are exposed to effluent actually compete with unexposed fishes, how long effects of estrogen exposure last, and whether females are affected by estrogens. This study addressed these issues using the fathead minnow (FHM) and effluent from the Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP) a well-studied source of environmental estrogens (EEs) in the Mississippi River. Maze tests found that adult FHMs are neither attracted nor repelled by MWTP effluent while previous studies have shown that minnows are attracted to the warmer waters which characterize effluents; it is realistic that previously unexposed fish enter MWTP effluent in the spring and then compete with exposed individuals. Competitive spawning experiments showed that male FHMs exposed to 44ng E2/l (a high but realistic level) for three weeks failed to compete with unexposed males while males exposed to 4ng E2/l outcompeted and sired more young than unexposed males (p<0.05). The effects of estrogen exposure disappeared within a week of moving fish into uncontaminated water. Female FHM reproductive output and behavior were unaffected by exposure to estrogen. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the behavior of wild fishes likely determines their exposure to EEs and that while the effects of this exposure are likely significant to populations of wild fish, they will be location specific because of factors which determine the duration and intensity of male exposure. We conclude that the role of fish behavior in endocrine disruption strongly warrants additional consideration. PMID:21276478

  9. Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status

    PubMed Central

    Mechaber, W.L.; Capaldo, C.T.; Hildebrand, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039

  10. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  11. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  12. In adult female hamsters hypothyroidism stimulates D1 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D1 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Harold D

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroidism affects cardiopulmonary regulation and function of dopaminergic receptors. Here we evaluated effects of 5 months of hypothyroidism on dopamine D1 receptor modulation of breathing in female hamsters using a D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Euthyroid hamsters (EH) served as controls. Results indicated that hypothyroid female hamsters (HH) exhibited decreased body weights and minute ventilation (VE) following hypoxia due to decreased frequency of breathing (F). Moreover, SCH 23390 administration in HH increased VE by increasing tidal volume during exposure to air, hypoxia and following hypoxia. Relative to vehicle, SCH 23390 treatment decreased body temperature and hypoxic VE responsiveness in both groups. In EH, SCH 23390 decreased F in air, hypoxia and post hypoxia, and VE during hypoxia trended to decrease (P=0.053). Finally, expression of D1 receptor protein was not different between the two groups in any region evaluated. Thus, hypothyroidism in older female hamsters affected D1 receptor modulation of ventilation differently relative to euthyroid animals, but not expression of D1 receptors.

  13. Rare parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) from Egyptian Red Sea fishes.

    PubMed

    El-Rashidy, Hoda Hassan; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2016-10-01

    Two rare species of parasitic copepods belonging to the genus Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822 (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) are redescribed in detail, based on material collected from Red Sea fishes, caught at El-Tor, near Sharm El-Sheikh on the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Adult females of Lernanthropus sanguineus Song & Chen, 1976 were found on the gills of snapper Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskål). This species was known only from its original description based on material from Chinese waters. Adult females of Lernanthropus triangularis Pillai, 1963 were obtained from the gills of mojarra Gerres oyena (Forsskål). Both parasite species are new records for Egyptian Red Sea waters and both host records are new. PMID:27638733

  14. Female pheromones stimulate release of luteinizing hormone and testosterone without altering GnRH mRNA in adult male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Richardson, Heather N; Nelson, Aaron L A; Ahmed, Eman I; Parfitt, David B; Romeo, Russell D; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2004-09-15

    In many species chemosensory stimuli function as important signals that influence reproductive status. Neurons synthesizing the peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are critical mediators of reproductive function via their regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and they are thought to be responsive to chemosensory information. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the effects of female chemosensory stimuli on the HPG axis in sexually naive adult male Syrian hamsters. In Experiment 1, serial blood samples were collected from catheterized male hamsters following exposure to female pheromones in order to characterize the luteinizing hormone (LH) response to this chemosensory stimulus. In Experiment 2, brains and terminal blood samples were collected from animals 0, 60, and 120 min following pheromone exposure. GnRH mRNA was measured in brain tissue sections using in situ hybridization, and plasma concentrations of LH and testosterone were measured using radioimmunoassay. Data from Experiment 1 indicated that female pheromones elicited a rapid rise in plasma LH that peaked at 15 min and returned to baseline 45 min after exposure. In Experiment 2, testosterone was elevated in terminal blood samples obtained 60 min, but not 120 min, after exposure to pheromones. LH levels were unaffected at both of these time points. The chemosensory-induced increases in LH and testosterone release were not accompanied by subsequent changes in GnRH mRNA over the time course studied. These data suggest that while activation of the male HPG axis by female pheromones involves release of GnRH, it does not involve increases in GnRH mRNA 1-2 h after pheromonal stimulation as a mechanism for replenishment of released peptide.

  15. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα−, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females. PMID:24646567

  16. Chemosterilization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical, P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), was found in laboratory studies to be an effective sterilant for both sexes of adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) when given intraperitoneally at a dosage of 100 mg per kilogram of body weight. A total of 300 normal spawning-run sea lampreys and 300 injected with bisazir were released into the Big Garlic River, Marquette County, Michigan, (a small stream divided into five sections by natural barriers), to determine the effect of bisazir on the nesting and spawning behavior of the adults and on the production of larvae. The lampreys constructed and spawned in 95 nests. Sterile adults showed no abnormal nest building or spawning behavior. Sterile males competed effectively with normal males for females. Egg samples taken from nests indicated that eggs in nests where sterile males spawned with sterile or normal females did not hatch, although some embryonic development occurred. Extensive surveys with electric shockers produced no larvae in stream sections where sterile males spawned, but yielded numerous larvae in sections where normal males spawned with normal females. These findings suggest that the release of sterile males may be an effective tool in an integrated approach to control of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes.

  17. Cardiac contraction, calcium transients, and myofilament calcium sensitivity fluctuate with the estrous cycle in young adult female mice.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jennifer K; Pyle, W Glen; Reitz, Cristine J; Howlett, Susan E

    2014-04-01

    This study established conditions to induce regular estrous cycles in female C57BL/6J mice and investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on contractions, Ca2+ transients, and underlying cardiac excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanisms. Daily vaginal smears from group-housed virgin female mice were stained to distinguish estrous stage (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus). Ventricular myocytes were isolated from anesthetized mice. Contractions and Ca2+ transients were measured simultaneously (4 Hz, 37 °C). Interestingly, mice did not exhibit regular cycles unless they were exposed to male pheromones in bedding added to their cages. Field-stimulated myocytes from mice in estrus had larger contractions (∼2-fold increase), larger Ca2+ transients (∼1.11-fold increase), and longer action potentials (>2-fold increase) compared with other stages. Larger contractions and Ca2+ transients were not observed in estrus myocytes voltage-clamped with shorter action potentials. Voltage-clamp experiments also demonstrated that estrous stage had no effect on Ca2+ current, EC-coupling gain, diastolic Ca2+, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content, or fractional release. Although contractions were largest in estrus, myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity was lowest (EC50 values ∼1.15-fold higher) in conjunction with increased phosphorylation of myosin binding protein C in estrus. Contractions were enhanced in ventricular myocytes from mice in estrus because action potential prolongation increased SR Ca2+ release. These findings demonstrate that cyclical changes in reproductive hormones associated with the estrous cycle can influence myocardial electrical and contractile function and modify Ca2+ homeostasis. However, such changes are unlikely to occur in female mice housed in groups under conventional conditions, since these mice do not exhibit regular estrous cycles.

  18. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  19. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

  20. Offshore Habitat Preference of Overwintering Juvenile and Adult Black Sea Bass, Centropristis striata, and the Relationship to Year-Class Success.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alicia S; Shepherd, Gary R; Fratantoni, Paula S

    2016-01-01

    Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) migrations are believed to play a role in overwinter survival and connectivity between juvenile and adult populations. This study investigated oceanographic drivers of winter habitat choice and regional differences between populations of juvenile and adult black sea bass. Trends in cohort strength, as a result of juvenile survival, were also identified. Oceanographic and fisheries survey data were analyzed using generalized additive models. Among the oceanographic variables investigated, salinity was the main driver in habitat selection with an optimal range of 33-35 practical salinity units (PSU) for both juveniles and adults. Preferred temperature ranges varied between juveniles and adults, but held a similar minimum preference of >8°C. Salinity and temperature ranges also differed by regions north and south of Hudson Canyon. Shelf water volume had less of an effect than temperature or salinity, but showed an overall negative relationship with survey catch. The effect of winter conditions on juvenile abundance was also observed across state and federal survey index trends. A lack of correlation observed among surveys in the fall paired with a strong correlation in the spring identifies the winter period as a factor determining year-class strength of new recruits to the population. A rank order analysis of spring indices identified three of the largest year classes occurring during years with reduced shelf water volumes, warmer winter shelf waters, and a 34 PSU isohaline aligned farther inshore. While greater catches of black sea bass in the northwest Atlantic Ocean remain south of Hudson Canyon, the species' range has expanded north in recent years. PMID:26824350

  1. Offshore Habitat Preference of Overwintering Juvenile and Adult Black Sea Bass, Centropristis striata, and the Relationship to Year-Class Success

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alicia S.; Shepherd, Gary R.; Fratantoni, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) migrations are believed to play a role in overwinter survival and connectivity between juvenile and adult populations. This study investigated oceanographic drivers of winter habitat choice and regional differences between populations of juvenile and adult black sea bass. Trends in cohort strength, as a result of juvenile survival, were also identified. Oceanographic and fisheries survey data were analyzed using generalized additive models. Among the oceanographic variables investigated, salinity was the main driver in habitat selection with an optimal range of 33–35 practical salinity units (PSU) for both juveniles and adults. Preferred temperature ranges varied between juveniles and adults, but held a similar minimum preference of >8°C. Salinity and temperature ranges also differed by regions north and south of Hudson Canyon. Shelf water volume had less of an effect than temperature or salinity, but showed an overall negative relationship with survey catch. The effect of winter conditions on juvenile abundance was also observed across state and federal survey index trends. A lack of correlation observed among surveys in the fall paired with a strong correlation in the spring identifies the winter period as a factor determining year-class strength of new recruits to the population. A rank order analysis of spring indices identified three of the largest year classes occurring during years with reduced shelf water volumes, warmer winter shelf waters, and a 34 PSU isohaline aligned farther inshore. While greater catches of black sea bass in the northwest Atlantic Ocean remain south of Hudson Canyon, the species’ range has expanded north in recent years. PMID:26824350

  2. Morphological and protein analyses of adult female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Phattanawiboon, B; Jariyapan, N; Roytrakul, S; Paemanee, A; Sor-suwan, S; Intakhan, N; Chanmol, W; Siriyasatien, P; Saeung, A; Choochote, W

    2014-12-01

    Morphology and protein profiles of female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 were analyzed. Female glands consisted of a distinctive tri-lobed structure connected to a main salivary canal, a single medial and two lateral lobes with proximal and distal portions. Cellular architecture was similar among the lobes, with secretory material appearing as large masses. Cells of the proximal-lateral lobes contained secretory masses with a finely filamentous aspect. In the distal-lateral lobes, cells had a dense secretory product with mottled pattern. Cells of the medial lobe had secretory masses which were uniformly stained and highly electron dense. Following emergence, the glands accumulated secretory material rapidly and developed completely within three days. Degenerative changes including loss of stored secretion and increase of cytoplasmic vacuolation and concentric lamellar structures were observed from day 16 post emergence that correlated with total amount of the salivary gland proteins determined during development. SDS-PAGE, nanoLC-MS, and glycoprotein analysis revealed at least eleven major protein bands, of which each morphological region contained different major proteins. Two glycoproteins, apyrase/5'-nucleotidase and D7, were identified. These results form a basis for further studies on details of cytopathological changes of malarial infected glands and roles of the proteins in disease transmission.

  3. Motor Deficits on a Ladder Rung Task in Male and Female Adolescent and Adult CGG Knock-in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hunsaker, Michael R.; von Leden, Ramona E.; Ta, Binh T.; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Arque, Gloria; Kim, Kyoungmi; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The fragile X premutation is a tandem CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion on the FMR1 gene between 55 and 200 repeats in length. A CGG knock-in (CGG KI) mouse with CGG trinucleotide repeat lengths between 70 and 350 has been developed and used to model the histopathology and cognitive deficits reported in carriers of the fragile X premutation. Previous studies have shown that CGG KI mice show progressive deficits in processing spatial and temporal information. To characterize the motor deficits associated with the fragile X premutation, male and female CGG KI mice ranging from 2–16 months of age with trinucleotide repeats ranging from 72–240 CGG in length were tested for their ability to perform a skilled ladder rung walking test. The results demonstrate that both male and female CGG KI mice showed a greater number of foot slips as a function of increased CGG repeat length, independent of the age of the animal or general activity level. PMID:21440572

  4. Age- and sex-specific mortality and population structure in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Burdin, A.M.; Ryazanov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We used 742 beach-cast carcasses to characterize age- and sex-specific sea otter mortality during the winter of 1990-1991 at Bering Island, Russia. We also examined 363 carcasses recovered after the 1989 grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, to characterize age and sex composition in the living western Prince William Sound (WPWS) sea otter population. At Bering Island, mortality was male-biased (81%), and 75% were adults. The WPWS population was female-biased (59%) and most animals were subadult (79% of the males and 45% of the females). In the decade prior to 1990-1991 we found increasing sea otter densities (particularly among males), declining prey resources, and declining weights in adult male sea otters at Bering Island. Our findings suggest the increased mortality at Bering Island in 1990-1991 was a density-dependent population response. We propose male-maintained breeding territories and exclusion of juvenile females by adult females, providing a mechanism for potentially moderating the effects of prey reductions on the female population. Increased adult male mortality at Bearing Island in 1990-1991 likely modified the sex and age class structure there toward that observed in Prince William Sound.

  5. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D; McCall, John W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2016-05-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6-24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM-10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  6. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D.; McCall, John W.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6–24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM—10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  7. Aromatase activity after a short-course of letrozole administration in adult men at sea level and at high altitude (with or without excessive erythrocytosis).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Tapia, V; Gasco, M; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2012-02-01

    Men living at high altitudes in Peru compared to sea level counterparts have erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 16-21 g/dl) or excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin>21 g/dl). High testosterone (T) levels in men at high altitude (HA) were associated with excessive erythrocytosis. High androgen levels could be due to a low aromatase activity or to an elevated rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone. The aim of this study was to evaluate aromatase activity and rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone before and after administration of the aromatase enzyme inhibitor letrozole (5 mg/day) for a 5-day period to men at HA and at sea level (SL). The response to short term aromatase inhibition was assessed in 30 adult men living at sea level, 31 native men at HA with erythrocytosis (Hb 16-21 g/dl), and 35 men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis (Hb>21 g/dl). Serum hormone levels, estradiol/testosterone, testosterone/androstenedione, and testosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ratios were measured. Men with erythrocytosis had lower basal serum T/androstenedione ratios than men with excessive erythrocytosis at HA and men at sea level. Men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis had higher T/DHEAS ratios than men with erythrocytosis and than those at sea level before and after letrozole administration. After letrozole administration, both groups of men at high altitude (with erythrocytosis or with excessive erythrocytosis) showed lower aromatase activities than those at sea level. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels in men with excessive erythrocytosis were associated with an increased rate of conversion from DHEAS to testosterone rather than to a lower aromatase activity.

  8. The Role of Executive Function in Independent Living Skills in Female Adolescents and Young Adults With Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Arianna; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Hall, Scott S; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with executive function (EF) and independent living skills (ILS) deficits. We examined the role of childhood EF in ILS during adolescence/early adulthood in females with FXS and two comparison groups in the same age range (matched for IQ [IQ/Age group] and with another genetic condition, Turner syndrome [TS group]). EF and ILS were significantly higher for the FXS group than the IQ/Age group but did not differ from the TS group. For the FXS group, age and EF were significant predictors of ILS during adolescence/early adulthood, but there were no statistically significant longitudinal associations between EF and ILS. Our findings suggest that impairments in EF may have a significant effect on ILS in FXS. PMID:27611354

  9. Management of a rare case of idiopathic multiple unerupted impacted permanent teeth in an adult female patient.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Karunakar; Kumar, Mahesh; Amanna, Susan; Sridharan, Srirangarajan; Reddy, Satyanarayan

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case report describes the multi-disciplinary approach in the management of an unusual presentation of idiopathic multiple unerupted impacted permanent teeth in a 20-year-old female patient. The case was unique in that, not only were there multiple missing permanent teeth, but also over retained deciduous teeth and attrited existing permanent teeth with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. Since the patient was young, it was decided to retain all the erupted permanent teeth and extract the infected deciduous teeth with the objective of fabricating overlay complete dentures. This is a simple, reversible and an economical treatment modality, which satisfies both the esthetic and functional demands where the extraction of teeth is not generally indicated and, in addition, provides a stable occlusion. PMID:27621553

  10. The Effect of Music on the Self-Injurious Behavior of an Adult Female with Severe Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ford

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the effects of contingent blocking, music listening, water play, and instrument playing on self-injurious behavior. The subject was a 23-year-old female with severe developmental disabilities, including communication deficits, motor deficits, and visual impairment. A single subject reversal design with four conditions (ABACADA) was used. Subject was videotaped 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the interventions to study changes in rate and variability of three behaviors: teeth-grinding, mouth-scratching, and head-hitting. Visual analysis showed a strong downward trend after music listening for teeth-grinding, and no change over all conditions for mouth-scratching. Subject did not exhibit any preintervention head-hitting during both music conditions, and therefore showed no change in behavior. Subject responded to water play and contingent blocking by reducing head-hitting.

  11. Genetic causes and workup of male and female infertility. 2. Abnormalities presenting between birth and adult life.

    PubMed

    Opitz, J M; Shapiro, S S; Uehling, D T

    1979-06-01

    At birth some 6/1,000 persons have chromosome abnormalities; in about 60% of cases these abnormalities cause death or infertility, and in one third fertility is reduced. Some 1.7% of persons (3.4% of couples) with recurrent spontaneous abortion, infertility, or both have a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities are far more common in men than in women with infertility; 15% to 20% of men with azoospermia have the Klinefelter syndrome. Meiotic defects explain 20% of male infertility in patients with apparently normal somatic chromosomes. Congenital malformations of the genitalia are more common in males than in females; about 0.82% of liveborn males have hypospadias. Almost one sixth of women with primary amenorrhea have some form of müllerian atresia, usually with associated renal anomalies.

  12. WE-E-BRE-01: An Image-Based Skeletal Dosimetry Model for the ICRP Reference Adult Female - Internal Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    O'Reilly, S; Maynard, M; Marshall, E; Bolch, W; Sinclair, L; Rajon, D; Wayson, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Limitations seen in previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used software today, include the lack of consideration of electron escape and cross-fire from cortical bone, the modeling of infinite spongiosa, the disregard of the effect of varying cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation, and the lack of use of the more recent ICRP definition of a 50 micron surrogate tissue region for the osteoprogenitor cells - shallow marrow. These limitations were addressed in the present dosimetry model. Methods: Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to active marrow and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the adult female. The bone macrostructure was obtained from the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of reference phantoms, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 year-old female cadaver. The target tissue regions were active marrow and shallow marrow. The source tissues were active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume and cortical bone surfaces. The marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or modeled analytically. Results: The method of combining macro- and microstructure absorbed fractions calculated using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model for the UF adult male in the Hough et al. study. Conclusion: The calculated skeletal averaged absorbed fractions for each source-target combination were found to follow similar trends of more recent dosimetry models (image-based models) and did not follow current models used in nuclear medicine dosimetry at high energies (due to that models use of an infinite expanse of trabecular spongiosa)

  13. Activation of the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves tamoxifen-induced memory retrieval impairment in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Tajik, Azam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Sardari, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has frequently been used in the treatment of breast cancer. In view of the fact that cognitive deficits in women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is a common health problem, using female animal models for investigating the cognitive effects of TAM administration may improve our knowledge of TAM therapy. Therefore, the present study assessed the role of dorsal hippocampal cholinergic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the effect of TAM administration on memory retrieval in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX female rats using a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that pre-test administration of TAM (2-6mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.5μg/rat) reversed TAM-induced memory impairment. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.1-0.3μg/rat) plus 2mg/kg (an ineffective dose) of TAM impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of nicotine and mecamylamine by themselves had no effect on memory retrieval. In OVX rats, the administration of TAM (6mg/kg) produced memory impairment but pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.5μg/rat) had no effect on TAM response. Moreover, the administration of an ineffective dose of TAM (2mg/kg) had no effect on memory retrieval in OVX rats, while pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.3μg/rat) impaired memory retrieval. Taken together, it can be concluded that the impairing effect of TAM on memory formation may be modulated by nAChRs of the CA1 regions. It seems that memory impairment may be considered as an important side effect of TAM. PMID:27072849

  14. Paradoxical effects of injection stress and nicotine exposure experienced during adolescence on learning in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Pickens, Laura R G; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure in adolescent rats has been shown to cause learning impairments that persist into adulthood long after nicotine exposure has ended. This study was designed to assess the extent to which the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood can be accounted for by adolescent injection stress experienced concurren