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Sample records for adult fish ladders

  1. Indirect Effects of Impoundment on Migrating Fish: Temperature Gradients in Fish Ladders Slow Dam Passage by Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Christopher C.; Keefer, Matthew L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Naughton, George P.; Burke, Brian J.; Peery, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  2. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  3. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  4. 24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; WATER FLOWING THROUGH FISH LADDER IS VISIBLE AT BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  5. 22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER MOUTH OF FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER MOUTH OF FISH LADDER AT ROCK OUTCROPPING, SHOWING NATURAL CARVED ROCK POOLS, UPPER PORTION OF FISH LADDER VISIBLE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  7. 5. View of gate to fish ladder, walkway to headgate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of gate to fish ladder, walkway to headgate operator's cottage, and operator's cottage, looking east. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  8. Passage and behaviour of cultured Lake Sturgeon in a prototype side-baffle fish ladder: I. Ladder hydraulics and fish ascent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a fish ladder for sturgeons requires understanding ladder hydraulics and sturgeon behaviour in the ladder to insure the ladder is safe and provides effective passage. After years of research and development, we designed and constructed a full-scale prototype side-baffle ladder inside a spiral flume (38.3m long??1m wide??1m high) on a 6% (1:16.5) slope with a 1.92-m rise in elevation (bottom to top) to test use by sturgeons. Twenty-eight triangular side baffles, each extending part way across the flume, alternated from inside wall to outside wall down the ladder creating two major flow habitats: a continuous, sinusoidal flow down the ladder through the vertical openings of side-baffles and an eddy below each side baffle. Ascent and behaviour was observed on 22 cultured Lake Sturgeon=LS (Acipenser fulvescens) repeatedly tested in groups as juveniles (as small as 105.1cm TL, mean) or as adults (mean TL, 118cm) during four periods (fall 2002 and 2003; spring 2003 and 2007). Percent of juveniles entering the ladder that ascended to the top was greater in spring (72.7%) than in fall (40.9-45.5%) and 90.9% of 11 adults, which ascended as juveniles, ascended to the top. Six LS (27.3%) never swam to the top and seven (31.8%) swam to the top in all tests, indicating great variability among individuals for ascent drive. Some LS swam directly to the top in <1min, but most rested in an eddy during ascent. Juveniles swimming through outside wall baffle slots (mean velocity, 1.2ms-1) swam at 1.8-2.2body lengthss-1 and 3.2-3.3tail beatss-1, either at or approaching prolonged swimming speed. The side-baffle ladder was stream-like and provided key factors for a sturgeon ladder: a continuous flow and no full cross-channel walls, abundant eddies for resting, an acceptable water depth, and a water velocity fish could ascend swimming 2bls-1. A side-baffle ladder passes LS and other moderate-swimming fishes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  9. 16. View, looking west, of fish ladder and steel frame ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View, looking west, of fish ladder and steel frame supporting fish trap, both constructed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1949. One-story wood-frame building with hip roof is a utility shed used for fish-trap operation. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  10. 26. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON WASHINGTON SHORE ADJACENT TO UPSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM/SPILLWAY. Photograph Nos. OR-11-F-27 through OR-11-F-94 are photocopies of photographs. Original historic photographs are located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. Pelton Ladder Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Max

    1991-07-01

    Rearing additional fish in Pelton Ladder provides fishery managers with a low-cost alternative to making major financial investments in new formal hatchery facilities. Adult chinook returning from this rearing program will help bolster the dwindling runs of upriver spring chinook, thus assisting the Council's goal for increased production of this species. The Deschutes River Subbasin Plan envisions need for additional return of hatchery-produced spring chinook in order to meet goals for increased harvest opportunity. Spring chinook released from Pelton Ladder will contribute little to offshore fisheries, as we can account for only about 1 percent of the RBH contribution in offshore fisheries. Based on past performance, we expect 6 percent of the adults produced will be caught in sport, commercial, and tribal subsistence fisheries in the Columbia River. Most benefits of the extra adults produced will be realized in the Deschutes River in the form of increased sport and tribal harvests and increased returns to RBH. Adults collected at Pelton Ladder above production needs will be provided to the CTWS. Return of more adults to the Deschutes River will continue the trend of increased abundance of spring chinook noted since 1985. Rearing of fish in the ladder under the proposed program will provide ODFW and CTWS co-management opportunity, and the associated monitoring and evaluation studies will refine ODFW's ability to effectively manage the RBWPelton Ladder rearing program and will provide inferences about the ability to further employ the fish-rearing potential of unused sections of the fish ladder.

  12. Influence of seasonal, diel, lunar, and other environmental factors on upstream fish passage in the igarapava fish ladder, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bizzotto, P.M.; Godinho, Alexandre L.; Vono, V.; Kynard, B.; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2009-01-01

    Upstream fish passage was evaluated during 12 months in the vertical-slot Igarapava Fish Ladder constructed around Igarapava Dam, in the heavily dammed Grande River, Southeast Brazil. A video monitoring system was used to observe 61,621 fish that passed the ladder, of which 93.5% were identified to 15 taxa. Among the migratory species, the most abundant were Pimelodus maculatus (33.6% of all fish), Leporinus octofasciatus (31.4%), Leporinus friderici (4.5%), and Prochilodus lineatus (3.1%). Seven taxa were classified as nonmigratory, and of these taxa, the small Bryconamericus stramineus was the most abundant (12.7%) of all fishes. Passage of the 'nonmigratory' taxa upstream in the ladder shows they are migratory in this system and have a strong behavioural drive to move to upstream habitat. Passage of most taxa had a strong seasonal pattern. While some species passed primarily during the day, others showed a distinct nocturnal pattern. Lunar phase and water temperature also strongly affected passage of some taxa. Rainfall and dam discharge had a small or null influence on most taxa; perhaps due to the fairly small catchment area of the reservoir and the highly regulated discharge at Igarapava Dam. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Changes in selection and evolutionary responses in migratory brown trout following the construction of a fish ladder

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Thrond Oddvar; Aass, Per; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta) are extensively harvested and its habitat highly influenced by human encroachments. Using a 40-year time series of mark–recapture data we estimate vital rates for a piscivorous trout population. This population spawns upstream of a waterfall, which historically acted as a migration barrier for smaller trout. In 1966, the waterfall was dammed and a fish ladder constructed. All fish ascending the fish ladder were individually tagged and measured for a variety of traits. The fish ladder overall favoured access to upstream spawning areas for middle-sized trout, resulting in stabilizing selection acting on size at spawning. Over time, natural and fishing mortality have varied, with fishing mortality generally decreasing and natural mortality increasing. The average and, particularly, variance in size-at-first-spawning, and growth rates during the first years of lake residence have all decreased over the 1966–2003 period. These changes are all consistent with a shift from directional to stabilizing selection on age and size at spawning. Estimated rates of phenotypic change are relatively high, in particular for size at first spawning, adding further support for the growing notion that human interference may lead to rapid life-history trait evolution. PMID:25567634

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1993-03-01

    We report on our progress from October 1991 through September 1992 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls and Westland dams on the Umatilla River. We also report on our progress from October 1991 through June 1992 in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). These are the study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR: (1) Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam and document juvenile salmonid passage through the juvenile fish bypass facility and east-bank adult fish ladder. To measure velocity and develop trap designs at Westland Dam. (2) Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  15. Validation of a Contemplation Ladder in an Adult Substance Use Disorder Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Morgenstern, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Developing brief measures of motivation to abstain from substance use that reliably predict treatment retention and outcome is a high priority in the addiction field. This study examined the psychometric properties of a contemplation ladder designed to assess readiness to abstain from alcohol and drug use respectively, based on the contemplation ladder for smoking cessation developed by Biener & Abrams (1991). Participants were 394 substance-using male and female welfare recipients referred for treatment. The combined alcohol and other drug (AOD) ladder showed discriminant validity with demographic and health characteristics, convergent validity with conceptually related treatment motivation variables, concurrent validity with baseline AOD treatment and substance use variables, and predictive validity for participation in treatment services up to one month later and abstinence outcomes up to one year later. The AOD ladder showed predictive validity for those in drug-free treatment and no treatment at baseline but not for those in methadone maintenance. PMID:20307121

  16. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions on the Umatilla River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    We report on our progress from October 1993 through September 1994 in evaluating juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and juvenile salmonid passage through ladder facilities, and investigating passage conditions for juvenile fish at diversion dam facilities on the lower Umatilla River in northeastern Oregon. We also report on our progress in evaluating adult salmonid passage at and between dams on the lower Umatilla River and upriver migration using radio telemetry. Two principal studies are also included. Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile salmonid bypass facilities a Feed and Furnish canals, juvenile salmonid passage through fish ladders at Stanfield, Feed Canal, Westland, and Three Mile Falls dams, and the juvenile salmonid trap and haul procedures at Westland Canal. To investigate passage conditions at all passage facilities. Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids past diversions in the lower Umatilla River and their movement in the upper river after transport, using radio telemetry, and to assess factors for successful homing. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  17. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-75) - Gourlay Creek Fish Ladder Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2002-02-20

    BPA proposes to fund the construction of a fish passage facility at the Gourlay Creek Dam/water reservoir in Columbia County, Oregon. The City of Scappoose owns and manages close to half of the Gourlay Creek Watershed including high quality habitat above and below the Gourlay Creek Dam. Gourlay Creek Dam has been identified as a key limiting factor in the re-generation of salmon and trout in the Gourlay Creek Watershed. Currently it provides a complete barrier to fish passage for Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed salmonids, as well as to salmonids that are under status review for ESA listing. Historically, Gourlay Creek has provided important salmonid habitat within the Scappoose Bay Watershed. Salmonids still utilize the lower reaches of Gourlay Creek. The goal of the project is to provide unimpeded access for juvenile and adult salmonids to historic habitat upstream of the dam. The project would open up over two miles of habitat for coho and cutthroat trout and nearly four miles of habitat for steelhead.

  18. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Volume III of IV, Assessment of Fishway Development and Design, 1982-1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Patrick D.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    This volume covers the broad, though relatively short, historical basis for this project. The historical developments of certain design features, criteria and research activities are traced. Current design practices are summarized based on the results of an international survey and interviews with agency personnel and consultants. The fluid mechanics and hydraulics of fishway systems are discussed. Fishways (or fishpasses) can be classified in two ways: (1) on the basis of the method of water control (chutes, steps (ladders), or slots); and (2) on the basis of the degree and type of water control. This degree of control ranges from a natural waterfall to a totally artificial environment at a hatchery. Systematic procedures for analyzing fishways based on their configuration, species, and hydraulics are presented. Discussions of fish capabilities, energy expenditure, attraction flow, stress and other factors are included.

  19. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Part I of IV, Summary Report, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    The report looks at the most active periods of fishway research since 1938 as background for a project to apply fundamental fluid and bio-mechanics to fishway design, and develop more cost effective fish passage facilities with primary application to small scale hydropower facilities. Also discussed are new concepts in fishway design, an assessment of fishway development and design, and an analysis of barriers to upstream migration. (ACR)

  20. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Hood River Fish Habitat Project : Annual Progress Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-02-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat [contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000.

  1. Versatile Lightweight Ladder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breen, Clarence F.; Fogle, John W.; Macconochie, Ian O.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed multipurpose escape-and-rescue device primarily ladder but also used as escape chute, stretcher, or float. Ladder fabricated as single composite piece, with staggered openings for feet and an integral handrail. Foot openings designed less likely to cause injuries by jamming one's hands, arms, and legs between ladder and structure on which mounted. Quick-release fasteners used for mounting.

  2. Longitudinal associations between fish consumption and depression in young adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kylie J; Sanderson, Kristy; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Dwyer, Terry; Venn, Alison J

    2014-05-15

    Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between fish consumption and depression; none have defined depression using a diagnostic tool. We investigated whether fish consumption was associated with fewer new depression episodes in a national study of Australian adults. In 2004-2006, 1,386 adults aged 26-36 years (38% males) completed a 127-item (9 fish items) food frequency questionnaire. Fish intake was examined continuously (times/week) and dichotomously (reference group: <2 times/week). During 2009-2011, the lifetime version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered by telephone. New episodes of major depression/dysthymic disorder (since baseline) were defined using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. During follow-up, 160 (18.8%) women and 70 (13.1%) men experienced depression. For women, each additional weekly serving of fish consumed at baseline decreased the risk of having a new depressive episode by 6% (adjusted relative risk = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.01). Women who ate fish ≥2 times/week at baseline had a 25% lower risk of depression during follow-up than those who ate fish <2 times/week (adjusted relative risk = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.57, 0.99). Reverse causation was also suggested but appeared to be restricted to persons with recent depression. Fish consumption was not associated with depression in men. These findings provide further evidence that fish consumption may be beneficial for women's mental health.

  3. Motor Deficits on a Ladder Rung Task in Male and Female Adolescent and Adult CGG Knock-in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hunsaker, Michael R.; von Leden, Ramona E.; Ta, Binh T.; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Arque, Gloria; Kim, Kyoungmi; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The fragile X premutation is a tandem CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion on the FMR1 gene between 55 and 200 repeats in length. A CGG knock-in (CGG KI) mouse with CGG trinucleotide repeat lengths between 70 and 350 has been developed and used to model the histopathology and cognitive deficits reported in carriers of the fragile X premutation. Previous studies have shown that CGG KI mice show progressive deficits in processing spatial and temporal information. To characterize the motor deficits associated with the fragile X premutation, male and female CGG KI mice ranging from 2–16 months of age with trinucleotide repeats ranging from 72–240 CGG in length were tested for their ability to perform a skilled ladder rung walking test. The results demonstrate that both male and female CGG KI mice showed a greater number of foot slips as a function of increased CGG repeat length, independent of the age of the animal or general activity level. PMID:21440572

  4. Frequency of Fish Intake and Diabetes among Adult Indians

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S. V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have shown that the choice of foods plays a role in diabetes prevention. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between frequency of fish intake and self-reported diabetes status among adult men and women in India. Methods: Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–2006 was performed. Associations between fish intake, determined by frequency of consumption (daily, weekly, occasionally, and never), and self-reported diabetes were estimated using multivariable-adjusted models in 99,574 women, 56,742 men, and 39,257 couples aged 20–49 years after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, body mass index (BMI) status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, and place of residence. Results: After adjustment for other dietary, lifestyle, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, odds of diabetes were 2 times higher (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.57; p < 0.0001) among those who reported consuming fish daily compared to those who never consumed fish. Weekly fish intake was also associated with a higher odds of having diabetes (OR: 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25–1.93; p < 0.0001). The adjusted effect of daily fish intake on diabetes was greater among men (OR: 2.46; 95% CI, 1.66–3.65) than among women (OR: 1.72; 95% CI, 1.26–2.33). In cross-spousal sensitivity analysis, the odds of a husband having diabetes was also associated with wife's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92–2.01) and the odds of a wife having diabetes was also associated with husband's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.21; 95% CI, 0.87–1.68). Conclusions: In a large nationally representative sample of adult men and women in India, daily or weekly fish intake was

  5. Ladder attachment platform

    DOEpatents

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  6. The career ladder.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    With the addition of the proposed Certificate of Continuing Professional Studies (CCPS) which has not yet been implemented, the Society will have developed an open-ended career ladder for medical laboratory technologists. Moving from one step to the next may entail a return to school; it will certainly entail hard work and commitment. There are no barriers to prevent a motivated individual from progressing up the ladder. The ladder is illustrated in diagrammatic form below. The shaded areas represent the elements that are not yet in place. PMID:10124400

  7. Intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Heller, Axel R

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oils have shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases due to their pleiotropic effects on inflammatory cell signalling pathways. In a variety of experimental and clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids attenuated hyperinflammatory conditions and induced faster recovery. This chapter will shed light on the effects of intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients and will discuss clinical data and recent meta-analyses on the topic. While significant beneficial effects on infection rates and the lengths of ICU and hospital stays have concordantly been identified in three recent meta-analyses on non-ICU surgical patients, the level of evidence is not so clear for critically ill patients. Three meta-analyses published in 2012 or 2013 explored data on the ICU population. Although the present data suggest the consideration of enteral nutrition enriched with fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants in mild to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, only one of the three meta-analyses found a trend (p = 0.08) of lower mortality in ICU patients receiving intravenous omega-3 fatty acids. Two of the meta-analyses indicated a significantly shorter hospital stay (5.17-9.49 days), and one meta-analysis found a significant reduction in ICU days (1.92). As a result of these effects, cost savings were postulated. Unlike in surgical patients, the effects of fish oil on infection rates were not found to be statistically significant in ICU patients, and dose-effect relationships were not established for any cohort. Thus, obvious positive secondary outcome effects with intravenous fish oil have not yet been shown to transfer to lower mortality in critically ill patients. There is a need for adequately powered, well-planned and well-conducted randomized trials to give clear recommendations on the individual utility and dosage of intravenous omega-3 fatty acids in critical illness. PMID:25471809

  8. Ladders to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersch, Paul

    1982-01-01

    The Metropolitan Sewerage District (Green Bay, Wisconsin) has developed a reputation as a well-engineered, competently managed, and efficiently operated facility. Describes management devices to foster positive employee attitudes (human resources development plan, career ladders), money-wise approaches used by the facility, and new developments…

  9. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents progress from October 1992 through September 1993 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls, Maxwell, Westland, and Feed Canal dams on the Umatilla River, and in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River. Also reported is an effort to evaluate delayed mortality and stress responses of juvenile salmonids resulting from trapping and transport at high temperatures. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the matilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon and chinook salmon, as well as enhancement of summer steelhead.

  10. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design: Analysis of Barriers to Upstream Fish Migration, Volume IV of IV, Investigation of the Physical and Biological Conditions Affecting Fish Passage Success at Culverts and Waterfalls, 1982-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Patrick D.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A synopsis of the project components was prepared to provide an overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists or engineers. This short report can be used also by technical persons who are interested in the scope of the project, and as a summary of the three main reports. The contents includes an historical perspective on fishway design which provides the basis for this project. The major project accomplishments and significant additions to the body of knowledge about the analysis and design of fishways are discussed. In the next section the research project organization, objectives and components are presented to familiarize the reader with the scope of this project. The summary report concludes with recommendations for assisting in the enhancement and restoration of fisheries resources from the perspective of fish passage problems and their solution. Promising research topics are included.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1053 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ladders. 1926.1053 Section 1926.1053 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Stairways and Ladders § 1926.1053 Ladders. (a) General. The following requirements apply to all ladders as indicated, including job-made ladders. (1)...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... base of the ladder shall be at least 12 inches (30.48 cm) for ladders 10 feet (3.05 m) or less in... Ladders ANSI A14.2-1990, Safety Requirements for Portable Metal Ladders ANSI A14.5-1992, Safety... ladders shall: (1) Have a minimum and uniform distance between rungs of 12 inches (30.48 cm), center...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders (d) Standards for job-made portable ladders. Job-made... length. (e) Maintenance and inspection. (1) The employer shall maintain portable ladders in...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders (d) Standards for job-made portable ladders. Job-made... length. (e) Maintenance and inspection. (1) The employer shall maintain portable ladders in...

  15. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  16. 29 CFR 1917.118 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applies to all fixed ladders except: (1) Ladders forming an integral part of railway cars, highway..., microwave communications, electrical power and similar towers, poles and structures, including stacks...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.118 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applies to all fixed ladders except: (1) Ladders forming an integral part of railway cars, highway..., microwave communications, electrical power and similar towers, poles and structures, including stacks...

  18. Theon's Ladder for Any Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Wright, Marcus; Orchard, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Theon's ladder is an ancient algorithm for calculating rational approximations for the square root of 2. It features two columns of integers (called a ladder), in which the ratio of the two numbers in each row is an approximation to the square root of 2. It is remarkable for its simplicity. This algorithm can easily be generalized to find rational…

  19. Foodborne Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Northern Vietnam and Their Adults Recovered from Experimental Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of foodborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae was investigated in fish from 2 localities of northern Vietnam in 2004-2005. Freshwater fish (9 species) were collected from local markets in Hanoi City (n=76) and Nam Dinh Province (n=79), and were examined for FBT metacercariae using the artificial digestion technique. Adult flukes were obtained from hamsters experimentally infected with the metacercariae at day 8 post-infection. Three (Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum varium) and 6 (Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, P. varium, Stellantchasmus falcatus, and Heterophyopsis continua) species of FBT metacercariae were detected in the 2 regions, respectively. Overall, among the positive fish species, H. pumilio metacercariae were detected in 104 (80.0%) of 130 fish examined (metacercarial density per infected fish; 64.2). C. formosanus metacercariae were found in 37 (40.2%) of 92 fish (metacercarial density; 14.7). P. varium metacercariae were detected in 19 (63.3%) of 30 fish (Anabas testudineus and Mugil cephalus) (metacercarial density; 247.7). S. falcatus metacercariae were found in all 10 M. cephalus examined (metacercarial density; 84.4). H. continua metacercariae (2 in number) were detected in 1 fish of Coilia lindmani. Morphologic characteristics of the FBT metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. The results have demonstrated that various FBT species are prevalent in northen parts of Vietnam. PMID:23230329

  20. Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.

    PubMed

    Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-01-01

    Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2).

  1. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must have... inches) apart, uniform for the length of the ladder; and (3) At least 18 centimeters (7 inches) from...

  2. 29 CFR 1918.23 - Jacob's ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jacob's ladders. 1918.23 Section 1918.23 Labor Regulations... ladders. (a) Jacob's ladders shall be of the double rung or flat tread type. They shall be well maintained and properly secured. (b) A Jacob's ladder shall either hang without slack from its lashings or...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.118 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed ladders. 1917.118 Section 1917.118 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.118 Fixed ladders. (a) Scope and applicability. This section applies to all fixed ladders except: (1) Ladders forming an integral part of railway cars,...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable ladders. 1917.119 Section 1917.119 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.119 Portable ladders. (a) Scope and applicability. This section applies to all portable ladders, including job-made ladders for temporary use,...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable ladders. 1917.119 Section 1917.119 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.119 Portable ladders. (a) Scope and applicability. This section applies to all portable ladders, including job-made ladders for temporary use,...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.23 - Jacob's ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jacob's ladders. 1918.23 Section 1918.23 Labor Regulations... ladders. (a) Jacob's ladders shall be of the double rung or flat tread type. They shall be well maintained and properly secured. (b) A Jacob's ladder shall either hang without slack from its lashings or...

  7. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must have... inches) apart, uniform for the length of the ladder; and (3) At least 18 centimeters (7 inches) from...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1053 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended load, except that each extra-heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladder shall sustain at least 3.3... plastic ladders shall sustain at least 3.3 times the maximum intended load. The ability of a ladder to... periodic basis and after any occurrence that could affect their safe use. (16) Portable ladders...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.118 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and fastened to one or both of the ladder's side rails or to another structure. (2) Fixed ladder means a ladder, including individual rung ladders, permanently attached to a structure, building or piece..., microwave communications, electrical power and similar towers, poles and structures, including stacks...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.118 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and fastened to one or both of the ladder's side rails or to another structure. (2) Fixed ladder means a ladder, including individual rung ladders, permanently attached to a structure, building or piece..., microwave communications, electrical power and similar towers, poles and structures, including stacks...

  11. Using passive acoustic telemetry to infer mortality events in adult herbivorous coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, J. A.; Welsh, J. Q.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    Mortality is considered to be an important factor shaping the structure of coral reef fish communities, but data on the rate and nature of mortality of adult coral reef fishes are sparse. Mortality on coral reefs is intrinsically linked with predation, with most evidence suggesting that predation is highest during crepuscular periods. We tested this hypothesis using passive acoustic telemetry data to determine the time of day of potential mortality events (PMEs) of adult herbivorous reef fishes. A total of 94 fishes were tagged with acoustic transmitters, of which 43 exhibited a PME. Furthermore, we identified five categories of PMEs based on the nature of change in acoustic signal detections from tagged fishes. The majority of PMEs were characterised by an abrupt stop in detections, possibly as a result of a large, mobile predator. Overall, mortality rates were estimated to be approximately 59 % per year using passive acoustic telemetry. The time of day of PMEs suggests that predation was highest during the day and crepuscular periods and lowest at night, offering only partial support for the crepuscular predation hypothesis. Visually oriented, diurnal and crepuscular predators appear to be more important than their nocturnal counterparts in terms of predation on adult reef fishes. By timing PMEs, passive acoustic telemetry may offer an important new tool for investigating the nature of predation on coral reefs.

  12. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the... ladder, wire rope ladder, or other extension ladders shall be used from the fixed ladder or lower...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the... ladder, wire rope ladder, or other extension ladders shall be used from the fixed ladder or lower...

  14. Vulnerability and diet breadth predict larval and adult parasite diversity in fish of the Bothnian Bay.

    PubMed

    Locke, Sean A; Marcogliese, David J; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of aquatic food webs show that parasite diversity is concentrated in nodes that likely favour transmission. Various aspects of parasite diversity have been observed to be correlated with the trophic level, size, diet breadth, and vulnerability to predation of hosts. However, no study has attempted to distinguish among all four correlates, which may have differential importance for trophically transmitted parasites occurring as larvae or adults. We searched for factors that best predict the diversity of larval and adult endoparasites in 4105 fish in 25 species studied over a three-year period in the Bothnian Bay, Finland. Local predator-prey relationships were determined from stomach contents, parasites, and published data in 8,229 fish in 31 species and in seals and piscivorous birds. Fish that consumed more species of prey had more diverse trophically transmitted adult parasites. Larval parasite diversity increased with the diversity of both prey and predators, but increases in predator diversity had a greater effect. Prey diversity was more strongly associated with the diversity of adult parasites than with that of larvae. The proportion of parasite species present as larvae in a host species was correlated with the diversity of its predators. There was a notable lack of association with the diversity of any parasite guild and fish length, trophic level, or trophic category. Thus, diversity is associated with different nodal properties in larval and adult parasites, and association strengths also differ, strongly reflecting the life cycles of parasites and the food chains they follow to complete transmission.

  15. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  16. Physiological responses of adult rainbow trout experimentally released through a unique fish conveyance device

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Gee, Lisa P.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the physiological stress responses (i.e., plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, and lactate) of adult Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at selected time intervals after they had passed a distance of 15 m through a unique fish conveyance device (treatment fish) or not (controls). This device differs from traditional fish pumps in two important ways: (1) it transports objects in air, rather than pumping them from and with water; and (2) it uses a unique tube for transport that has a series of soft, deformable baffles spaced evenly apart and situated perpendicular within a rigid, but flexible outer shell. Mean concentrations of the plasma constituents never differed (P > 0.05) between control and treatment fish at 0, 1, 4, 8, or 24 h after passage, and only minor differences were apparent between the different time intervals within a group. We observed no obvious injuries on any of our fish. Our results indicate that passage through this device did not severely stress or injure fish and it may allow for the rapid and safe movement of fish at hatcheries, sorting or handling facilities, or passage obstacles.

  17. Upstream dispersal of an invasive crayfish aided by a fish passage facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Loughman, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    Fish passage facilities for reservoir dams have been used to restore habitat connectivity within riverine networks by allowing upstream passage for native species. These facilities may also support the spread of invasive species, an unintended consequence and potential downside of upstream passage structures. We documented dam passage of the invasive virile crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen, 1870), at fish ladders designed for upstream passage of American eels, Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur, 1817), in the Shenandoah River drainage, USA. Ladder use and upstream passage of 11 virile crayfish occurred from 2007–2014 during periods of low river discharge (<30 m3s–1) and within a wide range of water temperatures from 9.0–28.6 °C. Virile crayfish that used the eel ladders were large adults with a mean carapace length and width of 48.0 mm and 24.1 mm, respectively. Our data demonstrated the use of species-specific fish ladders by a non-target non-native species, which has conservation and management implications for the spread of aquatic invasive species and upstream passage facilities. Specifically, managers should consider implementing long-term monitoring of fish passage facilities with emphasis on detection of invasive species, as well as methods to reduce or eliminate passage of invasive species. 

  18. 30 CFR 57.11026 - Protection for inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection for inclined fixed ladders. 57.11026... and Escapeways Travelways-Surface Only § 57.11026 Protection for inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders... ladders....

  19. 30 CFR 57.11026 - Protection for inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection for inclined fixed ladders. 57.11026... and Escapeways Travelways-Surface Only § 57.11026 Protection for inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders... ladders....

  20. Tidal management sffects sub-adult fish assemblages in impounded South Carolina Marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, Ben L.; Peterson, James T.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2015-01-01

    In coastal South Carolina, most impounded marshes are managed for waterfowl; fewer are managed for fishes. Tidal control is central to each strategy but raises concerns that nursery function could be impaired. This research examined the assemblage composition of fishes during early-life stages. We sampled two impoundments of each management type monthly in 2008 and 2009. We used light traps to collect 61,527 sub-adult fish representing 21 species and 16 families and push nets to collect 12,670 sub-adult fish representing 13 species and 11 families. The effective number of species detected at larval stage in “fish” impoundments (summer mean = 2.52 ± 0.20, winter mean = 2.02 ± 0.66) was greater than in “waterfowl” impoundments (summer mean = 1.27 ± 0.14, winter mean = 1.06 ± 0.09); CI = 90 %. Species richness did not differ between management types, but hierarchical linear models predicted differences in assemblage composition. These findings underscore the importance of frequent water exchange for maintaining diverse assemblages of early-life-stage fishes in marsh impoundments.

  1. Oily Fish Intake and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Gillman, Jennifer; Zambrano, Mauricio; Ha, Jung-eun

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oily fish consumption is likely associated with a better cognitive performance. However, information on this association is controversial, with some studies showing a positive effect while others showing no association. We aimed to assess the effects of oily fish consumption on cognitive performance in a population of frequent fish consumers living in rural coastal Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and evaluated by the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Oily fish servings per week were calculated in all participants. We estimated whether fish intake correlated with MoCA scores in generalized multivariate linear models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, edentulism and symptoms of depression. Out of 330 eligible persons, 307 (93%) were enrolled. Mean MoCA scores were 19 ± 4.8 points, and mean oily fish consumption was 8.6 ± 5.3 servings per week. In multivariate analyses, MoCA scores were related to fish servings (β 0.097, 95% CI 0.005-0.188, p = 0.038). Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing showed an inflection point in the total MoCA score curve at four fish servings per week. However, predictive margins of the MoCA score were similar across groups below and above this point, suggesting a direct linear relationship between oily fish intake and cognitive performance. Simple preventive measures, such as modifying dietary habits might be of value to reduce the rate of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults living in underserved populations.

  2. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Three-Mile Falls Dam; Umatilla River, Oregon, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from October 1989 through September 1990 on evaluating juvenile fish bypass and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR are: (1) ODFW (Report A): Operate and evaluate the juvenile fish bypass system in the West Extension Irrigation District canal at Three Mile Falls Dam; and (2) CTUIR (Report 8): Examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin that includes restorations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus Wsutch and chinook salmon 0. tshawytscha and enhancement of summer steelhead 0. mytiss.

  3. 29 CFR 1918.23 - Jacob's ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ladders. (a) Jacob's ladders shall be of the double rung or flat tread type. They shall be well maintained... alongside, or other equally effective means shall be provided to prevent damage to the bottom rungs of...

  4. Variations of the Sliding Ladder Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapranidis, Stelios; Koo, Reginald

    2008-01-01

    This article takes another look at the sliding ladder problem that students meet in the study of related rates in calculus. Physically realistic situations with both constrained and understrained ladders are explored.

  5. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat. PMID:27363518

  6. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed ladders. 1910.27 Section 1910.27 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.27 Fixed ladders. (a) Design requirements—(1) Design considerations. All ladders, appurtenances, and fastenings shall be designed to...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed ladders. 1910.27 Section 1910.27 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.27 Fixed ladders. (a) Design... those specified in § 1910.25. All wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet the requirements of §...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed ladders. 1910.27 Section 1910.27 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.27 Fixed ladders. (a) Design... those specified in § 1910.25. All wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet the requirements of §...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed ladders. 1910.27 Section 1910.27 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.27 Fixed ladders. (a) Design... those specified in § 1910.25. All wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet the requirements of §...

  11. Getting Clever with the Sliding Ladder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De, Subhranil

    2014-01-01

    The familiar system involving a uniform ladder sliding against a vertical wall and a horizontal floor is considered again. The floor is taken to be smooth and the wall to be possibly rough--a situation where no matter how large the static friction coefficient between the ladder and the wall, the ladder cannot lean at rest and must slide down.…

  12. Is fishing selective for physiological and energetic characteristics in migratory adult sockeye salmon?

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Crossin, Glenn T; Patterson, David A; Hanson, Kyle C; English, Karl K; Shrimpton, J Mark; Farrell, Anthony P

    2009-08-01

    There is extensive evidence that fishing is often selective for specific phenotypic characteristics, and that selective harvest can thus result in genotypic change. To date, however, there are no studies that evaluate whether fishing is selective for certain physiological or energetic characteristics that may influence fish behaviour and thus vulnerability to capture. Here, adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were used as a model to test the null hypothesis that fishing is not selective for specific physiological or energetic traits. Fish were intercepted during their spawning migrations, implanted with a gastric radio transmitter, and biopsied (i.e., non-lethally sampled for blood, gill tissue and quantification of energetic status). In both 2003 and 2006, we tagged and biopsied 301 and 770 sockeye salmon, respectively, in the marine environment en route to their natal river system to spawn. In 2006 an additional 378 individuals were tagged and biopsied in freshwater. We found that 23 (7.6%) of the marine fish tagged in 2003, 78 (10.1%) of the marine fish tagged in 2006 and 57 (15.1%) of the freshwater fish tagged in 2006 were harvested by one of three fisheries sectors that operate in the coastal marine environment and the Fraser River (i.e. commercial, recreational or First Nations fisheries between the site of release and Hell's Gate in the Fraser River, approximately 250 km upriver and 465 km from the ocean tagging site). However, fisheries were not open continually or consistently in different locations and for different fisheries sectors necessitating a paired analytical approach. As such, for statistical analyses we paired individual fish that were harvested with another fish of the same genetic stock that was released on the same date and exhibited similar migration behaviour, except that they successfully evaded capture and reached natal spawning grounds. Using two-tailed Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank tests, we revealed that the physiological

  13. Fish Intake Is Associated with Slower Cognitive Decline in Chinese Older Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bo; Plassman, Brenda L.; Edwards, Lloyd J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Adair, Linda S.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle changes, including dietary changes, could translate into a great reduction in the global burden of cognitive impairment and dementia. Few studies evaluated the benefits of fish intake for delaying cognitive decline, and no studies were conducted in a Chinese population, which may differ with respect to types, amounts, and correlates of fish consumption compared with Western populations. We hypothesized that higher consumption of fish would predict slower decline in cognitive function, independent of a wide range of potential confounders. This prospective cohort study comprised 1566 community-dwelling adults aged ≥55 y who completed a cognitive screening test at ≥2 waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1997, 2000, or 2004, with a mean follow-up of 5.3 y [age at entry (mean ± SD): 63 ± 6 y]. Diet was measured by 3-d 24-h recalls at baseline. Outcomes included repeated measures of global cognitive scores (baseline mean ± SD: 19 ± 6 points), composite cognitive Z-scores (standardized units), and standardized verbal memory scores (standardized units). Multivariable-adjusted linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the relation of fish intake with changes in cognitive scores. Age was found to significantly modify the association between fish consumption and cognitive change (P = 0.007). Among adults aged ≥65 y, compared with individuals who consumed <1 serving/wk (i.e., 100 g) fish, the mean annual rate of global cognitive decline was reduced by 0.35 point (95% CI: 0.13, 0.58) among those consuming ≥1 serving/wk, equivalent to the disparity associated with 1.6 y of age. Fish consumption was also associated with a slower decline in composite and verbal memory scores. No associations were observed among adults aged 55–64 y. Our findings suggest a potential role of fish consumption as a modifiable dietary factor to reduce the rate of cognitive decline in later life. PMID:25080536

  14. Ladder-Type Circuits Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Ladder-type circuits where a given unit is repeated infinitely many times are dealt with in many textbooks on electromagnetism as examples of filter circuits. Determining the impedance of such circuits seems to be regarded as simple, which may be due to the fact that the invariance of the infinite system under the operation of adding one more unit…

  15. Educating and Training out of Poverty? Adult Provision and the Informal Sector in Fishing Communities, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at access to adult education and vocational education and training (VET) provision in fishing communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Fishing communities are being disadvantaged due to geographical and socio-political marginalisation, and the predominance of informal sector employment in the context of worldwide marine…

  16. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2006-02-01

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2004-2005 project year, there were 590 adult summer steelhead, 31 summer steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 70 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 80 adult and 1 jack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway video counting window between December 13, 2004, and June 16, 2005. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. In addition, the old ladder trap was operated by ODFW in order to enumerate fish passage. Of the total, 143 adult summer steelhead and 15 summer steelhead kelts were enumerated at the west ladder at Nursery Bridge Dam during the video efforts between February 4 and May 23, 2005. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River

  17. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the central nervous system with glial differentiation: a FISH study of an adult case.

    PubMed

    Alameda, F; Lloreta, J; Ariza, A; Salido, M; Espinet, B; Baro, T; Garcia-Fructoso, G; Galito, E; Munne, A; Cruz Sanchez, F F; Sole, F; Serrano, S

    2007-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) of the central nervous system (CNS), a rare occurrence in adults, may show glial differentiation and can be misinterpreted as pure astrocytic neoplasms. Few fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies have been carried out on these tumors; isochromosome 17q was found to be the major chromosomal abnormality. We present the case of an adult in which we performed a FISH study of both the glial and neuronal components. A complex array of FISH changes, not including an isochromosome 17q were identified.

  18. The Release Rate of Environmental DNA from Juvenile and Adult Fish

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Kondoh, Michio; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) technique is expected to become a powerful, non-invasive tool for estimating the distribution and biomass of organisms. This technique was recently shown to be applicable to aquatic vertebrates by collecting extraorganismal DNA floating in the water or absorbed onto suspended particles. However, basic information on eDNA release rate is lacking, despite it being essential for practical applications. In this series of experiments with bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), we examined the effect of fish developmental stage on eDNA release rate. eDNA concentration reached equilibrium 3 days after the individual fish were introduced into the separate containers, enabling calculation of the eDNA release rate (copies h−1) from individual fish on the assumption that the number of eDNA released from the fish per unit time equals total degradation in the container (copies h−1). The eDNA release rate was 3–4 times higher in the adult (body weight: 30–75 g) than in the juvenile group (0.5–2.0 g). Such positive relationship between fish size and eDNA release rate support the possibility of biomass rather than density estimation using eDNA techniques. However, the eDNA release rate per fish body weight (copies h−1 g−1) was slightly higher in the juvenile than the adult group, which is likely because of the ontogenetic reduction in metabolic activity. Therefore, quantitative eDNA data should be carefully interpreted to avoid overestimating biomass when the population is dominated by juveniles, because the age structure of the focal population is often variable and unseen in the field. eDNA degradation rates (copies l−1 h−1), calculated by curve fitting of time-dependent changes in eDNA concentrations after fish removal, were 5.1–15.9% per hour (half-life: 6.3 h). This suggests that quantitative eDNA data should be corrected using a degradation curve attained in the target field. PMID:25479160

  19. Nematodes parasitic in fishes of cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Part 1. Adults.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Mendoza-Franco, E; González-Solís, D

    1995-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of adult nematodes collected from fishes from cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, southeastern Mexico, in 1993-1994. Examinations of a total of 533 fishes (17 species) originating from 39 cenotes from the Mexican states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo revealed the presence of the following nine nematode species: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) kidderi, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae, P. (S.) neocaballeroi, Philometroides caudata, Hysterothylacium cenotue. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis, Paracapillaria rhamdiae, P. teixerafreitasi and Capillostrongyloides sp. (only females). Four species (R. kidderi, P. rebecae, P. neocaballeroi and Capillostrongyloides sp.) are briefly described and illustrated and some problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. Taxonomic changes include Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) neocaballeroi (Caballero-Deloya. 1977) comb. n. and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae (Andrade-Salas, Pineda-López et García-Magaña, 1994) comb. n. The nematode fauna of fishes in cenotes of the Yucatan Peninsula shows its appurtenance to the Neotropical fauna with close affinities with that of fish nematodes from South America, but with a considerable degree of endemism. PMID:8774767

  20. Nematodes parasitic in fishes of cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Part 1. Adults.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Mendoza-Franco, E; González-Solís, D

    1995-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of adult nematodes collected from fishes from cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, southeastern Mexico, in 1993-1994. Examinations of a total of 533 fishes (17 species) originating from 39 cenotes from the Mexican states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo revealed the presence of the following nine nematode species: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) kidderi, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae, P. (S.) neocaballeroi, Philometroides caudata, Hysterothylacium cenotue. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis, Paracapillaria rhamdiae, P. teixerafreitasi and Capillostrongyloides sp. (only females). Four species (R. kidderi, P. rebecae, P. neocaballeroi and Capillostrongyloides sp.) are briefly described and illustrated and some problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. Taxonomic changes include Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) neocaballeroi (Caballero-Deloya. 1977) comb. n. and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae (Andrade-Salas, Pineda-López et García-Magaña, 1994) comb. n. The nematode fauna of fishes in cenotes of the Yucatan Peninsula shows its appurtenance to the Neotropical fauna with close affinities with that of fish nematodes from South America, but with a considerable degree of endemism.

  1. Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-04-01

    A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

  2. Adult and larval traits as determinants of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Osmar J.; Allen, Andrew P.; Robertson, D. Ross; Floeter, Sergio R.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Becheler, Ronan; Madin, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Most marine organisms disperse via ocean currents as larvae, so it is often assumed that larval-stage duration is the primary determinant of geographic range size. However, empirical tests of this relationship have yielded mixed results, and alternative hypotheses have rarely been considered. Here we assess the relative influence of adult and larval-traits on geographic range size using a global dataset encompassing 590 species of tropical reef fishes in 47 families, the largest compilation of such data to date for any marine group. We analyze this database using linear mixed-effect models to control for phylogeny and geographical limits on range size. Our analysis indicates that three adult traits likely to affect the capacity of new colonizers to survive and establish reproductive populations (body size, schooling behavior, and nocturnal activity) are equal or better predictors of geographic range size than pelagic larval duration. We conclude that adult life-history traits that affect the postdispersal persistence of new populations are primary determinants of successful range extension and, consequently, of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes. PMID:24065830

  3. Adult and larval traits as determinants of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Osmar J; Allen, Andrew P; Robertson, D Ross; Floeter, Sergio R; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Becheler, Ronan; Madin, Joshua S

    2013-10-01

    Most marine organisms disperse via ocean currents as larvae, so it is often assumed that larval-stage duration is the primary determinant of geographic range size. However, empirical tests of this relationship have yielded mixed results, and alternative hypotheses have rarely been considered. Here we assess the relative influence of adult and larval-traits on geographic range size using a global dataset encompassing 590 species of tropical reef fishes in 47 families, the largest compilation of such data to date for any marine group. We analyze this database using linear mixed-effect models to control for phylogeny and geographical limits on range size. Our analysis indicates that three adult traits likely to affect the capacity of new colonizers to survive and establish reproductive populations (body size, schooling behavior, and nocturnal activity) are equal or better predictors of geographic range size than pelagic larval duration. We conclude that adult life-history traits that affect the postdispersal persistence of new populations are primary determinants of successful range extension and, consequently, of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes.

  4. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed and portable ladders. 1918.24 Section 1918.24 Labor... and portable ladders. (a) There shall be at least one safe and accessible ladder for each gang working... each vertical fixed ladder. No more than two ladders are required in any hatch regardless of the...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed and portable ladders. 1918.24 Section 1918.24 Labor... and portable ladders. (a) There shall be at least one safe and accessible ladder for each gang working... each vertical fixed ladder. No more than two ladders are required in any hatch regardless of the...

  6. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Volume II of IV, Results of Laboratory and Field Research on New Concepts in Weir and Pool Fishways, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Aaserude, Robert G.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A comprehensive review of fishway design practice led to new design concepts that had previously been untested. This concept was based on the observation that fish can be stimulated to leap when presented with certain hydraulic conditions. A laboratory test program was conducted to develop this concept into a new fishway configuration. Field testing revealed that components of the new design improved fish passage. Verification of the initial premise that fish can be stimulated to leap needs further study.

  7. The reconstructive microsurgery ladder in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Scott M; Levin, L Scott

    2013-03-01

    Since the advent of the operating microscope by Julius Jacobson in 1960, reconstructive microsurgery has become an integral part of extremity reconstruction and orthopaedics. During World War I, with the influx of severe extremity trauma Harold Gillies introduced the concept of the reconstructive ladder for wound closure. The concept of the reconstructive ladder goes from simple to complex means of attaining wound closure. Over the last half century microsurgery has continued to evolve and progress. We now have a microsurgical reconstructive ladder. The microsurgical reconstruction ladder is based upon the early work on revascularization and replantation extending through the procedures that are described in this article.

  8. The reconstructive microsurgery ladder in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Scott M; Levin, L Scott

    2013-03-01

    Since the advent of the operating microscope by Julius Jacobson in 1960, reconstructive microsurgery has become an integral part of extremity reconstruction and orthopaedics. During World War I, with the influx of severe extremity trauma Harold Gillies introduced the concept of the reconstructive ladder for wound closure. The concept of the reconstructive ladder goes from simple to complex means of attaining wound closure. Over the last half century microsurgery has continued to evolve and progress. We now have a microsurgical reconstructive ladder. The microsurgical reconstruction ladder is based upon the early work on revascularization and replantation extending through the procedures that are described in this article. PMID:23352571

  9. Boule Is Present in Fish and Bisexually Expressed in Adult and Embryonic Germ Cells of Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongyan; Li, Zhendong; Li, Mingyou; Wang, Li; Hong, Yunhan

    2009-01-01

    Background The DAZ family genes boule, daz and dazl encode RNA binding proteins essential for fertility of diverse animals including human. dazl has bisexual expression in both mitotic and meiotic germ cells, whereas daz has male premeiotic expression, and boule is largely a unisexual meiotic regulator. Although boule has been proposed as the ancestor for dazl/daz by gene duplication, it has been identified only in invertebrates and mammals. It has, however, remained unclear when and how the DAZ family has evolved in vertebrates. Methodology and Principal Findings This study was aimed at identifying and characterizing the DAZ family genes in fish as the basal vertebrate. We show that boule and dazl coexist in medaka and stickleback. Similar to the medaka dazl (Odazl), the medaka boule (Obol) is maternally supplied and segregates with primordial germ cells. Surprisingly, Obol is expressed in adult germ cells at pre-meiotic and meiotic stages of spermatogenesis and oogenesis. However, the maximal meiotic Obol expression in spermatocytes contrasts with the predominant pre-meiotic Odazl expression in spermatogonia, and the diffuse cytoplasmic Obol distribution in early oocytes contrasts with the Odazl concentration in the Balbinani's body. Conclusions The identification of fish boule and dazl genes provides direct evidence for the early gene duplication during vertebrate evolution. Our finding that Obol exhibits bisexual expression in both embryonic and adult germ cells considerably extends the diversity of boule expression patterns and offers a new insight into the evolutions of DAZ family members, expression patterns and functions in animal fertility. PMID:19564913

  10. Dietary intakes of fats, fish and nuts and olfactory impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Sue, Carolyn M; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-07-01

    It is unclear whether lifestyle modifications, such as dietary changes, should be advocated to prevent olfactory dysfunction. We investigated the association between dietary intakes of fats (saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and cholesterol) and related food groups (nuts, fish, butter, margarine) with olfactory impairment. There were 1331 and 667 participants (older than 60 years) at baseline and 5-year follow-up, respectively, with complete olfaction and dietary data. Dietary data were collected using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Olfaction was measured using the San Diego Odor Identification Test. In a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data, those in the highest v. lowest quartile of n-6 PUFA intake had reduced odds of having any olfactory impairment, multivariable-adjusted OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.44, 0.97), P for trend = 0.06. Participants in the highest v. lowest quartile of margarine consumption had a 65% reduced odds of having moderate/severe olfactory impairment (P for trend = 0.02). Participants in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (reference) of nut consumption had a 46% (P for trend = 0.01) and 58% (P for trend = 0.001) reduced odds of having any or mild olfactory impairment, respectively. Older adults in the highest v. lowest quartile of fish consumption had 35% (P for trend = 0.03) and 50% (P for trend = 0.01) reduced likelihood of having any or mild olfactory impairment, respectively. In longitudinal analyses, a marginally significant association was observed between nut consumption and incidence of any olfactory impairment, highest v. lowest quartile of nut consumption: OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.37, 1.00). Older adults with the highest consumption of nuts and fish had reduced odds of olfactory impairment, independent of potential confounding variables.

  11. p53 Mutation suppresses adult neurogenesis in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Isoe, Yasuko; Okuyama, Teruhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Kubo, Takeo; Takeuchi, Hideaki

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Progenitor migration is accompanied by an increase in their numbers in the adult brain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 Mutation suppressed an increase in the number of the migrated progenitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decreased progenitor number is not due to enhanced cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 Mutation did not affect proliferation of stem cells. -- Abstract: Tumor suppressor p53 negatively regulates self-renewal of neural stem cells in the adult murine brain. Here, we report that the p53 null mutation in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) suppressed neurogenesis in the telencephalon, independent of cell death. By using 5-bromo-29-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, we identified 18 proliferation zones in the brains of young medaka fish; in situ hybridization showed that p53 was expressed selectively in at least 12 proliferation zones. We also compared the number of BrdU-positive cells present in the whole telencephalon of wild-type (WT) and p53 mutant fish. Immediately after BrdU exposure, the number of BrdU-positive cells did not differ significantly between them. One week after BrdU-exposure, the BrdU-positive cells migrated from the proliferation zone, which was accompanied by an increased number in the WT brain. In contrast, no significant increase was observed in the p53 mutant brain. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP) nick end-labeling revealed that there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells in the telencephalon of p53 mutant and WT medaka, suggesting that the decreased number of BrdU-positive cells in the mutant may be due to the suppression of proliferation rather than the enhancement of neural cell death. These results suggest that p53 positively regulates neurogenesis via cell proliferation.

  12. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  13. Career Ladder Instrumentation: The Tennessee Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    The evaluation instruments used in the Tennessee Career Ladder program are described, and their evolution over the first three years of program implementation is traced. The instruments are designed to measure teacher performance and to determine outstanding teachers. They include: the Career Ladder Test of Professional Skills (a multiple-choice…

  14. Perspective on rainbow-ladder truncation

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, G.; Alkofer, R.; Krassnigg, A.; Cloeet, I. C.; Roberts, C. D.

    2008-04-15

    Prima facie the systematic implementation of corrections to the rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations will uniformly reduce in magnitude those calculated mass-dimensioned results for pseudoscalar and vector meson properties that are not tightly constrained by symmetries. The aim and interpretation of studies employing rainbow-ladder truncation are reconsidered in this light.

  15. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... devices such as those that incorporate lifebelts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments shall meet the... fraction thereof, except that, where no cage, well, or ladder safety device is provided, landing platforms... rails. Grab-bar diameters shall be the equivalent of the round-rung diameters. (5) Ladder safety...

  16. Revisiting the Ladder on a Wall Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salu, Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning on a wall has been a staple of introductory physics for years. It is discussed in numerous physics textbooks and in journals. Now, it even has an Internet presence. Postings from students seek help for "ladder on a wall" problems. A quick review of those postings would show that they all deal with frictionless…

  17. 29 CFR 1915.72 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ladders. 1915.72 Section 1915.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Scaffolds, Ladders and Other Working...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.72 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ladders. 1915.72 Section 1915.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Scaffolds, Ladders and Other Working...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.72 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ladders. 1915.72 Section 1915.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Scaffolds, Ladders and Other Working...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.72 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ladders. 1915.72 Section 1915.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Scaffolds, Ladders and Other Working...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.72 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ladders. 1915.72 Section 1915.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Scaffolds, Ladders and Other Working...

  2. Revisiting the Ladder on a Wall Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salu, Yehuda

    2011-05-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning on a wall has been a staple of introductory physics for years. It is discussed in numerous physics textbooks and in journals.1-4 Now, it even has an Internet presence. Postings from students seek help for "ladder on a wall" problems. A quick review of those postings would show that they all deal with frictionless walls. This is also how the situation is presented in most textbooks. One may get the impression that the friction between a ladder and a wall is always negligible, or that dealing with it is so difficult that it should be left out of the realm of introductory physics. The truth of the matter is that the magnitude of the friction coefficient between a ladder and a wall is not much different from that with the floor, and that friction with the wall is an important part of the conditions for having a static ladder. This paper derives a simple relationship between the friction coefficients of the ladder with the floor (μ1) and with the wall (μ2), when the ladder is in static equilibrium. Figure 1 shows the forces that act on a ladder that leans on a wall.

  3. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Fryer, Jeffrey

    1994-07-01

    Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to evaluate the feasibility of using video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss. A video system was to produced video images during salmon passage periods. A technician identified and counted fish images from the video record. Fish ladder passage estimates of target species made from the video record were similar to estimates made by on-site counters during daytime periods, indicating that the two methods were relatively precise. We also found that a significant percentage (6.4% and 8.3%) of target salmonids migrated during nighttime periods when on-site counts were not typically made during the two years of study. Analysis of the video record permitted verification of individual sockeye salmon identified and counted by on-site count personnel, and provided data useful to managers of this ESA-listed stock. Analysis of the video record also permitted collection of additional data such as length measurements of individual specimens, which was used to regulate a fishery located upstream.

  4. Potential role of radial glia in adult neurogenesis of teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Günther K H; Clint, Sorcha C

    2003-07-01

    Persistence of radial glia within the adult central nervous system is a widespread phenomenon among fish. Based on a series of studies in the teleost species Apteronotus leptorhynchus, we propose that one function of this persistence is the involvement of radial glia in adult neurogenesis, i.e., the generation and further development of new neurons in the adult central nervous system. In particular, evidence has been obtained for the involvement of radial glia in the guidance of migrating young neurons in both the intact and the regenerating brain; for a possible role as precursor cells from which new neurons arise; and for its role as a source of trophic substances promoting the generation, differentiation, and/or survival of new neurons. These functions contribute not only to the potential of the intact brain to generate new neurons continuously, and of the injured brain to replace damaged cells by newly generated ones, but they also provide an essential part of the cellular substrate of behavioral plasticity.

  5. Fish oil supplementation of rats during pregnancy reduces adult disease risks in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sadhana; Rao, Shobha; Golwilkar, Ajit; Patwardhan, Manisha; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2003-10-01

    Metabolic programming in utero due to maternal undernutrition is considered to increase the risk of adult diseases in offspring. It is therefore of relevance to investigate how dietary supplementation of specific nutrients can ameliorate the negative effects of maternal malnutrition. We examined the effects of supplementing fish oil or folic acid, both of which are conventional supplements in maternal intervention, on risk factors in the offspring as adults. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (n = 6/group) were fed casein diets with 18 g/100 g protein (control diet), 12 g/100 g protein supplemented with 8 mg folic acid/kg diet (0.08 mg/kg diet) (FAS), 12 g/100 g protein without folic acid (FAD) or 12 g/100 g protein supplemented with 7 g/100 g fish oil (FOIL). Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g/100 g protein. Serum glucose, insulin and cholesterol and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in the offspring at 6 and 11 mo of age. Serum glucose in 11-mo-old male and female pups was greater (P < 0.05) in both the FAS (males 2.46 +/- 0.51, females 2.49 +/- 0.29 mmol/L) and FAD groups (2.48 +/- 0.28 and 2.67 +/- 0.41 mmol/L) than in controls (2.03 +/- 0.15 and 2.02 +/- 0.18 mmol/L). Serum insulin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the FAD group (males 1476 +/- 317, females 1441 +/- 220 pmol/L) but were lower in males from the FAS group (483 +/- 165 pmol/L) compared with controls (males 917 +/- 373, females 981 +/- 264 pmol/L). Glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ between the control and FOIL groups. Plasma homocysteine levels were lower (P < 0.05) only in 11-mo-old folate-deficient males; none of the other groups differed from the controls. Maternal supplementation of fish oil to a diet containing marginal protein was beneficial in maintaining circulating glucose, insulin, cholesterol and homocysteine levels in the offspring as adults.

  6. Misperception of self-reported adherence to the fruit, vegetable and fish guidelines in older Dutch adults.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, S C; Neter, J E; Brouwer, I A; Huisman, M; Visser, M

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigated (the degree of) misperception of adherence to the fruit, vegetable and fish guidelines in older Dutch adults and examined to what extent misperception is associated with socio-economic position (SEP) and other demographic, lifestyle and nutrition-related characteristics. The sample included 1057 community dwelling adults, aged 55-85 years, who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Respondents completed a lifestyle questionnaire which included a food frequency questionnaire to calculate fruit, vegetable and fish intake. After current dietary guidelines were explained, respondents were asked to indicate whether they believed they adhered to the fruit, vegetable and fish guidelines. Characteristics potentially associated with misperception included level of income and education, lifestyle factors, nutritional knowledge, as well as attitude, social support and self-efficacy toward healthy eating. In the total sample, 69.1% of the older adults reported to adhere to the fruit guideline, 77.5% to the vegetable guideline, and 36.4% to the fish guideline. Based on the calculated intake data, 82.6% adhered to the fruit guideline, 65.5% to the vegetable guideline and 33.8% to the fish guideline. Overestimation of adherence was most common for the vegetable guideline (18.7%). Multivariate analysis, adjusted for level of income as well as for attitude and self-efficacy toward healthy eating, showed that lower educated respondents were more likely to overestimate their adherence to the vegetable guideline (relative index of inequality (RII): 2.97 (95% CI: 1.47-6.01)). Overestimation rates for fish (3.4%) and fruit (2.3%) were lower and not associated with any of the characteristics. This study showed that overestimation in older adults was common for adherence to the vegetable guideline and especially in those with a lower education level, but not for adherence to the fruit and fish guideline.

  7. Task specific adaptations in rat locomotion: runway versus horizontal ladder.

    PubMed

    Bolton, David A E; Tse, Arthur D Y; Ballermann, Mark; Misiaszek, John E; Fouad, Karim

    2006-04-01

    In walking quadrupeds the alternating activity pattern of antagonistic leg muscles and the coordination between legs is orchestrated by central pattern generating networks within the spinal cord. These networks are activated by tonic input from the reticular formation in the brainstem. Under more challenging conditions, such as walking on a horizontal ladder, successful locomotion relies upon additional context dependent input from pathways such as the cortico- and rubro-spinal tracts. In this study we used electromyographic and kinematic approaches to characterize the adaptations in the walking pattern in adult uninjured rats crossing a horizontal ladder. We found that the placement of a hind limb on a rung precisely followed the placement of the ipsilateral fore limb. This is different to normal walking where the hind limb is placed behind the position of the ipsilateral fore limb. The increased reach of the hind limbs is achieved by increased flexion of the hip and rotation of the pelvis during the swing phase. Electromyographic observations showed decreased burst duration in Tibialis anterior an ankle flexor muscle. Further changes in the muscle activity pattern were likely due to the reduced stepping frequency during ladder walking. Following a lesion of the dorsal column, containing major parts of the corticospinal tract, we found an increased number of stepping errors and changes in the stepping strategy. The step length of the fore limbs was reduced and the hind limbs were frequently positioned on rungs other than those occupied by the fore limb. PMID:16406145

  8. Long-Term Changes in the Distributions of Larval and Adult Fish in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Harvey J; Richardson, David E; Marancik, Katrin E; Hare, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have documented long-term changes in adult marine fish distributions and linked these changes to climate change and multi-decadal climate variability. Most marine fish, however, have complex life histories with morphologically distinct stages, which use different habitats. Shifts in distribution of one stage may affect the connectivity between life stages and thereby impact population processes including spawning and recruitment. Specifically, many marine fish species have a planktonic larval stage, which lasts from weeks to months. We compared the spatial distribution and seasonal occurrence of larval fish in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem to test whether spatial and temporal distributions changed between two decades. Two large-scale ichthyoplankton programs sampled using similar methods and spatial domain each decade. Adult distributions from a long-term bottom trawl survey over the same time period and spatial area were also analyzed using the same analytical framework to compare changes in larval and adult distributions between the two decades. Changes in spatial distribution of larvae occurred for 43% of taxa, with shifts predominately northward (i.e., along-shelf). Timing of larval occurrence shifted for 49% of the larval taxa, with shifts evenly split between occurring earlier and later in the season. Where both larvae and adults of the same species were analyzed, 48% exhibited different shifts between larval and adult stages. Overall, these results demonstrate that larval fish distributions are changing in the ecosystem. The spatial changes are largely consistent with expectations from a changing climate. The temporal changes are more complex, indicating we need a better understanding of reproductive timing of fishes in the ecosystem. These changes may impact population productivity through changes in life history connectivity and recruitment, and add to the accumulating evidence for changes in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem with

  9. Long-Term Changes in the Distributions of Larval and Adult Fish in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have documented long-term changes in adult marine fish distributions and linked these changes to climate change and multi-decadal climate variability. Most marine fish, however, have complex life histories with morphologically distinct stages, which use different habitats. Shifts in distribution of one stage may affect the connectivity between life stages and thereby impact population processes including spawning and recruitment. Specifically, many marine fish species have a planktonic larval stage, which lasts from weeks to months. We compared the spatial distribution and seasonal occurrence of larval fish in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem to test whether spatial and temporal distributions changed between two decades. Two large-scale ichthyoplankton programs sampled using similar methods and spatial domain each decade. Adult distributions from a long-term bottom trawl survey over the same time period and spatial area were also analyzed using the same analytical framework to compare changes in larval and adult distributions between the two decades. Changes in spatial distribution of larvae occurred for 43% of taxa, with shifts predominately northward (i.e., along-shelf). Timing of larval occurrence shifted for 49% of the larval taxa, with shifts evenly split between occurring earlier and later in the season. Where both larvae and adults of the same species were analyzed, 48% exhibited different shifts between larval and adult stages. Overall, these results demonstrate that larval fish distributions are changing in the ecosystem. The spatial changes are largely consistent with expectations from a changing climate. The temporal changes are more complex, indicating we need a better understanding of reproductive timing of fishes in the ecosystem. These changes may impact population productivity through changes in life history connectivity and recruitment, and add to the accumulating evidence for changes in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem with

  10. Cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, as a habitat of adult trematodes of fish.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Moravec, F; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Mendoza-Franco, E

    1995-01-01

    Examination of a total of 581 fish specimens of 15 species from 39 cenotes (sinkholes) in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeastern Mexico, revealed the presence of 10 species of adult trematodes. These were as follows: Saccocoelioides sogandaresi Lumsden, 1963, Saccocoelioides sp. (family Haploporidae), Cichlasotrema ujati Pineda et Andrade, 1989 (Angiodictyidae), Crassicutis cichlasomae Manter, 1936 (Homalometridae), Magnivitellinum simplex Kloss, 1966 (Macroderoididae), Stunkardiella minima (Stunkard, 1938) (Acanthostomidae), Oligogonotylus manteri Watson, 1976 (Cryptogonimidae), Genarchella tropica (Manter, 1936), G. astyanactis (Watson, 1976), and G. isabellae (Lamothe-Argumedo, 1977) (Derogenidae). Saccocoelioides sogandaresi is reported from Mexico for the first time. Poecilia velifera and P. latipunctata for S. sogandaresi, Cichlasoma octofasciatum for C. cichlasomae, Cichlasoma friedrichstahli and C. meeki for O. manteri, and C. meeki, C. octofasciatum and Gobiomorus dormitor for G. isabellae represent new host records. Most species found are described and figured and their host range and distribution are discussed.

  11. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ceinos, Rosa M; Guillot, Raúl; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José M; Rotllant, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern.

  12. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking

  13. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  14. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  15. 30 CFR 57.11011 - Use of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of ladders. 57.11011 Section 57.11011... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11011 Use of ladders. Persons using ladders shall face the ladders and have both hands free for climbing and descending....

  16. 46 CFR 72.10-15 - Vertical ladders not acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders not acceptable. 72.10-15 Section 72.10... AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-15 Vertical ladders not acceptable. (a) Vertical ladders and... ladder may be used as the second means of escape. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 92.10-15 - Vertical ladders not accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders not accepted. 92.10-15 Section 92.10-15... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-15 Vertical ladders not accepted. (a) Vertical ladders and... ladder may be used as the second means of escape....

  18. 46 CFR 72.10-15 - Vertical ladders not acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical ladders not acceptable. 72.10-15 Section 72.10... AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-15 Vertical ladders not acceptable. (a) Vertical ladders and... ladder may be used as the second means of escape. (b)...

  19. 30 CFR 56.11026 - Protection for inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection for inclined fixed ladders. 56.11026... § 56.11026 Protection for inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders 70 degrees to 90 degrees from the... point not more than seven feet from the bottom of the ladders....

  20. 30 CFR 56.11011 - Use of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of ladders. 56.11011 Section 56.11011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... of ladders. Persons using ladders shall face the ladders and have both hands free for climbing...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.851 - Stairs, passageways, and ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairs, passageways, and ladders. 1926.851 Section 1926.851..., passageways, and ladders. (a) Only those stairways, passageways, and ladders, designated as means of access to.... (b) All stairs, passageways, ladders and incidental equipment thereto, which are covered by...

  2. 30 CFR 57.11011 - Use of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of ladders. 57.11011 Section 57.11011... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11011 Use of ladders. Persons using ladders shall face the ladders and have both hands free for climbing and descending....

  3. 46 CFR 92.10-15 - Vertical ladders not accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical ladders not accepted. 92.10-15 Section 92.10-15... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-15 Vertical ladders not accepted. (a) Vertical ladders and... ladder may be used as the second means of escape....

  4. 46 CFR 190.10-15 - Vertical ladders not accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical ladders not accepted. 190.10-15 Section 190.10... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-15 Vertical ladders not accepted. (a) Vertical ladders... vertical ladder may be used as the second means of escape....

  5. 29 CFR 1926.851 - Stairs, passageways, and ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stairs, passageways, and ladders. 1926.851 Section 1926.851..., passageways, and ladders. (a) Only those stairways, passageways, and ladders, designated as means of access to.... (b) All stairs, passageways, ladders and incidental equipment thereto, which are covered by...

  6. 46 CFR 190.10-15 - Vertical ladders not accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders not accepted. 190.10-15 Section 190.10... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-15 Vertical ladders not accepted. (a) Vertical ladders... vertical ladder may be used as the second means of escape....

  7. 30 CFR 56.11011 - Use of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of ladders. 56.11011 Section 56.11011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... of ladders. Persons using ladders shall face the ladders and have both hands free for climbing...

  8. 30 CFR 56.11026 - Protection for inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection for inclined fixed ladders. 56.11026... § 56.11026 Protection for inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders 70 degrees to 90 degrees from the... point not more than seven feet from the bottom of the ladders....

  9. Exactly Solvable su(N) Mixed Spin Ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, M. T.; de Gier, J.; Maslen, M.

    2001-02-01

    It is shown that solvable mixed spin ladder models can be constructed from su(N) permutators. Heisenberg rung interactions appear as chemical potential terms in the Bethe Ansatz solution. Explicit examples given are a mixed spin-1/2 spin-1 ladder, a mixed spin-1/2 spin-{3/2} ladder and a spin-1 ladder with biquadratic interactions.

  10. Community-Based Adult Education for the Fisherwomen of Rajapalyam Fishing Village in Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    Rajapalyam village is located in the Tuticorin district along the biodiversity rich Gulf of Mannar coast in southeastern India. The people of this village are economically backward and most of the men are engaged in fishing. The fisherwomen of this village are less literate than the men, or illiterate. Adult education has been introduced to the…

  11. Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

  12. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.

  13. Understanding the behaviour of infinite ladder circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-11-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block of impedance is added. However, the impedance derived from this assumption may lead to incorrect conclusions if it is not treated carefully. Sometimes, in the literature, the input impedance behaviour of infinite ladder circuits is referred to as a paradox, leaving students and educators in doubt. This study intends to clarify this confusion and help to better comprehend the behaviour of the input impedance of infinite ladder circuits.

  14. Edge currents in frustrated Josephson junction ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. M.; Santos, F. D. R.; Dias, R. G.

    2016-09-01

    We present a numerical study of quasi-1D frustrated Josephson junction ladders with diagonal couplings and open boundary conditions, in the large capacitance limit. We derive a correspondence between the energy of this Josephson junction ladder and the expectation value of the Hamiltonian of an analogous tight-binding model, and show how the overall superconducting state of the chain is equivalent to the minimum energy state of the tight-binding model in the subspace of one-particle states with uniform density. To satisfy the constraint of uniform density, the superconducting state of the ladder is written as a linear combination of the allowed k-states of the tight-binding model with open boundaries. Above a critical value of the parameter t (ratio between the intra-rung and inter-rung Josephson couplings) the ladder spontaneously develops currents at the edges, which spread to the bulk as t is increased until complete coverage is reached. Above a certain value of t, which varies with ladder size (t = 1 for an infinite-sized ladder), the edge currents are destroyed. The value t = 1 corresponds, in the tight-binding model, to the opening of a gap between two bands. We argue that the disappearance of the edge currents with this gap opening is not coincidental, and that this points to a topological origin for these edge current states.

  15. Clinical career ladders: Hamot Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J D; Chrymko, M M; Kelly, W N

    1989-11-01

    The clinical career ladder program for pharmacists at Hamot Medical Center (HMC), a 500-bed not-for-profit community teaching hospital, is described. Between 1980 and 1989 a career ladder at HMC evolved from an idea to an established program with parallel administrative, business, and clinical tracks. The development of the career ladder mirrored the growth of clinical programs and the diversification of pharmaceutical services. A formal plan for a clinical ladder was developed when the first satellite pharmacy opened in 1984. An entry-level pharmacist at HMC starts with a six-month period during which he or she learns the drug distribution system and prepares for several certification tests. The employee is then promoted to staff pharmacist. Staff pharmacists are promoted to clinical pharmacist II (CP II) upon meeting requirements for competence in a broad range of clinical skills and knowledge. Candidates for the position of clinical pharmacist specialist (CP I) must have either a minimum of three years of experience as a CP II or a Pharm.D. degree and have established an area of clinical expertise. A CP I can progress to assistant and associate director positions as vacancies occur. The clinical ladder has enhanced job satisfaction and encouraged the development of clinical practitioners who provide improved care. Problems have included time constraints, competition for positions, and management of incentives. A parallel career ladder program with a clinical track has enhanced the growth of pharmacy practice at HMC and improved the quality of pharmaceutical care.

  16. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood River subbasin were initially

  17. Genetic correlations between adults and larvae in a marine fish: potential effects of fishery selection on population replenishment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Darren W; Christie, Mark R; Moye, Jessica; Hixon, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Correlated genetic responses have been hypothesized as important components of fishery-induced evolution, although predictive data from wild populations have been difficult to obtain. Here, we demonstrate substantial genetic correlations between a trait often subjected to fishery selection (adult body length) and traits that affect survival of larvae (length and swimming performance) in a wild population of a marine fish (bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus). Through both genetic covariance and size-dependent maternal effects, selection on adult size may cause a considerable, correlated response in larval traits. To quantify how variation in larval traits may affect survival, we introduce a flexible method that uses information from selection measurements to account for frequency dependence and estimate the relationship between phenotype and relative survival across a broad range of phenotypic values. Using this method, we synthesize studies of selective mortality on larval size for eight species of fish and show that variation in larval size may result in considerable variation in larval survival. We predict that observed rates of fishery selection on adult marine fishes may substantially reduce larval size and survival. The evolution of smaller larvae in response to fishery selection may therefore have substantial consequences for the viability of fished populations. PMID:25568010

  18. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  19. Evidence for behavioral preference toward environmental concentrations of urban-use herbicides in a model adult fish.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Sekela, Mark A; Cobbler, Christine E; Xhabija, Besa; Gledhill, Melissa; Ananvoranich, Sirinart; Zielinski, Barbara S

    2011-09-01

    Fish live in waters of contaminant flux. In three urban, fish-bearing waterways of British Columbia, Canada, we found the active ingredients of WeedEx, KillEx, and Roundup herbicide formulations (2,4-D, dicamba, glyphosate, and mecoprop) at low to high ng/L concentrations (0.26 to 309 ng/L) in routine conditions, i.e., no rain for at least one week. Following rain, these concentrations increased by an average of eightfold, suggesting runoff as a major route of herbicide introduction in these waterways. To determine whether fish might be able to limit point-source exposures through sensory-driven behaviors, we introduced pulses of representative herbicide mixtures to individual adult zebrafish (a model species) in flow-through tanks. Fish did the opposite of limit exposure; they chose to spend more time in pulses of herbicide mixtures representative of those that may occur with rain events. This attraction response was not altered by a previous 4-d exposure to lower concentrations of the mixtures, suggesting fish will not learn from previous exposures. However, previous exposures did alter an attraction response to an amino acid prevalent in food (L-alanine). The present study demonstrates that fish living within urban waterways may elect to place themselves in herbicide-contaminated environments and that these exposures may alter their behavioral responses to cues necessary for survival.

  20. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program as defined in the master plans is called the Hood River Hatchery Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be phased in over several years and will be jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation. In December 1991, a monitoring and evaluation program was implemented in the Hood River subbasin to collect life history and production information on stocks of anadromous salmonids returning to the Hood River subbasin. The program was implemented to provide the baseline information needed to: (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the HRPP and (2) determine any post-project impacts the HRPP has on indigenous populations of resident fish. Information collected during the 1992-94 fiscal years will also be used to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluating the program`s impact on the human environment. To begin construction on project facilities, it was proposed that the HRPP be implemented in two phases. Phase I would include work that would fall under a {open_quotes}categorical exclusion{close_quotes} from NEPA, and Phase II would include work requiring an EIS prior to implementation. This report summarizes the life history and escapement data collected in the Hood River subbasin and the status work of implemented under Phase I of the HR Life history and escapement data will be used to: (1) test the assumptions on which harvest and escapement goals for the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans are based and (2) develop biologically based management recommendations for implementing the HRPP.

  1. Metformin Exposure at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Causes Potential Endocrine Disruption in Adult Male Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemuth, Nicholas J; Jordan, Renee; Crago, Jordan; Blanksma, Chad; Johnson, Rodney; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants that have been found ubiquitously in wastewater and surface waters around the world. A major source of these compounds is incomplete metabolism in humans and subsequent excretion in human waste, resulting in discharge into surface waters by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. One pharmaceutical found in particularly high abundance in recent WWTP effluent and surface water studies is metformin, one of the world's most widely prescribed antidiabetic drugs. Interactions between insulin signaling and steroidogenesis suggest potential endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin found in the aquatic environment. Adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were chronically exposed to metformin for 4 wk, at 40 µg/L, a level similar to the average found in WWTP effluent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Genetic endpoints related to metabolism and endocrine function as well as reproduction-related endpoints were examined. Metformin treatment induced significant up-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding the egg-protein vitellogenin in male fish, an indication of endocrine disruption. The present study, the first to study the effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure in fathead minnows, demonstrates the need for further study of the endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin in aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25358780

  2. Deep sexual dimorphism in adult medaka fish liver highlighted by multi-omic approach

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qin; Le Manach, Séverine; Sotton, Benoit; Huet, Hélène; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Paris, Alain; Duval, Charlotte; Ponger, Loïc; Marie, Arul; Blond, Alain; Mathéron, Lucrèce; Vinh, Joelle; Bolbach, Gérard; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism describes the features that discriminate between the two sexes at various biological levels. Especially, during the reproductive phase, the liver is one of the most sexually dimorphic organs, because of different metabolic demands between the two sexes. The liver is a key organ that plays fundamental roles in various physiological processes, including digestion, energetic metabolism, xenobiotic detoxification, biosynthesis of serum proteins, and also in endocrine or immune response. The sex-dimorphism of the liver is particularly obvious in oviparous animals, as the female liver is the main organ for the synthesis of oocyte constituents. In this work, we are interested in identifying molecular sexual dimorphism in the liver of adult medaka fish and their sex-variation in response to hepatotoxic exposures. By developing an integrative approach combining histology and different high-throughput omic investigations (metabolomics, proteomics and transcriptomics), we were able to globally depict the strong sexual dimorphism that concerns various cellular and molecular processes of hepatocytes comprising protein synthesis, amino acid, lipid and polysaccharide metabolism, along with steroidogenesis and detoxification. The results of this work imply noticeable repercussions on the biology of oviparous organisms environmentally exposed to chemical or toxin issues. PMID:27561897

  3. Radial glia-mediated up-regulation of somatostatin in the regenerating adult fish brain.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, G K; Clint, S C

    2001-08-31

    Adult teleost fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, exhibit an enormous regenerative capability after application of mechanical lesions to the dorsalmost subdivision of the cerebellum, the corpus cerebelli. Restoration of the neural tissue is achieved by a cascade of processes, including the guidance of migrating new neurons to the site of injury by radial glial fibers. These fibers are characterised by the expression of immunoreactive glial fibrillary acidic protein and by several morphological features. Within 12 h following the lesion, the fraction of radial glial fibers expressing the neuropeptide somatostatin (SRIF) dramatically increased from approximately 1%, as found in the intact brain, to roughly 27% 12-24 h post-lesion. Subsequently, the percentage of SRIF-expressing radial glial fibers gradually declined, until it reached background levels at about 10 days following the injury. We hypothesise that the expression of SRIF is related to the generation and/or differentiation of the new neurons produced in response to the lesion, rather than to the later guidance of these cells along their migratory pathway.

  4. Deep sexual dimorphism in adult medaka fish liver highlighted by multi-omic approach.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Qin; Le Manach, Séverine; Sotton, Benoit; Huet, Hélène; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Paris, Alain; Duval, Charlotte; Ponger, Loïc; Marie, Arul; Blond, Alain; Mathéron, Lucrèce; Vinh, Joelle; Bolbach, Gérard; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism describes the features that discriminate between the two sexes at various biological levels. Especially, during the reproductive phase, the liver is one of the most sexually dimorphic organs, because of different metabolic demands between the two sexes. The liver is a key organ that plays fundamental roles in various physiological processes, including digestion, energetic metabolism, xenobiotic detoxification, biosynthesis of serum proteins, and also in endocrine or immune response. The sex-dimorphism of the liver is particularly obvious in oviparous animals, as the female liver is the main organ for the synthesis of oocyte constituents. In this work, we are interested in identifying molecular sexual dimorphism in the liver of adult medaka fish and their sex-variation in response to hepatotoxic exposures. By developing an integrative approach combining histology and different high-throughput omic investigations (metabolomics, proteomics and transcriptomics), we were able to globally depict the strong sexual dimorphism that concerns various cellular and molecular processes of hepatocytes comprising protein synthesis, amino acid, lipid and polysaccharide metabolism, along with steroidogenesis and detoxification. The results of this work imply noticeable repercussions on the biology of oviparous organisms environmentally exposed to chemical or toxin issues. PMID:27561897

  5. Deep sexual dimorphism in adult medaka fish liver highlighted by multi-omic approach.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Qin; Le Manach, Séverine; Sotton, Benoit; Huet, Hélène; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Paris, Alain; Duval, Charlotte; Ponger, Loïc; Marie, Arul; Blond, Alain; Mathéron, Lucrèce; Vinh, Joelle; Bolbach, Gérard; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-08-26

    Sexual dimorphism describes the features that discriminate between the two sexes at various biological levels. Especially, during the reproductive phase, the liver is one of the most sexually dimorphic organs, because of different metabolic demands between the two sexes. The liver is a key organ that plays fundamental roles in various physiological processes, including digestion, energetic metabolism, xenobiotic detoxification, biosynthesis of serum proteins, and also in endocrine or immune response. The sex-dimorphism of the liver is particularly obvious in oviparous animals, as the female liver is the main organ for the synthesis of oocyte constituents. In this work, we are interested in identifying molecular sexual dimorphism in the liver of adult medaka fish and their sex-variation in response to hepatotoxic exposures. By developing an integrative approach combining histology and different high-throughput omic investigations (metabolomics, proteomics and transcriptomics), we were able to globally depict the strong sexual dimorphism that concerns various cellular and molecular processes of hepatocytes comprising protein synthesis, amino acid, lipid and polysaccharide metabolism, along with steroidogenesis and detoxification. The results of this work imply noticeable repercussions on the biology of oviparous organisms environmentally exposed to chemical or toxin issues.

  6. Larvae and adults of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in fishes and crustaceans in the south west Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Navone, G T; Sardella, N H; Timi, J T

    1998-06-01

    Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) is reported from five fishes and one invertebrate species. Third-stage larvae were found in the crustacean Themisto gaudichaudii and in mesenteries of the fishes Engraulis anchoita and Merluccius hubbsi; fourth-stage larvae were recovered from the digestive tract of M. hubbsi and Scomber japonicus and adult specimens were obtained from the stomach and intestine of M. hubbsi, S. japonicus, Genypterus blacodes and Genypterus brasiliensis. Nematodes are described, measured and illustrated. Parasitic prevalence, mean intensity and range were calculated in relation to different geographic zones, from the Argentinean-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone to Patagonic areas. An increase of parasitism from the northern areas southwards was observed. The life-cycle of H. aduncum, involving the host species considered, is also postulated. PMID:9754308

  7. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.

    2004-12-01

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2003-2004 project year, there were 379 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 36 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 108 adult and 3 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway video counting window between December 21, 2003, and June 30, 2004. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. In addition, the old ladder trap was operated by the WWBNPME project in order to radio tag spring chinook adults. A total of 2 adult summer steelhead, 4 bull trout, and 23 adult spring chinook were enumerated at the west ladder at Nursery Bridge Dam during the trapping operations between May 6 and May 23, 2004. Operation of the Little Walla Walla

  8. Conductivity of Doped Two-Leg Ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eugene H.

    2001-02-12

    Recently, conductivity measurements were performed on the hole-doped two-leg ladder material Sr{sub 14-x} Ca{sub x}Cu {sub 24}O{sub 41} . In this work, we calculate the conductivity for doped two-leg ladders using a model of hole pairs forming a strongly correlated liquid. Quantum interference effects are handled using renormalization group methods. We find that our model can account for the low-energy features of the experiments. However, at higher energies there are deviations from the predictions of this model. Using the results of our calculations as well as results on the ground state of doped two-leg ladders, we suggest a scenario to explain the experimental results.

  9. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds... with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such...

  14. Effect of prehatching weightlessness on adult fish behavior in dynamic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. B.; Salinas, G. A.; Boyd, J. F.; Baky, A. A.; Von Baumgarten, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    At 16-17 months of age, three groups of fish from the embryonated eggs in the ASTP killifish experiment were subjected to postflight tests consisting of rapidly changing environments. It was found that the group of fish with the least amount of development at orbital insertion (A-32) had a decreased rheotropism for both the moving background and the rotating water current tests when compared to ground control fish. Exposure to parabolic aircraft flight conditions revealed that the A-32 fish were less disoriented during zero gravity periods and were hypersensitive to high-gravity periods. These results suggested a modified vestibular competency due to a 9-d prehatching weightlessness exposure.

  15. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart X of... - Ladders

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ladders A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Stairways and Ladders Pt. 1926, Subpt. X, App. A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926—Ladders This appendix serves as a non-mandatory guideline to...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart X of... - Ladders

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ladders A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Stairways and Ladders Pt. 1926, Subpt. X, App. A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926—Ladders This appendix serves as a non-mandatory guideline to...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart X of... - Ladders

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ladders A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Stairways and Ladders Pt. 1926, Subpt. X, App. A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926—Ladders This appendix serves as a non-mandatory guideline to...

  18. 30 CFR 57.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 57.11017 Section 57.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall...

  19. 30 CFR 57.11004 - Portable rigid ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable rigid ladders. 57.11004 Section 57.11004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11004 Portable rigid ladders. Portable rigid ladders...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart X of... - Ladders

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ladders A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Stairways and Ladders Pt. 1926, Subpt. X, App. A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926—Ladders This appendix serves as a non-mandatory guideline to...

  1. 30 CFR 56.11004 - Portable rigid ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable rigid ladders. 56.11004 Section 56.11004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11004 Portable rigid ladders. Portable rigid ladders shall be provided with suitable bases and...

  2. 30 CFR 57.11004 - Portable rigid ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable rigid ladders. 57.11004 Section 57.11004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11004 Portable rigid ladders. Portable rigid ladders...

  3. 30 CFR 57.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 57.11006 Section 57.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall...

  4. 30 CFR 57.11003 - Construction and maintenance of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Construction and maintenance of ladders. 57.11003 Section 57.11003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... maintenance of ladders. Ladders shall be of substantial construction and maintained in good condition....

  5. 46 CFR 108.159 - Stairways and exterior inclined ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stairways and exterior inclined ladders. 108.159 Section... inclined ladders. Each stairway, except a stairway in a machinery or storage space, and each exterior inclined ladder must be at least 70 centimeters (28 inches) wide with an angle of inclination from...

  6. 30 CFR 77.206 - Ladders; construction; installation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ladders; construction; installation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.206 Ladders; construction; installation and maintenance. (a) Ladders shall be of substantial construction and maintained in good condition. (b)...

  7. 30 CFR 57.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 57.11017 Section 57.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall...

  8. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438... AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.438 Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel... the requirements for stairways, ladders, and elevators in § 72.05-20 of this chapter. (b)...

  9. 30 CFR 56.11004 - Portable rigid ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable rigid ladders. 56.11004 Section 56.11004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11004 Portable rigid ladders. Portable rigid ladders shall be provided with suitable bases and...

  10. 30 CFR 57.11007 - Wooden components of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wooden components of ladders. 57.11007 Section... and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11007 Wooden components of ladders. Wooden components of ladders shall not be painted except with a transparent finish....

  11. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438... AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.438 Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel... the requirements for stairways, ladders, and elevators in § 72.05-20 of this chapter. (b)...

  12. 30 CFR 56.11003 - Construction and maintenance of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Construction and maintenance of ladders. 56.11003 Section 56.11003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Travelways § 56.11003 Construction and maintenance of ladders. Ladders shall be of substantial...

  13. 30 CFR 56.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 56.11006 Section 56.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall project at least 3 feet above landings, or...

  14. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards....

  15. 30 CFR 56.11007 - Wooden components of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wooden components of ladders. 56.11007 Section 56.11007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.11007 Wooden components of ladders. Wooden components of ladders shall not be painted except...

  16. 46 CFR 108.159 - Stairways and exterior inclined ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stairways and exterior inclined ladders. 108.159 Section... inclined ladders. Each stairway, except a stairway in a machinery or storage space, and each exterior inclined ladder must be at least 70 centimeters (28 inches) wide with an angle of inclination from...

  17. 30 CFR 77.206 - Ladders; construction; installation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ladders; construction; installation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.206 Ladders; construction; installation and maintenance. (a) Ladders shall be of substantial construction and maintained in good condition. (b)...

  18. 46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stairways, ladders, and elevators. 72.05-20 Section 72... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-20 Stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a)(1..., ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or cargo holds are not covered by the...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart X of... - Ladders

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ladders A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Stairways and Ladders Pt. 1926, Subpt. X, App. A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926—Ladders This appendix serves as a non-mandatory guideline to...

  20. 30 CFR 57.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 57.11006 Section 57.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56... Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the collar to... an emergency power source shall be provided. When persons are on the shaft bottom, a chain...

  2. 30 CFR 56.11003 - Construction and maintenance of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction and maintenance of ladders. 56.11003 Section 56.11003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Travelways § 56.11003 Construction and maintenance of ladders. Ladders shall be of substantial...

  3. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards....

  4. 30 CFR 57.11007 - Wooden components of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wooden components of ladders. 57.11007 Section... and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11007 Wooden components of ladders. Wooden components of ladders shall not be painted except with a transparent finish....

  5. 30 CFR 56.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 56.11006 Section 56.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall project at least 3 feet above landings, or...

  6. 30 CFR 57.11003 - Construction and maintenance of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction and maintenance of ladders. 57.11003 Section 57.11003 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... maintenance of ladders. Ladders shall be of substantial construction and maintained in good condition....

  7. 29 CFR 1910.26 - Portable metal ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable metal ladders. 1910.26 Section 1910.26 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.26 Portable metal ladders. (a... ladder without structural defects or accident hazards such as sharp edges, burrs, etc. The metal...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56... Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the collar to... an emergency power source shall be provided. When persons are on the shaft bottom, a chain...

  9. 30 CFR 56.11007 - Wooden components of ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wooden components of ladders. 56.11007 Section 56.11007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.11007 Wooden components of ladders. Wooden components of ladders shall not be painted except...

  10. 30 CFR 56.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 56.11006 Section 56.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall project at least 3 feet above landings, or...

  11. 30 CFR 57.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 57.11006 Section 57.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall...

  12. 30 CFR 56.11026 - Protection for inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection for inclined fixed ladders. 56.11026 Section 56.11026 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.11026 Protection for inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders 70 degrees to 90 degrees from...

  13. 30 CFR 56.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 56.11006 Section 56.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall project at least 3 feet above landings, or...

  14. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards....

  15. 30 CFR 57.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 57.11017 Section 57.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall...

  16. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards....

  17. 30 CFR 57.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 57.11006 Section 57.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall...

  18. 30 CFR 57.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 57.11006 Section 57.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall...

  19. 30 CFR 57.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 57.11017 Section 57.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall...

  20. 30 CFR 56.11006 - Fixed ladder landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed ladder landings. 56.11006 Section 56.11006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11006 Fixed ladder landings. Fixed ladders shall project at least 3 feet above landings, or...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed and portable ladders. 1918.24 Section 1918.24 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Gangways and Other Means of Access § 1918.24 Fixed... each vertical fixed ladder. No more than two ladders are required in any hatch regardless of the...

  2. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed and portable ladders. 1918.24 Section 1918.24 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Gangways and Other Means of Access § 1918.24 Fixed... each vertical fixed ladder. No more than two ladders are required in any hatch regardless of the...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.24 - Fixed and portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed and portable ladders. 1918.24 Section 1918.24 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Gangways and Other Means of Access § 1918.24 Fixed... each vertical fixed ladder. No more than two ladders are required in any hatch regardless of the...

  4. 30 CFR 57.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 57.11017 Section 57.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall...

  5. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards....

  6. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  7. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  8. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  9. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  10. Careers Under Construction: Models for Developing Career Ladders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This publication describes resources and processes that are a catalyst for discussion and action for local workforce investment partners--employers, training providers, and workers--to plan and implement regional career ladder programs. Section 1 discusses career ladders and uses. Section 2 describes how to build an industry career ladder or…

  11. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  12. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  13. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  14. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  15. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  16. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  17. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  18. From quantum ladder climbing to classical autoresonance

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, G.; Friedland, L.; Zigler, A.

    2004-01-01

    The autoresonance phenomenon allows excitation of a classical, oscillatory nonlinear system to high energies by using a weak, chirped frequency forcing. Ladder climbing is its counterpart in quantum mechanics. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, conditions for the transition from the quantum to the classical regimes are outlined. The similarities and differences between the two approaches are presented.

  19. On the Genesis of Ladder Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannigrahi, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of operators plays a vital role in formulating the basic principles of quantum mechanics. However, the selection of a particular operator in textbooks may seem arbitrary to students. Therefore, a theorem is presented which provides the necessary guideline for the choice of ladder operators. (JN)

  20. Analysis of Utah Career Ladder Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael J.; And Others

    This report analyzes the content and development of the 45 school district career ladder plans submitted in 1984 to the Utah State Office of Education. Descriptive commentary and data tables are used to examine (1) the structure and composition of planning committees; (2) teacher evaluation provisions, including changes in evaluation methods, the…

  1. Density functional theory: Fixing Jacob's ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Car, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Density functional theory calculations can be carried out with different levels of accuracy, forming a hierarchy that is often represented by the rungs of a ladder. Now a new method has been developed that significantly improves the accuracy of the 'third rung' when calculating the properties of diversely bonded systems.

  2. A Ladder to Lean on the Sky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Margaret A.

    1970-01-01

    Over the four years the student is in high school the most logical person to impart to hime a love of reading, as a lifelong, never failing source of ideas and inspiration, is the school librarian. This is his ladder to the sky. (NH)

  3. Chutes and Ladders for the Impatient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheteyan, Leslie A.; Hengeveld, Stewart; Jones, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the rules and game board for "Chutes and Ladders", define a Markov chain to model the game regardless of the spinner range, and describe how properties of Markov chains are used to determine that an optimal spinner range of 15 minimizes the expected number of turns for a player to complete the game. Because the Markov…

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1053 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body belt or harness shall not exceed 9... identifies them as defective, or be tagged with “Do Not Use” or similar language, and shall be withdrawn from... ladder is either: (i) Immediately tagged with “Do Not Use” or similar language, (ii) Marked in a...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1053 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body belt or harness shall not exceed 9... identifies them as defective, or be tagged with “Do Not Use” or similar language, and shall be withdrawn from... ladder is either: (i) Immediately tagged with “Do Not Use” or similar language, (ii) Marked in a...

  6. Electrostatic precipatator construction having ladder bar spacers

    SciTech Connect

    Jonelis, J.A.

    1984-10-30

    The present invention relates to an improved construction for an electrostatic precipitator having ladder bar spacers. The electrostatic precipitator collects solid particles carried by a flue gas from a source of combustion. The precipitator includes a plurality of spaced plates for collecting solid particles from the flue gas by electrostatic attraction of the solid particles to the plates. A second plurality of elongated electrodes is positioned among the plates. Each of the electrodes is mounted between a pair of adjacent plates. Each of the electrodes is parallel to the other electrodes and is parallel to the plates. A third plurality of ladder bars is positioned between adjacent plates to hold the plates in a flat attitude and to maintain adjacent surfaces of adjacent plates substantially equidistantly spaced from one another. Each of the ladder bars has a connector bar secured to one of the pair of adjacent surfaces. Each of the ladder bars has a fourth plurality of holder bars. Each of the holder bars having one end connected to its respective connector bar and extending outwardly from the connector bar toward the other of the pair of adjacent surfaces. A contact on the other end of each holder bar engages the other of the pair of adjacent surfaces to hold the pair of adjacent surfaces apart.

  7. Career Ladders in Environmental Health (Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erie Community Coll., Buffalo, NY.

    This supplementary document contains career ladders that have been designed to enable post secondary students to prepare for entrance into environmental health occupations at a level commensurate with their abilities where they will be capable of meaningful contributions and can obtain advanced standing in employment. Contents are: (1) Food…

  8. Ladder-structured photonic variable delay device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An ladder-structured variable delay device for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. The device comprises multiple basic units stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic unit comprises a polarization sensitive corner reflector formed by two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array placed parallel to the hypotenuse of the corner reflector. Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes an optical beam passing through the array element to either go up to a basic unit above it or reflect back towards output. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. Finally, the ladder-structured variable device can be cascaded with another multi-channel delay device to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

  9. How Career Ladders Can Improve Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Salt Lake City (Utah) schools' five instructional improvement goals, including clearly developed learning objectives, effective teaching and evaluation models, appropriate assessment tools, an energized classroom environment, and career leaders to attract and retain superior teachers. Discusses career ladder systems, focusing on teacher…

  10. Missouri's Teacher Career Ladder Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Kevin; Glazerman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Although Missouri has had a career ladder program for teachers since 1987, there has been little research examining the program's effects. This paper examines the program's effect on student achievement using longitudinal data on district math and reading scores for 524 Missouri school districts over a nine-year period. Our primary specification…

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1053 - Ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... buildup, winds, rigging, and impact loads resulting from the use of ladder safety devices. Each step or... the carrier. When the system is exposed to wind, cable guides for flexible carriers shall be installed... length of the carrier, to prevent wind damage to the system. (iii) The design and installation...

  12. Umatilla Basin Fish Facilities Operation & Maintenance : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, Mike

    2008-12-30

    Westland Irrigation District, as contractor to Bonneville Power Administration, and West Extension Irrigation District, as subcontractor to Westland, provide labor, equipment, and material necessary for the operation, care, and maintenance of fish facilities on the Umatilla River. Westland Irrigation District is the contractor of record. Job sites that are covered: Three Mile Right, Three Mile Left, Three Mile Adult Spawning, WEID Sampling Facility, Maxwell Screen Site, Westland Screen Site/Ladder/Juvenile Sampling Facility, Feed Canal Ladder/Screen Site, Stanfield Ladder/Screen Site, Minthorn Holding Facility, Thornhollow Acclimation Site, Imeques Acclimation Site, Pendleton Acclimation Site, and South Fork Walla Walla Spawning Facility. O & M personnel coordinate with the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel in performing tasks under this contract including scheduling of trap and haul, sampling, acclimation site maintenance, and other related activities as needed. The input from ODFW biologists Bill Duke and Ken Loffink, and CTUIR biologist Preston Bronson is indispensable to the success of the project, and is gratefully acknowledged. All tasks associated with the project were successfully completed during the fiscal year 2008 work period of October, 2007 through September, 2008. The project provides operations and maintenance throughout the year on five fish screen sites with a total of thirty-four rotating drum-screens, and four fish ladders in the Umatilla River Basin; additionally, periodic operations and maintenance is performed at holding, acclimation, and spawning sites in the Basin. Three people are employed full-time to perform these tasks. The FY08 budget for this project was $492,405 and actual expenditures were $490,267.01. Selected work activities and concerns: (1) Feed Dam Passage Improvement Project - A project to improve fish passage over the short term at the

  13. Sublethal exposure to crude oil during embryonic development alters cardiac morphology and reduces aerobic capacity in adult fish

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Corinne E.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baldwin, David H.; Willis, Maryjean L.; Myers, Mark S.; Holland, Larry; Larsen, Marie; Stekoll, Michael S.; Rice, Stanley D.; Collier, Tracy K.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Incardona, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of crude oil produces a lethal syndrome of heart failure in fish embryos. Mortality is caused by cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous components of petroleum. Here, we show that transient embryonic exposure to very low concentrations of oil causes toxicity that is sublethal, delayed, and not counteracted by the protective effects of cytochrome P450 induction. Nearly a year after embryonic oil exposure, adult zebrafish showed subtle changes in heart shape and a significant reduction in swimming performance, indicative of reduced cardiac output. These delayed physiological impacts on cardiovascular performance at later life stages provide a potential mechanism linking reduced individual survival to population-level ecosystem responses of fish species to chronic, low-level oil pollution. PMID:21482755

  14. Effect of prehatching weightlessness on adult fish behavior in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R B; Boyd, S J; von Baumgarten, R J; Baky, A A

    1978-04-01

    At 16-17 months of age, three groups of fish from the embryonated eggs in the ASTP killifish experiment were subjected to postflight tests consisting of rapidly changing environments. It was found that the group of fish with the least amount of development at orbital insertion (A-32) had a decreased rheotropism for both the moving background and the rotating water current tests when compared to ground control fish. Exposure to parabolic aircraft flight conditions revealed that the A-32 fish were less disoriented during zero gravity periods and were hypersensitive to high-gravity periods. These results suggested a modified vestibular competency due to a 9-d prehatching weightlessness exposure. PMID:305779

  15. An adult osteopetrosis model in medaka reveals the importance of osteoclast function for bone remodeling in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    To, Thuy Thanh; Witten, Paul Eckhard; Huysseune, Ann; Winkler, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Osteoclasts play important roles during bone growth and in maintaining bone health and bone homeostasis. Dysfunction or lack of osteoclasts leads to increased bone mass and osteopetrosis phenotypes in mouse and human. Here we report a severe osteopetrosis-like phenotype in transgenic medaka fish, in which membrane bound EGFP (mEGFP) was expressed in osteoclasts under control of the cathepsin K promoter (ctsk:mEGFP). In contrast to reporter lines with GFP expression in the cytoplasm of osteoclasts, adult fish of the mEGFP line developed bone defects indicative for an osteoclast dysfunction. Activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was down-regulated and excess bone was observed in most parts of the skeleton. The osteopetrotic phenotype was particularly obvious at the neural and haemal arches that failed to increase their volume in growing fish. Excess bone caused severe constriction of the spinal cord and the ventral aorta. The continuation of tooth development and the failure to shed teeth resulted in severe hyperdontia. Interestingly, at the vertebral column vertebral body arches displayed a severe osteopetrosis, while vertebral centra had no or only a mild osteopetrotic phenotype. This confirms previous reports from cichlids that, different from the arches, allometric growth of fish vertebral centra initially does not depend on the action of osteoclasts. Independent developmental mechanism that shapes arches and vertebral centra can also lend support to the hypothesis that vertebral centra and arches function as independent developmental modules. Together, this medaka osteopetrosis model confirms the importance of proper osteoclast function during normal skeletal development in teleost fish that requires bone modeling and remodeling.

  16. Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I; Julliand, Sophie; Reeds, Dominic N; Sinacore, David R; Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-associated declines in muscle mass and function are major risk factors for an impaired ability to carry out activities of daily living, falls, prolonged recovery time after hospitalization, and mortality in older adults. New strategies that can slow the age-related loss of muscle mass and function are needed to help older adults maintain adequate performance status to reduce these risks and maintain independence. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of fish oil–derived n–3 (ω-3) PUFA therapy to slow the age-associated loss of muscle mass and function. Design: Sixty healthy 60–85-y-old men and women were randomly assigned to receive n–3 PUFA (n = 40) or corn oil (n = 20) therapy for 6 mo. Thigh muscle volume, handgrip strength, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lower- and upper-body strength, and average power during isokinetic leg exercises were evaluated before and after treatment. Results: Forty-four subjects completed the study [29 subjects (73%) in the n–3 PUFA group; 15 subjects (75%) in the control group]. Compared with the control group, 6 mo of n–3 PUFA therapy increased thigh muscle volume (3.6%; 95% CI: 0.2%, 7.0%), handgrip strength (2.3 kg; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.7 kg), and 1-RM muscle strength (4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8%, 7.3%) (all P < 0.05) and tended to increase average isokinetic power (5.6%; 95% CI: −0.6%, 11.7%; P = 0.075). Conclusion: Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01308957. PMID:25994567

  17. Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (< 1%). Diets of Golden-fronted Woodpecker nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.

  18. New ladder operators for the monopole harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Fakhri, H.; Dehghani, A.; Jafari, A.

    2007-02-15

    Using the ladder operators shifting the index m of the associated Jacobi functions, for a given n, the monopole harmonics and their corresponding angular momentum operators are, respectively, extracted as the irreducible representation space and generators of su(2) Lie algebra. The indices n and m play the role of principal and azimuthal quantum numbers. By introducing the ladder operators shifting the index n of the same associated Jacobi functions, we also get a new type of the raising and lowering relations which are realized by the operators shifting only the index n of the monopole harmonics. Moreover, other symmetries, including the transformation of the irreducible representation spaces into each other, are derived based on the operators that shift the indices n and m of the monopole harmonics simultaneously and agreeably as well as simultaneously and inversely. Our results are reduced to spherical harmonics by eliminating magnetic charge of the monopole.

  19. Clinical ladder program implementation: a project guide.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yu Kyung; Yu, Soyoung

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the development of a clinical ladder program (CLP) implementation linked to a promotion system for nurses. The CLP task force developed criteria for each level of performance and a performance evaluation tool reflecting the self-motivation of the applicant for professional development. One year after implementation, the number of nurses taking graduate courses increased, and 7 nurses were promoted to nurse manager positions. PMID:25340927

  20. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Ladder Assembly Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Ratzmann, Paul; /Fermilab

    1994-08-17

    This is an abridged version of the assembly sequence described by the DO assembly subgroup of Cooper, Hrycyk, Kowalski, Rapidis, and Ratzmann. This primarily is used to indicate major steps during the sequence and to list fixturing requirements. Assembly - (1) Place support rails in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. The two rails get held under vacuum. (2) Apply adhesive to the region where contact will be made with the beryllium substrates. (3) Place underside beryllium pieces (active and dummy ends) into the (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. These pieces get placed in the fixture against the appropriate pins to mimic final positioning in the bulkhead. Apply vacuum to the beryllium pieces. Allow to cure? (4) Align silicon in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. Reference features on the fixture will be parameterized. Holes in the fixture near the silicon center line will be targeted to set the silicon axis relative to the beryllium slot edge. Z positioning of the detectors will be achieved by shimming between the detectors and butting up the end of the silicon against the fixture. (5) Remove silicon detectors and apply adhesive to the rails and upper surfaces of the beryllium. (6) Replace silicon and check final position of the detectors. (7) Release vacuum on the rails so they cure in a stress-free state. Allow adhesive to cure. (8) Apply adhesive and align HDI to the silicon using (2) 3 Chip HDI Gluing fixture. The HDI will have tabs which are held by the fixture for location relative to the detectors. Allow adhesive to cure. (9) Move ladder to (3) 3 Chip Wirebonding Fixture. Transfer fixture to the wirebonder and bond chip-silicon and silicon-silicon.

  1. Clinical ladder program implementation: a project guide.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yu Kyung; Yu, Soyoung

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the development of a clinical ladder program (CLP) implementation linked to a promotion system for nurses. The CLP task force developed criteria for each level of performance and a performance evaluation tool reflecting the self-motivation of the applicant for professional development. One year after implementation, the number of nurses taking graduate courses increased, and 7 nurses were promoted to nurse manager positions.

  2. Clinical career ladders: Thomas Jefferson University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Sheaffer, S L; Frey, B M

    1989-11-01

    The clinical career ladder program developed for pharmacists at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, a 700-bed teaching hospital, is described. A task force was assembled to develop a clinical career ladder that would parallel the managerial advancement track in terms of rewards and recognition. The task force created separate lists of competencies for staff and clinical pharmacists and ranked the competencies according to their complexity and the number of years most pharmacists would need to achieve them. Separate pathways were established for staff and clinical pharmacists: staff pharmacist I, II, and III and clinical pharmacist I, II, and III. A salary scale designed to provide meaningful salary increases between levels was established. Nearly all pharmacists who are hired begin at level I and are allowed to apply for promotion to level II within six months. Opportunities for promotion occur twice annually. Pharmacists who have received an overall rating of effective or outstanding at the most recent performance appraisal may submit documented evidence that they have gained the knowledge and skills required at the higher level. A promotions review board evaluates each application and informs the director of pharmacy as to whether the applicant meets the criteria for promotion. Response to the program has been favorable, as indicated by the number of pharmacists who have applied for promotion and the quality of their applications. A carefully planned clinical career ladder program was well received by pharmacists, who responded by acquiring the knowledge and skills necessary for promotion.

  3. Career ladder program for registered nurses in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joan; Sassaman, Becky; Phillips, Alison

    2008-01-01

    RN ladder programs are designed to inspire and reward clinical excellence. Kaiser Permanente Colorado's (KPCO) career ladder program emerged as a result of a labor-management partnership. Career ladder point assignments are reflective of the organization's priorities and values. KPCO's career ladder point tool awards RNs for formal and continuing education, professional presentations, organizational experience and experience as an RN, certifications and active professional memberships, leadership activities, research and publications, and nursing-related volunteer work. Participation in the RN career ladder requires that the nurse achieve a self-determined, manager-approved, measurable goal that will improve patient care. Career ladder nurses at KPCO were significantly more involved in leadership and interdisciplinary activities, quality improvement projects, and preceptorship. PMID:19330975

  4. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  5. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Kimberly L; Yackulic, Charles B; Kennedy, Theodore A; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-12-01

    Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may increase dispersal downriver where other fish species may be a priority (e.g., endangered species). There is an urgent need to understand the drivers of trout population dynamics in tailwaters, in particular the role of flow management. Here, we evaluate how flow, fish density, and other physical factors of the river influence recruitment and mean adult length in tailwaters across western North America, using data from 29 dams spanning 1-19 years. Rainbow trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high annual, summer, and spring flow and dam latitude, and positively correlated with high winter flow, subadult brown trout catch, and reservoir storage capacity. Brown trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high water velocity and daily fluctuations in flow (i.e., hydropeaking) and positively correlated with adult rainbow trout catch. Among these many drivers, rainbow trout recruitment was primarily correlated with high winter flow combined with low spring flow, whereas brown trout recruitment was most related to high water velocity. The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics

  6. Midwater trawl catches of adolescent and adult anguilliform fishes during the Sargasso Sea Eel Expedition 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, A.; Tesch, F.-W.

    1982-09-01

    During the research program on the biology and migration of Anguilla spp. carried out with F.R.V. “Anton Dohrn” in 1979, approximately 1300 adolescent and adult anguilliform individuals were caught covering 8 families, 10 genera and 12 species. Observations on each of these species, including horizontal and vertical distributional patterns, are dealt with herein. The appearance of various species in hauls and the absence of adult Anguilla spp. in the catches obtained are discussed.

  7. 7. DETAIL, WINDOWS AND SAFETY LADDER AT RECEIVING DEPARTMENT, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL, WINDOWS AND SAFETY LADDER AT RECEIVING DEPARTMENT, NORTH SIDE, NEAR WEST END. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  8. 34. Attic, from folding ladder, looking north Veterans Administration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Attic, from folding ladder, looking north - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  9. Magnetization plateaux in Bethe ansatz solvable spin-S ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslen, M.; Batchelor, M.; de Gier, J.

    2003-07-01

    We examine the properties of the Bethe ansatz solvable two- and three-leg spin-S ladders. These models include Heisenberg rung interactions of arbitrary strength and thus capture the physics of the spin-S Heisenberg ladders for strong rung coupling. The discrete values derived for the magnetization plateaux are seen to fit with the general prediction based on the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem. We examine the magnetic phase diagram of the spin-1 ladder in detail and find an extended magnetization plateau at the fractional value =1/2 in agreement with the experimental observation for the organic polyradical spin-1 ladder compound BIP-TENO.

  10. Reprint of : Current drag in two leg quantum ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamarchi, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    A two-leg ladder of either interacting bosons or tightly bound cooper pairs is investigated when a supercurrent is forced in one of the legs of the ladder. The two legs of the ladder are connected by a tunneling term. Using a bosonization representation of such an interacting ladder we show that up to a certain critical current the current in the first wire induces an identical supercurrent in the second wire. When this threshold is exceeded vortices are formed in the system and the current in the second wire reduces even if the driving current increases. Potential applications to condensed matter or cold atomic systems are discussed.

  11. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Rountrey, Adam Nicholas; Meeuwig, Jessica Jane; Newman, Stephen John; Zinke, Jens; Meekan, Mark Gregory

    2015-06-08

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations.

  12. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Nicholas Rountrey, Adam; Jane Meeuwig, Jessica; John Newman, Stephen; Zinke, Jens; Gregory Meekan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  13. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Rountrey, Adam Nicholas; Meeuwig, Jessica Jane; Newman, Stephen John; Zinke, Jens; Meekan, Mark Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  14. Up-regulation of vimentin expression during regeneration in the adult fish brain.

    PubMed

    Clint, Sorcha C; Zupanc, Günther K H

    2002-03-01

    In contrast to mammals, the brains of teleost fish exhibit an enormous regenerative capacity following injury. Here, we have examined the potential role of vimentin in this wound healing. Fifteen days after application of a mechanical lesion to the corpus cerebelli in the teleost fish Apteronotus leptoryhnchus, the areal density of vimentin-positive fibres increased significantly at the lesion site and in the remaining ipsilateral molecular layer. This density remained elevated throughout the time period of up to 100 days examined. Based on this spatio-temporal pattern of vimentin up-regulation we propose that this intermediate filament protein is involved in the survival, differentiation, and/or dendritic growth of the new cells that replace damaged cells in the injury zone.

  15. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill; Loffink, Ken

    2008-12-30

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. Migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage and trapping facility design, operation, and criteria. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. Beginning in March of 2007, two work elements from the Walla Walla Fish Passage Operations Project were transferred to other projects. The work element Enumeration of Adult Migration at Nursery Bridge Dam is now conducted under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project and the work element Provide Transportation Assistance is conducted under the Umatilla Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance Project. Details of these activities can be found in those project's respective annual reports.

  16. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Schartzberg, Mathew

    1993-03-01

    A field study was conducted at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in 1992 to evaluate the feasibility of using time-lapse video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon 0. nerka, and steelhead 0. mykiss using time-lapse video technology. High quality video images were produced with a time-lapse video system operating in 72 h mode from 1 May through 31 December, 1992 and fish were counted from 1 June through 15 December. From the video record we counted 15 sockeye salmon, 3,283 summer chinook salmon, 1,022 fall chinook salmon, and 125,599 steelhead. The composite count of target species generated from the video record was similar (p = 0.617) to the estimate made by on-site counters during identical time periods indicating that the two methods were precise. Comparisons of 24 h video counts and on-site (10 and 16 h) counts showed that a significant (p < 0.001) proportion of target salmonids migrated during the nighttime when on-site counts are not typically made at Lower Granite Dam. The mean sockeye salmon fork length measured from video images was 453 mm. Mean fork-lengths reported for Snake River sockeye salmon between 1953 and 1965 were much greater ({female} = 546 mm {male} = 577 mm). Cost comparisons showed that video costs were less than half those of on-site counting methods. The video method also included the collection of additional data. A computer software demonstration program was developed that graphically illustrated the possibilities of a completely automated, computerized fish counting and identification system.

  17. Neuronal regeneration in the cerebellum of adult teleost fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus: guidance of migrating young cells by radial glia.

    PubMed

    Clint, S C; Zupanc, G K

    2001-09-23

    In contrast to mammals, adult fish exhibit an enormous potential to replace injured brain neurons by newly generated ones. In the present study, the role of radial glia, identified by immunostaining against fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), was examined in this process of neuronal regeneration. Approximately 8 days after application of a mechanical lesion to the corpus cerebelli in the teleost fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus, the areal density of radial glial fibers increased markedly in the ipsilateral dorsal molecular layer compared to shorter survival times, or to the densities found in the intact brain or in the hemisphere contralateral to the lesion. This density remained elevated throughout the time period of up to 100 days examined. The increase in fiber density was followed approximately 2 days later by a rise in the areal density of young cells, characterized by labeling with the nuclear dye DAPI, in the ipsilateral dorsal molecular layer. Based on this remarkable spatio-temporal correlation, and the frequently observed close apposition of elongated young cells to radial glial fibers, we hypothesize that radial glia play an important role in the guidance of migrating young cells from their proliferation zones to the site of lesion where regeneration takes place.

  18. Effects of Low-Dose Aspirin and Fish Oil on Platelet Function and NF-kappaB in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Block, Robert C; Abdolahi, Amir; Smith, Brian; Meednu, N; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Cai, Xueya; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker; Brenna, J. Thomas; Georas, S

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Many diabetics are insensitive to aspirin’s platelet anti-aggregation effects. The possible modulating effects of coadministration of aspirin and fish oil in subjects with diabetes are poorly characterized. Participants and Methods Thirty adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were treated with aspirin 81 mg/d for 7 days, then with fish oil 4g/day for 28 days, then the combination of fish oil and aspirin for another 7 days. Results Aspirin alone and in combination with fish oil reduced platelet aggregation in most participants. Five of 7 participants classified as aspirin insensitive 1 week after daily aspirin ingestion were sensitive after the combination. Although some platelet aggregation measures correlated positively after aspirin and fish oil ingestion alone and (in combination) in all individuals, correlation was only observed in those who were aspirin insensitive after ingestion of the combination. Conclusions Co-adminstration of aspirin and fish oil may reduce platelet aggregation more than aspirin alone in adults with diabetes mellitus. PMID:23664596

  19. 46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or cargo holds are not covered by the general..., ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces and cargo holds shall meet the following requirements...-10(g), the spaces above or below being assumed to extend to the bulkheads and doors. (3) Stairways...

  20. Ladders to Literacy. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Ladders to Literacy" is a supplemental early literacy curriculum composed of more than 70 activities designed to develop children's print/book awareness, metalinguistic awareness, and oral language skills. The curriculum, published in the book "Ladders to Literacy: A Preschool Activity Book, Second Edition," can be used in a variety of early…

  1. Ladders to Literacy. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Ladders to Literacy" is a supplemental early literacy curriculum composed of 60 activities designed to develop children's print/book awareness, metalinguistic awareness, and oral language skills. The "Ladders to Literacy" activities can be implemented in a variety of early childhood settings and adapted for children with special needs. Although a…

  2. 30 CFR 57.11026 - Protection for inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection for inclined fixed ladders. 57.11026 Section 57.11026 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... and Escapeways Travelways-Surface Only § 57.11026 Protection for inclined fixed ladders. Fixed...

  3. Teacher Career Ladders in Utah: Perspectives on Early Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ken, Ed.; And Others

    The status of teacher career ladders in Utah is discussed from five different perspectives. Jim Wilson, representing the Legislative Research Analyst's Office and General Counsel of the Legislature, speaks about legislative intent from the past year and what legislators thought would happen and wanted to happen regarding career ladder bills which…

  4. 29 CFR 1910.26 - Portable metal ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable metal ladders. 1910.26 Section 1910.26 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.26 Portable metal ladders. (a... the wide variety of metals and design possibilities. However, the design shall be such as to produce...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.26 - Portable metal ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable metal ladders. 1910.26 Section 1910.26 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.26 Portable metal ladders. (a... the wide variety of metals and design possibilities. However, the design shall be such as to produce...

  6. SUSY's Ladder: reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Matthew; Xue, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY's Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague other supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY's Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. This gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.

  7. A millimeter-wave tunneLadder TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquez, A.; Karp, A.; Wilson, D.; Scott, A.

    1988-01-01

    A millimeter wave traveling wave tube was developed using a dispersive, high impedance forward interaction structure based on a ladder, with non-space harmonic interaction, for a tube with high gain per unit length and high efficiency. The TunneLadder interaction structure combines ladder properties modified to accommodate Pierce gun beam optics in a radially magnetized permanent magnet focusing structure. The development involved the fabrication of chemically milled, shaped ladders diffusion brazed to diamond cubes which are in turn active-diffusion brazed to each ridge of a doubly ridged waveguide. Cold test data are presented, representing the omega-beta and impedance characteristics of the modified ladder circuit. These results were used in small and large signal computer programs to predict TWT gain and efficiency. Actual data from tested tubes verify the predicted performance while providing broader bandwidth than expected.

  8. A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, P E; West, C

    2015-08-01

    The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder.

  9. Chemodiversity of Ladder-Frame Prymnesin Polyethers in Prymnesium parvum.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Meier, Sebastian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Blossom, Hannah Eva; Duus, Jens Øllgaard; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Hansen, Per Juel; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-09-23

    Blooms of the microalga Prymnesium parvum cause devastating fish kills worldwide, which are suspected to be caused by the supersized ladder-frame polyether toxins prymnesin-1 and -2. These toxins have, however, only been detected from P. parvum in rare cases since they were originally described two decades ago. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel B-type prymnesin, based on extensive analysis of 2D- and 3D-NMR data of natural as well as 90% (13)C enriched material. B-type prymnesins lack a complete 1,6-dioxadecalin core unit, which is replaced by a short acyclic C2 linkage compared to the structure of the original prymnesins. Comparison of the bioactivity of prymnesin-2 with prymnesin-B1 in an RTgill-W1 cell line assay identified both compounds as toxic in the low nanomolar range. Chemical investigations by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) of 10 strains of P. parvum collected worldwide showed that only one strain produced the original prymnesin-1 and -2, whereas four strains produced the novel B-type prymnesin. In total 13 further prymnesin analogues differing in their core backbone and chlorination and glycosylation patterns could be tentatively detected by LC-MS/HRMS, including a likely C-type prymnesin in five strains. Altogether, our work indicates that evolution of prymnesins has yielded a diverse family of fish-killing toxins that occurs around the globe and has significant ecological and economic impact. PMID:27550620

  10. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1, Examination of Fish at Lookingglass Hatchery in 1996 : Addendum to Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Groberg, Warren J.

    1996-11-01

    This information is an addendum to the report 'Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids, Phase 1: Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996' by Ralph Elston because there may be relevant observations included here. The author of this document participated in the examinations at Lower Granite Dam described in that report. Because of Endangered Species Act issues, the Rapid River stock of spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery on the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon are annually being captured as returning adults at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River and trucked to Lookingglass. During the peak migration period they are held in an adult holding facility at Lower Granite for as long as 72 hours and then transported by truck to Lookingglass for holding in an adult pond for spawning. In 1996 a total of 572 adults were transported from Lower Granite Dam between May 3 and August 6. Two-hundred eighty-one of these were later transported from Lookingglass to Wallowa Hatchery for artificial spawning and the remaining 291 were held for spawning at Lookingglass. On May 21, 24, 30 and June 2, 1996 hatchery personnel identified a total of 32 off-loaded fish with lesions on the dorsal area of the head they described as having the appearance of blisters (Robert Lund personal communication). By date these are shown in Table 1 (fish with similar lesions were also observed on May 27 but the number of these was not recorded). Such lesions were not observed on fish offloaded on any other dates. On May 24, 1996 hatchery personnel took photographs of fish with these lesions but do to light-meter problems the photographs did not turn out. On June 28, 1996 personnel of the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Fish Pathology laboratory in La Grande were notified by James Lauman, ODFW Northeast Region supervisor, of discussions and concerns of head burn on returning adult chinook while he was on a visitation to Lower Granite Dam. That led

  11. Climbing the Ladder: Experience with Developing a Large Group Genetic Counselor Career Ladder at Children's National Health System.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Laura; Seprish, Mary Beth; Summar, Marshall

    2016-08-01

    Children's National Health System (CNHS) is a not-for-profit pediatric hospital that employs around twenty genetic counselors in a range of specialties, including clinical pediatric, neurology, fetal medicine, research, and laboratory. CNHS lacked a structured system of advancement for their genetic counselors; therefore, a formal career ladder was proposed by the genetic counselors based on years of experience, responsibility, and job performance. This career ladder utilized monetary, academic, and seniority incentives to encourage advancement and continue employment at CNHS. The creation and ultimate approval of the career ladder required direct input from genetic counselors, Department Chairs, and Human Resource personnel. The establishment of a genetic counselor career ladder at CNHS will hopefully benefit the profession of genetic counselors as a whole and allow other facilities to create and maintain their own career ladder to meet the needs of the growing, competitive, field of genetic counseling. PMID:27215631

  12. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2004-03-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2002-2003 project year, there were 545 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 29 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 1 adult and 1 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway adult trap between January 1 and June 23, 2003. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap for trap and haul purposes was not necessary this year. The project transported 21 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery and 281 from Threemile Dam to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility. Of these, 290 were outplanted in August for natural spawning in the basin.

  13. Single-pole ladder at quarter filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, D. N.; Kiselev, M. N.; Kikoin, K.

    2007-06-01

    We study the ground state and excitation spectrum of a quasi-one-dimensional system consisting of a pole and rungs oriented in opposite directions (“centipede ladder,” CL) at quarter filling. The spin and charge excitation spectra are found in the limits of small and large longitudinal hoppings t‖ compared to the on-rung hopping rate t⊥ and exchange coupling I⊥ . At small t‖ , the system with ferromagnetic on-rung exchange demonstrates instability against dimerization. Coherent propagation of charge-transfer excitons is possible in this limit. At large t‖ , CL behaves like two-orbital Hubbard chain, but the gap opens in the charge excitation spectrum, thus reducing the symmetry from SU(4) to SU(2). The spin excitations are always gapless and their dispersion changes from quadratic magnonlike for ferromagnetic on-rung exchange to linear spinonlike for antiferromagnetic on-rung exchange in weak longitudinal hopping limit.

  14. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

  15. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research.

  16. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Loffink, Ken; Duke, Bill

    2008-12-31

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from June 7, 2007 to August 11, 2008. A total of 3,133 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,487 adult, 1,067 jack, and 999 subjack fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha); 5,140 adult and 150 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,009 adult, 517 jack, and 128 subjack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 1,442 summer steelhead and 88 adult and 84 jack spring Chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 1,497 summer steelhead; 609 adult, 1,018 jack and 979 subjack fall Chinook; 5,036 adult and 144 jack coho; and 1,117 adult, 386 jack and 125 subjack spring Chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 110 summer steelhead; 878 adult and 43 jack fall Chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring Chinook were collected as broodstock for the Umatilla River hatchery program. In addition, there were 241 adult and 15 jack spring Chinook collected at Threemile Dam for outplanting in the South Fork Walla Walla River and Mill Cr, a tributary of the mainstem Walla Walla River. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at river mile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for out-migrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 158 days between February 11, 2008 and July 18, 2008. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 150 days and were trapped 6 days. There were also 2 days when fish were directed into and held in the canal forebay between the time the bypass was closed and the trap opened. An estimated 64 pounds of fish were transported from the Westland trapping facility. Approximately 25.8% of the fish transported were salmonids. In addition, one

  17. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1990-1991 Progress Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1992-06-01

    We report on our effort from October 1990 through March 1991 to prepare for the evaluation of the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. We also report on our preliminary activities to prepare for future evaluations at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. A detailed sampling plan was written to guide our efforts in the evaluation process and associated preparatory activities were conducted. In the sampling plan, we developed experimental designs for evaluating the passage of juvenile salmonids through the bypass system including the evaluation at design flow of injury and mortality rates, and passage of juvenile salmonids through and over the screens. We designed and fabricated fish nets for screen leakage tests, and holding facilities for test fish. Modifications to improve evaluation activities were incorporated into the collection facility, and our sampling gear. We designed and fabricated collection systems for the juvenile fish bypass facilities at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. Preliminary monitoring of system operation was performed at Westland Diversion Dam. We offer recommendations for improving preparations and designs of future evaluations, and also recommend that a detailed evaluation of the Maxwell and Westland juvenile facilities, including evaluation of fish condition and fish passage through or over the screens, be conducted.

  18. LEANTO INTERIOR, LOOKING EAST. Image shows: ladder attached to south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEAN-TO INTERIOR, LOOKING EAST. Image shows: ladder attached to south façade, gate separating hay storage from animal pens, and east wall construction. - Boyer Farm, Barn, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  19. 29 CFR 1910.26 - Portable metal ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following rules and regulations are essential to the life of the equipment and the safety of the user. (2... ladders are exposed to oil and grease, equipment should be cleaned of oil, grease, or slippery...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.26 - Portable metal ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following rules and regulations are essential to the life of the equipment and the safety of the user. (2... ladders are exposed to oil and grease, equipment should be cleaned of oil, grease, or slippery...

  1. 11. VIEW NORTHWEST, PUMP HOUSE AT SOUTH ELEVATION, SIGNAL LADDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTHWEST, PUMP HOUSE AT SOUTH ELEVATION, SIGNAL LADDER FOR ROOF ACCESS TO LEFT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  2. 13. VIEW, KITCHEN FIREPLACE (COOKING), SOUTHWEST ROOM (NOTE LADDER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW, KITCHEN FIREPLACE (COOKING), SOUTHWEST ROOM (NOTE LADDER TO CRAWLSPACE, TWO FLUES AND TWO HEARTHS - ONE BEHIND STOVE) - Belleview, 3201 Steed Road, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  3. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOEpatents

    Renschler, Clifford L.; White, Christine A.; Carter, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor.

  4. Clinical ladder to professional advancement program. An evolutionary process.

    PubMed

    Goodloe, L R; Sampson, R C; Munjas, B; Whitworth, T R; Lantz, C D; Tangley, E; Miller, W

    1996-06-01

    Since the early 1970s, clinical ladder programs have been a method of defining, recognizing, and rewarding nursing practice. As clinical practice in an institution grows and evolves, so must the program that supports the development of the practitioner. An in-depth evaluation of one clinical ladder program was conducted to determine if it was reflective of current practice. The authors discuss the method of evaluation, findings, and the revised program.

  5. Biomechanical response to ladder slipping events: Effects of hand placement.

    PubMed

    Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Campbell-Kyureghyan, Naira H; Beschorner, Kurt E

    2015-11-01

    Ladder falling accidents are a significant, growing and severe occupational hazard. The factors that contribute to falls from ladders and specifically those that influence the motor response from ladder falls are not well understood. The aims of this research were to determine the effects of hand placement (rung versus rail) on muscle activation onset and peak activity timing in response to slipping on a ladder and to sequence the timing of events following slip initiation. Fifteen unexpected slips from 11 experienced ladder climbers were induced with a freely spinning rung under the foot, while subjects were randomly assigned to a rung versus rail hand grasping strategy. EMG onset time and peak activity time from five bilateral muscles (semitendinosis, vastus lateralis, triceps, biceps and anterior deltoid) were analyzed. Results indicated that significantly slower muscle activation onset and peak response times occurred during rail hand placement, suggesting that grasping ladder rungs may be preferable for improving the speed of the motor response. The triceps muscle activated and reached peak activity earlier in the slip indicating that subjects may initially extend their arms prior to generating hand forces. The study also revealed that slips tended to occur around the time that a foot and hand were in motion and there were just two points of contact (one hand and the slipping foot).

  6. Effects of thermal discharges on the distribution and abundance of adult fishes in the Savannah River and selected tributaries: Annual report, November 1984-August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Saul, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the juvenile and adult fish community in streams draining the SRP and in the Savannah River in the area of the SRP was conducted between September 1984 and September 1985. The major objectives were to examine the abundance and distribution of fishes near the Savannah River Plant in relation to thermal discharges into the river, creeks, and floodplain swamps and to determine the rate of impingement of adult and juvenile fishes on the intake screens at the SRP pumphouses. The most abundant fishes (excluding minnows) taken by electrofishing were the redbreast sunfish (41.6%), spotted sucker (8.8%), spotted sunfish (8.2%), largemouth bass (5.7%), bluegill (5.6%), and American eel (5.4%). The most abundant fishes taken by hoop netting were the flat bullhead (38.0%), channel catfish (11.9%), bluegill (9.4%), white catfish (7.9%), black crappie (6.5%), and redbreast sunfish (5.5%). Dominant species in the intake canals were the bluegill, redbreast sunfish, and black crappie. Dominant species in the nonthermal river were the redbreast sunfish, spotted sunfish, spotted sucker, largemouth bass, channel catfish, white catfish, and flat bullhead. Dominant species in the nonthermal creeks were fairly similar to river species except that the catfishes were not as well represented. The thermal river and creek habitats differed from the nonthermal habitats in having higher percentages (although often lower numbers) of channel catfish, white catfish, largemouth bass, and coastal shiner and a lower percentage of flat bullhead.

  7. Independent and interactive effects of plant sterols and fish oil n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the plasma lipid profile of mildly hyperlipidaemic Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Demonty, Isabelle; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukherjee, Rajat; Gupta, Ruby; Snehi, Uma; Niveditha, Devasenapathy; Singh, Yogendra; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Passi, Santosh J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath

    2009-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of a once-a-day yoghurt drink providing 2 g plant sterols/d and capsules providing 2 g fish oil n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA/d on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and LDL particle size. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults aged 35-55 years were randomised into one of four groups of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind controlled trial. The 4-week treatments consisted of (1) control yoghurt drink and control capsules, (2) control yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules, (3) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and control capsules, or (4) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules. Blood was drawn before and after the 4-week intervention. Changes in health status, lifestyle and dietary habits, and daily compliance were recorded. The main effects of plant sterols were a 4.5 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol and a 15 % reduction in TAG without a significant change in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA did not significantly affect cholesterol concentrations but reduced TAG by 15 % and increased HDL-cholesterol by 5.4 %. The combination significantly lowered TAG by 15 % v. control. No significant interaction between plant sterols and n-3 LC-PUFA was observed on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, once-a-day intake of 2 g plant sterols/d in a yoghurt drink, 2 g fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA/d in capsules, and their combination had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults. The potent hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect of plant sterols observed in the present study and this population warrants additional investigation. PMID:19296875

  8. Ontogenetic improvement of visual function in the medaka Oryzias latipes based on an optomotor testing system for larval and adult fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carvalho, Paulo S. M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a system for evaluation of visual function in larval and adult fish. Both optomotor (swimming) and optokinetic (eye movement) responses were monitored and recorded using a system of rotating stripes. The system allowed manipulation of factors such as width of the stripes used, rotation speed of the striped drum, and light illuminance levels within both the scotopic and photopic ranges. Precise control of these factors allowed quantitative measurements of visual acuity and motion detection. Using this apparatus, we tested the hypothesis that significant posthatch ontogenetic improvements in visual function occur in the medaka Oryzias latipes, and also that this species shows significant in ovo neuronal development. Significant improvements in the acuity angle alpha (ability to discriminate detail) were observed from approximately 5 degrees at hatch to 1 degree in the oldest adult stages. In addition, we measured a significant improvement in flicker fusion thresholds (motion detection skills) between larval and adult life stages within both the scotopic and photopic ranges of light illuminance. Ranges of flicker fusion thresholds (X?? ?? SD) at log I=1.96 (photopic) varied from 37.2 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young adults to 18.6 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. At log I= - 2.54 (scotopic), flicker fusion thresholds varied from 5.8 ?? 0.7 cycles/s in young adults to 1.7 ?? 0.4 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. Light sensitivity increased approximately 2.9 log units from early hatched larval stages to adults. The demonstrated ontogenetic improvements in visual function probably enable the fish to explore new resources, thereby enlarging their fundamental niche. ?? 2002 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass a driving…

  10. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  11. Does Fish Oil Have an Anti-Obesity Effect in Overweight/Obese Adults? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichun; Jin, Jie; Fang, Wenjun; Su, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Context Accumulating evidence has suggested favorable effects of fish oil on weight loss in animal experiments; however, findings remain inconsistent in humans. Objects The meta-analysis was performed to investigate the influence of fish oil on some parameters of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Design Human randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified by a systematic search of Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, web of science and reference lists of related reviews and articles. The random-effects model was used to estimate the calculated results. Results In total, 21 studies with 30 study arms were included in this analysis. Calculated results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that fish oil had no effect on reducing body weight (overall SMD = -0.07, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.07, P = 0.31) and BMI (overall SMD = -0.09, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.03, P = 0.14) whether alone or combined with life modification intervention in overweight/obese subjects. However, waist circumference was significantly reduced (SMD = -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.06, P = 0.008) in those with fish oil supplementation combined with life modification intervention. Waist hip ratio (WHR) was significantly reduced (overall SMD = -0.52 95% CI -0.76 to -0.27, P < 0.0005) in fish oil supplemented individuals with or without combination life modification intervention. Conclusion Current evidence cannot support an exact anti-obesity role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in overweight/obese subjects. However, these subjects may benefit from reducing abdominal fat with fish oil supplementation especially when combined with life modification intervention. Further large-scale and long-term clinical trials are needed to gain definite conclusions. PMID:26571503

  12. Reversal of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion (Omegaven) in an adult dependent on home parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Burns, David L; Gill, Brian M

    2013-03-01

    Patients with intestinal failure and short bowel syndrome usually require chronic parenteral nutrition (PN). PN is associated with risks, including infections, vascular thrombosis, and liver disease. PN-associated liver disease (PNALD) can progress from steatosis to chronic hepatitis and ultimately to cirrhosis. The etiology of PNALD is not completely understood. Therapies for PNALD include carbohydrate or lipid calorie reduction, antibiotics, or the use of ursodeoxycholic acid. When these efforts fail, therapeutic options are limited and liver transplantation may be required. The transition from a soybean- to a fish oil-based lipid formulation, such as the ω-3 parenteral lipid formulation (Omegaven), has shown a dramatic reversal of PNALD within the pediatric population. This is the first report of a PN-dependent adult in the United States complicated by PNALD and hepatic failure who had improvement of liver disease with an ω-3 fish oil-based parenteral formulation.

  13. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001). Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased lean mass and

  14. Certification and clinical ladder as the impetus for professional development.

    PubMed

    Watts, Misty D

    2010-01-01

    With today's healthcare challenges of nursing shortages and financial instability, it is imperative that healthcare organizations retain clinically competent nurses at the bedside. Professional development and recognition are key motivators to increase nursing job satisfaction, thus reducing shortages and turnover. Implementation of specialty certification and clinical advancement programs is of benefit to the public, employers, and nurses alike. Clinical ladder and Magnet recognition are often the impetus for specialty nursing certification in healthcare institutions. Clinical ladder history, purpose, models, perceptions, and satisfiers are discussed. Certification statistics, types, impetus, benefits, incentives, and barriers are highlighted, as well as a facility's innovative strategy to increase specialty certification. Certification and clinical ladder programs demonstrate commitment of healthcare organizations and nursing staff to provide high-quality care and professional nursing development, an investment that hospitals cannot afford to overlook. PMID:20019510

  15. Fractal ladder models and power law wave equations

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, James F.; McGough, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in mammalian tissue is approximated by a frequency-dependent power law for frequencies less than 100 MHz. To describe this power law behavior in soft tissue, a hierarchical fractal network model is proposed. The viscoelastic and self-similar properties of tissue are captured by a constitutive equation based on a lumped parameter infinite-ladder topology involving alternating springs and dashpots. In the low-frequency limit, this ladder network yields a stress-strain constitutive equation with a time-fractional derivative. By combining this constitutive equation with linearized conservation principles and an adiabatic equation of state, a fractional partial differential equation that describes power law attenuation is derived. The resulting attenuation coefficient is a power law with exponent ranging between 1 and 2, while the phase velocity is in agreement with the Kramers–Kronig relations. The fractal ladder model is compared to published attenuation coefficient data, thus providing equivalent lumped parameters. PMID:19813816

  16. Ladder polymers for use as high temperature stable resins or coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An object of the invention is to synthesize a new class of ladder and partial ladder polymers. In accordance with the invention, the new class of ladder and partial ladder polymers are synthesized by polymerizing a bis-dienophile with a bis-diene. Another object of the invention is to provide a fabricated, electrically conducting, void free composite comprising the new class of the ladder and partial ladder polymers described above. The novelty of the invention relates to a new class of ladder and partial ladder polymers and a process for synthesizing these polymers. These polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and are characterized with a unique dehydration property at temperatures of 300 to 400 C to provide thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymeric backbone. These polymers are further characterized with high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability properties. Thus these polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  17. Raman response of magnetic excitations in cuprate ladders and planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. P.; Gössling, A.; Kuhlmann, U.; Thomsen, C.; Löffert, A.; Gross, C.; Assmus, W.

    2005-09-01

    A unified picture for the Raman response of magnetic excitations in cuprate spin-ladder compounds is obtained by comparing calculated two-triplon Raman line shapes to those of the prototypical compounds SrCu2O3 (Sr123), Sr14Cu24O41 (Sr14), and La6Ca8Cu24O41 (La6Ca8). The theoretical model for the two-leg ladder contains Heisenberg exchange couplings J‖ and J⊥ plus an additional four-spin interaction Jcyc . Within this model Sr123 and Sr14 can be described by x≔J‖/J⊥=1.5 , xcyc≔Jcyc/J⊥=0.2 , J⊥Sr123=1130cm-1 and J⊥Sr14=1080cm-1 . The couplings found for La6Ca8 are x=1.2 , xcyc=0.2 , and J⊥La6Ca8=1130cm-1 . The unexpected sharp two-triplon peak in the ladder materials compared to the undoped two-dimensional cuprates can be traced back to the anisotropy of the magnetic exchange in rung and leg direction. With the results obtained for the isotropic ladder, we calculate the Raman line shape of a two-dimensional square lattice using a toy model consisting of a vertical and a horizontal ladder. A direct comparison of these results with Raman experiments for the two-dimensional cuprates R5CuO4(R=La,Nd) , Sr2CuO2Cl2 , and YBa2Cu3O6+δ yields a good agreement for the dominating two-triplon peak. We conclude that short-range quantum fluctuations are dominating the magnetic Raman response in both ladders and planes. We discuss possible scenarios responsible for the high-energy spectral weight of the Raman line shape, i.e., phonons, the triple-resonance, and multiparticle contributions.

  18. Transient Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy in a Vibrational Ladder.

    PubMed

    Kemlin, Vincent; Bonvalet, Adeline; Daniault, Louis; Joffre, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    We report on transient 2D Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (2DIR) after vibrational ladder climbing induced in the CO-moiety longitudinal stretch of carboxyhemoglobin. The population distribution, spreading up to seven vibrational levels, results in a nonequilibrium 2DIR spectrum evidencing a large number of peaks that can be easily attributed to individual transitions thanks to the anharmonicity of the vibrational potential. We discuss the physical origin of the observed peaks as well as the qualitative behavior of the subsequent dynamics governed by population relaxation in the vibrational ladder. PMID:27508408

  19. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOEpatents

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.; Carter, R.M.

    1998-09-29

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor. 3 figs.

  20. Career Ladder Policy For Teachers: The Case Of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, George M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the past. After critically assessing the major aspects of the policy, along with the voices of Ghanaian teachers, this study argues that the career ladder policy for teachers in Ghana is another prototypical case of a failed experiment in terms of both improving the lives of teachers and maintaining their professional rights.

  1. The influence of density on adults and juveniles of the estuarine fish, the sheepshead minnow (cyprinodon variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between population density and demographic rates (e.g. survival, reproduction, growth) is critical to understand population dynamics and has been widely studied in fishes. Estuarine species are regularly exposed to dramatic changes in density with daily, monthly,...

  2. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1 : Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Elston, Ralph

    1996-08-01

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain.

  3. Competencies within a professional clinical ladder: differences in understanding between nurse managers and staff nurses.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Erin L; Meucci, Joanne H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical ladders provide a framework for professional nursing development and have shown increased personal and professional satisfaction. This article describes a standardized approach for clinical ladder implementation. Managers' and staff nurses' knowledge of the model must align for important stakeholders to perceive the clinical ladder as valuable. Understanding differences and perspectives can be useful as the basis for education and further clinical ladder refinement augmenting the potential for increased nursing satisfaction and professional development. PMID:25790360

  4. Combining a clinical ladder and performance appraisal system as a reward strategy: the EXCEL clinical ladder program.

    PubMed

    Moe, J K; Lonowski, L R; Yancer, D A

    1994-09-01

    In response to the dramatic changes occurring in health care today and a desire to reward professional nurses for clinical behaviors that would be valued in the future, Bergan Mercy Medical Center (BMMC) has developed an innovative clinical ladder/performance appraisal system. The BMMC EXCEL Clinical Ladder program, which is based on the developmental model of Patricia Benner, is a competency-based system that uniquely combines a clinical ladder and performance appraisal system. The program is clinically focused and contains optional components in which registered nurses (RNs) can receive additional credit for participation in professional growth and leadership activities. Nurses document examples of their practice through nursing narratives that describe actual clinical situations. The development and implementation processes, challenges encountered, and recommendations for alternative approaches to the implementation of such a unique system are discussed.

  5. 30 CFR 56.11025 - Railed landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railed landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders. 56.11025 Section 56.11025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... fixed ladders. Fixed ladders, except on mobile equipment, shall be offset and have substantial...

  6. 30 CFR 56.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 56.11005 Section 56.11005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Travelways § 56.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely...

  7. 30 CFR 57.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 57... MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely and installed to provide at least 3 inches...

  8. 30 CFR 57.11025 - Railed landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railed landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders. 57.11025 Section 57.11025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders. Fixed ladders, except on mobile...

  9. 30 CFR 57.11025 - Railed landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railed landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders. 57.11025 Section 57.11025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders. Fixed ladders, except on mobile...

  10. 30 CFR 56.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 56.11005 Section 56.11005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Travelways § 56.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely...

  11. 30 CFR 56.11025 - Railed landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railed landings, backguards, and other protection for fixed ladders. 56.11025 Section 56.11025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... fixed ladders. Fixed ladders, except on mobile equipment, shall be offset and have substantial...

  12. 30 CFR 57.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 57... MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely and installed to provide at least 3 inches...

  13. Corrosion Control Specialist Career Ladder AFSC 53530, 53550, 53570, and 53690. Occupational Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The report describes the results of a detailed occupational survey of the corrosion control career ladder. Responses to a 457-task, time rating inventory from 1,015 personnel (representing 64 percent of the career field) were analyzed to produce seven specific findings and the career ladder structure. The career ladder includes a variety of jobs…

  14. 30 CFR 57.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 57... MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely and installed to provide at least 3 inches...

  15. 30 CFR 56.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 56.11005 Section 56.11005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Travelways § 56.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely...

  16. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    2004-02-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow measures, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2000-2001 project year, there were 624 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 24 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and 47 spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) counted at the Nursery Bridge Dam adult trap between December 27, 2000 and June 7, 2001. The Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap was not operated this year. The project transported 1600 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility and outplanted 1156 for natural spawning in the basin. The project also provided equipment for transportation of juveniles captured during the construction fish salvage at Nursery Bridge Dam.

  17. A protocol for adult somatic cell nuclear transfer in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) with a high rate of viable clone formation.

    PubMed

    Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Kaftanovskaya, Elena; Adachi, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Kinoshita, Masato; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we successfully generated fully grown, cloned medaka (the Japanese rice fish, Oryzias latipes) using donor nuclei from primary culture cells of adult caudal fin tissue and nonenucleated recipient eggs that were heat shock-treated to induce diploidization of the nuclei. However, the mechanism of clone formation using this method is unknown, and the rate of adult clone formation is not high enough for studies in basic and applied sciences. To gain insight into the mechanism and increase the success rate of this method of clone formation, we tested two distinct nuclear transfer protocols. In one protocol, the timing of transfer of donor nuclei was changed, and in the other, the size of the donor cells was changed; each protocol was based on our original methodology. Ultimately, we obtained an unexpectedly high rate of adult clone formation using the protocol that differed with respect to the timing of donor nuclei transfer. Specifically, 17% of the transplants that developed to the blastula stage ultimately developed into adult clones. The success rate with this method was 13 times higher than that obtained using the original method. Analyses focusing on the reasons for this high success rate of clone formation will help to elucidate the mechanism of clone formation that occurs with this method.

  18. Dynamics of a Sliding Ladder Leaning against a Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, J. B.; Simeão Carvalho, P.; Mota, M. F.; Quintas, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is about the dynamics of a sliding ladder leaning against a vertical wall. The results are understood by considering the motion divided in two parts: (i) for 0 = t = t[subscript s] with one degree of freedom, and (ii) for t > t[subscript s] with two degrees of freedom, where the separation is determined by the instance t[subscript…

  19. Undergraduate Education: An Essential Rung on the Rehabilitation Career Ladder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Tom; Holloway, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the historical pertinence of undergraduate education to developing a career ladder within the field of vocational rehabilitation. Support for the relevance is presented through the results of an investigation of baccalaureate-level competence and preparation as perceived by graduates of rehabilitation services programs. Job…

  20. Career Ladder Policy for Teachers: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, George M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the…

  1. Does the Missouri Teacher Career Ladder Program Raise Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Kevin; Glazerman, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Although Missouri has had a Career Ladder program for teachers since 1987, very little research has been carried out to measure the program's effects and what has been studied has not been comprehensive. This paper examines the program's effect on student achievement across the state, using longitudinal data on district math and reading scores for…

  2. D0 Silicon Upgrade: 3 Chip Ladder Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ratzmann, Paul; /Fermilab

    1994-09-19

    The Silicon Mechanical group has submitted a 3 chip ladder drawing to the Fermilab Analysis Group (Zhijing Tang) to determine the temperature distribution in the ladder during detector operation. Heat transfer by convection and radiation is assumed negligible and two dimensional PEA conduction solutions were performed. The heat flux at the SVX IT chip region is assumed to be 8.359 mW/mm{sup 2} which corresponds to roughly 0.48 W per SVX II chip. The heat flux in the region of the transceiver is assumed 8.801 mW/mm{sup 2}, corresponding to 1.6 W in this region. Total heat load of the 3 chip ladder is assumed to be 3.04 W. The 3 chip ladder submitted for analysis is shown in the figure below. The multichip module (MCM) is mounted on beryllium plate which serves to carry the heat load of the chips and the transceiver to the cooling channel. Adhesive thermal conductivity is 1.6 W/m-K, based on the published value of the selected adhesive. Actual measurements of thermally conductive adhesives indicate that the assumed 1.6 W/m-K is high. Experience gained in measuring adhesive thermal conductivity indicates 0.9-1.2 W/m-K as a more reasonable number to use. The effect of the uncertainty of the adhesive thermal conductivity on silicon temperature is discussed.

  3. Competency-Based Nursing Career Ladder Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janie Menchaca; And Others

    An open-entry/open-exit competency-based nursing career ladder model was developed to demonstrate the articulation process from high school through licensed vocational nursing (LVN), associate degree nursing (ADN), and baccalaureate degree-level nursing (BSN) programs. The model was based on data obtained from a review of the literature on (1)…

  4. 62. Photocopy of Ladders & Lifelines, 547 WAGL, White Pine. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photocopy of Ladders & Lifelines, 547 WAGL, White Pine. U.S. Coast Guard Yard, Planning Department, Curtis Bay, Maryland. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-1604-12. dated August 1970. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 30 CFR 77.1912 - Ladders and stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ladders and stairways. 77.1912 Section 77.1912 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1912 - Ladders and stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ladders and stairways. 77.1912 Section 77.1912 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope...

  7. 37. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK FROM THE TOP, SHOWING LADDERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK FROM THE TOP, SHOWING LADDERS ON SIDES AND THE WATERTIGHT DOOR OF THE 18-FOOT LOCK No date - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  8. Large xray room from crane ladder showing scissor lift for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Large x-ray room from crane ladder showing scissor lift for x-ray equipment, view facing west-northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leading to a stairtower enclosure that includes self closing fire doors at both the top and bottom; or... AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.438 Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel... potential fire exposure by being in either exterior locations or within protective enclosure...

  10. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leading to a stairtower enclosure that includes self closing fire doors at both the top and bottom; or... AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.438 Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel... potential fire exposure by being in either exterior locations or within protective enclosure...

  11. Schroedinger operators with the q-ladder symmetry algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorik, Sergei; Spiridonov, Vyacheslav

    1994-01-01

    A class of the one-dimensional Schroedinger operators L with the symmetry algebra LB(+/-) = q(+/-2)B(+/-)L, (B(+),B(-)) = P(sub N)(L), is described. Here B(+/-) are the 'q-ladder' operators and P(sub N)(L) is a polynomial of the order N. Peculiarities of the coherent states of this algebra are briefly discussed.

  12. Dynamic parameterization and ladder operators for the Kratzer molecular potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babynanda Devi, O.; Amuba Singh, C.

    2014-09-01

    Introducing independent parameters k and \\delta to represent the strength of the attractive and repulsive components, respectively, we write the Kratzer molecular potential as V\\left( k,\\delta \\right)=({{\\hbar }^{2}}/2\\;m)(-k/r+\\delta (\\delta -1)/{{r}^{2}}). This parameterisation is not only natural, but also convenient for the construction of ladder operators for the system. Adopting the straightforward method of deriving recurrence relations among confluent hypergeometric functions, we construct seven pairs of ladder operators for the Kratzer potential system. Detailed analysis of the laddering actions of these operators is given to show that they connect eigenstates of equal energy but belong to a hierarchy of Kratzer potential systems corresponding to different values of the parameters k and \\delta . Significantly, it is pointed out that it may not be possible to construct, in the position representation, a ladder operator which would connect different eigenstates belonging to the same potential V(k,\\delta ). Transition to the hydrogen atom case is discussed. A number (14 altogether) of functional relations among the confluent hypergeometric functions have been derived and reported separately in an appendix.

  13. Digging Deeper: The Laddering Interview, a Tool for Surfacing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocchia, Philip J.; Swanson, Diane L.; Orlitzky, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Personally held values play a fundamental role in business. As such, it is critical that students understand the nature of values pertaining to the workplace. Using an innovative classroom exercise, laddering, business students interview individuals to identify values that influence choices. Objectives are to help students understand the role of…

  14. Finite Wave Vector Pairing in Doped Two-leg Ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson N. J.; Tsvelik A.; Essler, F.H.L.; Jeckelmann, E.

    2012-05-02

    We consider the effects of umklapp processes in doped two-leg fermionic ladders. These may emerge either at special band fillings or as a result of the presence of external periodic potentials. We show that such umklapp processes can lead to profound changes of physical properties and in particular stabilize pair-density wave phases.

  15. Ladder Operators for Some Spherically Symmetric Potentials in Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmarch, J. D.; Golding, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The energy levels of the free field, Coulomb potential, and the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator are found using the Dirac operator formalism by the construction of suitable ladder operators. The degeneracy of each level is also discussed. (Author/GA)

  16. Development of a Career Ladder Mobility Program in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafer, Nylene; Davis, Steve

    This collection materials describes and illustrates various features of New Mexico Junior College's (NMJC's) career ladder program for nursing. Introductory material outlines the internal institutional factors and external influences from the nursing field that served as the basis for the development and implementation of the career ladder…

  17. Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bennich, B.; Rojas, E.; Melo, J. P. B. C. de; Paracha, M. A.

    2014-11-11

    We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.

  18. 3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RUSTIC BENCH AT THE LADDER CREEK GARDENS NEAR GORGE POWERHOUSE AT NEWHALEM. J.D. ROSS HAD THE GROUNDS LANDSCAPED AND PLANTED WITH EXOTIC FLOWERS AND VEGETATION DURING THE 1930S AS AN ADDITIONAL TOURIST ATTRACTION, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Skagit River & Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Project, On Skagit River, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  19. Topological order in Josephson junction ladders with Mobius boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofano, Gerardo; Marotta, Vincenzo; Naddeo, Adele

    2005-03-01

    We propose a CFT description for a closed one-dimensional fully frustrated ladder of quantum Josephson junctions with Mobius boundary conditions; in particular we show how such a system can develop topological order. Such a property is crucial for its implementation as a 'protected' solid state qubit.

  20. A "Career Ladder" Approach to Junior College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrupp, Harold A.

    More attention should be paid to the building of career guidance and career curriculum programs with exit points that enable the student to seek employment at any time in an entry level position and/or to continue his education. Some of the best "career ladder" programs are the federally sponsored New Career programs. A number of the California…

  1. Ladder contours are undetectable in the periphery: a crowding effect?

    PubMed

    May, Keith A; Hess, Robert F

    2007-10-29

    We studied the perceptual integration of contours consisting of Gabor elements positioned along a smooth path, embedded among distractor elements. Contour elements either formed tangents to the path ("snakes") or were perpendicular to it ("ladders"). Perfectly straight snakes and ladders were easily detected in the fovea but, at an eccentricity of 6 degrees , only the snakes were detectable. The disproportionate impairment of peripheral ladder detection remained when we brought foveal performance away from ceiling by jittering the orientations of the elements. We propose that the failure to detect peripheral ladders is a form of crowding, the phenomenon observed when identification of peripherally located letters is disrupted by flanking letters. D. G. Pelli, M. Palomares, and N. J. Majaj (2004) outlined a model in which simple feature detectors are followed by integration fields, which are involved in tasks, such as letter identification, that require the outputs of several detectors. They proposed that crowding occurs because small integration fields are absent from the periphery, leading to inappropriate feature integration by large peripheral integration fields. We argue that the "association field," which has been proposed to mediate contour integration (D. J. Field, A. Hayes, & R. F. Hess, 1993), is a type of integration field. Our data are explained by an elaboration of Pelli et al.'s model, in which weak ladder integration competes with strong snake integration. In the fovea, the association fields were small, and the model integrated snakes and ladders with little interference. In the periphery, the association fields were large, and integration of ladders was severely disrupted by interference from spurious snake contours. In contrast, the model easily detected snake contours in the periphery. In a further demonstration of the possible link between contour integration and crowding, we ran our contour integration model on groups of three-letter stimuli

  2. Effects of a Low Dose of Fish Oil on Inflammatory Markers of Brazilian HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julicristie M.; Rondó, Patrícia H. C.; Lima, Lourdes R. A. V.; Fortuna, Elizabeth S.; Yudkin, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The benefits of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected subjects have been limited by an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a low dose of marine omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory marker concentrations in HIV-infected subjects under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: This was a randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the effects of 3 g fish oil/day (540 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid—EPA plus 360 mg of docosahexaenoic acid—DHA) or 3 g soy oil/day (placebo) for 24 weeks in 83 male and non-pregnant female HIV-infected adults on ART. Results: There were no differences between groups for the measures at baseline. Multilevel analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship between the longitudinal changes in high sensitivity-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) (Wald Chi2 = 0.17, p = 0.918), fibrinogen (Wald Chi2 = 3.82, p = 0.148), and factor VIII (Wald Chi2 = 5.25, p = 0.073) with fish oil. No significant changes in interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-1 beta (IL1-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) serum concentrations were observed with fish oil supplements for 12 weeks. Conclusions: Compared to placebo, a low dose of 900 mg omega-3 fatty acids (EPA plus DHA) in fish oil capsules did not change hs-CRP, fibrinogen, factor VIII, IL6, IL1-beta and TNF-alpha serum concentrations in HIV-infected subjects on ART. Further investigations should consider the assessment of more sensitive inflammatory markers or higher doses to evaluate the effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Registered at the Nederlands Trial Register, Identifier no. NTR1798. PMID:26251920

  3. Evaluation of a career ladder program in an ambulatory care environment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joan M; Cook, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    Clinical ladders, or career advancement systems, were designed to enhance professional development, provide a reward system for quality clinical performance, promote quality nursing practice, and improve job satisfaction among nurses. Most of the literature on RN clinical ladder programs is related to the acute care setting, where these programs originated; not much is known about their effectiveness in the ambulatory care environment. The RN Career Ladder at Kaiser Permanente of Colorado was begun by a Labor Management Partnership Committee in 2003, and awards financial incentives to RNs who demonstrate a commitment to continuing education, leadership activities, and program development on a local and regional level. In this study significantly more involvement in leadership, interdisciplinary, and quality improvement activities were found among career ladder nurses than non-career ladder nurses, regardless of their job role. It is not clear whether nursing leaders gravitate toward a career ladder or whether career ladder participation encourages increased participation in leadership activities. PMID:19330969

  4. Adult Fishway Inspections on the Columbia and Snake Rivers, 1984-1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Basham, Larry R.

    1985-06-28

    Mainstream projects which have adult fish passage facilities are inspected by project operators, fishway attendants, and state and federal fishery agencies. The overall movement of upstream migrants in 1984 appeared to be satisfactory with few delays. Special efforts were made by fishery agencies and Corps personnel to check on potential problems which appeared to exist at The Dalles and John Day Dams this year. However, adult passage facilities were operating ''in criteria'' and fish may have been delayed by temperature or other factors. Inspections were generally made once a month. Some projects were operating at less than full criteria as seen during inspections by fishery agencies this year. It appears that during periods of low tailwater, certain projects have difficulty maintaining proper head at main fishway entrances. Some main entrance gates bottom-out and water depth over these weirs are not up to desired criteria. Also it was noted that auxiliary water pumps were not being run at a rate to achieve the desired amount of water for attracting fish to the fish ladders and maintaining proper head at main fishway entrances.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of fish assemblages on breakwaters and natural rocky reefs in a temperate estuary: consistent assemblage differences driven by sub-adults.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Ashley M; Booth, David J

    2013-01-01

    Development of infrastructure around cities is rapidly increasing the amount of artificial substrate (termed artificial reef, 'AR') in coastal marine habitats. However, effects of ARs on marine communities remain unknown, because it is unclear whether ARs can maintain similar communities to natural reefs. We investigated whether well-established (> 30 years old) breakwaters could consistently approximate fish assemblages on interspersed rocky reefs in a temperate estuary over 6 consecutive seasons using regular visual surveys between June 2009 (winter) and November 2010 (spring). We examined whether assemblage differences between reef types were driven by differences in juvenile recruitment, or were related to differences in older life-stages. Assemblages on both reef types were dominated by juveniles (61% of individuals) and sub-adults (34% of individuals). Seasonal fluctuations in assemblage parameters (species richness, diversity, sub-adult abundance) were similar between reef types, and levels of species diversity and assemblage composition were generally comparable. However, abundance and species richness were consistently higher (1.9-7.6 and 1.3-2.6 times, respectively) on breakwaters. These assemblage differences could not be explained by differences in juvenile recruitment, with seasonal patterns of recruitment and juvenile species found to be similar between reef types. In contrast, abundances of sub-adults were consistently higher (1.1-12 times) at breakwaters, and assemblage differences appeared to be driven by this life-stage. Our results indicate that breakwaters in temperate estuaries are capable of supporting abundant and diverse fish assemblages with similar recruitment process to natural reefs. However, breakwaters may not approximate all aspects of natural assemblage structure, with differences maintained by a single-life stage in some cases.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of fish assemblages on breakwaters and natural rocky reefs in a temperate estuary: consistent assemblage differences driven by sub-adults.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Ashley M; Booth, David J

    2013-01-01

    Development of infrastructure around cities is rapidly increasing the amount of artificial substrate (termed artificial reef, 'AR') in coastal marine habitats. However, effects of ARs on marine communities remain unknown, because it is unclear whether ARs can maintain similar communities to natural reefs. We investigated whether well-established (> 30 years old) breakwaters could consistently approximate fish assemblages on interspersed rocky reefs in a temperate estuary over 6 consecutive seasons using regular visual surveys between June 2009 (winter) and November 2010 (spring). We examined whether assemblage differences between reef types were driven by differences in juvenile recruitment, or were related to differences in older life-stages. Assemblages on both reef types were dominated by juveniles (61% of individuals) and sub-adults (34% of individuals). Seasonal fluctuations in assemblage parameters (species richness, diversity, sub-adult abundance) were similar between reef types, and levels of species diversity and assemblage composition were generally comparable. However, abundance and species richness were consistently higher (1.9-7.6 and 1.3-2.6 times, respectively) on breakwaters. These assemblage differences could not be explained by differences in juvenile recruitment, with seasonal patterns of recruitment and juvenile species found to be similar between reef types. In contrast, abundances of sub-adults were consistently higher (1.1-12 times) at breakwaters, and assemblage differences appeared to be driven by this life-stage. Our results indicate that breakwaters in temperate estuaries are capable of supporting abundant and diverse fish assemblages with similar recruitment process to natural reefs. However, breakwaters may not approximate all aspects of natural assemblage structure, with differences maintained by a single-life stage in some cases. PMID:24086634

  7. Seasonal Dynamics of Fish Assemblages on Breakwaters and Natural Rocky Reefs in a Temperate Estuary: Consistent Assemblage Differences Driven by Sub-Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Ashley M.; Booth, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Development of infrastructure around cities is rapidly increasing the amount of artificial substrate (termed artificial reef, ‘AR’) in coastal marine habitats. However, effects of ARs on marine communities remain unknown, because it is unclear whether ARs can maintain similar communities to natural reefs. We investigated whether well-established (> 30 years old) breakwaters could consistently approximate fish assemblages on interspersed rocky reefs in a temperate estuary over 6 consecutive seasons using regular visual surveys between June 2009 (winter) and November 2010 (spring). We examined whether assemblage differences between reef types were driven by differences in juvenile recruitment, or were related to differences in older life-stages. Assemblages on both reef types were dominated by juveniles (61% of individuals) and sub-adults (34% of individuals). Seasonal fluctuations in assemblage parameters (species richness, diversity, sub-adult abundance) were similar between reef types, and levels of species diversity and assemblage composition were generally comparable. However, abundance and species richness were consistently higher (1.9-7.6 and 1.3-2.6 times, respectively) on breakwaters. These assemblage differences could not be explained by differences in juvenile recruitment, with seasonal patterns of recruitment and juvenile species found to be similar between reef types. In contrast, abundances of sub-adults were consistently higher (1.1-12 times) at breakwaters, and assemblage differences appeared to be driven by this life-stage. Our results indicate that breakwaters in temperate estuaries are capable of supporting abundant and diverse fish assemblages with similar recruitment process to natural reefs. However, breakwaters may not approximate all aspects of natural assemblage structure, with differences maintained by a single-life stage in some cases. PMID:24086634

  8. Determining Adult Pacific Lamprey Abundance and Spawning Habitat in the Lower Deschutes River Sub-Basin, Oregon, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C.

    2009-04-30

    An adult Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) escapement estimate was generated in the lower Deschutes River during run year 2008. This included a mark-recapture study to determine adult abundance and a tribal subsistence creel. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two marks for the mark-recapture estimate while those measuring greater than 10.5 cm were surgically implanted with radio transmitters to monitor migration upstream of Sherars Falls (rkm 70.4). Radio telemetry was used to determine habitat, focal spawning areas and spawn timing. All fish were collected at the Sherars Falls fish ladder from July-October 2008 using a long handled dip-net. Escapement was generated using a two event mark-recapture experiment. Adult lamprey populations were estimated at 3,471 (95% CI = 2,384-5,041; M = 101; C = 885 R = 25) using Chapman's modification of the Peterson estimate. The relative precision around the estimate was 31.42. Tribal harvest was approximately 806 adult lamprey (95% CI = +/- 74) with a total escapement of 2,669. Fourteen lamprey received radio tags and were released at Lower Blue Hole recreation site (rkm 77.3). Movement was recorded by mobile, fixed site and aerial telemetry methods. Upstream movements of lamprey were documented from July through December 2008 with most lamprey over-wintering in the mainstem Deschutes River.

  9. Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2015-08-01

    In order to assess the potential health risks of Hg pollution, total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in air, dust, surface soil, crops, poultry, fish and human hair samples from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in Taizhou, China. High concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were found in these multiple matrices, and the mean concentration was 30.7 ng/m(3) of T-Hg for atmosphere samples, 3.1 μg/g of T-Hg for soil, 37.6 μg/g of T-Hg for dust, 20.3 ng/g of MeHg for rice and 178.1 ng/g of MeHg for fish, suggesting that the e-waste recycling facility was a significant source of Hg. The inorganic Hg (I-Hg) levels (0.84 μg/g) in hair samples of e-waste workers were much higher than that in the reference samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that strong positive correlations (p<0.01) between hair I-Hg and time staying in industrial area (r=0.81) and between MeHg and fish consumption frequency (r=0.91), imply that workers were mainly exposed to Hg vapor through long-time inhalation of contaminated air and dust, while other population mainly exposed to MeHg through high-frequency fish consumption. The estimated daily intakes of Hg showed that dietary intake was the major Hg exposure source, and Hg intakes from rice and fish were significantly higher than from any other foods. The estimated total daily intakes (TDIs) of MeHg for both children (696.8 ng/(kg·day)) and adults (381.3 ng/(kg·day)) greatly exceeded the dietary reference dose (RfD) of 230 ng/(kg·day), implying greater health risk for humans from Hg exposures around e-waste recycling facilities.

  10. Topological phases of fermionic ladders with periodic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gaoyong

    2016-02-01

    In recent experiments bosonic [Atala et al., Nat. Phys. 10, 588 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2998; Stuhl et al., Science 349, 1514 (2015), 10.1126/science.aaa8515] as well as fermionic ladders [Mancini et al. Science 349, 1510 (2015), 10.1126/science.aaa8736] with a uniform flux were studied and different interesting many-body states were observed. Motivated by these experiments, we extend the uniform synthetic magnetic field to a periodic case and show that a commensurate synthetic magnetic field offers an alternative scheme to realize topological phases in many-body systems of ultracold Fermi gases in ladderlike optical lattices. Using the exact diagonalization, we numerically determine the topological band structure, edge states, nonzero Chern numbers, Hofstadter-butterfly-like spectrum, and a complete phase diagram of noninteracting fermionic ladders.

  11. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Budy, Phaedra E.

    2015-01-01

    The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics, whereas brown trout length was mainly related to large cohorts recruiting to the adult size class. Species-specific responses to flow management are likely attributable to differences in seasonal timing of key life history events such as spawning, egg hatching, and fry emergence.

  12. TOP OF MTR. MAN CLIMBS FRAME ON FOOT LADDER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP OF MTR. MAN CLIMBS FRAME ON FOOT LADDER TO POSITION CRANE HOOK, WHICH WILL LIFT TOP PLUG FROM REACTOR AS A STEP IN REFUELING PROCEDURES. NOTE CRANE OPERATOR AT UPPER LEFT OF VIEW. ENTIRE APPARATUS, INCLUDING FRAME AND DRIVES FOR CONTROL RODS, WILL BE LIFTED. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6199. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/22/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Chirping a two-photon transition in a multistate ladder

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Wolfgang; Mack, Holger; Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Lutz, Eric; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Girard, Bertrand

    2007-08-15

    We consider a two-photon transition in a specific ladder system driven by a chirped laser pulse. In the weak field limit, we find that the excited state probability amplitude arises due to interference of multiple quantum paths which are weighted by quadratic phase factors. The excited state population has the form of a Gauss sum which plays a prominent role in number theory.

  14. Context View from 11' on ladder from southeast corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context View from 11' on ladder from southeast corner of Bottle Village parcel, just inside fence. Doll Head Shrine at far left frame, Living Trailer (c.1960 "Spartanette") in center frame. Little Wishing Well at far right frame. Some shrines and small buildings were destroyed in the January 1994 Northridge earthquake, and only their perimeter walls and foundations exist. Camera facing north northwest. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  15. Control of Population Flow in Coherently Driven Quantum Ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fernandez, Ruth; Bergmann, Klaas; Ekers, Aigars; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2005-07-22

    A technique for adiabatic control of the population flow through a preselected decaying excited level in a three-level quantum ladder is presented. The population flow through the intermediate or upper level is controlled efficiently and robustly by varying the pulse delay between a pair of partly overlapping coherent laser pulses. The technique is analyzed theoretically and demonstrated in an experiment with Na{sub 2} molecules.

  16. Implicit ladder summation in the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pricoupenko, Ludovic

    2011-11-15

    The fully variational Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach for bosons is studied in the limit of zero-range forces in two and three dimensions. The equation of state obtained in two dimensions is expressed in a parametric form. It is shown that the {Lambda} potential permits to perform an implicit summation of the ladder diagrams without leaving the variational scheme, restoring thus the consistency of this approximation.

  17. Unique features of pedicellate attachment of the upper jaw teeth in the adult gobiid fish Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidiae): morphological and structural characteristics and development.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki; Moriyama, Keita; Iida, Midori; Watanabe, Shun

    2013-05-01

    Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae), a hill-stream herbivorous gobiid fish, possesses an unusual oral dentition among teleost fishes on account of its feeding habitat. By using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, including vital staining with tetracycline, we examined the development of the attachment tissues of the upper jaw teeth in this fish. The functional teeth of S. japonicus had an asymmetrical dentine shaft. The dentine shaft attached to the underlying uniquely shaped pedicel by means of two different attachment mechanisms. At the lingual base, collagen fiber bundles connected the dentine shaft with the pedicel (hinged attachment), whereas the labial base articulated with an oval-shaped projection of the pedicel (articulate attachment). The pedicel bases were firmly ankylosed to the crest of the thin flange of porous spongy bone on the premaxillary bone, which afforded a flange-groove system on the labial surface of the premaxillary bone. Developmentally, the pedicel and thin flange of spongy bone were completely different mineralized attachment tissues. The pedicel had a dual origin, i.e., the dental papilla cells, which differentiated into odontoblasts that constructed the internal surface of the pedicel, and the mesenchymal cells, which differentiated into osteoblasts that formed the outer face of the pedicel. A thin flange of spongy bone was deposited on the superficial resorbed labial side of the premaxillary bone proper, and later rapid bone remodeling proceeded toward the pedicel base. These unique features of pedicellate tooth attachment for the upper jaw teeth in the adult S. japonicus are highly modified teeth for enhancing the ability of individual functional teeth to move closely over irregularities in the rock surfaces during the scraping of algae.

  18. Spatio-temporal distribution of microglia/macrophages during regeneration in the cerebellum of adult teleost fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Günther K H; Clint, Sorcha C; Takimoto, Noriko; Hughes, Alun T L; Wellbrock, Ursula M; Meissner, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, adult teleost fish exhibit an enormous capacity to replace damaged neurons with newly generated ones after injuries in the central nervous system. In the present study, the role of microglia/macrophages, identified by tomato lectin binding, was examined in this process of neuronal regeneration in the corpus cerebelli of the teleost fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. In the intact corpus cerebelli, or after short survival times following application of a mechanical lesion to this cerebellar subdivision, microglia/macrophages were virtually absent. Conversely, approximately 3 days after application of the lesion, the areal density of microglia/macrophages started to increase at and near the lesion site in the ipsilateral hemisphere, as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, and reached maximum levels at approximately 10 days post lesion. The density remained elevated until it reached background levels approximately one month after the injury. By comparing the time course of the appearance of microglia/macrophages with that of other regenerative events occurring within the first few weeks of wound healing in this model system, we hypothesize that one possible function of microglia/macrophages might be to remove debris of cells that have undergone apoptotic cell death at the lesion site.

  19. Phase diagrams of spinor bosons in two-leg ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Valencia, Jereson; Franco, Roberto; Figueira, Marcos Sergio

    In the last, years different experimental groups have reported the realization of atomic ladders in the presence of a homogeneous flux [Nat. Phys. 10, 588 (2014)]. These experiments have motivated theoretical calculations on 2-leg ladders with spinless bosons under magnetic fields [PRB 91, 140406(R) (2015)]. In this paper, we consider spinor boson atoms with spin S =1, such as Rb and Na. Gases of these atoms can be described by the spinor Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian which has three terms: the kinetic energy, local density-density interaction and local spin-dependent term. Using DMRG, we study S =1 bosons on 2-leg ladders, taking into account bothantiferromagnetic and ferromagneticspin interaction. When both legs are ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, we obtained Mott insulator and superfluid phases, similar to the one-dimensional case, but the insulator areas decrease due to the additional kinetic term. The even-odd asymmetry is still observed in the antiferromagnetic case. However, when the local spin interaction has a different sign on each leg, charge density waves for densities 3/2 and 5/2 appear. The Mott insulator phase for density 1 (2) correspond to the antiferromagnetic-leg (ferromagnetic-leg). COLCIENCIAS (Grant No. FP44842-057-2015).

  20. Generalization of Luttinger's Theorem for Fermionic Ladder Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardini, P.; Haas, S.; Rice, T. M.; Sigrist, M.

    1998-03-01

    Recently Yamanaka et al.(M. Yamanaka, M. Oshikawa, and I. Affleck, PRL 79), 1110 (1997). adapted the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem to obtain a non-perturbative generalization of Luttinger's theorem for 1-dim. fermionic systems. Their method can be extended to ladder systems. The key quantity which enters in a Hubbard or t-J model is the sum of the electron occupation numbers on a rung. At half-filling, this leads at once to a proof that undoped Heisenberg ladders have gapless excitations when the number of legs is odd. Upon doping, the Fermi wavevectors of individual channels are not conserved under interaction, but their sum is. This result does not require a Fermi surface in each channel and is consistent with the recently proposed assignment of 1 el. per rung to gapped insulating even-parity channels, and 1-δ els. to a Luttinger liquid in the odd-parity channel in a lightly doped 3-leg ladder (δ: hole doping). The crossover to 2 dim. occurs in the limit of a large number of legs, and it is the area enclosed by the Fermi surface which enters, consistent with Luttinger's theorem for the case of Landau Fermi liquids.

  1. The effects of aspirin and fish oil consumption on lysophosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidic acids and their correlates with platelet aggregation in adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Abdolahi, Amir; Georas, Steve N; Brenna, J Thomas; Cai, Xueya; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Phipps, Richard P; Lawrence, Peter; Mousa, Shaker A; Block, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Many diabetics are insensitive to aspirin's platelet anti-aggregation effects. The influence of co-administration of aspirin and fish oil (FO) on plasma lysophospholipids in subjects with diabetes is poorly characterized. Thirty adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were treated with aspirin (81mg/day) for seven days, then with FO (4g/day) for 28 days, then in combination for another seven days. Lysophospholipids and platelet measures were determined after acute (4h) and chronic (7 days) ingestion of aspirin, FO, or both in combination. FO ingestion reduced all lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) concentrations, while EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) concentrations significantly increased after FO alone and in combination with aspirin. In vitro arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was most strongly correlated with palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) LPA and LPC concentrations at all time points. The ingestion of these agents may reduce cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic adults, with a disrupted lipid milieu, via lysolipid mediated mechanisms.

  2. Adult Cleaner Wrasse Outperform Capuchin Monkeys, Chimpanzees and Orang-utans in a Complex Foraging Task Derived from Cleaner – Client Reef Fish Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Darby; Essler, Jennifer; Pinto, Ana I.; Wismer, Sharon; Stoinski, Tara; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    The insight that animals' cognitive abilities are linked to their evolutionary history, and hence their ecology, provides the framework for the comparative approach. Despite primates renowned dietary complexity and social cognition, including cooperative abilities, we here demonstrate that cleaner wrasse outperform three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and orang-utans, in a foraging task involving a choice between two actions, both of which yield identical immediate rewards, but only one of which yields an additional delayed reward. The foraging task decisions involve partner choice in cleaners: they must service visiting client reef fish before resident clients to access both; otherwise the former switch to a different cleaner. Wild caught adult, but not juvenile, cleaners learned to solve the task quickly and relearned the task when it was reversed. The majority of primates failed to perform above chance after 100 trials, which is in sharp contrast to previous studies showing that primates easily learn to choose an action that yields immediate double rewards compared to an alternative action. In conclusion, the adult cleaners' ability to choose a superior action with initially neutral consequences is likely due to repeated exposure in nature, which leads to specific learned optimal foraging decision rules. PMID:23185293

  3. Charge Excitations in Two-Leg Ladders: A tDMRG Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dias da Silva, Luis; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Summers, Michael Stuart; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We study the dynamics of holon doublon pairs in two-leg Hubbard ladders with the time-dependent Density Matrix Renormalization-Group approach. Benchmark results show that the Krylov algorithm is well suited to calculate the time dependence of observables in these systems. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of the holon doublon depend strongly on the coupling asymmetry within the ladder, indicating that the ladder geometry plays a role in the decay of these elementary charge excitations.

  4. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Exactly solvable quantum spin tubes and ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, M. T.; Maslen, M.

    1999-08-01

    We find families of integrable n-leg spin- 1/2 ladders and tubes with general isotropic exchange interactions between spins. These models are equivalent to su(N) spin chains with N = 2n. Arbitrary rung interactions in the spin tubes and ladders induce chemical potentials in the equivalent spin chains. The potentials are n-dependent and differ for the tube and ladder models. The models are solvable by means of nested Bethe ansatze.

  5. How can surgeonfish help pediatric surgeons? A pilot study investigating the antinociceptive effect of fish aquariums in adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Matthieu; Delpont, Marion; Bachy, Manon; Kabbaj, Reda; Annequin, Daniel; Vialle, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple distraction strategies have been proposed to reduce the incidence of anxiety and pain in children. Animal-assisted therapy is acknowledged and used in children as an adjunctive treatment with cognitive, physical, psychosocial and spiritual benefits. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of fish aquarium animal-assisted therapy (FA-AAT) on pain perception in a cohort of healthy volunteers. METHODS: Sixty-nine healthy subjects (mean age 27.3 years) were exposed to >20 different species of soft or hard corals and >25 fish in a 1000 L saltwater aquarium. Pain perception was assessed using an electrical stimulation device, the Pain Matcher (Cefar Medical AB, Sweden), after 5 min, 10 min, 20 min and 30 min of continuous aquarium viewing. The measurements were repeated 10 min after stopping aquarium viewing. RESULTS: A statistically significant pain perception threshold augmentation was observed after a 5 min aquarium viewing. This threshold augmentation was also increased after 10 min, 20 min and 30 min of FA-AAT. A remnant effect was noted up to 10 min after exposure. This short post-viewing time period could be useful in clinical practice to perform certain painful procedures in children, such as those involving needles, under improved conditions immediately after aquarium exposure. CONCLUSIONS: In the authors’ department, FA-AAT is now used as a nonpharmacological antinociceptive technique in association with a protocol of inhalated oxygen/nitrous oxide mixtures for needle-related procedures. Children and parents are invited to watch the aquarium during the 10 min to 20 min before venous punctures. PMID:25222572

  6. Spectrum of a magnetized strong-leg quantum spin ladder.

    PubMed

    Schmidiger, D; Bouillot, P; Guidi, T; Bewley, R; Kollath, C; Giamarchi, T; Zheludev, A

    2013-09-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering is used to measure the spin excitation spectrum of the Heisenberg S=1/2 ladder material (C7H10N)2CuBr4 in its entirety, both in the gapped spin liquid and the magnetic field-induced Tomonaga-Luttinger spin liquid regimes. A fundamental change of the spin dynamics is observed between these two regimes. Density matrix renormalization group calculations quantitatively reproduce and help understand the observed commensurate and incommensurate excitations. The results validate long-standing quantum field-theoretical predictions but also test the limits of that approach. PMID:25166704

  7. Optimal molecular alignment and orientation through rotational ladder climbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Julien; Dion, Claude M.; Turinici, Gabriel

    2005-10-01

    We study the control by electromagnetic fields of molecular alignment and orientation in a linear, rigid-rotor model. With the help of a monotonically convergent algorithm, we find that the optimal field is in the microwave part of the spectrum and acts by resonantly exciting the rotation of the molecule progressively from the ground state, i.e., by rotational ladder climbing. This mechanism is present not only when maximizing orientation or alignment, but also when using prescribed target states that simultaneously optimize the efficiency of orientation/alignment and its duration. The extension of the optimization method to consider a finite rotational temperature is also presented.

  8. Optimal molecular alignment and orientation through rotational ladder climbing.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Julien; Dion, Claude M; Turinici, Gabriel

    2005-10-01

    We study the control by electromagnetic fields of molecular alignment and orientation in a linear, rigid-rotor model. With the help of a monotonically convergent algorithm, we find that the optimal field is in the microwave part of the spectrum and acts by resonantly exciting the rotation of the molecule progressively from the ground state, i.e., by rotational ladder climbing. This mechanism is present not only when maximizing orientation or alignment, but also when using prescribed target states that simultaneously optimize the efficiency of orientation/alignment and its duration. The extension of the optimization method to consider a finite rotational temperature is also presented. PMID:16238394

  9. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  10. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Wild, Laurianne G; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2005-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are important in the American diet and economy. Nearly $27 billion are spent each year in the United States on seafood products. Fish and shellfish are also important causes of food hypersensitivity. In fact, shellfish constitute the number one cause of food allergy in the American adult. During the past decade, much has been learned about allergens in fish and shellfish. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are parvalbumins. The major shellfish allergen has been identified as tropomyosin. Many new and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. Extensive research is currently underway for the development of safer and more effective methods for the diagnosis and management of fish and shellfish hypersensitivity.

  11. A ladder type iron(II) coordination polymer with cooperative spin transition.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Wolfgang; Schlamp, Stephan; Weber, Birgit

    2012-10-21

    Ladder type 1D coordination polymers were synthesised with the aim to improve the spin crossover properties of the iron(II) complexes following the concepts of crystal engineering. A wide hysteresis loop (34 K) was observed if rigid linkers were used. The first X-ray structure for a 1D iron(II) ladder is reported.

  12. The Washington State Early Childhood Education Career Development Ladder. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbank, John R.; Wiefek, Nancy

    This policy brief discusses the Early Childhood Education Career Development Ladder being implemented in Washington State. The initiative institutionalizes a career ladder with wage increments based on experience, job responsibility, and relevant education with a unique mix of public and private funding. The brief builds a case for the career…

  13. Ladders to Literacy for Kindergarten Students. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Ladders to Literacy" is a supplemental early literacy curriculum published in "Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book." The program targets children at different levels and from diverse cultural backgrounds: those who are typically developing, have disabilities, or are at risk of reading failure. The activities are organized into three…

  14. Dissipation, Voltage Profile and Levy Dragon in a Special Ladder Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucak, C.

    2009-01-01

    A ladder network constructed by an elementary two-terminal network consisting of a parallel resistor-inductor block in series with a parallel resistor-capacitor block sometimes is said to have a non-dispersive dissipative response. This special ladder network is created iteratively by replacing the elementary two-terminal network in place of the…

  15. Ladders. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-7-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on ladders is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 20-hour unit is to make the fire fighter capable of doing routine work with hand-operated ground ladders. An…

  16. The Design of Curriculum Guidelines for Educational Ladders Using Task Data. Working Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullion, Christina; Gilpatrick, Eleanor

    The Health Services Mobility Study is engaged in the development of generic methodology to analyze health occupations at the professional, technical, and aide level, with the aim of providing a data base that could result in the design of job ladders, curriculum guidelines for educational ladders, and the design of performance evaluation…

  17. Fabric and Rubber Products Career Ladder AFSCs 58230/58250/58270/58290. Occupational Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The report describes an occupational survey of the Fabric and Rubber Products career ladder, AFS 582XO, conducted by the Occupational Survey Branch. The report describes the development of the survey instrument, administration to career ladder incumbents, and resulting summaries of tasks performed by airmen grouped by skill level, experience…

  18. 29 CFR 1910.29 - Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds... Surfaces § 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers). (a) General requirements... rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers). This standard is promulgated to aid in providing for the safety...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.29 - Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds... Surfaces § 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers). (a) General requirements... rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers). This standard is promulgated to aid in providing for the safety...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.29 - Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds... Surfaces § 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers). (a) General requirements... rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers). This standard is promulgated to aid in providing for the safety...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.29 - Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds... Surfaces § 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers). (a) General requirements... rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers). This standard is promulgated to aid in providing for the safety...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.29 - Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds... Surfaces § 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers). (a) General requirements... rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers). This standard is promulgated to aid in providing for the safety...

  3. Influence of feeding a fish oil-containing diet to young, lean, adult dogs: effects on lipid metabolites, postprandial glycaemia and body weight.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Conway, Charlotte E; Mcleod, Kyle R; Harmon, David L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a fish oil (FO)-containing diet on lipid and protein metabolism, postprandial glycaemia and body weight in young, lean, adult dogs. Eight female Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, Control or FO, in a crossover design. At the beginning of the experiment and at 30 and 60 d, a baseline blood sample was collected and the dogs then were fed their daily ration. Nitrogen balance began at 07:00 h on day 63 of each experimental period and ended at 07:00 h on day 69. On day 66 of each period, a single dose (7.5 mg/kg) of (15)N-glycine was administered orally to each dog via gelatin capsule. Postprandial glycaemia did not differ between treatments or among sampling days within treatment. Cholesterol concentration was increased (p<0.05) on the Control treatment throughout the experiment when compared to values of day 0. Dogs fed the FO treatment had higher plasma triglyceride and ghrelin concentrations than those fed the Control treatment. Body weight and food intake did not differ between dietary treatments. Faecal excretion was increased (p<0.05) in the FO treatment. Dry matter digestibility was decreased (p<0.05) and fat digestibility tended (p<0.10) to decrease in the FO treatment. Overall, feeding a FO-containing diet showed a protective effect against the rise of plasma cholesterol and it increased plasma ghrelin concentration. However, FO supplementation did not appear to affect protein metabolism or postprandial glycaemia in adult lean dogs. PMID:26490201

  4. Influence of feeding a fish oil-containing diet to young, lean, adult dogs: effects on lipid metabolites, postprandial glycaemia and body weight.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Conway, Charlotte E; Mcleod, Kyle R; Harmon, David L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a fish oil (FO)-containing diet on lipid and protein metabolism, postprandial glycaemia and body weight in young, lean, adult dogs. Eight female Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, Control or FO, in a crossover design. At the beginning of the experiment and at 30 and 60 d, a baseline blood sample was collected and the dogs then were fed their daily ration. Nitrogen balance began at 07:00 h on day 63 of each experimental period and ended at 07:00 h on day 69. On day 66 of each period, a single dose (7.5 mg/kg) of (15)N-glycine was administered orally to each dog via gelatin capsule. Postprandial glycaemia did not differ between treatments or among sampling days within treatment. Cholesterol concentration was increased (p<0.05) on the Control treatment throughout the experiment when compared to values of day 0. Dogs fed the FO treatment had higher plasma triglyceride and ghrelin concentrations than those fed the Control treatment. Body weight and food intake did not differ between dietary treatments. Faecal excretion was increased (p<0.05) in the FO treatment. Dry matter digestibility was decreased (p<0.05) and fat digestibility tended (p<0.10) to decrease in the FO treatment. Overall, feeding a FO-containing diet showed a protective effect against the rise of plasma cholesterol and it increased plasma ghrelin concentration. However, FO supplementation did not appear to affect protein metabolism or postprandial glycaemia in adult lean dogs.

  5. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-11-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors.

  6. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-01-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors. PMID:12454077

  7. The effect of instructions on potential slide-out failures during portable extension ladder angular positioning.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alan O; Pagano, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Accidents involving portable ladders are a common cause of serious occupational and non-occupational injuries throughout the industrialized world. Many of these injuries could be prevented with better instruction on the proper usage of portable ladders. Research is reported that focused on both the human factors and engineering aspects of portable extension ladder usage based on common ladder setup procedures. Results of the human factors experiment revealed evidence of unsafe acts that could lead to catastrophic ladder slide-out accidents in real-life situations. Six different ladder setup methods were evaluated for safety and stability based on placement angles: the basic, 75 degree, stand-reach, L sticker, 4:1, and bubble level methods. Ideally, ladder users would set the ladder up at 75.5 degrees to achieve the consensus industry standard safest angle. Setup methods varied in complexity and nature of instruction. The level method produced the most accurate and the least variable results. The engineering analysis determined the coefficient of friction of a variety of clean and contaminated surfaces commonly used with ladders. This analysis determined the total number of slide-out failures that would likely have occurred in the data obtained in each of the ladder setup methods tested in the human factors experiment. Based on test participants' setup angles, the average calculated ladder slide-out failure rate was 8.7 percent for ladders positioned on a surface with the lowest measured coefficient of friction. When broken down by ladder setup method, the 4:1 method had a failure rate of 18.8 percent, the 75 degree method had a failure rate of 15.2 percent, and the basic method had a failure rate of 9.8 percent. The stand-reach and L sticker methods had identical failure rates at 3.3 percent and the level method was best at 1.1 percent. The level method provided the lowest error, least variability, and setup closest to the target angle of 75.5 degrees. Analysis of

  8. Brane parity orders in the insulating state of Hubbard ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degli Esposti Boschi, Cristian; Montorsi, Arianna; Roncaglia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The Mott insulating state of the Hubbard model at half filling could be depicted as a spin liquid of singly occupied sites with holon-doublon quantum fluctuations localized in pairs. In one dimension the behavior is captured by a finite value of the charge parity string correlator, which fails to remain finite when generalized to higher dimensions. We recover a definition of parity brane correlator which may remain nonvanishing in the presence of interchain coupling, by assigning an appropriate fractional phase to the parity breaking fluctuations. In the case of Hubbard ladders at half filling, we find that the charge parity brane is nonzero at any repulsive value of interaction. The spin-parity brane instead becomes nonvanishing in the even-leg case, in correspondence to the onset of the spin gapped D-Mott phase, which is absent in the odd-leg case. The behavior of the parity correlators is also analyzed by means of a numerical DMRG analysis of the one- and two-leg ladder.

  9. Renormalization group calculations with k∥ dependent couplings in a ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovici, G.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the phase diagram of a ladder system (two chains, with a Hubbard interaction U and an interband coupling t⊥). It is already known [M. Fabrizio, Phys. Rev. B 48 (1993) 15838] that backward interband scattering (gb) plays a particular role in this system. Moreover, some authors (for instance [ H.J. Schulz, Phys. Rev. B 53 (1996) R2959]) have early pointed out that, because of this coupling gb, parallel momentum (k∥) dependence could not be neglected. So we have introduced an original method to include k∥ dependence of couplings, in a RG calculation using the one particle irreducible (OPI) scheme. We calculate different susceptibilities, which are classified according to their symmetries. Our results depend on whether we include k∥ dependence or not. When we include this dependence, we observe a region with large antiferromagnetic fluctuations, in the vicinity of small t⊥, followed by a superconducting region with a simultaneous divergence of the spin density waves channel. The region with only spin density wave fluctuations disappears, when k∥ dependence is neglected. Altogether, our results prove that k∥ is an influential variable in the renormalization group flow, for a ladder.

  10. The sanitation ladder, what constitutes an improved form of sanitation?

    PubMed

    Exley, Josephine L R; Liseka, Bernard; Cumming, Oliver; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2015-01-20

    This study aimed to assess whether the MDG classifications and JMP sanitation ladder corresponded to hygienic proxies. Latrines were purposefully sampled in urban and rural Tanzania. Three hygienic proxies were measured: E. coli on points of hand contact, helminth at point of foot contact, and number of flies. Additionally, samples were collected from comparable surfaces in the household, and a questionnaire on management and use, combined with a visual inspection of the latrine's design was conducted. In total, 341 latrines were sampled. The MDG classifications "improved" vs "unimproved" did not describe the observed differences in E. coli concentrations. Disaggregating the data into the JMP sanitation ladder, on average "shared" facilities were the least contaminated: 9.2 vs 17.7 ("improved") and 137 E. coli/100 mL ("unimproved") (p = 0.04, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis suggests that both the presence of a slab and sharing a facility is protective against faecal-oral exposure (OR 0.18 95% CI 0.10, 0.34 and OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29, 0.92). The findings do not support the current assumption that shared facilities of an adequate technology should be classified for MDG purposes as "unimproved".

  11. SUSY’s Ladder: Reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    DOE PAGES

    Reece, Matthew; Xue, Wei

    2016-04-07

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY's Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague othermore » supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY's Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. As a result, this gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.« less

  12. Chiral ladders and the edges of quantum Hall insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hügel, Dario; Paredes, Belén

    2014-02-01

    The realization and detection of topological phases with ultracold atomic gases is at the frontier of current theoretical and experimental research. Here, we identify cold atoms in optical ladders subjected to synthetic magnetic fields as readily realizable bridges between one-dimensional spin-orbit (time-reversal) topological insulators and two-dimensional quantum Hall insulators. We reveal three instances of their promising potential: (i) they realize spin-orbit coupling, with the left-right leg degree of freedom playing the role of an effective spin, (ii) their energy bands and eigenstates exactly reproduce the topological chiral edge modes of two-dimensional Chern insulators, and (iii) they can be tailored to realize a topological phase transition from a trivial to a topological insulating phase. We propose realistic schemes to observe the chiral and topological properties of ladder systems with current optical lattice-based experiments. Our findings open a door to the exploration of the physics of the edges of quantum Hall insulators and to the realization of spin-orbit coupling and topological superfluid phases with ultracold atomic gases.

  13. Assembly procedure for the silicon pixel ladder for PHENIX silicon vertex tracker.

    SciTech Connect

    Onuki, Y.; PHENIX Collaboration, et al.

    2009-05-08

    The silicon vertex tracker (VTX) will be installed in the summer of 2010 to enhance the physics capabilities of the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment (PHENIX) experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VTX consists of two types of silicon detectors: a pixel detector and a strip detector. The pixel detector consists of 30 pixel ladders placed on the two inner cylindrical layers of the VTX. The ladders are required to be assembled with high precision, however, they should be assembled in both cost and time efficient manner. We have developed an assembly bench for the ladder with several assembly fixtures and a quality assurance (Q/A) system using a 3D measurement machine. We have also developed an assembly procedure for the ladder, including a method for dispensing adhesive uniformly and encapsulation of bonding wires. The developed procedures were adopted in the assembly of the first pixel ladder and satisfy the requirements.

  14. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  15. Cortical and subcortical lesions impair skilled walking in the ladder rung walking test: a new task to evaluate fore- and hindlimb stepping, placing, and co-ordination.

    PubMed

    Metz, Gerlinde A; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2002-04-15

    The ladder rung walking test is a new task to assess skilled walking and measure both forelimb and hindlimb placing, stepping, and inter-limb co-ordination. Rats spontaneously walk from a starting location to a goal along a horizontal ladder. The spacing between the rungs of the ladder is variable and can be changed to prevent the animal from learning either the absolute or relative location of the rungs. The testing procedure requires minimal training and allows detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis using video recording. The utility of the test is described with postoperative data obtained from animals with unilateral neocortical strokes produced by pial stripping over the motor cortex, neonatal and adult unilateral corticospinal tract lesions produced by tract section at the pyramids, and unilateral dopamine depletions produced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the nigrostriatal bundle. In addition, a group of aged rats was examined. Deficits in limb placing, stepping and co-ordination displayed by the animals demonstrate that this test can discriminate between lesions of the motor system or age-associated impairments. The test is useful for assessing loss and recovery of function due to brain or spinal cord injury, the effectiveness of treatment therapies, as well as compensatory processes through which animals adapt to nervous system injury. PMID:11992668

  16. Polaron and bipolaron of uniaxially strained one dimensional zigzag ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavidov, B. Ya.

    2016-09-01

    An influence of the uniaxial strains in one dimensional zigzag ladder (1DZL) on the properties of polarons and bipolarons is considered. It is shown that strain changes all the parameters of the system, in particular, spectrum, existing bands and the masses of charge carriers. Numerical results obtained by taking into an account the Poisson effect clearly indicate that the properties of the (bi)polaronic system can be tuned via strain. Mass of bipolaron can be manipulated by the strain too which in turn leads to the way of tuning Bose-Einstein condensation temperature TBEC of bipolarons. It is shown that TBEC of bipolarons in strained 1DZL reasonably correlates with the values of critical temperature of superconductivity of certain perovskites.

  17. Upper Critical Fields of Moleular-Based Spin Ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Brian; Landee, Chris; Turnbull, Mark; Harrison, Neil

    2010-03-01

    The upper critical (saturation) fields of several spin ladders was found using a high field, short pulse magnet at LANL. These compounds include Cu(Quinoxaline)Cl2, Cu(Quinoxaline)Br2, Cu(2,3 dimethylpyrazine)Cl2, Cu(2,3 dimethylpyrazine)Br2, Cu(methylpyrazine)Br2, and Cu(methylpyrazine)Cl2. The data were taken at temperatures as low as 460 mK with a pulsed field strength as high as 57 tesla. The upper critical fields were estimated by considerations of overcoming the exchange energies associated with all the compounds. These energies were extracted from model fits to the susceptibility data. These estimations agree reasonably well with the experimentally observed upper critical fields. We report on these results and compare the data to simulations of the magnetization as a function of field as a further check to confirm that these compounds obey the associated model systems.

  18. The power of engagement: implementation of a career ladder program.

    PubMed

    Bourgeault, Robert; Newmark, Jason

    2012-01-01

    At Baystate Health in Massachusetts, the development and implementation of a career ladder program was implemented to reduce turnover and to improve employee satisfaction, morale, and recruitment efforts. There was significant initial expenditure in the program, as a result of promoting the large number of employees with significant experience and seniority. A smaller number of staff are expected to apply for advancement during successive cycles, allowing for decreased incremental expense going forward. Critical to the success of the program was understanding the time commitment, getting senior organizational support and staff buy-in, and justifying the associated expenses. The development and initiation of the program has done much to support a positive work environment with increased morale and higher performance among significant numbers of staff at all levels. PMID:22514970

  19. [Helminths of Antarctic fishes].

    PubMed

    Rocka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic fishes are represented by sharks, skates (Chondrichthyes) and bony fishes (Teleostei). Teleosts play an important role in the completion of life cycles of many helminth species. They serve as either definitive or intermediate and paratenic hosts. Chondrichthyes are definitive hosts only. Seventy three helminth species occur as the adult stage in fishes: Digenea (45), Cestoda (14), Nematoda (6), Acanthocephala (8), Also, 11 larval stages of Cestoda (7) and Nematoda (4) are known, together with 7 species of Acanthocephala in the cystacanth stage. One digenean species, Otodistomum cestoides, matures in skates. Among cestodes maturing in fishes only one, Parabothriocephalus johnstoni, occurs in a bony fish, Macrourus whitsoni. Antarctic Chondrichthyes are not infected with nematodes and acanthocephalans. Cestode larvae from teleosts belong to Tetraphyllidea (parasites of skates), and Tetrabothriidae and Diphyllobothriidae (parasites of birds and mammals). Larval nematodes represent Anisakidae, parasites of fishes, birds and mammals. Acanthocephalan cystacanths mature in pinnipeds and birds. The majority of parasites maturing in Antarctic fishes are endemics. Only 4 digenean and one nematode species, Hysterothylacium aduncum, are cosmopolitan. All acanthocephalans, almost all digeneans, the majority of cestodes and some nematodes occur mainly or exclusively in benthic fishes. Specificity of the majority of helminths utilizing teleosts as intermediate and/or paratenic hosts is low. Among parasites using fishes as definitive hosts, all Cestoda, most Digenea and Nematoda, and almost all Acanthocephala have a range of hosts restricted to one order or even to 1-2 host species. PMID:18664106

  20. Exotic paired phases in ladders with spin-dependent hopping

    SciTech Connect

    Feiguin, Adrian E.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2011-03-15

    Fermions in two dimensions, when subject to anisotropic spin-dependent hopping, can potentially give rise to unusual paired states in unpolarized mixtures that can behave as non-Fermi liquids. One possibility is a fully paired state with a gap for fermion excitations in which the Cooper pairs remain uncondensed. Such a ''Cooper-pair Bose-metal'' phase would be expected to have a singular Bose surface in momentum space. As demonstrated in the context of two-dimensional bosons hopping with a frustrating ring-exchange interaction, an analogous Bose-metal phase has a set of quasi-one-dimensional descendant states when put on a ladder geometry. Here we present a density matrix renormalization group study of the attractive Hubbard model with spin-dependent hopping on a two-leg ladder geometry. In our setup, one spin species moves preferentially along the leg direction, while the other does so along the rung direction. We find compelling evidence for the existence of a novel Cooper-pair Bose-metal phase in a region of the phase diagram at intermediate coupling. We further explore the phase diagram of this model as a function of hopping anisotropy, density, and interaction strength, finding a conventional superfluid phase as well as a phase of paired Cooper pairs with d-wave symmetry, similar to the one found in models of hard-core bosons with ring exchange. We argue that simulating this model with cold Fermi gases on spin-dependent optical lattices is a promising direction for realizing exotic quantum states.

  1. Snakes and ladders: state interventions and the place of liberty in public health policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I outline and explore some problems in the way that the Nuffield Council of Bioethics' report Public Health: Ethical Issues (2007) presents its 'Intervention Ladder'. They see the metaphor of a ladder both as capturing key normative priorities and as making a real and important contribution to ethical policymaking in public health. In this paper I argue that the intervention ladder is not a useful model for thinking about policy decisions, that it is likely to produce poor decisions and that it is incompatible with the report's stated approach to relevant public health policy values.

  2. Snakes and ladders: state interventions and the place of liberty in public health policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I outline and explore some problems in the way that the Nuffield Council of Bioethics' report Public Health: Ethical Issues (2007) presents its 'Intervention Ladder'. They see the metaphor of a ladder both as capturing key normative priorities and as making a real and important contribution to ethical policymaking in public health. In this paper I argue that the intervention ladder is not a useful model for thinking about policy decisions, that it is likely to produce poor decisions and that it is incompatible with the report's stated approach to relevant public health policy values. PMID:27215764

  3. Long-term fish oil supplementation attenuates seizure activity in the amygdala induced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mancilla, L E; Hernández-González, M; Guevara, M A; Benavides-Haro, D E; Martínez-Arteaga, P

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have provided evidence of significant effects of omega-3 fatty acids on brain functionality, including seizures and disorders such as epilepsy. Fish oil (FO) is a marine product rich in unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. Considering that the amygdala is one of the brain structures most sensitive to seizure generation, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term chronic FO supplementation (from embryonic conception to adulthood) on the severity of seizures and amygdaloid electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA)-induced seizure model using adult rats. Female Wistar rats were fed a commercial diet supplemented daily with FO (300mg/kg) from puberty through mating, gestation, delivery, and weaning of the pups. Only the male pups were then fed daily with a commercial diet supplemented with the same treatment as the dam up to the age of 150days postpartum, when they were bilaterally implanted in the amygdala to record behavior and EEG activity before, during, and after seizures induced by administering 3-MPA. Results were compared with those obtained from rats supplemented with palm oil (PO) and rats treated with a vehicle (CTRL). The male rats treated with FO showed longer latency to seizure onset, fewer convulsive episodes, and attenuated severity compared those in the PO and CTRL groups according to the Racine scale. Moreover, long-term FO supplementation was associated with a reduction of the absolute power (AP) of the fast frequencies (12-25Hz) in the amygdala during the seizure periods. These findings support the idea that chronic supplementation with omega-3 of marine origin may have antiseizure properties as other studies have suggested.

  4. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  5. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  6. Post-release behavior and movement patterns of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after capture using alternative commercial fish gear, lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, WDFW conducted post-release mortality studies of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) that were captured using beach or purse seines. These studies were comprised of two groups of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags): (1) treatment fish that were captured by one of the gear types 9–25 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of Bonneville Dam (rkm 234); and (2) control fish that were captured at the Adult Fish Facility near the Washington shore fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, and then transported and released 8 rkm downstream of the Bonneville Dam. Fish were confirmed to have survived if they moved upstream and were detected on PIT-tag antennas at or upstream of Bonneville Dam, were recovered at hatcheries or at the dam, or were captured by commercial or sport fishers. Post-release survival estimates were higher for steelhead (89–98 percent) than for Chinook salmon and coho salmon (50–90 percent; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpub. data, 2014). However, some Chinook salmon and coho salmon return to hatcheries, or spawn in the mainstem Columbia River and in tributaries downstream of Bonneville Dam. The proportion of Chinook salmon and coho salmon in the treatment group that were destined for areas downstream of Bonneville Dam likely was higher than in the control group because the control fish were collected as they were attempting to pass the dam. If this assertion was true, mortality would have been overestimated in these studies, so WDFW developed a study plan to determine the post-release movements and intended location of Chinook salmon and coho salmon collected with beach and purse seines in the lower Columbia River.

  7. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon: Finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam on the Umatilla River in Oregon to increase the numbers of anadromous fish. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to provide funding for the project. These agencies' actions would implement section 904(d) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program which addresses the provision of offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. This Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decision document for both agencies. The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Convergence and periodic solutions for the input impedance of a standard ladder network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucak, C.; Acar, C.

    2007-03-01

    The input impedance of an infinite ladder network is computed by using the recursive relation and by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block is added to the network. However, this assumption is not true in general and standard textbooks do not always treat these networks correctly. This paper develops a general solution to obtain the input impedance of a standard ladder network of impedances and admittances for any number of blocks. Then, this result is used to provide the convergence condition for the infinite ladder network. The conditions which lead to periodic input impedance are exploited. It is shown that there are infinite numbers of periodic points and no paradoxical behaviour exists in the standard ladder network.

  9. Adult Women’s Blood Mercury Concentrations Vary Regionally in the United States: Association with Patterns of Fish Consumption (NHANES 1999–2004)

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R.; Clickner, Robert P.; Jeffries, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The current, continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has included blood mercury (BHg) and fish/shellfish consumption since it began in 1999. NHANES 1999–2004 data form the basis for these analyses. Objectives This study was designed to determine BHg distributions within U.S. Census regions and within coastal and noncoastal areas among women of childbearing age, their association with patterns of fish consumption, and changes from 1999 through 2004. Methods We performed univariate and bivariate analyses to determine the distribution of BHg and fish consumption in the population and to investigate differences by geography, race/ethnicity, and income. We used multivariate analysis (regression) to determine the strongest predictors of BHg among geography, demographic factors, and fish consumption. Results Elevated BHg occurred more commonly among women of childbearing age living in coastal areas of the United States (approximately one in six women). Regionally, exposures differ across the United States: Northeast > South and West > Midwest. Asian women and women with higher income ate more fish and had higher BHg. Time-trend analyses identified reduced BHg and reduced intake of Hg in the upper percentiles without an overall reduction of fish consumption. Conclusions BHg is associated with income, ethnicity, residence (census region and coastal proximity). From 1999 through 2004, BHg decreased without a concomitant decrease in fish consumption. Data are consistent with a shift over this time period in fish species in women’s diets. PMID:19165386

  10. Photonic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders in exponentially chirped Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P B

    2002-05-01

    The formation of photonic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders is demonstrated in an exponentially chirped one-dimensional Bragg grating. The photonic Bloch oscillations are investigated using Hamiltonian optics, and direct analogies are made with electron dynamics in periodic potentials. The results of transfer matrix calculations are presented, which show the existence of a photonic Wannier-Stark ladder that should be detectable in experiments.

  11. Pulse-Width Control in Ladder Structure Four-Phase Rectifier for AC-Electromotive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Myatez, S. V.; Langeman, E. G.; Schurov, N. I.

    2016-04-01

    Based on these studies the ways of power factor of the single-phase rectifiers operating in a single-phase AC network improving are suggested. The ladder four-phase rectifier is offered as a technical mean using a pulse-width method of controlling the rectified voltage. The pulse-width control efficiency as a way of the power factor rectifier with a ladder structure for AC electromotive improving is evaluated.

  12. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  13. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work.

  14. On the application of the Non-linear sigma model to spin chains and spin ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Germán

    We review the non-linear sigma model approach (NLSM) to spin chains and spin ladders, presenting new results. The generalization of the Haldane's map to ladders in the Hamiltonian approach, give rise to different values of the θ parameter depending on the spin S, the number of legs ne and the choice of blocks needed to built up the NLSM fields. For rectangular blocks we obtain θ=0 or 2πS depending on wether ne, is even or odd, while for diagonal blocks we obtain θ=2πSne. Both results agree modulo 2π, and yield the same prediction, namely that even (resp. odd) ladders are gapped (resp. gapless). For even leeged ladders we show that the spin gap collapses exponentially with ne and we propose a finite size correction to the gap formula recently derived by Charkravarty using the 2+1 NSLM, which gives a good fit of numerical results. We show the existence of a Haldane phase in the two legged ladder using diagonal blocks and finally we consider the phase diagram of dimerized ladders.

  15. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  16. Zero Temperature Phase Diagram of an Asymmetric Spin Ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capriotti, Luca; Becca, Federico; Parola, Alberto; Sorella, Sandro

    2003-03-01

    Asymmetric spin-half ladders (ASL) have recently attracted much theoretical interest due to possible experimental realizations in delafossite cuprates such as YCuO_2.5 [1] and the unusual physical effects that the asymmetry in the leg exchanges could introduce both in the ground-state correlations and in the properties of the excitation spectrum. Using conformal field theory and Lanczos exact diagonalizations, we demonstrate that for small frustration these systems are in a Luttinger spin-fluid phase, with gapless excitations, and a finite spin-wave velocity. In the regime of strong frustration, instead, the ground state is spontaneously dimerized and the bond alternation reduces the triplet gap, leading to a slight enhancement of the critical point separating the Luttinger phase from the gapped one. An accurate determination of the phase boundary, is obtained numerically from the study of the excitation spectrum. Our study completely clarifies the much debated zero-temperature phase diagram of the ASL model. [2] [1] G. Van Tendeloo, O. Garlea, C. Darie, C. Bougerol-Chaillout, and P. Bordet, J. Solid State Chem. 156, 428 (2001). [2] L. Capriotti, F. Becca, S. Sorella, and A. Parola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 149701 (2002); to be published.

  17. Characterization of topological phases in the compass ladder model.

    PubMed

    Haghshenas, R; Langari, A; Rezakhani, A T

    2016-05-01

    The phase diagram of the quantum compass ladder model is investigated through numerical density matrix renormalization group based on infinite matrix product state algorithm and analytic effective perturbation theory. For this model we obtain two symmetry-protected topological phases, protected by a Z2 × Z2 symmetry, and a topologically-trivial Z2-symmetry-breaking phase. The symmetry-protected topological phases--labeled by symmetry fractionalization--belong to different topological classes, where the complex-conjugate symmetry uniquely distinguishes them. An important result of this classification is that, as revealed by the nature of the Z2-symmetry-breaking phase, the associated quantum phase transitions are accompanied by an explicit symmetry breaking, and thus a local-order parameter conclusively identifies the phase diagram of the underlying model. This is in stark contrast to previous studies which require a non-local string order parameter to distinguish the corresponding quantum phase transitions. We numerically examine our results and show that the local-order parameter is related to the magnetization exponent 0.12 ± 0.01. PMID:27023290

  18. Characterization of topological phases in the compass ladder model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghshenas, R.; Langari, A.; Rezakhani, A. T.

    2016-05-01

    The phase diagram of the quantum compass ladder model is investigated through numerical density matrix renormalization group based on infinite matrix product state algorithm and analytic effective perturbation theory. For this model we obtain two symmetry-protected topological phases, protected by a {{Z}2}× {{Z}2} symmetry, and a topologically-trivial Z 2-symmetry-breaking phase. The symmetry-protected topological phases—labeled by symmetry fractionalization—belong to different topological classes, where the complex-conjugate symmetry uniquely distinguishes them. An important result of this classification is that, as revealed by the nature of the Z 2-symmetry-breaking phase, the associated quantum phase transitions are accompanied by an explicit symmetry breaking, and thus a local-order parameter conclusively identifies the phase diagram of the underlying model. This is in stark contrast to previous studies which require a non-local string order parameter to distinguish the corresponding quantum phase transitions. We numerically examine our results and show that the local-order parameter is related to the magnetization exponent 0.12+/- 0.01 .

  19. A Cosmic Distance Ladder Project for Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, R. F.

    2005-05-01

    I have created a six-part, semester long cosmic distance ladder project for the introductory astronomy courses at Westfield State College. Initially developed for an honors section of introductory astronomy, it has now been used in regular sections for two semesters. The project includes calibration of the size of the AU and parsec, parallax calibration of the main sequence, main sequence fitting of a star cluster, calibration of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation, calibration of the absolute magnitude of galaxies, and determination of the Hubble constant and age of the universe. Both real and simulated data are used, including several of the Project CLEA exercises produced at Gettysburg College. The average of the class results for each part is used as inputs for the next part, so the students encounter the same cumulative errors that face astronomers. Although designed around the particular needs and mechanics of the introductory astronomy classes for non-majors at WSC, this project could be adapted for use in courses at many different levels. Support from the WSC Chairs' Travel Fund is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  1. Dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddala, Jeevan; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; McCarty, Owen

    The dynamics of a complex mixture of cells and proteins, such as blood, in perturbed shear flow remains ill-defined. Microfluidics is a promising technology for improving the understanding of blood flow under complex conditions of shear; as found in stent implants and in tortuous blood vessels. We model the fluid dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network with dimensions mimicking venules. Interaction of blood cells was modeled using multiagent framework, where cells of different diameters were treated as spheres. This model served as the basis for predicting transition regions, collision pathways, re-circulation zones and residence times of cells dependent on their diameters and device architecture. Based on these insights from the model, we were able to predict the clot formation configurations at various locations in the device. These predictions were supported by the experiments using whole blood. To facilitate platelet aggregation, the devices were coated with fibrillar collagen and tissue factor. Blood was perfused through the microfluidic device for 9 min at a physiologically relevant venous shear rate of 600 s-1. Using fluorescent microscopy, we observed flow transitions near the channel intersections and at the areas of blood flow obstruction, which promoted larger thrombus formation. This study of integrating model predictions with experimental design, aids in defining the dynamics of blood flow in microvasculature and in development of novel biomedical devices.

  2. HST/WFC3 flux calibration ladder: Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana E.; Bohlin, Ralph; Pirzkal, Nor; MacKenty, John

    2014-08-01

    Vega is one of only a few stars calibrated against an SI-traceable blackbody, and is the historical flux standard. Photometric zeropoints of the Hubble Space Telescope's instruments rely on Vega, through the transfer of its calibration via stellar atmosphere models to the suite of standard stars. HST's recently implemented scan mode has enabled us to develop a path to an absolute SI traceable calibration for HST IR observations. To fill in the crucial gap between 0.9 and 1.7 micron in the absolute calibration, we acquired -1st order spectra of Vega with the two WFC3 infrared grisms. At the same time, we have improved the calibration of the -1st orders of both WFC3 IR grisms, as well as extended the dynamic range of WFC3 science observations by a factor of 10000. We describe our progress to date on the WFC3 `flux calibration ladder' project to provide currently needed accurate zeropoint measurements in the IR

  3. E3: Education, Experience, Employment The Economic Ladder to Success

    SciTech Connect

    Anne L Seifert

    2011-10-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) literate citizenry is critical for Idaho's economy to effectively compete and grow in today's global marketplace and enhance Idaho workforce capabilities. Idaho's blueprint presents a collaboration design developed by a group of Idaho stakeholders including state level (STEM) educators, state and federal government, other agencies, and industry across the state. The purpose the Idaho Learn and Earn Blueprint Design is to describe a comprehensive plan for improving STEM education in Idaho through a collaborative partnerships and a series of grant supported projects underpinning this strategic design process building pathways to overcome hurdles in today's economy, and moving communities and families up their economic ladder. The Idaho Learn and Earn Blueprint Design focuses on three industry sectors; energy, advanced manufacturing, and health care. All are important in Idaho and have room for job growth potential among both displaced workers and graduates. Representatives from each sector are members of the design team and assist in developing grants and implementing the actions outlined in the design as the program goes forward. Idaho's current programs are generally institution specific. Each of the state's two-year colleges, along with regional groups and employers, are already working towards improving STEM education across the state. A key aspect of this design is to bring these groups together to focus on four unique goals: (1) Providing industry driven curriculum directly tied to skill based career needs; (2) Enhancing collaboration among stakeholders; (3) Providing access to learn and earn programs; and (4) Improving public and student awareness and interest in targeted industry sector career and educational opportunities.

  4. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  5. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  6. Hood River Pelton Ladder Studies : Annual Report 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1996-09-01

    Data collected from this program will provide the baseline information needed to (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the Hood River Production Plan and (2) determine any post-project impacts the Hood River Production Plan has on indigenous populations of resident fish.

  7. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  8. Dichotomy between Attractive and Repulsive Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquids in Spin Ladders.

    PubMed

    Jeong, M; Schmidiger, D; Mayaffre, H; Klanjšek, M; Berthier, C; Knafo, W; Ballon, G; Vignolle, B; Krämer, S; Zheludev, A; Horvatić, M

    2016-09-01

    We present a direct NMR method to determine whether the interactions in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder are attractive or repulsive. For the strong-leg spin ladder compound (C_{7}H_{10}N)_{2}CuBr_{4} we find that the isothermal magnetic field dependence of the NMR relaxation rate T_{1}^{-1}(H) displays a concave curve between the two critical fields bounding the TLL regime. This is in sharp contrast to the convex curve previously reported for a strong-rung ladder, (C_{5}H_{12}N)_{2}CuBr_{4}. We show that the concavity and the convexity of T_{1}^{-1}(H), which is a fingerprint of spin fluctuations, directly reflect the attractive and repulsive fermionic interactions in the TLL, respectively. The interaction sign is alternatively determined from an indirect method combining bulk magnetization and specific heat data. PMID:27636483

  9. Dynamic Covalent Assembly of Peptoid-Based Ladder Oligomers by Vernier Templating.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Jung, Jae Hwan; Scott, Timothy F

    2015-12-30

    Dynamic covalent chemistry, in conjunction with template-directed assembly, enables the fabrication of extended nanostructures that are both precise and tough. Here we demonstrate the dynamic covalent assembly of peptoid-based molecular ladders with up to 12 rungs via scandium(III)-catalyzed imine metathesis by employing the principle of Vernier templating, where small precursor units with mismatched numbers of complementary functional groups are coreacted to yield larger structures with sizes determined by the respective precursor functionalities. Owing to their monomer diversity and synthetic accessibility, sequence-specific oligopeptoids bearing dynamic covalent pendant groups were employed as precursors for molecular ladder fabrication. The generated structures were characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and gel permeation chromatography, confirming successful molecular ladder fabrication. PMID:26639351

  10. Climbing a ladder: a step-by-step approach to understanding the concept of agroecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, I; Albizu, I; Amezaga, I; Onaindia, M; Buchner, V; Garbisu, C

    2004-01-01

    Population and individual health is linked to agroecosystem health. To comprehend the concept of agroecosystem health, one should climb a ladder consisting of several successive steps, each rung presenting a certain degree of instability (conceptual difficulty and uncertainty) in an advisable but not inevitable order. Here we suggest a ladder consisting of the following concepts: ecosystem, agroecosystem, biodiversity, sustainability, ecosystem health, and agroecosystem health. Although these concepts are to a certain extent well understood and grasped by scientists, politicians, natural resource managers, and environmentalists, some steps are still highly debatable, unclear, and present a considerable degree of reluctance to be defined and understood. Consequently, much empirical and theoretical effort must be made to construct solid conceptual ladders made up of such steps. In this enterprise, a traditional reductionistic approach confining interpretations to narrow scientific disciplines is unadvisable. Holistic, transdisciplinary approaches are required to reach the desired goal.

  11. Role of cyclic four-spin exchange in doped two-leg ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Guillaume; White, Steve R.; Poilblanc, Didier; Laeuchli, Andreas M.

    2005-03-01

    The cyclic four-spin exchange has a dramatic effect in undoped 2-leg ladders since it introduces frustration and biquadratic terms. A quantum phase transition is known to happen for K/J = 0.2, in which K is the magnitude of the cyclic exchange term. Here, we report the first investigations of its role on t-J two-leg ladders using Exact Diagonalisation and DMRG computations. We show that the low energy spectrum is very sensitive to K and discuss the robustness of the magnon-hole pair bound state and the recently discovered resonant mode(at finite doping) by studying the low energy triplet spectrum. We also report the evolution of the pairing energy and the Luther-Emery liquid parameter with K. These results are discussed in connection with experiments on superconducting Sr14-xCaxCu24O41 ladder materials.

  12. Dichotomy between Attractive and Repulsive Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquids in Spin Ladders.

    PubMed

    Jeong, M; Schmidiger, D; Mayaffre, H; Klanjšek, M; Berthier, C; Knafo, W; Ballon, G; Vignolle, B; Krämer, S; Zheludev, A; Horvatić, M

    2016-09-01

    We present a direct NMR method to determine whether the interactions in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder are attractive or repulsive. For the strong-leg spin ladder compound (C_{7}H_{10}N)_{2}CuBr_{4} we find that the isothermal magnetic field dependence of the NMR relaxation rate T_{1}^{-1}(H) displays a concave curve between the two critical fields bounding the TLL regime. This is in sharp contrast to the convex curve previously reported for a strong-rung ladder, (C_{5}H_{12}N)_{2}CuBr_{4}. We show that the concavity and the convexity of T_{1}^{-1}(H), which is a fingerprint of spin fluctuations, directly reflect the attractive and repulsive fermionic interactions in the TLL, respectively. The interaction sign is alternatively determined from an indirect method combining bulk magnetization and specific heat data.

  13. Three-dimensional array diffraction-limited foci from Greek ladders to generalized Fibonacci sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junyong

    2015-11-16

    Greek ladder is a technique for approximating Cn by rational numbers where n is a positive integer and C is a positive real number. For the classical Greek ladder, the value isC. Based on the continued fraction theory and algebraic equation, the classical Greek ladder in a special case can be reduced to the generalized Fibonacci sequence. By means of proper switching and binary, ternary or quaternary phase modulation, here we have successfully designed the various kinds of nano-photonic devices to produce three-dimensional array foci whose focusing properties satisfy the above mathematical characteristics. With this technology, the diffraction-limited array foci are freely designed or distributed under the requirement at the desired multiple focal planes. PMID:26698510

  14. Dichotomy between Attractive and Repulsive Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquids in Spin Ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M.; Schmidiger, D.; Mayaffre, H.; Klanjšek, M.; Berthier, C.; Knafo, W.; Ballon, G.; Vignolle, B.; Krämer, S.; Zheludev, A.; Horvatić, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a direct NMR method to determine whether the interactions in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) state of a spin-1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder are attractive or repulsive. For the strong-leg spin ladder compound (C7H10N )2CuBr4 we find that the isothermal magnetic field dependence of the NMR relaxation rate T1-1(H ) displays a concave curve between the two critical fields bounding the TLL regime. This is in sharp contrast to the convex curve previously reported for a strong-rung ladder, (C5H12N )2CuBr4 . We show that the concavity and the convexity of T1-1(H ), which is a fingerprint of spin fluctuations, directly reflect the attractive and repulsive fermionic interactions in the TLL, respectively. The interaction sign is alternatively determined from an indirect method combining bulk magnetization and specific heat data.

  15. 49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... roadway maintenance machines. 214.519 Section 214.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track...

  16. 49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... roadway maintenance machines. 214.519 Section 214.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track...

  17. 49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... roadway maintenance machines. 214.519 Section 214.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track...

  18. 49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... roadway maintenance machines. 214.519 Section 214.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track...

  19. 49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... roadway maintenance machines. 214.519 Section 214.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track...

  20. 77 FR 15839 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Joan Miró: the Ladder of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Joan Mir : the Ladder of Escape... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Joan Mir : the Ladder of Escape,''...

  1. The Plastic Surgery Compass: Navigating the Reconstructive Ladder in the Personalized Health Care Era

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The reconstructive ladder and the reconstructive elevator have withstood the test of time as didactic tools for resident education. Over time, many alternative models have been suggested to incorporate the technological advances in plastic surgery, but none of them have focused on the patient. Changes in practice and the trend toward personalized health care demand a 360-degree evaluation and solution of surgical problems incorporating patient-specific characteristics. We, therefore, suggest the concept of the plastic surgery compass to navigate the ladder. PMID:27757348

  2. Electric field induced localization phenomena in a ladder network with superlattice configuration: Effect of backbone environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Paramita; Karmakar, S. N.; Maiti, Santanu K.

    2014-09-15

    Electric field induced localization properties of a tight-binding ladder network in presence of backbone sites are investigated. Based on Green's function formalism we numerically calculate two-terminal transport together with density of states for different arrangements of atomic sites in the ladder and its backbone. Our results lead to a possibility of getting multiple mobility edges which essentially plays a switching action between a completely opaque to fully or partly conducting region upon the variation of system Fermi energy, and thus, support in fabricating mesoscopic or DNA-based switching devices.

  3. "Ladder" structure in tonal noise generated by laminar flow around an airfoil.

    PubMed

    Chong, Tze Pei; Joseph, Phillip

    2012-06-01

    The presence of a "ladder" structure in the airfoil tonal noise was discovered in the 1970s, but its mechanism hitherto remains a subject of continual investigation in the research community. Based on the measured noise results and some numerical analysis presented in this letter, the variations of four types of airfoil tonal noise frequencies with the flow velocity were analyzed individually. The ladder structure is proposed to be caused by the acoustic/hydrodynamic frequency lag between the scattering of the boundary layer instability noise and the discrete noise produced by an aeroacoustic feedback loop.

  4. Diagrammatic analysis of multiphoton processes in a ladder-type three-level atomic system

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Moon, Han Seb

    2011-11-15

    We present a diagrammatic method for complete characterization of multiphoton processes in three-level atomic systems. By considering the interaction routes of the coupling and probe photons for a ladder-type, three-level, noncycling (or cycling) atomic system, we are able to completely discriminate between the pure one-photon and the pure two-photon resonance effects, and the effect of their combination in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using our diagrammatic method. We show that the proposed diagrammatic method is very useful for the analysis of multiphoton processes in ladder-type EIT.

  5. Construction of classical superintegrable systems with higher order integrals of motion from ladder operators

    SciTech Connect

    Marquette, Ian

    2010-07-15

    We construct integrals of motion for multidimensional classical systems from ladder operators of one-dimensional systems. This method can be used to obtain new systems with higher order integrals. We show how these integrals generate a polynomial Poisson algebra. We consider a one-dimensional system with third order ladder operators and found a family of superintegrable systems with higher order integrals of motion. We obtain also the polynomial algebra generated by these integrals. We calculate numerically the trajectories and show that all bounded trajectories are closed.

  6. Simulation of TunneLadder Traveling-Wave Tube Input/Output Coupler Characteristics Using MAFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Qureshi, A. Haq

    1996-01-01

    RF input/output coupler characteristics for the TunneLadder traveling-wave tube have been calculated using the three-dimensional computer code, MAFIA and compared to experimental data with good agreement. Theory behind coupling of the TunneLadder interaction circuit to input and output waveguides is presented and VSWR data is calculated for variations on principal coupler dimensions to provide insight into manufacturing tolerances necessary for acceptable performance. Accuracy of results using MAFIA demonstrates how experimental hardware testing of three-dimensional coupler designs can be reduced.

  7. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  8. Fish flavor.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T

    1996-02-01

    This article reviews features of flavor in three groups of fishes and summarizes them as follows: (1) fresh saltwater fish are nearly odorless because they contain a small quantity of volatiles; (2 freshwater fish give off pyrrolidine and earthy-odor compounds, which are responsible for their maturity and surrounding water pollution, and (3) euryhaline fish exhibit a variety of unsaturated carbonyls and alcohols derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PAs). These features are discussed, as are the effects of different enzymatic activities on PA oxidation and the effects of pH on mechanisms of formation of the volatiles. The monotonous volatile constitution of saltwater fish is likely caused by an unknown antioxidation system restraining the fish from oxidizing. The variety of constitution of euryhaline fish, especially that of anadromous fish under spawning conditions, could result from the loss of that system. The thermal environments of heated foods are also reviewed. The basic environment of fish, which allows the formation of flavor compounds, is discussed to confirm the volatiles found in unheated fish.

  9. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 2008 Annual Report : October 2007 - September 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, Robert E.; Olsen, Erik A.

    2009-09-28

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 2008. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on seventeen complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on fifteen complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) subbasin wild summer and winter steelhead smolt production, (4) numbers of hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts leaving the subbasin; (5) smolt migration timing past Bonneville Dam, (6) wild and hatchery steelhead smolt-to-adult survival rates; (7) wild summer and winter steelhead egg to smolt survival rates; and (8) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP relative to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids (see Ardren Draft), (2) evaluate the HRPP's progress towards achieving the biological fish objectives defined in the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) and the Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program (HDR|FishPro, ODFW, and CTWSRO 2008), (3) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (4) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity.

  10. Not All Inner Ears are the Same: Otolith Matrix Proteins in the Inner Ear of Sub-Adult Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Reveal Insights Into the Biomineralization Process.

    PubMed

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-02-01

    The fish ear stones (otoliths) consist mainly of calcium carbonate and have lower amounts of a proteinous matrix. This matrix consists of macromolecules, which directly control the biomineralization process. We analyzed the composition of this proteinous matrix by mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach. For this purpose, an enhanced protein purification technique was developed that excludes any potential contamination of proteins from body fluids. Using this method we identified eight proteins in the inner ear of Oreochromis mossambicus. These include the common otolith matrix proteins (OMP-1, otolin-1, neuroserpin, SPARC and otoconin), and three proteins (alpha tectorin, otogelin and transferrin) not previously localized to the otoliths. Moreover, we were able to exclude the occurrence of two matrix proteins (starmaker and pre-cerebellin-like protein) known from other fish species. In further analyses, we show that the absence of the OMP starmaker corresponds to calcitic otoliths and that pre-cerebellin-like protein is not present at any stage during the development of the otoliths of the inner ear. This study shows O. mossambicus does not have all of the known otolith proteins indicating that the matrix proteins in the inner ear of fish are not the same across species. Further functional studies of the novel proteins we identified during otolith development are required.

  11. Interior of sump/sewerage room looking up four levels, ladder on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of sump/sewerage room looking up four levels, ladder on pipe, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 1, Pumpwell, By-Pass Valve & Saltwater Pumphouse, North end of Fifth Street, between Dry Dock No. 1 & Facility GD2 , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. A Theoretical Framework for Local Responses to State Policy: Implementing Utah's Career Ladder Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    Local implementation responses to the Utah teacher career ladder program (CLP) initiated in 1983 were assessed using previously collected data. Circumstances/conditions under which schools implement CLPs in accordance with state policy were studied. Local implementations of the program are classified into four modes: pro forma; programmatic;…

  13. South Dakota Statewide Core Curriculum, Career Ladder and Challenge System: Volumes I and II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    The two volume final report of the South Dakota Statewide Core Curriculum, Career Ladder, and Challenge System Project, coordinating associated health and nursing education on a statewide basis to achieve a more systematic production and utilization of health manpower, is presented. Volume 1 includes five chapters: (1) and (2) outlining funding…

  14. Physical Therapy Career Ladder: United States Air Force Job Inventory. AFSCs 91330, 91350, 91370, and 91392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Personnel and Training Research Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The booklet is a checklist to provide information about the tasks of the physical therapist in the Air Force physical therapy career ladder. The first major section is on background information; there are multiple choice questions on job attitudes, places of employment, future plans, and general types of duty. From a list of 137 pieces of physical…

  15. Progressive ladder network topology combining interferometric and intensity fiber-optic-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. B. Lobo; Santos, J. L.; Caleya, R. F.

    1995-10-01

    Progressive ladder topology is studied by consideration of its properties of power budget and coupler tailoring. Optimization criteria are addressed for lossless and real systems, and their basic characteristics are compared with other topologies. Numerical results are presented, and an experiment is described for the case in which the network supports interferometric and intensity (with referentiation) fiber-optic-based sensors.

  16. Astronaut Alan Bean steps from ladder of Lunar Module for EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, steps from the ladder of the Lunar Module to join Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, in extravehicular activity on November 19, 1969. Astronaut Ricard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command/Service Modules in lunar orbit.

  17. Teacher Bonuses for Extra Work: A Profile of Missouri's Career Ladder Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silman, Timothy; Glazerman, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This report set out to profile the Missouri Career Ladder program by delving beneath the surface and comparing how the program works in practice (based on stakeholder accounts) with how it works in theory (based on published statutes and regulations). The authors found that in many respects the program operates as one might expect. Districts…

  18. Convergence and Periodic Solutions for the Input Impedance of a Standard Ladder Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucak, C.; Acar, C.

    2007-01-01

    The input impedance of an infinite ladder network is computed by using the recursive relation and by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block is added to the network. However, this assumption is not true in general and standard textbooks do not always treat these networks correctly. This paper develops a general solution…

  19. Teaching Profession Career Ladder Programme in Turkey: Implementation, Outcomes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cil, E.; Cepni, S.; Besken-Ergisi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Turkey has implemented various programmes to increase the quality of in-service training for K-12 teachers with varying success. One of the most recent state-wide implementations of these programmes is the Teaching Profession Career Ladder Programme (TPCLP) that was put into practice in 2005. This study investigates teachers' views related to…

  20. The Georgia Career Ladder for Public Elementary and Secondary School Professional Personnel. Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    This document presents a comprehensive description of the Georgia Career Ladder program. An executive summary is offered which provides a brief overview of the program. The introduction presents essential information for understanding the mileu in which the program was conceptualized and developed. The main body of the document describes the…

  1. Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization. PMID:25441318

  2. Portal Crane P51, 50ton Crane. Erecting side trusses and ladder. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Portal Crane P-51, 50-ton Crane. Erecting side trusses and ladder. Looking east. Taken April 12, 1920. 14th Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 3207 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Evaluation Practice and Theory: Up and down the Ladder of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviton, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Debra Rog presented the 2014 Eleanor Chelimsky Forum address, offering ways to integrate evaluation theory and practice by abundant use of practice examples. These examples illustrate the effective use of the Ladder of Abstraction from semantics, working from the concrete to the abstract and back again.

  4. A Twisted Ladder: Relating the Fe Superconductors to the High Tc Cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, E.

    2010-05-26

    We construct a 2-leg ladder model of an Fe-pnictide superconductor and discuss its properties and relationship with the familiar 2-leg cuprate model. Our results suggest that the underlying pairing mechanism for the Fe-pnictide superconductors is similar to that for the cuprates.

  5. Climbing the "Agricultural Ladder": Social Mobility and Motivations for Migration in an Ecuadorian Colonist Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Diane C.; Rudel, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    During the early decades of the 20th century in the American Midwest young farming families achieved social mobility by moving up an 'agricultural ladder' through a series of rungs, from unpaid family work, to wage labor, to tenant farming, to a mortgaged farm, and, finally, to full ownership of a farm. In this paper we use the concept of an…

  6. Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization.

  7. Career Ladders and the Professionalization of Teaching: Down the Up Staircase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunwell, Robert R.

    School systems interested in improving teacher performance, effectiveness, and job satisfaction while reducing turnover rates might do better to seek ways to enhance the intrinsic rewards of teaching rather than implement such extrinsic motivators as merit pay plans and career ladders. A review of the research literature brings several important…

  8. Avionics Instrument Systems Specialist Career Ladder: AFSCs 32531, 32551, 31571, and 32591. Occupational Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The Avionics Instrument Systems career ladder (AFSC 325X1) provides flight line and shop maintenance training on aircraft instrument systems, electromechancial instruments, components, and test equipment. Duties involve inspecting, removing, installing, repairing, operating, troubleshooting, overhauling, and modifying systems such as flight and…

  9. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  10. Rats anticipate damaged rungs on the elevated ladder: Applications for rodent models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lopatin, Daniel; Caputo, Nicole; Damphousse, Chelsey; Pandey, Siyaram; Cohen, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined rats' ability to anticipate undetectable wider gaps between rungs produced when they stepped on and dislodged damaged rungs while they traversed a slightly inclined elevated ladder. Rats in the first of three experiments reduced running speeds when they encountered four evenly spaced damaged rungs either always placed on the first or second half of the ladder (the break-a-way (BW) phase) but quickly recovered to their baseline (BL) levels when damaged rungs where replaced with intact rungs (the recovery phase). Rats previously exposed to damaged rungs over the first half of the ladder increased their speeds above BL on its second "safer" half during the recovery phase, a delayed "relief-like" positive contrast effect. In Experiment 2, other rats decreased their speeds more as they approached a single damaged rung at a fixed location when it occurred before than after the mid-point of the ladder. Although they quickly recovered to BL speeds on the portion of the ladder after the damaged rung or replaced intact rung, they never showed any "relief-like"/escape effects. Rats also reduced their likelihood of dislodging the damaged rung with a fore paw over extended BW training. In the third experiment rats encountered a more easily dislodged damaged rung that was signaled by a closer intact rung on half the trials. Under these conditions rats displayed a more reliable positive contrast "relief-like" effect. We discussed how traditional associative and cognitive theories of aversive conditioning account for these findings and their relationship to normal changes in dopamine production and possible effects of reduced production from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in the Basal ganglia in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25747570

  11. Effective models of doped quantum ladders of non-Abelian anyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Medha; Troyer, Matthias; Poilblanc, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Quantum spin models have been studied extensively in one and higher dimensions. Furthermore, these systems have been doped with holes to study t -J models of SU (2 ) spin-1/2. Their anyonic counterparts can be built from non-Abelian anyons, such as Fibonacci anyons described by SU (2) 3 theories, which are quantum deformations of the SU (2 ) algebra. Inspired by the physics of SU (2 ) spins, several works have explored ladders of Fibonacci anyons and also one-dimensional (1D) t -J models. Here, we aim to explore the combined effects of extended dimensionality and doping by studying ladders composed of coupled chains of interacting itinerant Fibonacci anyons. We show analytically that in the limit of strong rung couplings these models can be mapped onto effective 1D models. These effective models can either be gapped models of hole pairs, or gapless models described by t -J (or modified t -J -V ) chains of Fibonacci anyons, whose spectrum exhibits a fractionalization into charge and anyon degrees of freedom. The charge degrees of freedom are described by the hardcore boson spectra while the anyon sector is given by a chain of localized interacting anyons. By using exact diagonalizations for two-leg and three-leg ladders, we show that indeed the doped ladders show exactly the same behavior as that of t -J chains. In the strong ferromagnetic rung limit, we can obtain a new model that hosts two different kinds of Fibonacci particles, which we denote as the heavy τ 's and light τ 's. These two particle types carry the same (non-Abelian) topological charge but different (Abelian) electric charges. Once again, we map the two-dimensional ladder onto an effective chain carrying these heavy and light τ 's. We perform a finite size scaling analysis to show the appearance of gapless modes for certain anyon densities, whereas a topological gapped phase is suggested for another density regime.

  12. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C.; Knab, Amy M.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women. PMID:27187447

  13. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C; Knab, Amy M; Shanely, R Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40-70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F₂-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women. PMID:27187447

  14. Adaptation of a ladder beam walking task to assess locomotor recovery in mice following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Brian J; Engesser-Cesar, Christie; Cadena, Gilbert; Anderson, Aileen J

    2007-02-27

    Locomotor impairments after spinal cord injury (SCI) are often assessed using open-field rating scales. These tasks have the advantage of spanning the range from complete paralysis to normal walking; however, they lack sensitivity at specific levels of recovery. Additionally, most supplemental assessments were developed in rats, not mice. For example, the horizontal ladder beam has been used to measure recovery in the rat after SCI. This parametric task results in a videotaped archival record of the event, is easily administered, and is unambiguously scored. Although a ladder beam apparatus for mice is available, its use in the assessment of recovery in SCI mice is rare, possibly because normative data for uninjured mice and the type of step misplacements injured mice exhibit is lacking. We report the development of a modified ladder beam instrument and scoring system to measure hindlimb recovery in vertebral T9 contusion spinal cord injured mice. The mouse ladder beam allows for the use of standard parametric statistical tests to assess locomotor recovery. Ladder beam performance is consistent across four strains of mice, there are no sex differences, and inter-rater reliability between observers is high. The ladder beam score is proportional to injury severity and can be used to easily separate mice capable of weight-supported stance up to mice with consistent forelimb to hindlimb coordination. Critically, horizontal ladder beam testing discriminates between mice that score identically in terms of stepping frequency in open-field testing. PMID:17197044

  15. Gender-Specific Toxicological Effects of Chronic Exposure to Pure Microcystin-LR or Complex Microcystis aeruginosa Extracts on Adult Medaka Fish.

    PubMed

    Le Manach, Séverine; Khenfech, Nour; Huet, Hélène; Qiao, Qin; Duval, Charlotte; Marie, Arul; Bolbach, Gérard; Clodic, Gilles; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms often occur in freshwater lakes and constitute a potential health risk to human populations, as well as to other organisms. However, their overall and specific implications for the health of aquatic organisms that are chronically and environmentally exposed to cyanobacteria producing hepatotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs), together with other bioactive compounds have still not been clearly established and remain difficult to assess. The medaka fish was chosen as the experimental aquatic model for studying the cellular and molecular toxicological effects on the liver after chronic exposures (28 days) to environmentally relevant concentrations of pure MC-LR, complex extracts of MC producing or nonproducing cyanobacterial biomasses, and of a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom. Our results showed a higher susceptibility of females to the different treatments compared to males at both the cellular and the molecular levels. Although hepatocyte lysis increased with MC-containing treatments, lysis always appeared more severe in the liver of females compare to males, and the glycogen cellular reserves also appeared to decrease more in the liver of females compared to those in the males. Proteomic investigations reveal divergent responses between males and females exposed to all treatments, especially for proteins involved in metabolic and homeostasis processes. Our observations also highlighted the dysregulation of proteins involved in oogenesis in female livers. These results suggest that fish populations exposed to cyanobacteria blooms may potentially face several ecotoxicological issues.

  16. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  17. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  18. Parasites of fish larvae: do they follow metabolic energetic laws?

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Eumetazoan parasites in fish larvae normally exhibit large body sizes relative to their hosts. This observation raises a question about the potential effects that parasites might have on small fish. We indirectly evaluated this question using energetic metabolic laws based on body volume and the parasite densities. We compared the biovolume as well as the numeric and volumetric densities of parasites over the host body volume of larval and juvenile-adult fish and the average of these parasitological descriptors for castrator parasites and the parasites found in the fish studied here. We collected 5266 fish larvae using nearshore zooplankton sampling and 1556 juveniles and adult fish from intertidal rocky pools in central Chile. We considered only the parasitized hosts: 482 fish larvae and 629 juvenile-adult fish. We obtained 31 fish species; 14 species were in both plankton and intertidal zones. Fish larvae exhibited a significantly smaller biovolume but larger numeric and volumetric densities of parasites than juvenile-adult fish. Therefore, fish larvae showed a large proportion of parasite biovolume per unit of body host (cm(3)). However, the general scaling of parasitological descriptors and host body volume were similar between larvae and juvenile-adult fish. The ratio between the biovolume of parasites and the host body volume in fish larvae was similar to the proportion observed in castrator parasites. Furthermore, the ratios were different from those of juvenile-adult fish, which suggests that the presence of parasites implies a high energetic cost for fish larvae that would diminish the fitness of these small hosts. PMID:26193824

  19. Parasites of fish larvae: do they follow metabolic energetic laws?

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Eumetazoan parasites in fish larvae normally exhibit large body sizes relative to their hosts. This observation raises a question about the potential effects that parasites might have on small fish. We indirectly evaluated this question using energetic metabolic laws based on body volume and the parasite densities. We compared the biovolume as well as the numeric and volumetric densities of parasites over the host body volume of larval and juvenile-adult fish and the average of these parasitological descriptors for castrator parasites and the parasites found in the fish studied here. We collected 5266 fish larvae using nearshore zooplankton sampling and 1556 juveniles and adult fish from intertidal rocky pools in central Chile. We considered only the parasitized hosts: 482 fish larvae and 629 juvenile-adult fish. We obtained 31 fish species; 14 species were in both plankton and intertidal zones. Fish larvae exhibited a significantly smaller biovolume but larger numeric and volumetric densities of parasites than juvenile-adult fish. Therefore, fish larvae showed a large proportion of parasite biovolume per unit of body host (cm(3)). However, the general scaling of parasitological descriptors and host body volume were similar between larvae and juvenile-adult fish. The ratio between the biovolume of parasites and the host body volume in fish larvae was similar to the proportion observed in castrator parasites. Furthermore, the ratios were different from those of juvenile-adult fish, which suggests that the presence of parasites implies a high energetic cost for fish larvae that would diminish the fitness of these small hosts.

  20. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  1. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  2. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  3. Atomic coherence effects in four-wave mixing process of a ladder-type atomic system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-05-16

    We investigate the effects of atomic coherence on four-wave mixing (FWM), with respect to the transition routes between the hyperfine states in the 5S1/2-5P3/2-5D5/2 transition of 87Rb atoms. By comparing the FWM spectra with the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra of the hyperfine states, we confirm that the FWM process is significantly influenced by both ladder-type and V-type two-photon coherences. From the observed FWM signal of each hyperfine structure, we clarify the role of two-photon coherence in the FWM process under EIT, double-resonance optical pumping (DROP), and two-photon absorption (TPA) conditions in a ladder-type atomic system, which is dependent on the open degree of the hyperfine states, the laser intensity, and the laser frequency detuning. PMID:27409893

  4. Significance of decay mechanism into continuum in dynamical Wannier-Stark ladder

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Yuya; Maeshima, Nobuya; Hino, Ken-ichi

    2013-12-04

    We examine the resonance structure of photodressed electron states of laser-driven Wannier-Stark ladder, namely, dynamic Wannier-Stark ladder, in terms of the excess density of states (DOS) closely related to a lifetime of the state of concern. It is revealed that the resonance structure in the strong laser-field region shows clear dependence on the ratio, η, of a Bloch-frequency to a laser frequency. As the laser strength increases, for η = 1, the excess DOS becomes involved with a lot of newly-growing resonance peaks. This result would be understood from the viewpoint of a Fano-like decay-mechanism caused by a multichannel continuum effect, in marked contrast to the cases of larger η’s; for η = 3, the excess DOS just is found to show a pronounced red-shift of a single dominant peak caused by a single-channel continuum effect.

  5. Atomic coherence effects in four-wave mixing process of a ladder-type atomic system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-05-16

    We investigate the effects of atomic coherence on four-wave mixing (FWM), with respect to the transition routes between the hyperfine states in the 5S1/2-5P3/2-5D5/2 transition of 87Rb atoms. By comparing the FWM spectra with the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra of the hyperfine states, we confirm that the FWM process is significantly influenced by both ladder-type and V-type two-photon coherences. From the observed FWM signal of each hyperfine structure, we clarify the role of two-photon coherence in the FWM process under EIT, double-resonance optical pumping (DROP), and two-photon absorption (TPA) conditions in a ladder-type atomic system, which is dependent on the open degree of the hyperfine states, the laser intensity, and the laser frequency detuning.

  6. Generation of Fock state and quantum entanglement in a coupled ladder atom-cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shang-qing; Feng, Xun-li; Xu, Zhi-zhan

    2003-02-01

    We investigate the behaviour of an atom-cavity system via an adiabatic passage technique using a three-level ladder atom both for one-mode and for two-mode cavity QED. For one-mode cavity QED, we find that a single-photon Fock state can be generated via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in the microwave domain. For two-mode cavity QED, we find that a two-photon pair can be generated via the technique of Stark shift rapid adiabatic passage (SRAP). We also find, for the two-mode cavity QED system, that an entangled state of the two modes in a microwave cavity can be prepared via the SRAP technique, in which the number of steps required is significantly reduced due to the adiabatic passage of the ladder atom-cavity coupled system.

  7. Magnetic Precursor of the Pressure-Induced Superconductivity in Fe-Ladder Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Songxue; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Cao, Huibo; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Kazuki; Aoyama, Takuya; Ohgushi, Kenya

    2016-07-01

    The pressure effects on the antiferromagentic orders in iron-based ladder compounds CsFe2Se3 and BaFe2S3 have been studied using neutron diffraction. With identical crystal structure and similar magnetic structures, the two compounds exhibit highly contrasting magnetic behaviors under moderate external pressures. In CsFe2Se3 the ladders are brought much closer to each other by pressure, but the stripe-type magnetic order shows no observable change. In contrast, the stripe order in BaFe2S3 undergoes a quantum phase transition where an abrupt increase of Néel temperature by more than 50% occurs at about 1 GPa, accompanied by a jump in the ordered moment. With its spin structure unchanged, BaFe2S3 enters an enhanced magnetic phase that bears the characteristics of an orbital selective Mott phase, which is the true neighbor of superconductivity emerging at higher pressures.

  8. The antiferromagnetic cross-coupled spin ladder: Quantum fidelity and tensor networks approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi-Hao; Cho, Sam Young; Zhou, Huan-Qiang; Batchelor, Murray T.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the phase diagram of the cross-coupled Heisenberg spin ladder with antiferromagnetic couplings. For this model, the results for the existence of the columnar dimer phase, which was predicted on the basis of weak coupling field theory renormalization group arguments, have been conflicting. The numerical work on this model has been based on various approaches, including exact diagonalization, series expansions and density-matrix renormalization group calculations. Using the recently-developed tensor network states and groundstate fidelity approach for quantum spin ladders, we find no evidence for the existence of the columnar dimer phase. We also provide an argument based on the symmetry of the Hamiltonian, which suggests that the phase diagram for antiferromagnetic couplings consists of a single line separating the rung-singlet and the Haldane phases.

  9. Trait anxiety and goal difficulty on learning to climb the Bachman ladder.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Jaqueline F O; Barros, Joao A C; Meira, Cassio M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effects of trait anxiety and goal setting on learning of the Bachman ladder. It was hypothesized that easy goals would increase learning for individuals with high trait anxiety while hard goals would increase learning for individuals with low trait anxiety. 80 high school students (40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 15 yr., SD = 1.0) filled out the Brazilian State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for trait anxiety. The experiment was divided into four phases: acquisition, immediate transfer (after 5 min.), delayed transfer, and retention (after 24 hr.). On the transfer phases, the participants started climbing the ladder with the foot opposite of that used in acquisition. Participants were assigned to one of four experimental groups combining high and low anxiety traits and hard and easy goals. Variances were analyzed with repeated measurements on the last factor of all phases. The results showed the performance increased during the acquisition phase and no effects were observed in any phases.

  10. Possible quantum phase manipulation of a two-leg ladder in mixed-dimensional fermionic cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Min; Irwin, Kyle; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    2013-03-01

    The recent realization of mixed-dimensional systems of cold atoms has attracted much attention from both experimentalists and theorists. In this article we investigate a two-species Fermi atom mixture: one species of atom exists in two hyperfine states and is confined to move in a two-leg ladder, interacting with an on-site interaction, and the other moves freely in a two-dimensional square lattice that contains the two-leg ladder. The two species of atoms interact via an on-site interaction on the ladder. In the limit of weak interspecies interactions, the two-dimensional gas can be integrated out, leading to an effective long-range mediated interaction in the ladder, generated by the on-site interspecies interaction. We show that the form of the mediated interaction can be controlled by the density of the two-dimensional gas and that it enhances the charge-density wave instability in the two-leg ladder after the renormalization-group transformation. Parametrizing the phase diagram with various experimentally controllable quantities, we discuss the possible tuning of the macroscopic quantum many-body phases of the two-leg ladder in this mixed-dimensional fermionic cold atom system.

  11. Hydroxyl-Substituted Ladder Polyethers via Selective Tandem Epoxidation/Cyclization Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Czabaniuk, Lara C.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    A new and highly selective method for the synthesis of hydroxyl-substituted tetrahydropyrans is described. This method utilizes titanium(IV) iso-propoxide and diethyl tartrate to perform a diastereoselective epoxidation followed by in situ epoxide activation and highly selective endo-cyclization to form the desired tetrahydropyran ring. The HIJ ring fragment of the marine ladder polyether yessotoxin was synthesized using this two-stage tactic that proceeds with high efficiency and excellent regioselectivity. PMID:25647091

  12. Rational molecular design of PEOlated ladder-structured polysilsesquioxane membranes for high performance CO2 removal.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghwan; Lee, Albert S; Do, Yu Seong; Hwang, Seung Sang; Lee, Young Moo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jong Suk

    2015-10-25

    Poly(methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl-co-methacryloxypropyl) silsesquioxane membranes with different copolymer ratios were successfully fabricated via UV-induced crosslinking with mechanical stability. By selectively introducing polyethylene oxide (PEO) groups covalently bound to the ladder-structured polysilsesquioxane, we effectively suppressed the PEO crystallization, allowing for excellent CO2/H2 and CO2/N2 separation under single as well as mixed gas conditions.

  13. Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module ladder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (on left), commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, are seen standing by the Lunar Module ladder in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network tracking station at Goldstone, California.

  14. Telecast of Astronaut Neil Armstrong descending ladder to surface of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, descends the ladder of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module prior to making the first step by man on the moon. This view is a black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface camera during extravehicular activity. The black bar running through the center of the picture is an anamoly in the television ground data system at the Goldstone Tracking Station.

  15. Polyacrylonitrile-derived polyconjugated ladder structures for high performance all-organic dielectric materials.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaojian; Ding, Yichun; Chen, Linlin; Ye, Wan; Zhu, Jian; Fang, Hong; Hou, Haoqing

    2015-06-25

    A novel all-organic polyconjugated ladder structures-polyimide (PcLS-PI) composite was successfully synthesized, in which PcLS were derived from polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The PcLS-PI composite not only presents high dielectric performances of high dielectric permittivity, low dielectric loss, high electrical breakdown strength and high energy density, but also has excellent mechanical and thermal properties. PMID:26006760

  16. Synchronization of coupled rotators: Josephson junction ladders and the Kuramoto model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, B. C.; Trees, B. R.

    2002-10-01

    We show that the resistively shunted junction (RSJ) equations describing a ladder array of overdamped, critical-current disordered Josephson junctions that are current-biased along the rungs of the ladder can be mapped onto a Kuramoto model with nearest-neighbor, sinusoidal couplings. This result is obtained by an averaging method, in which the fast dynamics of the RSJ equations are integrated out, leaving the dynamics which describe the time scale over which neighboring junctions along the rungs of the ladder phase and frequency synchronize. We quantify the degree of frequency synchronization of the rung junctions by calculating the standard deviation of their time-averaged voltages, σ_ω, and the phase synchronization is quantified by calculating the time average of the modulus of the Kuramoto order parameter, < |r|>. We test the results of our averaging process by comparing the values of σ_ω and < |r|> for the original RSJ equations and our averaged equations. We find excellent agreement for DC bias currents of I_B/< I_c>agt 3, where < I_c> is the average critical current of the rung junctions, and critical current disorders of up to 10%. We also study the effects of thermal noise on the synchronization properties of the overdamped ladder. Finally, we find that including the effects of junction capacitance can lead to a discontinuous synchronization transition as the strength of the coupling between neighboring junctions is smoothly varied. This project was supported by the Ohio Wesleyan University Summer Research Program which was funded in part by the McGregor Fund.

  17. Ground state energy and mass gap of a generalized quantum spin ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, M. T.; Maslen, M.

    2000-01-01

    We show that a two-leg ladder Hamiltonian introduced recently by Albeverio and Fei can be made to satisfy the Hecke algebra. As a result we have found an equivalent representation of the eigenspectrum in terms of the spin- 1/2 antiferromagnetic XXZ chain at icons/Journals/Common/Delta" ALT="Delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> = -(5/3). The values of thermodynamic quantities such as the ground state energy and mass gap follow from the known XXZ results.

  18. Beyond Rainbow-Ladder in a covariant three-body Bethe-Salpeter approach: Baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Alepuz, Hèlios; Kubrak, Stanislav D.; Fischer, Christian S.

    2014-06-01

    We report on recent results of a calculation of the nucleon and delta masses in a covariant bound-state approach, where to the simple rainbow-ladder gluon-exchange interaction kernel we add a pion-exchange contribution to account for pion cloud effects. We observe good agreement with lattice data at large pion masses. At the physical point our masses are too large by about five percent, signaling the need for more structure in the gluon part of the interaction.

  19. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  20. Stretched to the limit; can a short pelagic larval duration connect adult populations of an Indo-Pacific diadromous fish (Kuhlia rupestris)?

    PubMed

    Feutry, P; Vergnes, A; Broderick, D; Lambourdière, J; Keith, P; Ovenden, J R

    2013-03-01

    Freshwater species on tropical islands face localized extinction and the loss of genetic diversity. Their habitats can be ephemeral due to variability in freshwater run-off and erosion. Even worse, anthropogenic effects on these ecosystems are intense. Most of these species are amphidromous or catadromous (i.e. their life cycle includes a marine larval phase), which buffers them against many of these effects. A long pelagic larval duration (PLD) was thought to be critical to ensure the colonization and persistence in tropical islands, but recent findings indicated that several species with short PLDs are successful in those ecosystems. To test the potential of a short PLD in maintaining genetic connectivity and forestalling extirpation, we studied Kuhlia rupestris, a catadromous fish species with an extensive distribution in the western Pacific and Indian Oceans. Using a combination of molecular genetic markers (13 microsatellite loci and two gene regions from mtDNA) and modelling of larval dispersal, we show that a short PLD constrains genetic connectivity over a wide geographical range. Molecular markers showed that the short PLD did not prevent genetic divergence through evolutionary time and speciation has occurred or is occurring. Modelling of larvae dispersal suggested limited recent connectivity between genetically homogeneous populations across the Coral Sea. However, a short PLD can maintain connectivity on a subocean basin scale. Conservation and management of tropical diadromous species needs to take into account that population connectivity may be more limited than previously suspected in those species. PMID:23294379