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Sample records for adult fish reproductive

  1. Challenges in current adult fish laboratory reproductive tests: suggestions for refinement using a mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) case study.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Thijs; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2009-11-01

    Concerns about screening endocrine-active contaminants have led to the development of a number of short-term fish reproductive tests. A review conducted of 62 published adult fish reproductive papers using various fish species found low samples sizes (mean of 5.7 replicates with a median of 5 replicates) and high variance (an average coefficient of variance of 43.8%). The high variances and low sample sizes allow only relatively large differences to be detected with the current protocols; the average significant difference detected was a 68.7% reduction in egg production, while only differences above 50% were detected with confidence. This result indicates low power to detect more subtle differences and a high probability of type II errors in interpretation. The present study identifies several ways to increase the power of the adult fish reproductive test in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). By identifying the peak timing of egg production (before and after the new moon), extending the duration of the experiment (increased from 7 to 14 d), and determining that a sample size of eight replicate tanks per treatment accurately predicts variance in the sample population (based on pre-exposure variation calculations of replicate tanks), the power of the test has been significantly increased. The present study demonstrates that weaknesses in the current adult fish reproductive tests can easily be addressed by focusing on improved understanding of the reproductive behavior of the test species and developing study designs that include calculating desired variability levels and increasing replicates.

  2. Validation of a refined short-term adult fish reproductive test with improved power for mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) to test complex effluents.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Thijs; Hewitt, L Mark; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2010-10-01

    Short-term adult fish reproductive tests are widely used to assess the toxicity of chemicals and waste streams. However, these tests often have low power to detect differences in egg production among treatments, due to high variance and small sample sizes, limiting their effectiveness for informing regulatory decisions. A protocol for a fish reproductive test using mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) was refined to increase statistical power. Three studies using the original protocol were compared with three studies using the refined protocol. Tank pre-selection and sample size increased the a priori power from 11.2% to 85.7%. After exposure, average power levels were 62.0%, a more than five-fold increase compared to studies that used the original protocol (power of 15.0%). There was a high level of consistency compared to the original protocol; differences >33% in female and male gonad size and egg production could be detected among treatments. This study demonstrates that a refinement process can address shortcomings in short-term adult fish reproductive protocols, creating a solid foundation for further standardization and possible regulatory use.

  3. The role of prolactin in fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Camilla M; Wilson, Anthony B

    2013-09-15

    Prolactin (PRL) has one of the broadest ranges of functions of any vertebrate hormone, and plays a critical role in regulating aspects of reproduction in widely divergent lineages. However, while PRL structure, mode of action and functions have been well-characterised in mammals, studies of other vertebrate lineages remain incomplete. As the most diverse group of vertebrates, fish offer a particularly valuable model system for the study of the evolution of reproductive endocrine function. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the role of prolactin in fish reproduction, which extends to migration, reproductive development and cycling, brood care behaviour, pregnancy, and nutrient provisioning to young. We also highlight significant gaps in knowledge and advocate a specific bidirectional research methodology including both observational and manipulative experiments. Focusing research efforts towards the thorough characterisation of a restricted number of reproductively diverse fish models will help to provide the foundation necessary for a more explicitly evolutionary analysis of PRL function.

  4. Role of serotonin in fish reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Parvathy; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2015-01-01

    The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviors, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may also play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction. PMID:26097446

  5. Role of serotonin in fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Parvathy; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviors, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may also play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction.

  6. Mercury-induced reproductive impairment in fish.

    PubMed

    Crump, Kate L; Trudeau, Vance L

    2009-05-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin, and increasing levels have led to concern for human and wildlife health in many regions of the world. During the past three decades, studies in fish have examined the effects of sublethal mercury exposure on a range of endpoints within the reproductive axis. Mercury studies have varied from highly concentrated aqueous exposures to ecologically relevant dietary exposures using levels comparable to those currently found in the environment. This review summarizes data from both laboratory and field studies supporting the hypothesis that mercury in the aquatic environment impacts the reproductive health of fish. The evidence presented suggests that the inhibitory effects of mercury on reproduction occur at multiple sites within the reproductive axis, including the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. Accumulation of mercury in the fish brain has resulted in reduced neurosecretory material, hypothalamic neuron degeneration, and alterations in parameters of monoaminergic neurotransmission. At the level of the pituitary, mercury exposure has reduced and/or inactivated gonadotropin-secreting cells. Finally, studies have examined the effects of mercury on the reproductive organs and demonstrated a range of effects, including reductions in gonad size, circulating reproductive steroids, gamete production, and spawning success. Despite some variation between studies, there appears to be sufficient evidence from laboratory studies to link exposure to mercury with reproductive impairment in many fish species. Currently, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown; however, several physiological and cellular mechanisms are proposed within this review.

  7. Increased CO2 stimulates reproduction in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gabrielle M; Watson, Sue-Ann; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to negatively impact the reproduction of many marine species, either by reducing fertilization success or diverting energy from reproductive effort. While recent studies have demonstrated how ocean acidification will affect larval and juvenile fishes, little is known about how increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) and decreasing pH might affect reproduction in adult fishes. We investigated the effects of near-future levels of pCO(2) on the reproductive performance of the cinnamon anemonefish, Amphiprion melanopus, from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Breeding pairs were held under three CO(2) treatments [Current-day Control (430 μatm), Moderate (584 μatm) and High (1032 μatm)] for a 9-month period that included the summer breeding season. Unexpectedly, increased CO(2) dramatically stimulated breeding activity in this species of fish. Over twice as many pairs bred in the Moderate (67% of pairs) and High (55%) compared to the Control (27%) CO(2) treatment. Pairs in the High CO(2) group produced double the number of clutches per pair and 67% more eggs per clutch compared to the Moderate and Control groups. As a result, reproductive output in the High group was 82% higher than that in the Control group and 50% higher than that in the Moderate group. Despite the increase in reproductive activity, there was no difference in adult body condition among the three treatment groups. There was no significant difference in hatchling length between the treatment groups, but larvae from the High CO(2) group had smaller yolks than Controls. This study provides the first evidence of the potential effects of ocean acidification on key reproductive attributes of marine fishes and, contrary to expectations, demonstrates an initially stimulatory (hormetic) effect in response to increased pCO(2). However, any long-term consequences of increased reproductive effort on individuals or populations remain to be determined.

  8. Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, E.

    1989-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

  9. Fish reproductive guilds downstream of dams.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, L P; Alves, D C; Gomes, L C

    2014-11-01

    Fish reproductive guilds were used to evaluate the responses of species with different reproductive strategies during two different periods of post-dam construction. The data used for the comparisons were collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), downstream of the Porto Primavera dam, 2 and 10 years after impoundment. The abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE), species richness, evenness and structure of communities, all within reproductive guilds, were used to test the hypothesis that these metrics vary spatially and temporally. The influence of damming on species structure and the diversity of fish reproductive guilds varied spatiotemporally, and species with opportunistic reproductive strategies tended to be less affected. Conversely, long-distance migratory species responded more markedly to spatiotemporal variations, indicating that the ecosystem dynamics exert greater effects on populations of these species. Thus, the effects of a dam, even if attenuated, may extend over several years, especially downstream. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining large undammed tributaries downstream of reservoirs.

  10. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on reproduction in reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Megan J.; Munday, Philip L.

    2016-06-01

    Differences in the sensitivity of marine species to ocean acidification will influence the structure of marine communities in the future. Reproduction is critical for individual and population success, yet is energetically expensive and could be adversely affected by rising CO2 levels in the ocean. We investigated the effects of projected future CO2 levels on reproductive output of two species of coral reef damselfish, Amphiprion percula and Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Adult breeding pairs were maintained at current-day control (446 μatm), moderate (652 μatm) or high CO2 (912 μatm) for a 9-month period that included the summer breeding season. The elevated CO2 treatments were consistent with CO2 levels projected by 2100 under moderate (RCP6) and high (RCP8) emission scenarios. Reproductive output increased in A. percula, with 45-75 % more egg clutches produced and a 47-56 % increase in the number of eggs per clutch in the two elevated CO2 treatments. In contrast, reproductive output decreased at high CO2 in Ac. polyacanthus, with approximately one-third as many clutches produced compared with controls. Egg survival was not affected by CO2 for A. percula, but was greater in elevated CO2 for Ac. polyacanthus. Hatching success was also greater for Ac. polyacanthus at elevated CO2, but there was no effect of CO2 treatments on offspring size. Despite the variation in reproductive output, body condition of adults did not differ between control and CO2 treatments in either species. Our results demonstrate different effects of high CO2 on fish reproduction, even among species within the same family. A greater understanding of the variation in effects of ocean acidification on reproductive performance is required to predict the consequences for future populations of marine organisms.

  11. Interpreting the von Bertalanffy model of somatic growth in fishes: the cost of reproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lester, N. P.; Shuter, B. J.; Abrams, P. A.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a model for somatic growth in fishes that explicitly allows for the energy demand imposed by reproduction. We show that the von Bertalanffy (VB) equation provides a good description of somatic growth after maturity, but not before. We show that the parameters of the VB equation are simple functions of age at maturity and reproductive investment. We use this model to show how the energy demands for both growth and reproduction trade off to determine optimal life-history traits. Assuming that both age at maturity and reproductive investment adapt to variations in adult mortality to maximize lifetime offspring production, our model predicts that: (i) the optimal age of maturity is inversely related to adult mortality rate; (ii) the optimal reproductive effort is approximately equal to adult mortality rate. These predictions are consistent with observed variations in the life-history traits of a large sample of iteroparous freshwater fishes. PMID:15306310

  12. Corticosteroids: Friends or foes of teleost fish reproduction?

    PubMed

    Milla, S; Wang, N; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2009-07-01

    Reproduction in vertebrates is controlled by the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad axis and the main hormone actions have been extensively described. Still, despite the scattered information in fish, accumulating evidence strongly indicates that corticosteroids play essential roles in reproductive mechanisms. An integrative approach is important for understanding these implications. Animal husbandry and physiological studies at molecular to organismal levels have revealed that these corticosteroids are regulators of fish reproductive processes. But their involvements appear strongly contrasted. Indeed, for both sexes, corticosteroids present either deleterious or positive effects on fish reproduction. In this review, the authors will attempt to gather and clarify the available information about these physiological involvements. The authors will also suggest future ways to prospect corticosteroid roles in fish reproduction.

  13. Stress and fish reproduction: The roles of allostasis and hormesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreck, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a review of the effects of stress on reproduction in fishes. I hope to further the development of the concepts of allostasis and hormesis as relevant to understanding reproduction in general and in fish in particular. The main contentions I derive in this review are the following: Stressors affect fish reproduction in a variety of ways depending on the nature and severity of the stressor. The effects are transduced through a hormonal cascade initiated by perception of the stressor and involving the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis, the catecholamines, and also cytokines. Mounting a stress response and resisting a stressor is an energetically costly process, including costs associated with allostasis, attempting to reset homeostatic norms. Responses in emergency situations (e.g., being chased by a predator or a net) can be different from those where fish can cope (e.g., being in a more crowded environment) with a stressor, but both situations involve energy re-budgeting. Emergency responses happen in concert with the onset of energy limitations (e.g., the fish may not eat), while coping with allostatic overload can happen in a more energy-rich environment (e.g., the fish can continue to eat). Low levels of stress may have a positive effect on reproductive processes while greater stress has negative effects on fish reproduction. The concept of hormesis is a useful way to think about the effect of stressors on fish reproduction since responses can be nonmonotonal, often biphasic.

  14. Impacts of moonlight on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Taro; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takemura, Akihiro

    2014-04-01

    The waxing and waning cycle of the moon is repeated at approximately 1-month intervals, and concomitant changes occur in the levels of moonlight and cueing signals detected by organisms on the earth. In the goldlined spinefoot Siganus guttatus, a spawner lunar-synchronized around the first quarter moon, periodic changes in moonlight are used to cue gonadal development and gamete release. Rearing of mature fish under artificial constant full moon and new moon conditions during the spawning season leads to disruption or delay of synchronous spawning around the predicted moon phase. Melatonin, an endogenous transducer of the environmental light/dark cycle, increases in the blood and in the pineal gland around the new moon period and decreases around the full moon period. In synchrony with melatonin fluctuation, melatonin receptor(s) mRNA abundance is higher during the new moon period than during the full moon. The melatonin/melatonin receptor system is likely affected by moonlight. Measurements of the expression patterns of clock genes in neural tissues demonstrate that Cryptochrome (Cry1 and Cry3) and Period (Per2) fluctuate with lunar periodicity, the former peaking in the medial part of the brain around the first quarter moon period, and the latter peaking in the pineal gland around the full moon. Some clock genes may respond to periodic changes in moon phase and appear to be involved in the generation of lunar-related rhythmicity in lunar spawners. Thus, some fish use moonlight-related periodicities as reliable information for synchronizing the timing of reproductive events.

  15. Selenium and mercury have a synergistic negative effect on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Penglase, S; Hamre, K; Ellingsen, S

    2014-04-01

    Selenium (Se) can reduce the negative impacts of mercury (Hg) toxicity on growth and survival, but little is known about how these two elements interact in reproduction. In the following study we explored the effects of organic Hg and Se on the growth, survival and reproduction of female zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were fed one of four diets from 73 until 226 dpf in a 2 × 2 factorial design, using selenomethionine (SeMet) and methylmercury (MeHg) as the Se and Hg sources, respectively. Each diet contained Se at either requirement (0.7 mg Se/kg DM) or elevated levels (10 mg Se/kgDM), and Hg at either low (0.05 mg Hg/kg DM) or elevated (12 mg Hg/kg DM) levels. Between 151 and 206 dpf the female fish were pairwise crossed against untreated male fish and the mating success, fecundity, embryo survival, and subsequent overall reproductive success were measured. Elevated dietary Se reduced Hg levels in both the adult fish and their eggs. Elevated dietary Hg and Se increased egg Se levels to a greater extent than when dietary Se was elevated alone. At elevated maternal intake levels, egg concentrations of Se and Hg reflected the maternal dietary levels and not the body burdens of the adult fish. Elevated dietary Hg reduced the growth and survival of female fish, but these effects were largely prevented with elevated dietary Se. Elevated dietary Se alone did not affect fish growth or survival. Compared to other treatments, elevated dietary Hg alone increased both mating and overall reproductive success with <100 days of exposure, but decreased these parameters with >100 days exposure. Elevated dietary Se decreased fecundity, embryo survival, and overall reproductive success. The combination of elevated Se and Hg had a synergistic negative effect on all aspects of fish reproduction compared to those groups fed elevated levels of either Se or Hg. Overall the data demonstrate that while increased dietary Se may reduce adverse effects of Hg on the growth and survival in

  16. Insulin-like growth factors and fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, Manfred

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of fish reproduction is of high relevance to basic fish biology and comparative evolution. Furthermore, fish are excellent biomedical models, and the impact of aquaculture on worldwide food production is steadily increasing. Consequently, research on fish reproduction and the potential modes of its manipulation has become more and more important. Reproduction in fish is regulated by the integration of endogenous neuroendocrine (gonadotropins), endocrine, and autocrine/paracrine signals with exogenous (environmental) factors. The main endocrine regulators of gonadal sex differentiation and function are steroid hormones. However, recent studies suggest that other hormones are also involved. Most prominent among these hormones are the insulin-like growth factors (Igfs), i.e., Igf1, Igf2, and, most recently, Igf3. Thus, the present review deals with the expression patterns and potential physiological functions of Igf1 and Igf2 in male and female gonads. It further considers the potential involvement of growth hormone (Gh) and balances the reasons for endocrine vs. autocrine/paracrine action of the Igfs on the gonads of fish. Finally, this review discusses the early and late development of gonadal Igf1 and Igf2 and whether they are targets of endocrine-disrupting compounds. Future topics for novel research investigation on Igfs and fish reproduction are presented.

  17. Sensivity of Adult Reproduction and Reproductive Development in Japanese Medaka Exposed to 4-Tert-octylphenol

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to legislation, the USEPA is developing assessment tools for identifying chemicals likely to cause sublethal effects on reproduction and reproductive development with ultimate adverse impacts on fish populations. While fecundity and fertility data from short-term adul...

  18. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Adams, Marshall; McCracken, Kitty

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated with

  19. Validation of a Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay is an in vivo assay conducted with fathead minnows and is designed to detect changes in spawning, gross morphology, histopathology, and specific biochemical endpoints that reflect disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...

  20. Reproductive biology of freshwater fishes from the Venezuelan floodplains.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, H Y; Cardillo, E; Poleo, G; Marcano, D

    2009-03-01

    This review describes the endocrine changes that occur during the annual reproductive cycle of Pygocentrus cariba, Pimelodus blochii, and Oxydoras sifontesi and their relationships with the environmental characteristics of Venezuelan floodplains. Most reproductive studies of teleosts have focused on changes that occur during annual cycles in temperate species but, in tropical fish, this has been examined less frequently. P. cariba, P. blochii, and O. sifontesi are seasonal breeders widely distributed along the Orinoco River. Under natural conditions they have an annual gonadal cycle closely related to changes in the annual hydrology cycle of the Orinoco River which defines two seasons on the floodplain: inundation and isolation. The reproductive cycle of these species seems to be controlled by cues from the external environment. Relevant data about gonadal maturation, for example gonadosomatic index and sexual hormones secretion, are contrasted. The role of catecholamines in neuroendocrine control of the reproductive axis is also considered in this work.

  1. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of dioxin in fish.

    PubMed

    King-Heiden, Tisha C; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M; Lanham, Kevin A; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren; Peterson, Richard E

    2012-05-06

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans.

  2. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Dioxin in Fish1

    PubMed Central

    King-Heiden, Tisha C.; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M.; Lanham, Kevin A.; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S.; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren

    2011-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans. PMID:21958697

  3. Hypoxia causes transgenerational impairments in reproduction of fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Simon Yuan; Lau, Karen; Lai, Keng-Po; Zhang, Jiang-Wen; Tse, Anna Chung-Kwan; Li, Jing-Woei; Tong, Yin; Chan, Ting-Fung; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu; Chiu, Jill Man-Ying; Au, Doris Wai-Ting; Wong, Alice Sze-Tsai; Kong, Richard Yuen-Chong; Wu, Rudolf Shiu-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is amongst the most widespread and pressing problems in aquatic environments. Here we demonstrate that fish (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to hypoxia show reproductive impairments (retarded gonad development, decrease in sperm count and sperm motility) in F1 and F2 generations despite these progenies (and their germ cells) having never been exposed to hypoxia. We further show that the observed transgenerational reproductive impairments are associated with a differential methylation pattern of specific genes in sperm of both F0 and F2 coupled with relevant transcriptomic and proteomic alterations, which may impair spermatogenesis. The discovered transgenerational and epigenetic effects suggest that hypoxia might pose a dramatic and long-lasting threat to the sustainability of fish populations. Because the genes regulating spermatogenesis and epigenetic modifications are highly conserved among vertebrates, these results may also shed light on the potential transgenerational effects of hypoxia on other vertebrates, including humans. PMID:27373813

  4. Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats.

    PubMed

    Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2014-12-01

    Coastal development has severely affected habitats and biodiversity during the last century, but quantitative estimates of the impacts are usually lacking. We utilize predictive habitat modeling and mapping of human pressures to estimate the cumulative long-term effects of coastal development in relation to fish habitats. Based on aerial photographs since the 1960s, shoreline development rates were estimated in the Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea. By combining shoreline development rates with spatial predictions of fish reproduction habitats, we estimated annual habitat degradation rates for three of the most common coastal fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The results showed that shoreline constructions were concentrated to the reproduction habitats of these species. The estimated degradation rates, where a degraded habitat was defined as having ≥3 constructions per 100 m shoreline, were on average 0.5 % of available habitats per year and about 1 % in areas close to larger population centers. Approximately 40 % of available habitats were already degraded in 2005. These results provide an example of how many small construction projects over time may have a vast impact on coastal fish populations.

  5. The SSRI fluoxetine exhibits mild effects on the reproductive axis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Cichliformes).

    PubMed

    Dorelle, Luciana S; Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Höcht, Christian; Shimizu, Akio; Genovese, Griselda; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L

    2017-03-01

    Among the wide variety of pharmaceuticals released into the environment, Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is one of the most prescribed for the treatment of major depression. It inhibits serotonin (5-HT) reuptake at the presinaptic membrane, increasing serotonergic activity. In vertebrates, including fish, the serotonergic system is closely related to the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal (HPG) axis which regulates reproduction. As FLX can act as an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) by affecting several reproductive parameters in fish, the aim of this study was to provide an integral assessment of the potential effect of FLX on the reproductive axis of the Neotropical freshwater fish Cichlasoma dimerus. Adult fish were intraperitoneally injected with 2 μg g(-1) FLX or saline every third day for 15 days. No significant differences were found on serotonergic turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT ratio). Pituitary βLH content in FLX injected females was significantly higher than control females; no significant differences were seen for βFSH content. Sex steroids remained unaltered, both in males and females fish, after FLX treatment. No plasma vitellogenin was induced in treated males. Some alterations were seen in testes of FLX injected males, such as the presence of foam cells and an acidophilic PAS positive, Alcian-Blue negative secretion in the lobular lumen. Although there is no clear consensus about the effect of this drug on reproductive physiology, these results indicate that FLX is acting as a mild EDC in adults of C. dimerus.

  6. Can Myxosporean parasites compromise fish and amphibian reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2009-01-01

    Research into fish and amphibian reproduction has increased exponentially in recent years owing to the expansion of the aquaculture industry, the need to recover fishery populations, the impact of endocrine disruptors on the aquatic environment and the global decline of amphibian populations. This review focuses on a group of parasites, the Myxozoa, that affect fish and amphibian reproduction. Lists of the myxosporeans that specifically infect gonads are provided. Most of these are parasitic of freshwater hosts, and most amphibian cases are reported from testes. Sex specificity and sex reversal are discussed in relation to gonadal parasitism. The immune response of the fish to the infection is described, and the contribution of the immunoprivilege of gonads to host invasion is emphasized. The pathological effect of these parasites can be significant, especially in aquacultured broodstocks, on some occasions, leading to parasitic castration. Although myxosporean parasites are currently not very frequent in gonads, their impact could increase in the future owing to the transactions in the global market. Their easy release into the aquatic environment with spawning could make their spreading even more feasible. In the absence of commercial drugs or vaccines to treat and prevent these infections, there is an urgent need to develop specific, rapid and reliable diagnostic tools to control and manage animal movements. In addition, much effort is still to be made on deciphering the life cycle of these organisms, their invasion strategies and their immune evasion mechanisms. PMID:19474043

  7. [Advances in the study of neuroendocrinological regulation of kisspeptin in fish reproduction].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Qi

    2013-10-01

    Kisspeptin, a key factor in the neuroendocrinological regulation of animal reproduction, is a peptide product encoded by kiss genes, which act as the natural ligand of GPR54. Over the last decade, multiple functional molecular forms of kisspeptin have been found in vertebrate species. In fish, the major molecular structural form is kisspeptin-10. The kisspeptin/GPR54 system has multiple important functions in reproduction. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge on kisspeptin and its role in regulating fish reproductive, including the distribution and location of kisspeptin neurons in the brain, the molecular polymorphism of fish kisspeptin, functional diversity, the molecular mechanism of fish reproductive regulation, and the molecular evolution of kisspeptin as well as the co-regulation of fish reproduction by kisspeptin and other functional molecules. Perspectives on the future of kisspeptin regulation in fish reproduction are also highlighted.

  8. The role of reproductive behavior in the conservation of fishes: examples from the Great Plains riverine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Recovery efforts for threatened and endangered fish species are hampered by lack of knowledge of their reproductive ecology. Habitat requirements and environmental stimuli necessary for reproduction are often unknown and vary widely among species. For Great Plains riverine fishes, this is often complicated by the high turbidity of the system in which the species occur, which precludes direct visual observation of behavior. Innovative methods for collectng behavioral data are required to better understand the conditions necessary for successful reproduction.

  9. A controllable on-off strategy for the reproductive containment of fish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunsheng; Chen, Ji; Cui, Xiaojuan; Luo, Daji; Xia, Hui; Dai, Jun; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A major impediment to the commercialization and cultivation of transgenic fish is the potential ecological risks they pose to natural environments: a problem that could be solved by the production of sterile transgenic fish. Here, we have developed an on-off reproductive containment strategy for fish that renders the offspring sterile but leaves their parents fertile. TG1 (Tol2-CMV-GFP-pA-CMV-gal4-pA-Tol2) and TG2 (Tol2-CMV-RFP-pA-5 × UAS-as/dnd-pA-Tol2) zebrafish lines were established using a GAL4/UAS system. While the parental lines remained fertile, in the hybrid offspring, GAL4 induced 5 × UAS to drive the transcription of antisense dnd, which significantly down-regulated endogenous dnd expression. This disrupted the migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs), led to their apoptosis, and resulted in few or no PGCs migrating to the genital ridge. This process induced sterility or reduced fertility in adult fish. This on-off strategy is a potentially effective means of generating sterile fish for commercialization while retaining fertility in brood stocks, and offers a novel method to mitigate the ecological risks of fish introductions. PMID:25556821

  10. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brett M; McIlwain, Jennifer L; Kerr, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  11. A controllable on-off strategy for the reproductive containment of fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunsheng; Chen, Ji; Cui, Xiaojuan; Luo, Daji; Xia, Hui; Dai, Jun; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-05

    A major impediment to the commercialization and cultivation of transgenic fish is the potential ecological risks they pose to natural environments: a problem that could be solved by the production of sterile transgenic fish. Here, we have developed an on-off reproductive containment strategy for fish that renders the offspring sterile but leaves their parents fertile. TG1 (Tol2-CMV-GFP-pA-CMV-gal4-pA-Tol2) and TG2 (Tol2-CMV-RFP-pA-5 × UAS-as/dnd-pA-Tol2) zebrafish lines were established using a GAL4/UAS system. While the parental lines remained fertile, in the hybrid offspring, GAL4 induced 5 × UAS to drive the transcription of antisense dnd, which significantly down-regulated endogenous dnd expression. This disrupted the migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs), led to their apoptosis, and resulted in few or no PGCs migrating to the genital ridge. This process induced sterility or reduced fertility in adult fish. This on-off strategy is a potentially effective means of generating sterile fish for commercialization while retaining fertility in brood stocks, and offers a novel method to mitigate the ecological risks of fish introductions.

  12. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  13. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  14. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  15. Effects of dietary uranium on reproductive endpoints--fecundity, survival, reproductive success--of the fish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Simon, Olivier; Mottin, Elmina; Geffroy, Benjamin; Hinton, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to metal-contaminated water has been shown to result in a number of reproductive abnormalities in adult and larvae fish, such as failure of oocyte maturation and teratogenic effects. Recently, dietary uptake of metals by fish has been recognized as a critical route of exposure, however, the mechanisms of metal uptake and toxicity are poorly understood and in need of further investigation. The objectives of the present study are to quantify uranium (U dietary transfers from spiked artificial diets) in Danio rerio tissues and embryos, as well as establish its effect on reproduction and embryonic development. Uranium's environmental prominence is currently increasing because of new mining and milling activities. Uranium concentrations range from 0.02 µg/L in natural waters to 2 mg/L. The focus of this study was to examine the trophic transfer and effects of U following exposure modalities (dose, exposure duration 1 to 20 d). Two different isotopes were used to distinguish between chemical and radioactivity toxicity of U. Results showed that U trophic transfer was low (0.52%). Uranium tissue distributions showed that accumulation occurred in digestive organs (liver, digestive tract) following dietary exposure. High levels of U were measured in the gonads (female in particular, >20% of relative burden). High U accumulation levels in eggs indicated maternal transfer of the contaminant. Moreover, U trophic exposure led to a reduction in reproduction success as a function of U accumulated levels. High U exposure conditions strongly reduced the total number of eggs (50%) and their viability at 10 d (reduction of the clutch number, low quality of eggs).

  16. Effluent monitoring at a bleached kraft mill: directions for best management practices for eliminating effects on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Martel, Pierre H; Kovacs, Tibor G; O'connor, Brian I; Semeniuk, Sharon; Hewitt, L Mark; Maclatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2011-01-01

    A long-term monitoring study was conducted on effluents from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill located in Eastern Canada. The study was designed to gain insights into temporal effluent variability with respect to fish reproduction as it related to production upsets, mill restarts and conditions affecting biological treatment performance. Final effluent quality was monitored between February 2007 and May 2009 using biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, resin and fatty acids, a gas chromatographic profiling index, and the presence of methyl substituted 2-cyclopentenones. Selected effluent samples were evaluated for effects on fish reproduction (egg production) using a shortened version of the adult fathead minnow reproductive test. The events relating to negative effects on fish reproduction were upsets of the pulping liquor recovery system resulting in black liquor losses, operational upsets of the hardwood line resulting in the loss of oxygen delignification filtrates, and conditions that reduced the performance of biological treatment (e.g., mill shutdown and low ambient temperatures). The reductions in egg production observed in fathead minnow were associated with biochemical oxygen demand values > 20 mg/L, GC profiling indices > 1.2 and the presence of methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones at concentrations > 100 μg/L. This study demonstrated the importance of both in-plant measures for controlling the loss of organics as well as the optimum operation of biological effluent treatment for eliminating effluent-related effects on fish reproduction (egg production) in the laboratory.

  17. A geographical genetics framework for inferring homing reproductive behavior in fishes.

    PubMed

    de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; da Costa, Marcio Candido; Barthem, Ronaldo Borges; da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Neto, Advaldo Carlos Souza; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola

    2011-02-01

    One of the most intriguing patterns of migration and gene flow that affects genetic structure is the reproductive homing behavior of fishes, wherein the adults return to the areas in which they were spawned. Here we reviewed the literature on homing behavior in fish and propose an analytical framework for testing hypotheses regarding this behavior and its effects on the genetic structure of fish in an explicit geographical context, using a geographical genetics toolbox. Although disentangling the many potential causes underlying genetic population structure and unambiguously demonstrating that the homing behavior causes these genetic patterns is difficult, our framework allows the successive testing of homing behavior with increasing levels of complexity based on the following: (1) establishment of population structures among waterheads; (2) patterns of genetic variability throughout the adult migratory pool; (3) analyses of the non-migratory adult pool; and (4) comparisons among successive generations. We expect that the framework presented here will help delineating the appropriate uses of different sampling designs to make inferences regarding homing behavior and illustrate the limits imposed by the interpretation of different types of genetic data. More importantly, we hope this framework enables researchers to understand how a particular dataset can be utilized in a broader context as an ongoing part of a larger research program and thus guide future research by developing better and more integrated sampling designs.

  18. Evidence for harvest-induced maternal influences on the reproductive rates of fish populations.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Paul A; Shuter, Brian J; Murphy, Cheryl A

    2009-03-07

    Knowledge of the relationship between the number of offspring produced (recruitment) and adult abundance is fundamental to forecasting the dynamics of an exploited population. Although small-scale experiments have documented the importance of maternal quality to offspring survival in plants and animals, the effects of this association on the recruitment dynamics of exploited populations are largely unknown. Here, we present results from both a simple population model and a meta-analysis of time-series data from 25 species of exploited marine fishes that suggest that a population of older, larger individuals has a higher maximum reproductive rate than an equivalent population of younger, smaller individuals, and that this difference increases with the reproductive lifespan of the population. These findings (i) establish an empirical link between population age structure and reproductive rate that is consistent with strong effects of maternal quality on population dynamics and (ii) provide further evidence that extended age structure is essential to the sustainability of many exploited fish stocks.

  19. Evidence for harvest-induced maternal influences on the reproductive rates of fish populations

    PubMed Central

    Venturelli, Paul A.; Shuter, Brian J.; Murphy, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between the number of offspring produced (recruitment) and adult abundance is fundamental to forecasting the dynamics of an exploited population. Although small-scale experiments have documented the importance of maternal quality to offspring survival in plants and animals, the effects of this association on the recruitment dynamics of exploited populations are largely unknown. Here, we present results from both a simple population model and a meta-analysis of time-series data from 25 species of exploited marine fishes that suggest that a population of older, larger individuals has a higher maximum reproductive rate than an equivalent population of younger, smaller individuals, and that this difference increases with the reproductive lifespan of the population. These findings (i) establish an empirical link between population age structure and reproductive rate that is consistent with strong effects of maternal quality on population dynamics and (ii) provide further evidence that extended age structure is essential to the sustainability of many exploited fish stocks. PMID:19033140

  20. Bender-Gestalt reproduction times for retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Andert, J N; Hustak, T L; Dinning, W D

    1978-10-01

    Examined the length of time required by retarded adults to complete the Bender-Gestalt test with a sample of 241 test administrations. In order to provide for normative comparisons among retarded adults, descriptive data are presented on the Bender reproduction times of adults in three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two ranges based on Stanford-Binet IQs. Negative correlations were found between the length of Bender times and the degree of retardation. The duration of Bender times was correlated positively with the number of errors in reproduction as measured by the Koppitz developmental scoring system.

  1. Prey selectivity affects reproductive success of a corallivorous reef fish.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Most animals consume a narrower range of food resources than is potentially available in the environment, but the underlying basis for these preferences is often poorly understood. Foraging theory predicts that prey selection should represent a trade-off between prey preferences based on nutritional value and prey availability. That is, species should consume preferred prey when available, but select less preferred prey when preferred prey is rare. We employed both field observation and laboratory experiments to examine the relationship between prey selection and preferences in the obligate coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris. To determine the drivers of prey selection, we experimentally established prey preferences in choice arenas and tested the consequences of prey preferences for key fitness-related parameters. Field studies showed that individuals fed almost exclusively on live corals from the genus Acropora. While diet was dominated by the most abundant species, Acropora nobilis, fish appeared to preferentially select rarer acroporids, such as A. millepora and A. hyacinthus. Prey choice experiments confirmed strong preferences for these corals, suggesting that field consumption is constrained by availability. In a longer-term feeding experiment, reproductive pairs fed on non-preferred corals exhibited dramatic reductions to body weight, and in hepatic and gonad condition, compared with those fed preferred corals. The majority of pairs fed preferred corals spawned frequently, while no spawning was observed for any pairs fed a non-preferred species of coral. These experiments suggest that fish distinguish between available corals based on their intrinsic value as prey, that reproductive success is dependent on the presence of particular coral species, and that differential loss of preferred corals could have serious consequences for the population success of these dietary specialists.

  2. Temperature is the evil twin: effects of increased temperature and ocean acidification on reproduction in a reef fish.

    PubMed

    Miller, G M; Kroon, F J; Metcalfe, S; Mundayi, P L

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction in many organisms can be disrupted by changes to the physical environment, such as those predicted to occur during climate change. Marine organisms face the dual climate change threats of increasing temperature and ocean acidification, yet no studies have examined the potential interactive effects of these stressors on reproduction in marine fishes. We used a long-term experiment to test the interactive effects of increased temperature and CO2 on the reproductive performance of the anemonefish, Amphiprion melanopus. Adult breeding pairs were kept for 10 months at three temperatures (28.5°C [+0.0°C], 30.0°C [-1.5°C] and 31.5°C [+3.0°C]) cross-factored with three CO2 levels (a current-day control [417 µatm] and moderate [644 µatm] and high [1134 µatm]) treatments consistent with the range of CO2 projections for the year 2100. We recorded each egg clutch produced during the breeding season, the number of eggs laid per clutch, average egg size, fertilization success, survival to hatching, hatchling length, and yolk provisioning. Adult body condition, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index, and plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured at the end of the breeding season to determine the effect of prolonged exposure to increased temperature and elevated. CO2 on adults, and to examine potential physiological mechanisms for changes in reproduction. Temperature had by far the stronger influence on reproduction, with clear declines in reproduction occurring in the +1.5°C treatment and ceasing altogether in the +3.0°C treatment. In contrast, CO2 had a minimal effect on the majority of reproductive traits measured, but caused a decline in offspring quality in combination with elevated temperature. We detected no significant effect of temperature or Co2 on adult body condition or hepatosomatic index. Elevated temperature had a significant negative effect on plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations, suggesting that declines in reproduction with

  3. Impairments in aromatase expression, reproductive behavior, and sperm quality of male fish exposed to 17β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Guyón, Noelia F; Roggio, María A; Amé, María V; Hued, Andrea C; Valdés, María E; Giojalas, Laura C; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Bistoni, María A

    2012-05-01

    Growing evidence shows that environmental estrogen can reach levels that are high enough to exert adverse reproductive effects on wild fish populations. The authors report different parameters of male reproductive behavior, brain, and gonadal aromatase expression, as well as sperm quality in an internally fertilizing fish species (Jenynsia multidentata, Jenyns) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E(2) ). Adult males were exposed to 0, 50, 100, and 250 ng/L E(2) over 28 d. The authors' findings demonstrate that E(2) exposure resulted in a very clear increase in brain aromatase transcript abundance at all assayed concentrations compared with control; however, no effects on gonadal aromatase expression were observed. Behavioral measures revealed increased sexual activity at 50 ng/L but not 100 or 250 ng/L E(2) . In contrast to the molecular and behavioral responses, the condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and sperm quality were unaltered by E(2) exposure. The results from the present work suggest that E(2) affects some aspects of the reproductive biology of J. multidentata. These modifications in the reproductive biology caused by exposure to E(2) could potentially lead to long-term effects at population levels that may not always be immediately evident. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the combined effect of E(2) on aromatase expression, sexual behavior, and sperm parameters in fish.

  4. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after waterborne exposure to TBOEP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinglong; Wu, Ding; Dang, Yao; Yu, Liqin; Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is widely used as a substitute of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). It has been frequently measured at concentrations of micrograms per liter (μg/L) in surface waters and waste water. However, limited information is available about the reproduction toxicology of TBOEP. In this study, adult zebrafish pairs were exposed to TBOEP at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, and 500μg/L for 21days. The effects on reproduction, hormone concentration, transcription of genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and gonadal development were investigated. After exposure to TBOEP, plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol were significantly increased in both sexes of fish, while increase of testosterone was observed only in male fish. Transcription of genes along the HPG axis was significantly influenced by exposure to TBOEP in both male and female fish. Moreover, TBOEP decreases the average number of eggs production, as well as hatching success and survival rates in offspring. Histological examination shows inhibition of oocyte maturation in females and retardation spermiation in males, respectively. The results demonstrate that TBOEP could disturb the sex hormone balance by altering regulatory circuits of the HPG axis, affect gonadal development, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance and the development of progeny.

  5. Reproductive adverse outcome pathways for chemical inhibitors of steroid synthesis in fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    A key physiological process controlling reproductive success of oviparous vertebrates (fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds) involves production of the egg yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG). VTG production is an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated process that, in females, is con...

  6. Manipulations of the reproductive system of fishes by means of exogenous chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental control of reproductive activity of captive fish is feasible (or potentially feasible) but, with few exceptions, is currently impractical for most species. Therefore, chemical methods of manipulating reproductive activity continue to be widely used in fish production operations worldwide. However, the control of fish reproduction in captivity cannot be exercised without regard to adequate environmental conditions, which can differ markedly for different species. This review provides a synopsis of relevant aspects of fish reproductive physiology and addresses current and promising future chemical methods of sex control, gonadal recrudescence, and spawning. Most research on the control of reproduction in fishes has focused on female physiology because ovarian development and maturation are easily disturbed by environmental stressors. Control of sex ratios by steroid treatment has become a well-established technique for several fish species, but the technique continues to be problematic in some cases. Final gonadal growth and spawning usually can be achieved by implant treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa), which in some species have to be applied in combination with dopamine antagonists to enhance responsiveness to GnRHa. However, efforts to accelerate gonadal recrudescence and maturational competence by chemical means have yielded mixed results, reflecting a relative lack of understanding of the basic physiological and biochemic mechanisms controlling these processes. The potential benefits of using reproductive pheromone, to manipulate gonadal development and spawning has been demonstrated in a few species, but further research is needed to determine whether this technique is applicable to fish culture. Because a reliable supply of young fish is critical for the expansion and diversification of fish culture operations, the use of chemicals in combination with adequate environmental conditions to contain gametogenesis and

  7. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: an integrated field and laboratory approach.

    PubMed

    Prado, Paula S; Pinheiro, Ana Paula B; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2014-05-01

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay-Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  8. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  9. Reproductive acclimation to increased water temperature in a tropical reef fish.

    PubMed

    Donelson, Jennifer M; McCormick, Mark I; Booth, David J; Munday, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the capacity of organisms to cope with projected global warming through acclimation and adaptation is critical to predicting their likely future persistence. While recent research has shown that developmental acclimation of metabolic attributes to ocean warming is possible, our understanding of the plasticity of key fitness-associated traits, such as reproductive performance, is lacking. We show that while the reproductive ability of a tropical reef fish is highly sensitive to increases in water temperature, reproductive capacity at +1.5°C above present-day was improved to match fish maintained at present-day temperatures when fish complete their development at the higher temperature. However, reproductive acclimation was not observed in fish reared at +3.0°C warmer than present-day, suggesting limitations to the acclimation possible within one generation. Surprisingly, the improvements seen in reproduction were not predicted by the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis. Specifically, pairs reared at +1.5°C, which showed the greatest capacity for reproductive acclimation, exhibited no acclimation of metabolic attributes. Conversely, pairs reared at +3.0°C, which exhibited acclimation in resting metabolic rate, demonstrated little capacity for reproductive acclimation. Our study suggests that understanding the acclimation capacity of reproductive performance will be critically important to predicting the impacts of climate change on biological systems.

  10. Effects of a Novel Fish Transport System on the Health of Adult Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Linley, Timothy J.; Wagner, Katie A.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2016-12-01

    Movement past hydroelectric dams and related in-river structures has important implications for habitat connectivity and population persistence in migratory fish. A major problem is that many of these structures lack effective fish passage facilities, which can fragment spawning and rearing areas and negatively impact recruitment. While traditional fish passage facilities (e.g., ladders, trap and haul) can effectively enable fish to pass over barriers, their capital or operational costs can be significant. We evaluated the utility of a novel transport device that utilizes a flexible tube with differential internal air pressure to pass fish around in-river barriers. Three treatments and a control group were tested. In two of the treatments, adult fall Chinook Salmon nearing maturation were transported through the device via two lengths of tube (12 or 77 m) and their injury, stress, and immune system responses and reproductive function were compared to a third treatment where fish were moved by a standard trap and haul method and also to a control group. We observed no significant differences among the treatment or control groups in post-treatment adult survival, injury or stress. Indicators of immune system response and reproductive readiness were also not significantly different among the four groups. Egg survival was significantly different among the groups, but the differences were highly variable within groups and not consistent with the duration of treatment or degree of handling. Taken together, the results suggest the device did not injure or alter normal physiological functioning of adult fall Chinook Salmon nearing maturation and may provide an effective method for transporting such fish around in-river barriers during their spawning migration. Keywords: Whooshh, transport, in-stream barriers, hydropower

  11. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    PubMed

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E; Jardine, Timothy D; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction.

  12. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  13. Effects of global warming on fish reproductive endocrine axis, with special emphasis in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Leandro Andrés; Chalde, Tomás; Elisio, Mariano; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto

    2013-10-01

    The ongoing of global warming trend has led to an increase in temperature of several water bodies. Reproduction in fish, compared with other physiological processes, only occurs in a bounded temperature range; therefore, small changes in water temperature could significantly affect this process. This review provides evidence that fish reproduction may be directly affected by further global warming and that abnormal high water temperature impairs the expression of important genes throughout the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. In all fishes studied, gonads seem to be the organ more readily damaged by heat treatments through the inhibition of the gene expression and subsequent synthesis of different gonadal steroidogenic enzymes. In view of the feedback role of sex steroids upon the synthesis and release of GnRH and GtHs in fish, it is possible that the inhibition observed at brain and pituitary levels in treated fish is consequence of the sharp decrease in plasma steroids levels. Results of in vitro studies on the inhibition of pejerrey gonad aromatase expression by high temperature corroborate that ovary functions are directly disrupted by high temperature independently of the brain-pituitary axis. For the reproductive responses obtained in laboratory fish studies, it is plausible to predict changes in the timing and magnitude of reproductive activity or even the total failure of spawning season may occur in warm years, reducing annual reproductive output and affecting future populations.

  14. A survey of Canadian mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents: insights concerning the potential to affect fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Tibor G; Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Hewitt, L Mark; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Van Den Heuvel, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Building on breakthroughs recently made at kraft mills, a survey of mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents was undertaken to gain insights concerning potential effects on fish reproduction. Effluents from seven Canadian mills were characterized chemically for conventional parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS). Each sample was further subjected to solvent extraction followed by gas chromatographic separation for the determination of resin/fatty acids and for the estimation of a gas chromatography (GC) profile index. Each mill effluent was assessed for the potential to affect fish reproduction in the laboratory using a five day adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) egg production bioassay with exposures to 100% effluent. The seven effluents were found to have substantial variation both in terms of chemical characterization and effects on fish reproduction. Temporal variations were also noted in effluent quality at mills sampled on different occasions. Similar to what has been observed for kraft mills, a general trend of greater reductions in egg production caused by effluents with greater BOD concentrations and GC profile indices was noted. Effluents with BOD > 25 mg/L and GC Profile indices >5.0 caused a complete cessation of egg production. At the same time, about half of the total effluents sampled had BOD < 25 mg/L and GC profile indices <5.0 and caused no significant effects on egg production, suggesting these values may be useful as effluent quality targets for mechanical pulp and paper mills. However, 3 out of 14 effluents sampled had BOD < 25 mg/L and GC profile indices <5.0 and caused significant reductions in egg production. The reason(s) for reproductive effects caused by such effluents is presently unclear. The effluent quality parameters considered in this study may require further refinement to address their utility in predicting the adverse reproductive effects induced by effluents from mechanical

  15. Evidence of iteroparity in the widely distributed diadromous fish inanga Galaxias maculatus and potential implications for reproductive output.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J C B; Hickford, M J H; Schiel, D R

    2016-10-01

    Gaps in understanding variability among populations of inanga Galaxias maculatus in the timing of reproduction were addressed in southern New Zealand (NZ), where G. maculatus constitutes a declining fishery. Reproductive activity was delayed by 1 month on the west coast compared with the east coast and the west coast spawning season was prolonged into winter. The evidence for post-spawning survival of some fish was unequivocal from histological studies. These older and larger fish contributed disproportionately to egg production. Estimates of fecundity were considerably lower than those previously calculated for NZ populations. The importance of quality habitats being available during critical life history periods are highlighted. It was apparent that some streams supported fish that were larger and in better condition and that this translated into greatly increased fecundity. Future research should focus on whether this is a legacy of these fish experiencing better pre-settlement marine habitat as larvae, or higher quality instream habitat enhancing the growth and development of adults.

  16. Linking adults and immatures of South African marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Connell, Allan D; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-11-01

    The early life-history stages of fishes are poorly known, impeding acquisition of the identifications needed to monitor larval recruitment and year-class strength. A comprehensive database of COI sequences, linked to authoritatively identified voucher specimens, promises to change this situation, representing a significant advance for fisheries science. Barcode records were obtained from 2526 early larvae and pelagic eggs of fishes collected on the inshore shelf within 5 km of the KwaZulu-Natal coast, about 50 km south of Durban, South Africa. Barcodes were also obtained from 3215 adults, representing 946 South African fish species. Using the COI reference library on BOLD based on adults, 89% of the immature fishes could be identified to a species level; they represented 450 species. Most of the uncertain sequences could be assigned to a genus, family, or order; only 92 specimens (4%) were unassigned. Accumulation curves based on inference of phylogenetic diversity indicate near-completeness of the collecting effort. The entire set of adult and larval fishes included 1006 species, representing 43% of all fish species known from South African waters. However, this total included 189 species not previously recorded from this region. The fact that almost 90% of the immatures gained a species identification demonstrates the power and completeness of the DNA barcode reference library for fishes generated during the 10 years of FishBOL.

  17. Production of reproductively sterile fish: A mini-review of germ cell elimination technologies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zohar, Yonathan

    2015-09-15

    As seafood consumption shifts from fisheries harvests to artificially propagated aquatic species, the increase of aquaculture activities poses a biological threat to our environment. Selectively bred, non-native and (eventually) genetically engineered farmed fish may escape from aquaculture operations, propagate and/or interbreed with wild stocks and subsequently alter the genetic makeup of populations in the environment. Thus, an effective strategy for bio-containment of farmed fish is critically needed. Farming reproductively sterile fish is the most environmentally sustainable approach to ensure complete bio-containment in large-scale aquaculture operations. Chromosome set manipulations to produce sterile fish, including polyploidy and hybridization, are currently the most common practices in the aquaculture industry. However, they do not always result in 100% sterility of the treated fish. Moreover, triploid fish typically do not perform as well as the non-manipulated diploids under commercial culture conditions. In the last half decade, several genetic engineering methods have been developed to produce sterile fish. In this review, we will address the latest technologies that use transgenic approaches to eliminate germ cells, resulting in the production of sterile fish. These latest advances also led us to the development of egg/embryo immersion methodologies to deliver and screen compounds that can be used to eliminate primordial germ cells and produce sterile fish. This emerging non-transgenic strategy for the production of reproductively sterile fish in aquaculture will also be discussed.

  18. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: An integrated field and laboratory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Prado, Paula S.; Pinheiro, Ana Paula B.; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2014-05-01

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay–Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  19. On the reproductive success of early-generation hatchery fish in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R; Ford, Michael J; Blouin, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of hatchery salmon spawn in wild populations each year. Hatchery fish with multiple generations of hatchery ancestry often have heritably lower reproductive success than wild fish and may reduce the fitness of an entire population. Whether this reduced fitness also occurs for hatchery fish created with local- and predominantly wild-origin parents remains controversial. Here, we review recent studies on the reproductive success of such ‘early-generation’ hatchery fish that spawn in the wild. Combining 51 estimates from six studies on four salmon species, we found that (i) early-generation hatchery fish averaged only half the reproductive success of their wild-origin counterparts when spawning in the wild, (ii) the reduction in reproductive success was more severe for males than for females, and (iii) all species showed reduced fitness due to hatchery rearing. We review commonalities among studies that point to possible mechanisms (e.g., environmental versus genetic effects). Furthermore, we illustrate that sample sizes typical of these studies result in low statistical power to detect fitness differences unless the differences are substantial. This review demonstrates that reduced fitness of early-generation hatchery fish may be a general phenomenon. Future research should focus on determining the causes of those fitness reductions and whether they lead to long-term reductions in the fitness of wild populations. PMID:25469167

  20. AOP description: Aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction (in fish)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between inhibition of gonadal aromatase activity in females and the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity in repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoint considered in the OECD 229 Fish Sh...

  1. AOP description: ER antagonism leading to reproductive dysfunction (in fish)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between antagonism of estrogen receptor in females and the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity in repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoint considered in the OECD 229 Fish Short Term ...

  2. Testing the acceptability of liquid fish oil in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yaxley, Alison; Miller, Michelle D; Fraser, Robert J; Cobiac, Lynne; Crotty, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions likely to benefit from fish oil therapy are prevalent in older adults however acceptability in this group is uncertain. This study aimed to assess the palatability of a range of liquid fish oil concentrations, the frequency and extent of side effects, and to summarise any effects on adherence to fish oil therapy in older adults. One hundred patients (>=60 years) completed a randomised, single-blind palatability study, conducted in two parts. In part one, 50 subjects, blinded to random sample order, consumed multiple liquid fish oil samples (2x10%, 40% and 100%). In part two, 50 subjects tasted one concentration, or 100% extra light olive oil (control). Pleasantness of taste was scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Side effects were recorded 24-hr post-tasting. Results of part one showed that 9/50 participants reported increasingly unpleasant taste with increasing fish oil concentration. 14/50 reported unpleasant taste for 100% fish oil vs 7/50 for 10%. 14/50 reported side effects which would not affect compliance with therapy. For part two, 1/12 reported unpleasant taste for 100% vs 0/13 for 10% fish oil or control. 4/50 reported side effects and 2/4 indicated these would prevent ongoing fish oil therapy. The authors conclude that taste itself is not a deterrent to fish oil therapy. Furthermore, reported adverse effects may not be a true reaction to fish oil, or dissuade patients from compliance. Liquid fish oil supplements are acceptable to older adults, therefore should be investigated as a therapy for geriatric conditions.

  3. Female germ cell renewal during the annual reproductive cycle in Ostariophysians fish.

    PubMed

    Wildner, Daniel Dantas; Grier, Harry; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to characterize female germ cell renewal during the annual reproductive cycle in two species of ostariophysian fish with distinct reproductive strategies: a siluriform, Pimelodus maculatus, in which oocyte development is group synchronous and the annual reproductive period is short; and a characiform, Serrasalmus maculatus, with asynchronous oocyte development and a prolonged reproductive period. These reproductive strategies result in fish determinate and indeterminate fecundity, respectively. Annual reproductive phases were determined by biometric and histologic analysis of gonads and interpreted according to new proposals for phase classification and stages of oocyte development (with special attention to germinal epithelium activity). Histologically, there were two types of oogonia in the germinal epithelium: single oogonia and those in mitotic proliferation. Oogonial proliferation and their entry into meiosis resulted in formation of cell nests (clusters of cells in the ovarian lamellae). Morphometric analysis was used to estimate germ cell renewal. Based on numbers of single oogonia in the lamellar epithelium, and nests with proliferating oogonia or early prophase oocytes throughout the annual reproductive cycle, oogonial proliferation and entrance into meiosis were more intense during the regenerating phase and developing phase, but decreased sharply (P < 0.05) during the spawning-capable phase. Oogonial proliferation gradually recovered during the regressing phase. We concluded that, independent of species or features of the reproductive cycle, germ cell renewal occurred during the regenerating phase, ensuring availability of eggs for the spawning event.

  4. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2007-05-01

    Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins) in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Agua Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature) and in stage D (empty gonads) were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  5. An egg-adult association, gender, and reproduction in pterosaurs.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Unwin, David M; Deeming, D Charles; Jin, Xingsheng; Liu, Yongqing; Ji, Qiang

    2011-01-21

    A sexually mature individual of Darwinopterus preserved together with an egg from the Jurassic of China provides direct evidence of gender in pterosaurs and insights into the reproductive biology of these extinct fliers. This new find and several other examples of Darwinopterus demonstrate that males of this pterosaur had a relatively small pelvis and a large cranial crest, whereas females had a relatively large pelvis and no crest. The ratio of egg mass to adult mass is relatively low, as in extant reptiles, and is comparable to values for squamates. A parchment-like eggshell points to burial and significant uptake of water after oviposition. This evidence for low parental investment contradicts the widespread assumption that reproduction in pterosaurs was like that of birds and shows that it was essentially like that of reptiles.

  6. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from rivers in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Echols, K.R.; Gale, R.W.; Wieser, C.; May, T.W.; Ellersieck, M.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from 13 sites located in the Mobile (MRB), Apalachicola-Flint-Chattahoochee (ARB), Savannah (SRB), and Pee Dee (PRB) River Basins to document spatial trends in accumulative chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the primary contaminants of concern. Concentrations of Hg in bass samples from all basins exceeded toxicity thresholds for piscivorous mammals (> 0.1????g/g ww), juvenile and adult fish (> 0.2????g/g ww), and piscivorous birds (> 0.3????g/g ww). Total PCB concentrations in samples from the MRB, ARB, and PRB were > 480??ng/g ww and may be a risk to piscivorous wildlife. Selenium concentrations also exceeded toxicity thresholds (> 0.75????g/g ww) in MRB and ARB fish. Concentrations of other formerly used (total chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, aldrin, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene) and currently used (pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dacthal, endosulfan, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, and methoxychlor) organochlorine residues were generally low or did not exceed toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife. TCDD-EQs exceeded wildlife dietary guidelines (> 5??pg/g ww) in MRB and PRB fish. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was generally greatest in MRB bass and carp. Altered fish health indicators and reproductive biomarker were noted in individual fish, but mean responses were similar among basins. The field necropsy and histopathological examination determined that MRB fish were generally in poorer health than those from the other basins, primarily due to parasitic infestations. Tumors were found in few fish (n = 5; 0.01%); ovarian tumors of smooth muscle

  7. Is there a reproductive basis to solitary living versus pair-formation in coral reef fishes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratchett, Morgan S.; Pradjakusuma, Oki. A.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2006-03-01

    Many species of coral reef fishes form pairs. While it is assumed that pairs represent the breeding unit of these species, the reproductive status of paired versus solitary individuals, and changes in status associated with pair-formation have seldom been investigated. In order to assess whether pairing is related to reproduction we examined whether the ontogenetic timing of pair formation coincided with the onset of maturation in four species of fishes: Chaetodon lunulatus and Chaetodon melannotus (family Chaetodontidae), and Valenciennea muralis and Valenciennea strigata (family Gobiidae). 65-78% of all fishes occurred in pairs. In C. lunulatus and V. muralis, pair-formation coincided with maturation, suggesting that these species form pairs for breeding. Further, C. lunulatus and V. muralis exhibited significant positive size-assortative pairing, which is often associated with monogamous mating. In contrast, pair formation in C. melannotus and V. strigata did not coincide with maturation. In both these species many solitary individuals were reproductive, and same sex pairs were common. While reproduction may be the basis for pairing in some species, both solitary and paired individuals are capable of breeding in others. We propose that non-reproductive mechanisms, such as predator vigilance, may explain pair-formation in coral reef fishes with non-monogamous breeding systems.

  8. A review on the effects of PBDEs on thyroid and reproduction systems in fish.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liqin; Han, Zhihua; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize and discuss the effects of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on thyroid and reproduction systems in fish. We reviewed the evidences and mechanisms for PBDEs-induced thyroid and reproduction disruption, as well as the cross-talk between the two systems in fish. In thyroid disruption, we mainly paid attention to the effects of PBDEs on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, thyroid hormones (THs) transport and metabolism, thyroid receptors (TRs) and thyroid follicle histology. In reproduction disruption, we focused on the effects of PBDEs on steroid hormone production, expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, and gonadal development. Despite that there is an interaction between thyroid and reproductive systems in fish, it is still remains unclear that PBDE-induced reproductive impairments are caused by direct effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) functioning or by indirect action through cross-talk between the two systems. Future studies are needed to explore the relationships between reproductive toxicity and thyroid system disruption after PBDEs exposure.

  9. Long-term reproductive and behavioral toxicity of anthracene to fish in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, A.T.; Oris, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    The long-term, low-level effects of anthracene in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation (SUVR) were examined in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Adult fish exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced egg laying capacity, with altered oocyte maturation as a potential mechanism of action. Eggs and larvae maternally exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced hatching success and severe developmental abnormalities when incubated under SUVR. The combination of reduced egg output and developmental effects resulted in an inhibition in reproductive capacity in the range of 70--100%. Maternal transfer of anthracene to eggs was efficient; the BCF was 717 for maternally exposed eggs. However, anthracene deputation from eggs after oviposition with only maternal PAH exposure was rapid; anthracene half-life from eggs equaled 1.3 days. Exposure to anthracene under SUVR altered locomotor activity patterns in fathead minnows by inducing hyperactivity or hypoactivity during the light or dark phases of the photoperiod, respectively. Altered activity patterns indicated potential effects of anthracene on the nervous system and/or pineal gland. These alterations disrupted normal activity patterns and reproductive behaviors, and thus have major implications on a fish`s ability to survive and reproduce. Anthracene, a model phototoxic PAH, has many potential sites of toxic action, and any organism exposed to such contaminants will be an considerable SUVR-enhanced risk in the environment.

  10. Hyperoxia Elevates Adrenic Acid Peroxidation in Marine Fish and Is Associated with Reproductive Pheromone Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ming Long Sirius; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The development of oxidative stress in the marine ecosystem is a concurring concern in fish reproductive behavior. Marine fish being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of prostaglandin pheromone mediators but also vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. It is yet to be determined if hypoxia or hyperoxia environment, a cumulative effect in the marine ecosystem affect pheromone mediators in fish, and to understand if this is associated with the generation of oxidized lipid products of PUFA. Novel oxidized lipid metabolites, isoprostanoids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 8-F3t-isoprostane, 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane, 10-F4t-neuroprostane), isofuranoids (isofurans, 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran and neurofurans), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and resolvins, PUFA (arachidonic, adrenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and prostaglandin pheromone mediators in fish muscle were determined in marine male and female fish muscles before and after interaction in a hypoxia or hyperoxia environment. Reproductive behaviors were also assessed. Our study showed oxidized lipid metabolites of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were not influenced by hypoxia and hyperoxia exposure in the fishes and no gender differences were found. However, adrenic acid and its oxidized products, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane and 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran showed strong correspondence with male fish pheromone mediators and reproductive behavior when under oxidative stress especially, hyperoxia. The occurrence of hypoxia and hyperoxia in the marine ecosystem may not be detrimental to marine fish and instead presents as being beneficial in reproductive behavior. PMID:25874920

  11. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and reproductive hormones in adult sons.

    PubMed

    Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Thulstrup, A M; Olsen, J; Ernst, E; Andersen, C Y; Bonde, J P

    2008-12-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to alter levels of reproductive hormones in adult sons. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected according to their exposure to tobacco smoke in foetal life. From February 2005 to January 2006, a blood sample from each young man (18-21 years) was collected and analysed for reproductive hormones. There were no apparent trends of increasing or decreasing hormonal levels with increased exposure to maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Only the free testosterone/free estradiol ratios increased with increased maternal smoking during pregnancy (p for trend = 0.05). No trends for increasing odds ratios for high follicle-stimulating hormone (> or =25 percentile) or low inhibin B (< or =25 percentile) in relation to maternal smoking were observed. We found no major indication of long-term effects of pre-natal exposure to tobacco smoke on the levels of reproductive hormones later in life, but the data may suggest a shift in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis towards higher androgenicity. This result was, however, of only borderline significance and could be because of chance.

  12. Hydroyeast Aquaculture® as a reproductive enhancer agent for the adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Mehrim, Ahmed I; Khalil, Fathy F; Hassan, Montaha E

    2015-04-01

    Tilapias are becoming increasingly popular culture fish because of their superior culture adaptability. In recent years, there has been a great interest in the use of probiotics in fish aquaculture. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg commercial diet, referred to treatments numbers T1, T2, T3, and T4, for males and T5, T6, T7, and T8 treatments for females) of a new probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) on hematological and biochemical parameters, serum sex hormones, and the reproductive efficiency parameters of the adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 8 weeks. Results revealed that high levels of probiotics diet, 15 g (T4, ♂) and 10 g (T7, ♀) probiotic/kg diet, significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced the physiological responses (hematological as well as serum biochemical parameters) together with, reproductive performances (sex hormones, testes and sperm quality parameters, absolute and relative fecundity, and ovarian measurements). Therefore, it could be conclude that Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) is useful at levels of 15 g (T4) and 10 g (T7)/kg diet in improving the reproductive efficiency of adult O. niloticus males and females, respectively. Thus, the use of Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) may be economically important for fish hatcheries.

  13. Reproductive ecology of Emperor Geese: Survival of adult females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1992-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a decrease in survival with increased reproductive effort of individuals. This relationship, however, is highly variable among and within species. I studied the nesting success and survival of adult female Emperor Geese during 1982-1986 and found no direct evidence that differential reproductive effort as measured by the number of eggs laid or hatching success had a significant negative effect on survival to the next breeding season. Incubated clutch size, hatched clutch size, number of parasitic eggs, nest initiation date, hatch date, and mass at hatch were not related to subsequent survival. Of the factors I examined, only an attempt to nest the previous season was related to survival of a female. I suggest that the higher probability of survival among non-nesting adult female Emperor Geese was primarily related to hunting pressure on the nesting area between spring and fall migration. The probability of survival was increased for females with larger clutches, suggesting a positive relationship between brood size and survival.

  14. Endocrine remodelling of the adult intestine sustains reproduction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Reiff, Tobias; Jacobson, Jake; Cognigni, Paola; Antonello, Zeus; Ballesta, Esther; Tan, Kah Junn; Yew, Joanne Y; Dominguez, Maria; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The production of offspring is energetically costly and relies on incompletely understood mechanisms that generate a positive energy balance. In mothers of many species, changes in key energy-associated internal organs are common yet poorly characterised functionally and mechanistically. In this study, we show that, in adult Drosophila females, the midgut is dramatically remodelled to enhance reproductive output. In contrast to extant models, organ remodelling does not occur in response to increased nutrient intake and/or offspring demands, but rather precedes them. With spatially and temporally directed manipulations, we identify juvenile hormone (JH) as an anticipatory endocrine signal released after mating. Acting through intestinal bHLH-PAS domain proteins Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Germ cell-expressed (Gce), JH signals directly to intestinal progenitors to yield a larger organ, and adjusts gene expression and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activity in enterocytes to support increased lipid metabolism. Our findings identify a metabolically significant paradigm of adult somatic organ remodelling linking hormonal signals, epithelial plasticity, and reproductive output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06930.001 PMID:26216039

  15. Amodiaquine-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yan-Ru; Wei, Bing; Chen, Bi; Xu, Li-Hua; Jing, Xia; Peng, Cai-Ling; Ma, Tian-Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Amodiaquine (AQ) is routinely prescribed as an anti-malarial drug. Here, we evaluated AQ-induced toxicity in the male reproductive system. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups that received distilled water (control) or daily doses of 5 mg/kg body weight, 10 mg/kg, or 15 mg/kg AQ for 2 weeks. Testes morphology was analyzed using hematoxylin-and-eosin staining, terminal dUTP nicked-end labeling (TUNEL), and immunostaining whereas protein expression was determined by Western blotting. AQ dose-dependently led to abnormal spermatogenesis. Disruption of the blood-testis barrier and increased germ cell apoptosis were observed in all three AQ-treated groups. Interestingly, AQ-induced damage of spermatogenesis recovered over time, based on the survival of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger (PLZF)-positive, undifferentiated spermatogonia. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone, as well as testicular testosterone levels, were not significantly altered in AQ-treated groups compared with controls. Collectively, our study suggests that AQ exerts substantial acute side effects on the reproductive systems of adult male rats by inducing the apoptosis of differentiating spermatogenic cells and disruption of blood-testis barrier function.

  16. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for fish species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that in 2012 aquaculture production of fish will meet or exceed that of the capture fisheries for the first time. Thus, we have just turned the corner from a predominantly hunting gathering approach to meeting our nutrition...

  17. A systems biology approach to understanding impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, our research team at the US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division has employed systems biology approaches to examine and understand impacts of environmental contaminants on fish reproduction. Our systems biology approach is one in which iterations of model cons...

  18. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO THREE STEROID ESTROGENS ON REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN A FISH TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E4) are steroidal estrogens that are released into the aquatic environment in sewage treatment effluent. To determine whether these estrogens impact reproductive parameters in a model fish species, actively-reproducing cunner (T...

  19. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS ON REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN A MARINE FISH, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E4) are steroidal estrogens that are released into the aquatic environment in sewage treatment effluent. To determine whether these estrogens could impact reproductive parameters in a model fish species, actively spawning male ...

  20. Neural and hormonal mechanisms of reproductive-related arousal in fishes.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Bass, Andrew H

    2011-05-01

    The major classes of chemicals and brain pathways involved in sexual arousal in mammals are well studied and are thought to be of an ancient, evolutionarily conserved origin. Here we discuss what is known of these neurochemicals and brain circuits in fishes, the oldest and most species-rich group of vertebrates from which tetrapods arose over 350 million years ago. Highlighted are case studies in vocal species where well-delineated sensory and motor pathways underlying reproductive-related behaviors illustrate the diversity and evolution of brain mechanisms driving sexual motivation between (and within) sexes. Also discussed are evolutionary insights from the neurobiology and reproductive behavior of elasmobranch fishes, the most ancient lineage of jawed vertebrates, which are remarkably similar in their reproductive biology to terrestrial mammals.

  1. Injuries from Non-Retention in Gillnet Fisheries Suppress Reproductive Maturation in Escaped Fish

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew R.; Swanson, Penny; Young, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Exploitation of fisheries resources has unintended consequences, not only in the bycatch and discard of non-target organisms, but also in damage to targeted fish that are injured by gear but not landed (non-retention). Delayed mortality due to non-retention represents lost reproductive potential in exploited stocks, while not contributing to harvest. Our study examined the physiological mechanisms by which delayed mortality occurs and the extent to which injuries related to disentanglement from commercial gear compromise reproductive success in spawning stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We found evidence for elevated stress in fish injured via non-retention in gillnet fisheries. Plasma cortisol levels correlated with the severity of disentanglement injury and were elevated in fish that developed infections related to disentanglement injuries. We also analyzed sex steroid concentrations in females (estradiol-17β and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one) to determine whether non-retention impairs reproductive potential in escaped individuals. We demonstrate evidence for delayed or inhibited maturation in fish with disentanglement injuries. These findings have important implications for effective conservation and management of exploited fish stocks and suggest means to improve spawning success in such stocks if retention in commercial fisheries is improved and incidental mortality reduced. PMID:23894510

  2. Effects of the UV filter benzophenone-2 on reproduction in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, Christin J.; Kunz, Petra Y.; Zenker, Armin K.; Fent, Karl

    2007-12-15

    The UV filter benzophenone-2 (BP-2) is largely used in personal care products such as cosmetics and in numerous other materials for UV protection. Like other UV filters, BP-2 has been found to be estrogenic in vitro and in vivo, but potential effects on reproduction of fish are unknown. In this study, we evaluate whether BP-2 affects important reproductive parameters such as fecundity, gametogenesis and secondary sex characteristics. After a pre-exposure period of 19 days, reproductively mature fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 0.002, 0.1, 1.2, 5.0 and 9.7 mg/L BP-2 for 15 days. BP-2 was accumulated in fish up to 3.1 {mu}g/g body weight. In males, a dose-dependent vitellogenin induction and decrease in the number of nuptial tubercles occurred. Moreover, significant dose-related effects on gonads of male and female fish were observed. At concentrations of 1.2 mg/L and higher, spermatocyte and oocyte development was significantly inhibited in male and female fish, respectively. Testes of exposed males had much fewer spermatocytes and ovaries of exposed females had much fewer mature and more atretic follicles. Reproduction was negatively affected in a dose-dependent manner with a decrease in egg production at 5.0 mg/L and a complete cessation of spawning activity at 9.7 mg/L BP-2. Our findings show significant estrogenic effects of the common UV filter BP-2 on vitellogenin induction, secondary sex characteristics, gonadal development, and reproduction in fish.

  3. Germ cell transplantation as a potential biotechnological approach to fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, S M S N; Costa, G M J; Campos-Junior, P H A; Segatelli, T M; Yazawa, R; Takeuchi, Y; Morita, T; Yoshizaki, G; França, L R

    2013-02-01

    Although the use of germ cell transplantation has been relatively well established in mammals, the technique has only been adapted for use in fish after entering the 2000s. During the last decade, several different approaches have been developed for germ cell transplantation in fish using recipients of various ages and life stages, such as blastula-stage embryos, newly hatched larvae and sexually mature specimens. As germ cells can develop into live organisms through maturation and fertilization processes, germ cell transplantation in fish has opened up new avenues of research in reproductive biotechnology and aquaculture. For instance, the use of xenotransplantation in fish has lead to advances in the conservation of endangered species and the production of commercially valuable fish using surrogated recipients. Further, this could also facilitate the engineering of transgenic fish. However, as is the case with mammals, knowledge regarding the basic biology and physiology of germline stem cells in fish remains incomplete, imposing a considerable limitation on the application of germ cell transplantation in fish. Furthering our understanding of germline stem cells would contribute significantly to advances regarding germ cell transplantation in fish.

  4. Paternal inheritance of growth in fish pursuing alternative reproductive tactics.

    PubMed

    Wirtz-Ocaňa, Sabine; Schütz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-06-01

    In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree.

  5. Paternal inheritance of growth in fish pursuing alternative reproductive tactics

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz-Ocaňa, Sabine; Schütz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree. PMID:23789072

  6. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in fish and its role in fish development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Michael L; Specker, Jennifer L

    2007-01-01

    Bony fishes represent the largest vertebrate class and are a very diverse animal group. This chapter provides a thorough review of the available scientific literature on the thyroid system in these important vertebrate animals. The molecular components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in this group correspond closely to those of mammals. The thyroid tissue in the fishes is organized as diffuse follicles, with a few exceptions, rather than as an encapsulated gland as is found in most other vertebrate species. The features of this diffuse tissue in fishes are reviewed with an emphasis on feedback relationships within the HPT axis, the molecular biology of the thyroid system in fishes, and comparisons versus the thyroid systems of other vertebrate taxa. A review of the role of thyroid hormone in fish development and reproduction is included. Available information about the HPT axis in fishes is quite detailed for some species and rather limited or absent in others. This review focuses on species that have been intensively studied for their value as laboratory models in assays to investigate disruption in normal function of the thyroid system. In addition, in vitro and in vivo assay methods for screening chemicals for their potential to interfere with the thyroid system are reviewed. It is concluded that there are currently no in vitro or in vivo assays in fish species that are sufficiently developed to warrant recommendation for use to efficiently screen chemicals for thyroid disruption. Methods are available that can be used to measure thyroid hormones, although our ability to interpret the causes and implications of potential alterations in T4 or T3 levels in fishes is nonetheless limited without further research.

  7. Reproductive seasonality of fishes from a lotic stretch of the Grande River, high Paraná river basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We searched for correlations between water level, rainfall, temperature, and reproductive activity of fishes in a lotic stretch of the Grande River below the Volta Grande Dam. Gillnets were used to catch the fish on six field journeys made bimonthly between April 1998 and February 1999. Fish gonads were classified according to maturation grade and the amount of mature or spent gonads was correlated with rainfall and air temperature. Most fish species showed seasonal reproduction (between October and February). The relative frequency of fully mature and spent gonads significantly correlated with rainfall (Spearman r = 0.94, p = 0.005) and air temperature (r = 0.84, p = 0.036), showing the importance of these factors in regulating the reproductive cycle of fishes in this location. Nevertheless, dam operation resulted in minimal water level variation that did not significantly correlate with reproductive activity (r = -0.43, p = 0.396).

  8. Reproductive consequences of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Louise M; Brown, Alexandria C; Montgomery, Tracy M; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2011-04-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that can act as endocrine disruptors in vertebrates. Biologically active levels of phytoestrogens have been found in aquatic habitats near wood pulp and paper mills, biofuel manufacturing plants, sewage-treatment plants, and agricultural fields. Phytoestrogens are known to cause hormonal and gonadal changes in male fish, but few studies have connected these effects to outcomes relevant to reproductive success. In one experiment, we exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant (1 μg L(-1)) and pharmacological concentrations (1000 μg L(-1)) of the phytoestrogen genistein as well as to a positive control of waterborne 17β-estradiol (E2; 1 μg L(-1)), and a negative control of untreated water. In a second experiment, we exposed male B. splendens to environmentally relevant concentrations (1 μg L(-1)) of genistein and β-sitosterol singly and in combination as well as to the positive and negative controls. All exposures were 21 days in duration. We measured sex-steroid hormone levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm concentration and motility, and fertilization success in these fish. We found that exposure to genistein did not affect circulating levels of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone or the estrogen E2 relative to negative-control fish. We also found that neither of the compounds nor their mixture affected GSI, sperm concentration or motility, or fertilization success in exposed fish relative to negative-control fish. However, fish exposed to phytoestrogens showed some evidence of fewer but more motile sperm than fish exposed to the positive control E2. We conclude that sexually mature male B. splendens are relatively immune to reproductive impairments from short-term exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens.

  9. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products: A critical review of the impacts on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Overturf, Matthew D; Anderson, Jordan C; Pandelides, Zacharias; Beyger, Lindsay; Holdway, Douglas A

    2015-07-01

    Research in environmental toxicology involving pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has increased greatly over the last 10-15 years. Much research has been focused on the endocrine-disrupting potential of PPCPs, as they relate to negative population impacts of aquatic organisms. This review assesses the current data on the reported effects of PPCPs on fish reproduction with an emphasis on fecundity, a predictor of population effects. Studies of both individual PPCPs and PPCP mixtures are presented. As the majority of individual PPCP studies reviewed demonstrate negative effects on fish fecundity, we relate these findings to detected surface water concentrations of these compounds. Very few studies involving PPCP mixtures have been conducted; however, the need for these types of studies is warranted as fish are most likely exposed to mixtures of PPCPs in the wild. In addition, laboratory and field assessments of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, a major source of PPCPs, are reviewed. Much of the data provided from these assessments are variable and do not generally demonstrate negative impacts on reproduction, or the studies are unable to directly associate observed effects with WWTP effluents. Finally, future research considerations are outlined to provide an avenue into understanding how wild populations of fish are affected by PPCPs. These considerations are aimed at determining the adaptation potential of fish exposed to mixtures of PPCPs over multiple generations. As global use of PPCPs continually rises, the need to discern the effects of chronic exposure to PPCPs is greatly increased.

  10. Frequency of Fish Intake and Diabetes among Adult Indians

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S. V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have shown that the choice of foods plays a role in diabetes prevention. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between frequency of fish intake and self-reported diabetes status among adult men and women in India. Methods: Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–2006 was performed. Associations between fish intake, determined by frequency of consumption (daily, weekly, occasionally, and never), and self-reported diabetes were estimated using multivariable-adjusted models in 99,574 women, 56,742 men, and 39,257 couples aged 20–49 years after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, body mass index (BMI) status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, and place of residence. Results: After adjustment for other dietary, lifestyle, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, odds of diabetes were 2 times higher (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.57; p < 0.0001) among those who reported consuming fish daily compared to those who never consumed fish. Weekly fish intake was also associated with a higher odds of having diabetes (OR: 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25–1.93; p < 0.0001). The adjusted effect of daily fish intake on diabetes was greater among men (OR: 2.46; 95% CI, 1.66–3.65) than among women (OR: 1.72; 95% CI, 1.26–2.33). In cross-spousal sensitivity analysis, the odds of a husband having diabetes was also associated with wife's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92–2.01) and the odds of a wife having diabetes was also associated with husband's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.21; 95% CI, 0.87–1.68). Conclusions: In a large nationally representative sample of adult men and women in India, daily or weekly fish intake was

  11. Challenges and opportunities with the use of biomarkers to predict reproductive impairment in fishes exposed to endocrine disrupting substances.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Thijs; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Maclatchy, Deborah L

    2010-10-01

    Biomarkers are commonly used as signposts to evaluate the potential of contaminants to disrupt the endocrine system. However, the relationship between responses in these biomarkers and whole organism endpoints that directly affect population status is not clearly understood. In this study, the relationship between egg production (a whole-organism endpoint which has been directly linked to population-level responses) and biomarkers (sex steroids, vitellogenin (VTG) and gonad size) is examined. Data were collected from short-term reproductive tests in which a wide variety of fish species were exposed to a suite of contaminants with known or unknown modes/mechanisms of action (MOA). The potential to use biomarkers as signposts was evaluated by determining the occurrence of false negatives (i.e., an effect in egg production was not accompanied by a biomarker response) and false positives (i.e., an effect in biomarkers was not followed by an effect in egg production). The quantitative relationships between biomarkers and egg production, and the ability to use these quantitative relationships to predict population-level responses based on modeling was also assessed. A suite of female biomarkers resulted in a relatively low occurrence of both false positives and negatives, indicating the potential for their use as signposts for reproductive effects via endocrine disruption. Egg production in short-term adult fish reproductive tests showed significant relationships to 17β-estradiol (E2), changes in female VTG levels, and relative female gonad size (gonadosomatic index; GSI). Weaker significant relationships were found between egg production and both VTG levels and GSI in males. However, use of these quantitative relationships to predict population-level effects are cautioned because of high levels of uncertainty. This study demonstrates that there are qualitative and quantitative relationships among biomarkers, regardless of fish species used or the MOA of contaminants

  12. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  13. Social regulation of male reproductive plasticity in an African cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P; Fernald, Russell D

    2013-12-01

    Social interactions with the outcome of a position in a dominance hierarchy can have profound effects on reproductive behavior and physiology, requiring animals to integrate environmental information with their internal physiological state; but how is salient information from the animal's dynamic social environment transformed into adaptive behavioral, physiological, and molecular-level changes? The African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, is ideally suited to understand socially controlled reproductive plasticity because activity of the male reproductive (brain-pituitary-gonad) axis is tightly linked to social status. Males form hierarchies in which a small percentage of brightly colored dominant individuals have an active reproductive axis, defend territories, and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, drably colored, do not hold a territory, and have a suppressed reproductive system with minimal opportunities for spawning. These social phenotypes are plastic and quickly reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. Here, we review the rapid and remarkable plasticity that occurs along the entire reproductive axis when males rise in social rank, a transition that has important implications for the operational sex ratio of the population. When males rise in rank, transformations occur in the brain, pituitary, circulation, and testes over short time-scales (minutes to days). Changes are evident in overt behavior, as well as modifications at the physiological, cellular, and molecular levels that regulate reproductive capacity. Widespread changes triggered by a switch in rank highlight the significance of external social information in shaping internal physiology and reproductive competence.

  14. Optimal reproduction in salmon spawning substrates linked to grain size and fish length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, Clifford S.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Overstreet, Brandon T.; Wooster, John K.

    2014-02-01

    Millions of dollars are spent annually on revitalizing salmon spawning in riverbeds where redd building by female salmon is inhibited by sediment that is too big for fish to move. Yet the conditions necessary for productive spawning remain unclear. There is no gauge for quantifying how grain size influences the reproductive potential of coarse-bedded rivers. Hence, managers lack a quantitative basis for optimizing spawning habitat restoration for reproductive value. To overcome this limitation, we studied spawning by Chinook, sockeye, and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, O. nerka, and O. gorbuscha) in creeks and rivers of California and the Pacific Northwest. Our analysis shows that coarse substrates have been substantially undervalued as spawning habitat in previous work. We present a field-calibrated approach for estimating the number of redds and eggs a substrate can accommodate from measurements of grain size and fish length. Bigger fish can move larger sediment and thus use more riverbed area for spawning. They also tend to have higher fecundity, and so can deposit more eggs per redd. However, because redd area increases with fish length, the number of eggs a substrate can accommodate is maximized for moderate-sized fish. This previously unrecognized tradeoff raises the possibility that differences in grain size help regulate river-to-river differences in salmon size. Thus, population diversity and species resilience may be linked to lithologic, geomorphic, and climatic factors that determine grain size in rivers. Our approach provides a tool for managing grain-size distributions in support of optimal reproductive potential and species resilience.

  15. Adult and larval traits as determinants of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Osmar J.; Allen, Andrew P.; Robertson, D. Ross; Floeter, Sergio R.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Becheler, Ronan; Madin, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Most marine organisms disperse via ocean currents as larvae, so it is often assumed that larval-stage duration is the primary determinant of geographic range size. However, empirical tests of this relationship have yielded mixed results, and alternative hypotheses have rarely been considered. Here we assess the relative influence of adult and larval-traits on geographic range size using a global dataset encompassing 590 species of tropical reef fishes in 47 families, the largest compilation of such data to date for any marine group. We analyze this database using linear mixed-effect models to control for phylogeny and geographical limits on range size. Our analysis indicates that three adult traits likely to affect the capacity of new colonizers to survive and establish reproductive populations (body size, schooling behavior, and nocturnal activity) are equal or better predictors of geographic range size than pelagic larval duration. We conclude that adult life-history traits that affect the postdispersal persistence of new populations are primary determinants of successful range extension and, consequently, of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes. PMID:24065830

  16. Demographic and reproductive plasticity across the depth distribution of a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Esther D.; D’Alessandro, Evan K.; Sponaugle, Su

    2016-01-01

    As humans expand into natural environments, populations of wild organisms may become relegated to marginal habitats at the boundaries of their distributions. In the ocean, mesophotic coral ecosystems (30–150 m) at the depth limit of photosynthetic reefs are hypothesized to act as refuges that are buffered from anthropogenic and natural disturbances, yet the viability and persistence of subpopulations in these peripheral habitats remains poorly understood. To assess the potential for mesophotic reefs to support robust coral reef fish populations, we compared population density and structure, growth, size, and reproductive output of the bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) from shallow (<10 m), deep shelf (20–30 m), and mesophotic reefs (60–70 m) across the Florida Platform. Population densities decreased and size and age distributions shifted toward older and larger individuals in deeper habitats. Otolith-derived ages indicated that S. partitus found on mesophotic reefs reach larger asymptotic sizes and have longer lifespans than fish in shallower habitats. Based on measurements of oocyte area and batch fecundity, mesophotic fish also have higher reproductive investment. These demographic patterns indicate that mesophotic fish populations composed of large, fecund individuals produce high condition larvae and rely on longevity of individuals for population persistence and viability. PMID:27677948

  17. Neurokinin B and reproductive functions: "KNDy neuron" model in mammals and the emerging story in fish.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangfu; Lin, Chengyuan; He, Mulan; Wong, Anderson O L

    2014-11-01

    In mammals, neurokinin B (NKB), the gene product of the tachykinin family member TAC3, is known to be a key regulator for episodic release of luteinizing hormone (LH). Its regulatory actions are mediated by a subpopulation of kisspeptin neurons within the arcuate nucleus with co-expression of NKB and dynorphin A (commonly called the "KNDy neurons"). By forming an "autosynaptic feedback loop" within the hypothalamus, the KNDy neurons can modulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility and subsequent LH release in the pituitary. NKB regulation of LH secretion has been recently demonstrated in zebrafish, suggesting that the reproductive functions of NKB may be conserved from fish to mammals. Interestingly, the TAC3 genes in fish not only encode the mature peptide of NKB but also a novel tachykinin-like peptide, namely NKB-related peptide (or neurokinin F). Recent studies in zebrafish also reveal that the neuroanatomy of TAC3/kisspeptin system within the fish brain is quite different from that of mammals. In this article, the current ideas of "KNDy neuron" model for GnRH regulation and steroid feedback, other reproductive functions of NKB including its local actions in the gonad and placenta, the revised model of tachykinin evolution from invertebrates to vertebrates, as well as the emerging story of the two TAC3 gene products in fish, NKB and NKB-related peptide, will be reviewed with stress on the areas with interesting questions for future investigations.

  18. Influences of acid mine drainage and thermal enrichment on stream fish reproduction and larval survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hafs, Andrew W.; Horn, C.D.; Mazik, P.M.; Hartman, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Potential effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) and thermal enrichment on the reproduction of fishes were investigated through a larval-trapping survey in the Stony River watershed, Grant County, WV. Trapping was conducted at seven sites from 26 March to 2 July 2004. Overall larval catch was low (379 individuals in 220 hours of trapping). More larval White Suckers were captured than all other species. Vectors fitted to nonparametric multidimensional scaling ordinations suggested that temperature was highly correlated to fish communities captured at our sites. Survival of larval Fathead Minnows was examined in situ at six sites from 13 May to 11 June 2004 in the same system. Larval survival was lower, but not significantly different between sites directly downstream of AMD-impacted tributaries (40% survival) and non-AMD sites (52% survival). The lower survival was caused by a significant mortality event at one site that coincided with acute pH depression in an AMD tributary immediately upstream of the site. Results from a Cox proportional hazard test suggests that low pH is having a significant negative influence on larval fish survival in this system. The results from this research indicate that the combination of low pH events and elevated temperature are negatively influencing the larval fish populations of the Stony River watershed. Management actions that address these problems would have the potential to substantially increase both reproduction rates and larval survival, therefore greatly enhancing the fishery.

  19. Contraception, communication and counseling for sexuality and reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with CF.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Anna; Moriarty, Carmel; Towns, Susan

    2010-06-01

    With survival now into the fourth decade and rapid growth of the adolescent and adult population of people with cystic fibrosis CF sexual and reproductive health issues are integral to the management of adolescents and adults with CF. Education and counseling for sexual health related issues must be included in the daily routine of CF care. With advances in genetic counseling, contraception, assisted reproductive technology and collaborative management adolescents and young adults with CF realizing their sexual and reproductive potentials safely and realistically can be possible .

  20. Genetic mating systems and reproductive natural histories of fishes: lessons for ecology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Avise, John C; Jones, Adam G; Walker, DeEtte; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Fish species have diverse breeding behaviors that make them valuable for testing theories on genetic mating systems and reproductive tactics. Here we review genetic appraisals of paternity and maternity in wild fish populations. Behavioral phenomena quantified by genetic markers in various species include patterns of multiple mating by both sexes; frequent cuckoldry by males and rare cuckoldry by females in nest-tending species; additional routes to surrogate parentage via nest piracy and egg-thievery; egg mimicry by nest-tending males; brood parasitism by helper males in cooperative breeders; clutch mixing in oral brooders; kinship in schooling fry of broadcast spawners; sperm storage by dams in female-pregnant species; and sex-role reversal, polyandry, and strong sexual selection on females in some male-pregnant species. Additional phenomena addressed by genetic parentage analyses in fishes include clustered mutations, filial cannibalism, and local population size. All results are discussed in the context of relevant behavioral and evolutionary theory.

  1. Anatomy of adult female common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) reproductive system.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, K H; Matthews, C D

    1994-01-01

    Better appreciation of the female reproductive anatomy of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) should improve the prospects for nonsurgical embryo transfer in this model. Vaginal measurements were performed in 8 female adult marmoset monkeys. Four monkeys were measured at laparotomy for gross internal anatomy, and 1 monkey was analysed at autopsy. The vagina of the marmoset monkey was found to be divided into a lower and upper vagina with a marked vaginal isthmus between them. The mean lengths of the lower and upper vagina were 17 mm (34 mm in total vagina). The mean uterine size was 8.4 (length) x 10.0 (width) x 6.4 (thickness) mm, with the ovary measuring 5.3 x 4.3 x 3.8 mm. The mean length of the fallopian tube was 10.5 mm with a width of 1.5 mm. Nonsurgical embryo transfer in this model appears to be feasible, but the proportionally long vagina and short uterine cavity needs to be recognised. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7649784

  2. The Role of Melatonin as a Hormone and an Antioxidant in the Control of Fish Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Saumen Kumar; Hasan, Kazi Nurul

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction in most fish is seasonal or periodic, and the spawning occurs in an appropriate season to ensure maximum survival of the offspring. The sequence of reproductive events in an annual cycle is largely under the control of a species-specific endogenous timing system, which essentially relies on a well-equipped physiological response mechanism to changing environmental cues. The duration of solar light or photoperiod is one of the most predictable environmental signals used by a large number of animals including fish to coordinate their seasonal breeding. In vertebrates, the pineal gland is the major photoneuroendocrine part of the brain that rhythmically synthesizes and releases melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) into the circulation in synchronization with the environmental light–dark cycle. Past few decades witnessed an enormous progress in understanding the mechanisms by which melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction in fish and in other vertebrates. Most studies emphasized hormonal actions of melatonin through its high-affinity, pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein (guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors on the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonad (HPG) axis of fish. However, the discovery that melatonin due to its lipophilic nature can easily cross the plasma membrane of all cells and may act as a potent scavenger of free radicals and stimulant of different antioxidants added a new dimension to the idea explaining mechanisms of melatonin actions in the regulation of ovarian functions. The basic concept on the actions of melatonin as an antioxidant emerged from mammalian studies. Recently, however, some new studies clearly suggested that melatonin, apart from playing the role of a hormone, may also be associated with the reduction in oxidative stress to augment ovarian functions during spawning. This review thus aims to bring together the current knowledge on the role of melatonin as a hormone as well as an antioxidant in the control

  3. The Role of Melatonin as a Hormone and an Antioxidant in the Control of Fish Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Saumen Kumar; Hasan, Kazi Nurul

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction in most fish is seasonal or periodic, and the spawning occurs in an appropriate season to ensure maximum survival of the offspring. The sequence of reproductive events in an annual cycle is largely under the control of a species-specific endogenous timing system, which essentially relies on a well-equipped physiological response mechanism to changing environmental cues. The duration of solar light or photoperiod is one of the most predictable environmental signals used by a large number of animals including fish to coordinate their seasonal breeding. In vertebrates, the pineal gland is the major photoneuroendocrine part of the brain that rhythmically synthesizes and releases melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) into the circulation in synchronization with the environmental light-dark cycle. Past few decades witnessed an enormous progress in understanding the mechanisms by which melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction in fish and in other vertebrates. Most studies emphasized hormonal actions of melatonin through its high-affinity, pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein (guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis of fish. However, the discovery that melatonin due to its lipophilic nature can easily cross the plasma membrane of all cells and may act as a potent scavenger of free radicals and stimulant of different antioxidants added a new dimension to the idea explaining mechanisms of melatonin actions in the regulation of ovarian functions. The basic concept on the actions of melatonin as an antioxidant emerged from mammalian studies. Recently, however, some new studies clearly suggested that melatonin, apart from playing the role of a hormone, may also be associated with the reduction in oxidative stress to augment ovarian functions during spawning. This review thus aims to bring together the current knowledge on the role of melatonin as a hormone as well as an antioxidant in the control of

  4. Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Jennifer K.; Ligocki, Isaac Y.; O'Connor, Constance M.; Reddon, Adam R.; Garvy, Kelly A.; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E.; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Balshine, Sigal; Hamilton, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group (e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a colonial, cooperatively breeding fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Dominant males sired 76% of offspring in their group, whereas dominant females mothered 82% of offspring in their group. Subordinate reproduction was frequent, occurring in 47% of sampled groups. Subordinate males gained more paternity in groups located in high-density areas and in groups with many subordinate males. Dominant males and females in large groups and in groups with many reproductively mature subordinates had higher rates of parentage loss, but only at the colony edge. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive quantification of reproductive sharing among groups of wild N. pulcher, a model species for the study of cooperation and social behaviour. Further, we demonstrate that the frequency of extra-pair parentage differs across small social and spatial scales. PMID:26136450

  5. Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Jennifer K; Ligocki, Isaac Y; O'Connor, Constance M; Reddon, Adam R; Garvy, Kelly A; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E; Gibbs, H Lisle; Balshine, Sigal; Hamilton, Ian M

    2015-07-22

    The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group(e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a colonial, cooperatively breeding fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Dominant males sired 76% of offspring in their group, whereas dominant females mothered 82% of offspring in their group. Subordinate reproduction was frequent, occurring in 47% of sampled groups. Subordinate males gained more paternity in groups located in high-density areas and in groups with many subordinate males. Dominant males and females in large groups and in groups with many reproductively mature subordinates had higher rates of parentage loss, but only at the colony edge. Our study provides, to our knowledge,the first comprehensive quantification of reproductive sharing among groups of wild N. pulcher, a model species for the study of cooperation and social behaviour. Further, we demonstrate that the frequency of extra-pair parentage differs across small social and spatial scales.

  6. Non-stressful temperature effect on oxidative balance and life history traits in adult fish (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Hemmer-Brepson, C; Replumaz, L; Romestaing, C; Voituron, Y; Daufresne, M

    2014-01-15

    Temperature is well known to affect many biological and ecological traits, especially in ectotherms. From a physiological point of view, temperature is also positively correlated to metabolism and is often associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It has recently been suggested that ROS play a role in lifespan and resource allocation. However, only a few authors have attempted to explore the relationships between temperature, resource allocation and oxidative balance in ectotherms. Here, we measured the effect of temperature on growth, reproductive effort, offspring quantity and quality, hatching and survival rates, and the associated proximal costs, which were evaluated through the quantification of oxidative balance elements. We reared adult fish (Oryzias latipes) at two non-stressful temperatures (20 and 30°C) during a relatively long period (4 months, approximately the entire adult life). The results show a trade-off between reproduction and maintenance because investment toward growth could be neglected at the adult stage (confirmed by our results). Intriguingly, ROS-dependent damages did not differ between the two groups, probably because of the higher rate of activation of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase for warm-acclimated fish. The allocation toward antioxidant defences is associated with an earlier reproduction and a lower quality of offspring. These interesting results bring new perspectives in terms of the prediction of the impact of global warming on biota through the use of ecological theories based on oxidative balance and metabolism.

  7. The glucocorticoid stress response is attenuated but unrelated to reproductive investment during parental care in a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Constance M; Yick, Claire Y; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Cooke, Steven J

    2011-01-15

    We investigated whether circulating glucocorticoids and androgens are correlated with reproductive investment in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), a teleost fish with sole paternal care. Circulating cortisol and androgens prior to and 25 min following a standardized 3 min emersion stressor were quantified for non-reproductive and parental fish across the parental care period. To experimentally investigate the influence of reproductive investment on endocrine parameters, we manipulated brood size (reduced, enlarged, sham-treated, or unmanipulated) 24h prior to sampling parental fish. We predicted that fish guarding offspring would exhibit increased androgens and baseline cortisol levels, and an attenuated cortisol response to the stressor when compared with non-reproductive individuals. We further predicted that these effects would scale with reproductive investment. As predicted, parental care-providing fish exhibited lower post-stress plasma cortisol concentrations than non-reproductive fish. This difference was strongest early during parental care. However, no differences in baseline or post-stress cortisol concentrations were detected among parents guarding offspring with varying brood sizes. There was, however, a trend for parental fish to exhibit an increased cortisol response following brood manipulation, regardless of the direction of change in brood size, a response that likely reflected disturbance. No differences were found in baseline cortisol concentrations. Circulating androgens were found to be highest during early parental care, and no differences were found among parents guarding manipulated broods. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the endocrine stress response is affected by reproductive status, but the response in this model species does not appear to be scaled according to reproductive investment as predicted by life-history theory.

  8. External and internal controls of lunar-related reproductive rhythms in fishes.

    PubMed

    Takemura, A; Rahman, M S; Park, Y J

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive activities of many fish species are, to some extent, entrained to cues from the moon. During the spawning season, synchronous spawning is repeated at intervals of c. 1 month (lunar spawning cycle) and 2 weeks (semi-lunar spawning cycle) or daily according to tidal changes (tidal spawning cycle). In species showing lunar-related spawning cycles, oocytes in the ovary develop towards and mature around a specific moon phase for lunar spawners, around spring tides for semi-lunar spawners and at daytime high tides for tidal spawners. The production of sex steroid hormones also changes in accordance with synchronous oocyte development. Since the production of the steroid hormones with lunar-related reproductive periodicity is regulated by gonadotropins, it is considered that the higher parts of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis play important roles in the perception and regulation of lunar-related periodicity. It is likely that fishes perceive cues from the moon by sensory organs; however, it is still unknown how lunar cues are transduced as an endogenous rhythm exerting lunar-related spawning rhythmicity. Recent research has revealed that melatonin fluctuated according to the brightness at night, magnetic fields and the tidal cycle. In addition, cyclic changes in hydrostatic pressure had an effect on monoamine contents in the brain. These factors may be indirectly related to the exertion of lunar-related periodicity. Molecular approaches have revealed that mRNA expressions of light-sensitive clock genes change with moonlight, suggesting that brightness at night plays a role in phase-shifting or resetting of biological clocks. Some species may have evolved biological clocks in relation to lunar cycles, although it is still not known how lunar periodicities are endogenously regulated in fishes. This review demonstrates that lunar-related periodicity is utilized and incorporated by ecological and physiological mechanisms governing the reproductive success

  9. Derivation and evaluation of adverse outcome pathways for the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on reproductive processes in fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition is of concern in fish because COX inhibitors (e.g., ibuprofen) are ubiquitous in aquatic systems/fish tissues, and can disrupt synthesis of prostaglandins that modulate a variety of essential biological functions (e.g., reproduction). This study ut...

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adult black bass and yellow perch were not associated with their reproductive success in the upper Hudson River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Maceina, Michael J; Sammons, Steven M

    2013-07-01

    Although production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ceased nearly 35 yr ago, questions still remain concerning the potential chronic effects these compounds may have on wild fish, including their reproductive success. In the upper Hudson River, New York, USA, fish were exposed to PCBs primarily from 2 manufacturing plants located approximately 320 km upstream of New York City, New York, from the 1940s to 1977. The authors collected yellow perch (Perca flavescens), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (M. salmoides) using electrofishing, measured PCBs in these adults, and estimated abundance and size of their offspring at age 1 yr (age-1 fish). Fish were collected annually from 2004 to 2009 from 1 control site upstream of the PCB discharge sites and from 2 sites downstream from where PCBs were released. These sites (pools) are separated by a series of dams, locks, and canals. Muscle tissue wet weight PCB and lipid-based PCB concentrations in adults in the 2 PCB exposure pools averaged approximately 1 to 3 µg/g and 100 to 500 µg/g, respectively. Age-1 abundances were not related to adult PCB concentrations but were inversely related to river flow. Size of age-1 fish was slightly greater at the PCB-exposure sites. Levels of PCBs in yellow perch, largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass in the upper Hudson River did not impair or reduce recruitment or reproductive success.

  11. Long-Term Changes in the Distributions of Larval and Adult Fish in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have documented long-term changes in adult marine fish distributions and linked these changes to climate change and multi-decadal climate variability. Most marine fish, however, have complex life histories with morphologically distinct stages, which use different habitats. Shifts in distribution of one stage may affect the connectivity between life stages and thereby impact population processes including spawning and recruitment. Specifically, many marine fish species have a planktonic larval stage, which lasts from weeks to months. We compared the spatial distribution and seasonal occurrence of larval fish in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem to test whether spatial and temporal distributions changed between two decades. Two large-scale ichthyoplankton programs sampled using similar methods and spatial domain each decade. Adult distributions from a long-term bottom trawl survey over the same time period and spatial area were also analyzed using the same analytical framework to compare changes in larval and adult distributions between the two decades. Changes in spatial distribution of larvae occurred for 43% of taxa, with shifts predominately northward (i.e., along-shelf). Timing of larval occurrence shifted for 49% of the larval taxa, with shifts evenly split between occurring earlier and later in the season. Where both larvae and adults of the same species were analyzed, 48% exhibited different shifts between larval and adult stages. Overall, these results demonstrate that larval fish distributions are changing in the ecosystem. The spatial changes are largely consistent with expectations from a changing climate. The temporal changes are more complex, indicating we need a better understanding of reproductive timing of fishes in the ecosystem. These changes may impact population productivity through changes in life history connectivity and recruitment, and add to the accumulating evidence for changes in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem with

  12. Long-Term Changes in the Distributions of Larval and Adult Fish in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Harvey J; Richardson, David E; Marancik, Katrin E; Hare, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have documented long-term changes in adult marine fish distributions and linked these changes to climate change and multi-decadal climate variability. Most marine fish, however, have complex life histories with morphologically distinct stages, which use different habitats. Shifts in distribution of one stage may affect the connectivity between life stages and thereby impact population processes including spawning and recruitment. Specifically, many marine fish species have a planktonic larval stage, which lasts from weeks to months. We compared the spatial distribution and seasonal occurrence of larval fish in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem to test whether spatial and temporal distributions changed between two decades. Two large-scale ichthyoplankton programs sampled using similar methods and spatial domain each decade. Adult distributions from a long-term bottom trawl survey over the same time period and spatial area were also analyzed using the same analytical framework to compare changes in larval and adult distributions between the two decades. Changes in spatial distribution of larvae occurred for 43% of taxa, with shifts predominately northward (i.e., along-shelf). Timing of larval occurrence shifted for 49% of the larval taxa, with shifts evenly split between occurring earlier and later in the season. Where both larvae and adults of the same species were analyzed, 48% exhibited different shifts between larval and adult stages. Overall, these results demonstrate that larval fish distributions are changing in the ecosystem. The spatial changes are largely consistent with expectations from a changing climate. The temporal changes are more complex, indicating we need a better understanding of reproductive timing of fishes in the ecosystem. These changes may impact population productivity through changes in life history connectivity and recruitment, and add to the accumulating evidence for changes in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem with

  13. Hybridogenetic Reproduction and Maternal Ancestry of Polyploid Iberian Fish: The Tropidophoxinellus Alburnoides Complex

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, J. A.; Sanjur, O. I.; Doadrio, I.; Machordom, A.; Vrijenhoek, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    Iberian minnows collectively known as the Tropidophoxinellus alburnoides STEINDACHNER complex comprise diploid and polyploid forms with highly female biased sex ratios. Previous investigators suggested that all-female clonal reproduction and interspecific hybridization may occur in this complex. We examined nuclear (allozymes) and cytoplasmic genes (mtDNA) to assess the evolutionary origins, relationships, and reproductive modes of T. alburnoides from western Spain. The multi-locus allozyme data clearly revealed the hybrid nature of all polyploid forms of this fish and some diploid forms as well. Diagnostic markers identified fish from the genus Leuciscus as the paternal ancestor of hybrids in the Duero and Guadiana River Basins. Additionally, analysis of nuclear markers revealed that hybridogenetic reproduction occurs in the diploid and triploid hybrids. The hybrids fully express the paternal Leuciscus genome and then discard it during oogenesis. Hybridogenetic ova contain only maternal nuclear genes and mtDNA from a non-hybrid T. alburnoides ancestor. Apparently diploid and triploid hybrids of T. alburnoides persist as sperm parasites on males of a sexually reproducing Leuciscus host species. PMID:9215902

  14. How reproductive ecology contributes to the spread of a globally invasive fish.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Amy E; Ramnarine, Indar W; Magurran, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Invasive freshwater fish represent a major threat to biodiversity. Here, we first demonstrate the dramatic, human-mediated range expansion of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), an invasive fish with a reputation for negatively impacting native freshwater communities. Next, we explore possible mechanisms that might explain successful global establishment of this species. Guppies, along with some other notable invasive fish species such as mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.), have reproductive adaptations to ephemeral habitats that may enable introductions of very small numbers of founders to succeed. The remarkable ability of single pregnant guppies to routinely establish viable populations is demonstrated using a replicated mesocosm set up. In 86% of cases, these populations persisted for two years (the duration of the experiment). Establishment success was independent of founder origin (high and low predation habitats), and there was no loss of behavioural performance amongst mesocosm juveniles. Behavioural "signatures" of the founding locality were, however, evident in mesocosm fish. Our results demonstrate that introductions consisting of a single individual can lead to thriving populations of this invasive fish and suggest that particular caution should be exercised when introducing this species, or other livebearers, to natural water bodies.

  15. How Reproductive Ecology Contributes to the Spread of a Globally Invasive Fish

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, Amy E.; Ramnarine, Indar W.; Magurran, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive freshwater fish represent a major threat to biodiversity. Here, we first demonstrate the dramatic, human-mediated range expansion of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), an invasive fish with a reputation for negatively impacting native freshwater communities. Next, we explore possible mechanisms that might explain successful global establishment of this species. Guppies, along with some other notable invasive fish species such as mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.), have reproductive adaptations to ephemeral habitats that may enable introductions of very small numbers of founders to succeed. The remarkable ability of single pregnant guppies to routinely establish viable populations is demonstrated using a replicated mesocosm set up. In 86% of cases, these populations persisted for two years (the duration of the experiment). Establishment success was independent of founder origin (high and low predation habitats), and there was no loss of behavioural performance amongst mesocosm juveniles. Behavioural “signatures” of the founding locality were, however, evident in mesocosm fish. Our results demonstrate that introductions consisting of a single individual can lead to thriving populations of this invasive fish and suggest that particular caution should be exercised when introducing this species, or other livebearers, to natural water bodies. PMID:21957449

  16. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  17. Intersex and reproductive impairment of wild fish exposed to multiple municipal wastewater discharges.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, Charles J; Shires, K; Knight, B; Servos, Mark R; McMaster, Mark E

    2011-08-01

    The Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, receives and assimilates the outflow of 29 Municipal Wastewater Effluent (MWWE) discharges which is a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative impact of multiple sewage discharges on populations of wild fish. In field studies, responses of fish populations and individual fish responses in terms of growth (condition factor), reproduction (in vitro sex steroid production, gonadosomatic indices, histology [cellular development and intersex]) were assessed upstream and downstream of two municipal discharges. Fish [Greenside Darters Etheostoma blennioides and Rainbow Darters E. caeruleum] collected downstream of two municipal wastewater plants had the potential to have greater growth (longer and heavier) when compared to reference fish collections regardless of sex. Fish were not assimilating additional anthropogenic resources into energy storage (increased condition, liver somatic index). Impacts on ovarian development appeared to be minor with no differences in growth, steroid production or cellular development. Sewage exposed male fish were experiencing impairment in the capacity to produce testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in vitro, and in cellular development (GSI, intersex). Male darters of both species collected in the upstream agricultural region demonstrated no evidence of intersex whereas our urban reference sites had incidence of intersex of up to 20%. Rates of intersex were elevated downstream of both sewage discharges studied (33% and>60%, respectively). Lower rates of intersex at the intermediate sites, and then increases downstream of second sewage discharge suggests that fish populations have to potential to recover prior to exposure to the second sewage effluent. Pre-spawning darters demonstrated dramatically higher incidence of intersex in the spring at both urban reference sites (33% and 50%, respectively), and increased more so downstream of

  18. Assessing reproductive status in elasmobranch fishes using steroid hormones extracted from skeletal muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Bianca K; Tsang, Paul C W; Driggers, William B; Hoffmayer, Eric R; Wheeler, Carolyn R; Brown, A Christine; Sulikowski, James A

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) are particularly susceptible to anthropogenic threats, making a thorough understanding of their life history characteristics essential for proper management. Historically, elasmobranch reproductive data have been collected by lethal sampling, an approach that is problematic for threatened and endangered species. However, recent studies have demonstrated that non-lethal approaches can be as effective as lethal ones for assessment of the reproductive status of an animal. For example, plasma has been used to examine concentrations of steroid hormones. Additionally, skeletal muscle tissue, which can be obtained non-lethally and with minimal stress, can also be used to quantify concentrations of steroid hormones. Skeletal muscle progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations were determined to be statistically significant indicators of reproductive status in the oviparous Leucoraja erinacea, the yolk-dependent viviparous Squalus acanthias, and the yolk-sac placental viviparous Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. The results of the present study demonstrate that steroid hormones present in non-lethally harvested skeletal muscle tissue can be used as reliable indicators of reproductive status in elasmobranchs.

  19. Assessing reproductive status in elasmobranch fishes using steroid hormones extracted from skeletal muscle tissue

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Bianca K.; Tsang, Paul C. W.; Driggers, William B.; Hoffmayer, Eric R.; Wheeler, Carolyn R.; Brown, A. Christine; Sulikowski, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) are particularly susceptible to anthropogenic threats, making a thorough understanding of their life history characteristics essential for proper management. Historically, elasmobranch reproductive data have been collected by lethal sampling, an approach that is problematic for threatened and endangered species. However, recent studies have demonstrated that non-lethal approaches can be as effective as lethal ones for assessment of the reproductive status of an animal. For example, plasma has been used to examine concentrations of steroid hormones. Additionally, skeletal muscle tissue, which can be obtained non-lethally and with minimal stress, can also be used to quantify concentrations of steroid hormones. Skeletal muscle progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations were determined to be statistically significant indicators of reproductive status in the oviparous Leucoraja erinacea, the yolk-dependent viviparous Squalus acanthias, and the yolk-sac placental viviparous Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. The results of the present study demonstrate that steroid hormones present in non-lethally harvested skeletal muscle tissue can be used as reliable indicators of reproductive status in elasmobranchs. PMID:27293612

  20. Survival, reproductive, and growth responses in fish to creosote exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, K.A.; Solomon, K.R.; Bestari, K.T.; Robinson, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Creosote is a coal tar distillate, consisting mainly of a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Its widespread use as a wood preservative presents a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. The use of mesocosms (precolonized with zooplankton, phytoplankton, macroinvertebrates, and periphyton) enabled evaluation of the total impact of creosote exposure, resulting from both direct toxic effects and indirect community-level interactions. Two methods of creosote addition were used, resulting in two series of mesocosm exposures: sixteen ponds were dosed with liquid creosote (from 0 to 100 ppm), and eight were dosed using creosote impregnated pilings (0 to 6 pilings per pond). In addition to growth and survival in two species of fish, Carassius auratus and Pimephales promelas, a number of reproductive parameters were measured (reproductive hormones, egg production, hatching success, and weight/frequency distribution of juveniles).

  1. TOXIC RESPONSES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish reproduction is arguably one of the most sensitive indicators of exposure to environmental chemicals. Reproductive toxicity can simply be referred to as an alteration in reproductive success. It can occur at several developmental stages (larval, juvenile, and adult) with le...

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction of the Neotropical Fish, Crenicichla menezesi (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Andréa Soares; do Nascimento, Wallace Silva; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology and the gonadal development cycle of the Neotropical cichlid fish, Crenicichla menezesi, is described. This species exhibits sexual dimorphism only during the spawning season. First sexual maturity of females is attained earlier than the males. Both macroscopic and histological investigations of ovaries and testes revealed four stages of gonadal maturation. Mean batch fecundity of females was 372 (±10,41) of mature oocytes. This species is a partial spawner, with an extended spawning period. Monthly values of GSI and the condition factor are negatively correlated during the gonadal development cycle of this species. PMID:22919339

  3. Temporal dynamics of reproduction of the neotropical fish, Crenicichla menezesi (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Andréa Soares; do Nascimento, Wallace Silva; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology and the gonadal development cycle of the Neotropical cichlid fish, Crenicichla menezesi, is described. This species exhibits sexual dimorphism only during the spawning season. First sexual maturity of females is attained earlier than the males. Both macroscopic and histological investigations of ovaries and testes revealed four stages of gonadal maturation. Mean batch fecundity of females was 372 (± 10,41) of mature oocytes. This species is a partial spawner, with an extended spawning period. Monthly values of GSI and the condition factor are negatively correlated during the gonadal development cycle of this species.

  4. Reproductive health indicators of fishes from Pennsylvania watersheds: association with chemicals of emerging concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Walsh, H.L.; Sperry, A.J.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brightbill, R.A.; Smith, G.; Foreman, W.T.; Manning, R.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes were collected at 16 sites within the three major river drainages (Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio) of Pennsylvania. Three species were evaluated for biomarkers of estrogenic/antiandrogenic exposure, including plasma vitellogenin and testicular oocytes in male fishes. Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, and redhorse sucker Moxostoma species were collected in the summer, a period of low flow and low reproductive activity. Smallmouth bass were the only species in which testicular oocytes were observed; however, measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin were found in male bass and white sucker. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes ranged from 10 to 100 %, with the highest prevalence and severity in bass collected in the Susquehanna drainage. The percentage of males with plasma vitellogenin ranged from 0 to 100 % in both bass and sucker. Biological findings were compared with chemical analyses of discrete water samples collected at the time of fish collections. Estrone concentrations correlated with testicular oocytes prevalence and severity and with the percentage of male bass with vitellogenin. No correlations were noted with the percentage of male sucker with vitellogenin and water chemical concentrations. The prevalence and severity of testicular oocytes in bass also correlated with the percent of agricultural land use in the watershed above a site. Two sites within the Susquehanna drainage and one in the Delaware were immediately downstream of wastewater treatment plants to compare results with upstream fish. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes was not consistently higher downstream; however, severity did tend to increase downstream.

  5. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1993-03-01

    We report on our progress from October 1991 through September 1992 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls and Westland dams on the Umatilla River. We also report on our progress from October 1991 through June 1992 in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). These are the study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR: (1) Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam and document juvenile salmonid passage through the juvenile fish bypass facility and east-bank adult fish ladder. To measure velocity and develop trap designs at Westland Dam. (2) Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  6. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions. PMID:25407529

  7. Particularities of reproduction and oogenesis in teleost fish compared to mammals.

    PubMed

    Jalabert, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Compared to mammals, teleost reproduction presents many original features. Reproductive strategies of species are diversified into numerous adaptations to a large variety of aquatic environments. This diversity may concern sexuality, spawning and parental behaviour, sensitivity to environmental factors, and specific features of gametogenesis such as the duration of vitellogenesis, and egg morphology. Sexuality presents a variety of natural modalities, from gonochorism to hermaphrodism. The absence of definitive arrest of body growth in the adult of most species gives a particular interest to the practical control of growth-reproduction interactions. Vitellogenesis, which represents an important metabolic effort for the maternal organism, involves the synthesis of vitellogenin, a specific glycolipo-phosphoprotein produced in the liver under estradiol stimulation, and its incorporation into oocytes by a receptor mediated process. Both estradiol synthesis in follicle cells and vtg uptake by vitellogenic follicles appear to be mainly controlled by FSH. Oocyte maturation is directly triggered by a progestin, or MIS (maturation inducing steroid) synthesised in follicle cells mainly under LH control, and acting through the non-genomic activation of a membrane receptor. Practical applications of some of these particularities result mainly from the external character of the fertilisation process and of embryonic development, which allows manipulating respectively egg chromosome stocks and sex differentiation. Moreover, the sensitivity of sex differentiation to exogenous factors favours the development of practical methods to control the sex of farmed populations. Finally, the sensitivity of reproductive mechanisms to xenobiotics has led to various kinds of bioassays for putative pollutants.

  8. [Reproduction of the fish Gymnothorax equatorialis (Pisces: Muraenidae) in Jalisco and Colima, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, G; Ruiz-Ramírez, S; Rojo-Vázquez, J A; González-Sansón, G

    2008-03-01

    Reproduction of the fish Gymnothorax equatorialis (Pisces: Muraenidae) in Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. A total of 707 Gymnothorax equatorialis were collected monthly in the Jalisco and Colima coast, Mexico, from December 1995 to December 1998 and from August to November 1999, in order to determine their reproduction patterns. Females outnumbered and had longer bodies (mean length 54.7 cm) than males (52.1 cm). The minimum, maximum and mean values of total fecundity were respectively 9 660, 99 992 and 32 029 eggs. The total body length at which 50 percent of individuals have ripe gonads (L50) was 43.7 cm for females and 42.7 cm TL for males. Ovaries had two main types of oocytes: small inmature in cromatin nucleolus phase (85.1 microm) and large mature in secundary vitellogenesis phase (701.6 microm). High numbers of spermatozoa were observed in the seminal tubes of ripe testicles, which presented a lobular development. Based in gonad features and temporal changes in the gonad-somatic index, it is concluded that G. equatorialis has two relatively short reproduction periods (at the middle and at the end of the year).

  9. Experimental examination of interpopulation variation in reproductive timing of a fish.

    PubMed

    Yamahira, K

    2001-08-01

    Many marine organisms have a specific reproductive timing, but its adaptive nature has not been directly tested because of the difficulty of manipulating reproductive timing in the field. Egg survival in relation to the timing of egg release in the puffer Takifugu niphobles, an intertidal spawner, was assessed by experimentally transplanting eggs to several tidal zones, and the observed pattern of variation in spawning time across environments (a pebble vs. a sandy beach) was examined to see if it was consistent with the presumed selection regime. The vertical distribution of eggs and the observation of spawning zones showed that substrate characteristics affected the fate of released eggs: at the pebble beach eggs were stranded in the high intertidal zone, while they were washed out toward the lower zone at the sandy beach. The egg-transplant experiment showed that egg survival was lower in the high zone than in the middle and low zones at both the pebble and sandy beaches, indicating that individual fishes should spawn earlier relative to the tidal cycle. However, the selection pressure for thefish to spawn earlier was more intense at the pebble beach than at the sandy beach, which was attributed to the difference between the beaches in the degree to which eggs were transported seaward. At the pebble beach (1) the timing of spawning was more strictly synchronized with the tidal cycle, (2) a day's spawning started, peaked, and ended earlier relative to the tidal cycle, and (3) a day's spawning was concentrated in a shorter time, than at the sandy beach. These temporal patterns of spawning are allexpected from the presumed selection regime across the beaches, suggesting that there is an evolutionary response of the trait to this selective force. This study explains interpopulation variation in reproductive timing of a marine fish by combining experimental manipulations of the reproductive timing with classic comparative methods. This experimental approach performed

  10. Gravid Spot Predicts Developmental Progress and Reproductive Output in a Livebearing Fish, Gambusia holbrooki

    PubMed Central

    Norazmi-Lokman, Nor Hakim; Purser, G. J.; Patil, Jawahar G.

    2016-01-01

    In most livebearing fish, the gravid spot is an excellent marker to identify brooding females, however its use to predict progress of embryonic development, brood size, timing of parturition and overall reproductive potential of populations remain unexplored. Therefore, to understand these relationships, this study quantified visual attributes (intensity and size) of the gravid spot in relation to key internal development in Gambusia holbrooki. Observations show that the colour of the gravid spot arises from progressive melanisation on the surface of the ovarian sac at its hind margin, rather than melanisation of the developing embryos or the skin of the brooding mother. More importantly, the gravid spot intensity and size were closely linked with both developmental stages and clutch size, suggesting their reliable use as external surrogates of key internal developmental in the species. Using predictive consistency of the gravid spot, we also determined the effect of rearing temperature (23°C and 25°C) on gestation period and parturition behaviour. The results show that gestation period was significantly reduced (F = 364.58; df = 1,48; P˃0.05) at 25°C. However there was no significant difference in average number of fry parturated in the two temperature groups (P<0.05), reaffirming that gravid spot intensity is a reliable predictor of reproductive output. The parturition in the species occurred predominantly in the morning and in contrast to earlier reports, tails of the fry emerged first with a few exceptions of head-first, twin and premature births. This study demonstrates utility of the gravid spot for downstream reproductive investigations in a live-bearing fish both in the field and laboratory. The reproducibility of the relationships (intensity with both developmental stage and clutch size), imply that they are also relevant to wild populations that experience varying temperature climes and stressors, significant deviations of which may serve as

  11. Fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) with atrazine and the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Hosmer, Alan J; Schneider, Suzanne Z; Anderson, Julie C; Knopper, Loren D; Brain, Richard A

    2017-02-15

    Breeding groups of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to atrazine at measured concentrations of 0.6, 5.5, and 53 µg/L for 35 d. Evaluated endpoints included survival, fecundity, fertility, growth (weight and length), behavior, secondary sex characteristics (anal fin papillae), gonad histopathology, and hepatic vitellogenin. No statistically significant effects of atrazine exposure on survival and growth of medaka were noted during the test, and mean survival was ≥97.5% in all treatment groups on Day 35. No significant effects of atrazine exposure on reproduction were observed. The number of mean cumulative eggs produced in the negative control, 0.6, 5.5, and 53 µg/L treatment groups was 7158, 6691, 6883, and 6856 eggs, respectively. The mean number of eggs per female reproductive day was 40.9, 38.2, 40.2, and 39.2 eggs per day, respectively. There were also no dose-dependent effects on mean anal fin papillae counts among male fish or expression of vtg-II in males or females. In addition, atrazine exposure was not related to the development stage of test fish, with testes stages ranging from 2 to 3 in all groups and ovaries ranging from stage 2 to 2.5. Overall, exposure to atrazine up to 53 µg/L for 35 d did not result in significant, treatment-related effects on measured endpoints related to survival, growth, or reproduction in Japanese medaka. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Transient effects of methyltestosterone injection on different reproductive parameters of the hermaphrodite fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Beom; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Kiros, Solomon; Kitamura, Tomokazu; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    To elucidate the action mechanism of environmental androgenic chemicals on fish reproductive activity by transient stimulation in heavily polluted areas, individuals of the hermaphrodite fish Kryptolebias marmoratus were injected once with six concentrations of methyltestosterone (MT) (0.1, 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 μg/g BW) intraperitoneally. The fish were sampled at intervals of 7, 15, and 30 days after a single injection. At 7 days after injection, mature oocytes were not observed in the MT-exposed groups except for the group exposed to 0.1 μg MT, while testicular development was not remarkably different between any of the groups. Also, at 7 days after injection, hepatic estrogen receptor α (ERα) and vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA abundance decreased significantly in the MT-exposed groups despite no significant difference in plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) levels between any of the groups. This significant difference in VTG mRNA between the control and the MT-exposed groups persisted until 30 days after injection, although ERα mRNA abundance was not statistically different between any groups at 30 days after injection. Our results clearly show that a single injection of MT inhibits ovarian development rather than testicular development in the hermaphroditic gonad of K. marmoratus. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that a single injection of MT interfered with hepatic VTG mRNA synthesis mediated by the suppression of hepatic ERα mRNA transcription.

  13. Reproduction and distribution of fishes in a cooling lake: Wisconsin power plant impact study

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, D.W.; Kitchell, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns during reproduction and early-life history of fishes were studied in a manmade cooling lake. Lake Columbia, impounded in 1974, near Portage, Wisconsin, has an area of 190 ha, a mean depth of 2.1 m, and a 15C temperature gradient derived from the thermal effluent of a 527-MW fossil-fueled generating station that began operating in 1975. The lake was initially colonized by fishes when filled with Wisconsin River water. Observations suggest a decline of species diversity of the fish community due to direct action of upper lethal temperatures, absence of colonization by warm-water, lake-dwelling species, and lack of recruitment for certain species. Spatial and temporal patterns of spawning of black crappie were altered by a rapid rise in water temperatures following plant startup after a three-week shutdown. Elevated temperatures subsequently shortened the spawning season, induced resorption of ova, and caused loss of secondary sexual characteristics. After initially drifting with water current, juvenile stages of sunfish and gizzard shad responded to changes in the thermal gradient by horizontal and vertical shifts in abundance.

  14. Geographic Variation in Adult Survival and Reproductive Tactics of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    LEISNHAM, P. T.; SALA, L. M.; JULIANO, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Climate differences across latitude can result in seasonal constraints and selection on life history characters. Since Aedes albopictus (Skuse) invaded North America in the mid-1980s, it has spread across a range of ≈14° latitude and populations in the north experience complete adult mortality due to cold winter temperatures that are absent in the south. Life table experiments were conducted to test for differences in the adult survival and reproductive schedules of Ae. albopictus females from two populations from the northern (Bloomington, IN [BL] and Manassas, VA [VA]; ≈39° N) and southern (Tampa, FL and Fort Myers, FL; ≈27–28° N) extremes of the species distribution in North America. Regardless of population origin, age-specific hazard rate increased with reproductive output and decreased with number of bloodmeals. Larger females took fewer bloodmeals, and they had greater hazard rates than did smaller females. There were no consistent differences between northern versus southern populations in resource allocation between reproduction and maintenance, reproduction over time, and reproductive investment among offspring, suggesting that latitudinal variation in climate is probably not a main selective factor impinging on adult mortality and reproductive schedules. One possible effect of climate on geographic differences in life history was detected. BL had lower survivorship, lower lifetime reproductive output, and lower adult reproductive rate than did all other populations. This result may be an indirect result of lower egg survivorship due to the severity of winter in BL compared with other populations, including VA at approximately the same latitude. Such a scenario may make the BL population more prone to extinction, irregularly recolonized from more favorable sites, and thus more susceptible to founder effects, genetic drift, and inbreeding, resulting in lower mean values of fitness-related traits. PMID:18402136

  15. Mercurial induced changes in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysical complex in relation to reproduction in the teleostean fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, R.N.; Joy, K.P.

    1988-09-01

    Although extensive work has been done on neurotoxic, teratologic and genetic effects of mercurials in a variety of animals including man, very little is known about their impacts on the neuroendocrine physiology of reproduction. The available investigations largely pertain to mammals. However, reports on the toxic effects of longterm exposure to mercury compounds on physiology of reproduction are meagre in fish. In the present communication, inorganic mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) and organic mercurial fungicide (Emisan) induced changes in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysical system in relation to reproduction of C. punctatus are described after chronic exposure for 6 months.

  16. 17α-Ethinyl estradiol affects anxiety and shoaling behavior in adult male zebra fish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Reyhanian, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Bollner, Tomas; Olsson, Per-Erik; Olsén, Håkan; Hällström, Inger Porsch

    2011-09-01

    Ethinyl estradiol is a potent endocrine disrupting compound in fish and ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. In this study, we exposed adult zebra fish (Danio rerio) males to 0, 5 or 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol/L for 14 days and analyzed the effects on non-reproductive behavior. Effects of treatment of the exposed males was shown by vitellogenin induction, while brain aromatase (CYP 19B) activity was not significantly altered. Both concentrations of Ethinyl estradiol significantly altered the behavior in the Novel tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The effects were, however, opposite for the two concentrations. Fish that were exposed to 5 ng/L had longer latency before upswim, fewer transitions to the upper half and shorter total time spent in the upper half compared with control fish, while 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol treatment resulted in shorter latency and more and longer visits to the upper half. The swimming activity of 25, but not 5 ng-exposed fish were slightly but significantly reduced, and these fish tended to spend a lot of time at the surface. We also studied the shoaling behavior as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. The fish treated with Ethinyl estradiol had significantly longer latency before leaving shoal mates and left the shoal fewer times. Further, the fish exposed to 5 ng/L also spent significantly less time away from shoal than control fish. Fertilization frequency was higher in males exposed to 5 ng/L Ethinyl estradiol when compared with control males, while no spawning was observed after treatment with 25 ng/L. The testes from both treatment groups contained a normal distribution of spermatogenesis stages, and no abnormality in testis morphology could be observed. In conclusion, we have observed effects on two behaviors not related to reproduction in zebra fish males after

  17. Reproductive impairment of a viviparous fish species inhabiting a freshwater system with anthropogenic impact.

    PubMed

    Hued, Andrea Cecilia; Nostro, Fabiana Laura Lo; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Bistoni, María de Los Ángeles

    2013-02-01

    The potential threat to animal reproduction by contaminated freshwater systems posed the necessity to identify and develop bioindicators and biomarkers to be used for screening and evaluation of the effects in organisms. The main goal of this work was to determine, through histological analyses and changes in gonopodium morphology, whether a freshwater system polluted by anthropogenic activities-sewage, agricultural, and industrial-could cause alterations at the organ level. We also propose the live-bearing fish, Jenynsia multidentata, as a species suitable to study the effects of contaminated aquatic environments. We compared male fish sampled at two different stations in Suquía River basin (Córdoba, Argentina), both differing in degree of pollution, through liver and testis histology and gonopodial morphometric parameters. The water quality, based on the physicochemical characteristics of the studied stations, varied markedly with a decrease in water quality at the downstream site (station 2). At the highest polluted area, detrimental effects on liver and testis were evidenced on histological analysis. Male individuals from station 2 also presented noticeable structural changes of the anal fin, such as a straight gonopodium and abnormal tip area. The present results demonstrate that a freshwater system polluted by the impacts of anthropogenic activities has detrimental effects to J. multidentata. The alterations registered in individuals from the polluted station indicate an impairment of male reproductive performance and imply a risk for other live-bearing species as well as the entire biodiversity. We consider J. multidentata a sentinel species that is useful to evaluate the potential risk present in the studied basin not only to itself but to other species as well.

  18. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking

  19. REPRODUCTION AND AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE MARINE FISH CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABROUS ADSPERSUS) EXPOSED TO ATRAZINE AND OCTYLPHENOL IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that reproduction in fish is altered by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that modify aromatase activity. Aromatase, a product of the CYP19 gene, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the androgens androst...

  20. Kraft mill effluent survey: progress toward best management practices for reducing effects on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Tibor G; Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; MacLatchy, Deborah L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Hewitt, L Mark

    2011-06-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents have been linked to effects on fish reproduction for more than 25 years. To date, the causes of these effects and remedial strategies have eluded investigators. Recent work has shown that the degree of reproductive effect caused by a mill effluent is related to the overall organic content. If verified, this could lead to breakthroughs for best management practices (BMPs). For this study, the effluents from seven kraft mills were assessed for their ability to reduce egg production in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in the laboratory. At the same time, the effluents were analyzed for three parameters thought to be good indicators of organic losses: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones (cellulose degradation products), and a gas chromatographic (GC) profile index, which integrates the total area of the chromatographic peaks of solvent-extracted effluents using low-resolution mass spectrometry. The results showed that the degree to which the effluents reduced egg production increased with increased organic losses as characterized by BOD and the GC profile index. Therefore, these parameters could be used to guide BMPs at kraft mills according to specific targets: BOD < 20 mg/L and GC profile index equivalent to effluent with BOD of 20 mg/L. Such targets should be achievable by good in-plant control of organic losses and optimized effluent biotreatment systems.

  1. Identification of hemiclonal reproduction in three species of Hexagrammos marine reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Kimura-Kawaguchi, M R; Horita, M; Abe, S; Arai, K; Kawata, M; Munehara, H

    2014-08-01

    Natural hybrids between the boreal species Hexagrammos octogrammus and two temperate species Hexagrammos agrammus and Hexagrammos otakii were observed frequently in southern Hokkaido, Japan. Previous studies revealed that H. octogrammus is a maternal ancestor of both hybrids; the hybrids are all fertile females and they frequently breed with paternal species. Although such rampant hybridization occurs, species boundaries have been maintained in the hybrid zone. Possible explanations for the absence of introgressions, despite the frequent backcrossing, might include clonal reproduction: parthenogenesis, gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. The natural hybrids produced haploid eggs that contained only the H. octogrammus genome (maternal ancestor) with discarded paternal genome and generated F1 -hybrid type offspring by fertilization with the haploid sperm of H. agrammus or H. otakii (paternal ancestor). This reproductive mode was found in an artificial backcross hybrid between the natural hybrid and a male of the paternal ancestor. These findings indicate that the natural hybrids adopt hybridogenesis with high possibility and produce successive generations through hybridogenesis by backcrossing with the paternal ancestor. These hybrids of Hexagrammos represent the first hybridogenetic system found from marine fishes that widely inhabit the North Pacific Ocean. In contrast with other hybridogenetic systems, these Hexagrammos hybrids coexist with all three ancestral species in the hybrid zone. The coexistence mechanism is also discussed.

  2. The Relationship between Organic Loading and Effects on Fish Reproduction for Pulp Mill Effluents across Canada.

    PubMed

    Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Kovacs, Tibor G; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Hewitt, L Mark

    2017-03-09

    This study builds upon the work of a multiagency consortium tasked with determining cost-effective solutions for the effects of pulp mill effluents on fish reproduction. A laboratory fathead minnow egg production test and chemical characterization tools were used to benchmark 81 effluents from 20 mills across Canada, representing the major pulping, bleaching, and effluent treatment technologies. For Kraft and mechanical pulp mills, effluents containing less than 20 mg/L BOD5 were found to have the greatest probability of having no effects. Organic loading, expressed as the total detected solvent-extractable components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), also correlated with decreased egg laying. Exceptions were found for specific Kraft, mechanical, and sulfite mills, suggesting yet unidentified causative agents are involved. Recycled fiber mill effluents, tested for the first time, were found to have little potential for reproductive effects despite large variations in BOD5 and GC/MS profiles. Effluent treatment systems across all production types were generally efficient, achieving a combined 82-98% BOD5 removal. Further reductions of final effluent organic loadings toward the target of less than 20 mg/L are recommended and can be realized through biotreatment optimization, the reduction of organic losses associated with production upsets and selecting best available technologies that reduce organic loadings to biotreatment.

  3. Effect of commercial grade endosulfan on growth and reproduction of the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, A; Pandian, T J

    2014-09-01

    To study the effects of endosulfan on survival, growth and reproduction of the obligate air-breathing male heterogametic fighting fish Betta splendens, posthatchlings of the fighting fish were discretely immersed for 3 h/day during the labile period on the 2nd, 5th, and 8th day posthatching (dph) at selected concentrations of commercial grade endosulfan ranging from 175 to 1400 ng/L. The immersions at 1,400 ng/L led to 21% mortality, among the 79% of surviving fry, 80% developed into females. The endosulfan reduced the air-breathing frequency of 5- and 8-day old hatchlings, and the reduction in the frequency persisted even after a depuration period of 172 days. In the ovary of the treated females, reduced number of vitellogenic oocytes with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. In the testis of the treated males, the reduced number of spermatogonia with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. The treated male induced the female to spawn a fewer eggs, which were subsequently incubated in his smaller bubble nest. The control females attained puberty on the 138th dph and spawned 120 eggs once in every 15 days, the females, which were previously treated at 1400 ng/L, postponed puberty to the 179th dph and spawned 70 eggs once in every 32 days. During the 240-day experiment, endosulfan is found to reduce significantly the cumulative progeny production from 760 to 144, reducing significantly to 19% of the control.

  4. A test of male infanticide as a reproductive tactic in a cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Aneesh P. H.; O'Connor, Constance M.; Balshine, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether new unrelated males entering the dominant position in a social group were more likely to cannibalize eggs, and whether such cannibalism would shorten the interval until the female's next spawning. Females spawned again sooner if their broods were removed than if they were cared for. Egg cannibalism occurred frequently after a group takeover event, and was rarer if the original male remained with the group. While dominant breeder females were initially highly aggressive towards newcomer males that took over the group, the degree of resistance depended on relative body size differences between the new pair and, ultimately, female aggression did not prevent egg cannibalism. Egg cannibalism, however, did not shorten the duration until subsequent spawning, or increase fecundity during subsequent breeding in our laboratory setting. Our results show that infanticide as mediated through group takeovers is a taxonomically widespread behaviour.

  5. Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zwaan, Bas J; Carey, James R; Brakefield, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Female butterflies were collected from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and kept individually in cages near their natural habitat and data were collected on lifespan, oviposition, and hatching of eggs. Lifespan in captivity was longer for the sugar and the amino acid cohort, than for the banana cohorts. The longitudinal pattern of oviposition was erratic, with many days without oviposition and few periods with high numbers of eggs laid. Butterflies typically did not lay eggs during their 1st week in captivity and the length of the period between capture and first reproduction was significantly shorter for butterflies fed moistened banana. The length of the reproduction period (first reproduction-last reproduction in captivity) and the reproduction rate (total number of eggs/length of the reproduction period) did not differ significantly between the diet treatments. Those fed with amino acid and moistened banana had significantly higher egg hatchability than those fed with sugar and banana. We found no evidence for a lifespan cost of reproduction. Our results show that (1) female C. fulvescens can use amino acids in their diet for laying fertile eggs, (2) more wing-wear does correlate with lower survival in captivity (indicating aging in the wild), but not with intensity of reproduction (providing no evidence for reproductive aging), and (3) fruit-feeding butterflies may be dietary restricted in the field.

  6. The effects of larval nutrition on reproductive performance in a food-limited adult environment.

    PubMed

    Dmitriew, Caitlin; Rowe, Locke

    2011-03-30

    It is often assumed that larval food stress reduces lifetime fitness regardless of the conditions subsequently faced by adults. However, according to the environment-matching hypothesis, a plastic developmental response to poor nutrition results in an adult phenotype that is better adapted to restricted food conditions than one having developed in high food conditions. Such a strategy might evolve when current conditions are a reliable predictor of future conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of larval food conditions (low, improving and high food) on reproductive fitness in both low and high food adults environments. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found no evidence that food restriction in larval ladybird beetles produced adults that were better suited to continuing food stress. In fact, reproductive rate was invariably lower in females that were reared at low food, regardless of whether adults were well fed or food stressed. Juveniles that encountered improving conditions during the larval stage compensated for delayed growth by accelerating subsequent growth, and thus showed no evidence of a reduced reproductive rate. However, these same individuals lost more mass during the period of starvation in adults, which indicates that accelerated growth results in an increased risk of starvation during subsequent periods of food stress.

  7. Mink reproductive and physiological response to diets supplemented with PCB and mercury contaminated fish collected on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.; Aulerich, R.; Bursian, S.; Lewis, L.

    1995-12-31

    Plant operations and waste disposal at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have resulted in increased concentrations of PCBs and mercury (Hg) in fish inhabiting streams located on the reservation. As a component of environmental restoration investigation, fish were collected from streams on the reservation, analyzed for tissue concentrations of PCBs and Hg, and fed to ranch mink 3 months prior to and during the breeding season. As reference, fish also were collected from the Clinch River (CR) above the ORR and from the ocean (O), and fed to mink following similar procedures. Five prepared diets containing either 75% O, 75% CR, 25% ORR + 50% O, 50% ORR + 25% O, or 75% ORR fish and 25% standard mink diet were fed to 8 female and 2 male mink, each, following normal mink farm practices. PCB (Aroclor 1260 and CB congeners) and Hg concentrations were greatest in fish collected from the ORR and diets containing ORR fish exhibited a progressive increase in PCBs and Hg concentration with increased percentage of ORR fish. Female mink fed diets containing 75% ORR fish had decreased litter size and decreased mean whole body weights, Mean weight of male offspring of females fed 75% ORR fish also were decreased. Do to the contaminated environment, other aquatic prey of mink probably have elevated contaminant burdens that would contribute to effects in mink. Adverse reproductive and health effects in mink living on the ORR are speculative at this time.

  8. Body reserves mediate trade-offs between life-history traits: new insights from small pelagic fish reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Josep; Muñoz, Marta; Fauvel, Christian; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Marques, Virginie; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Limited resources in the environment prevent individuals from simultaneously maximizing all life-history traits, resulting in trade-offs. In particular, the cost of reproduction is well known to negatively affect energy investment in growth and maintenance. Here, we investigated these trade-offs during contrasting periods of high versus low fish size and body condition (before/after 2008) in the Gulf of Lions. Female reproductive allocation and performance in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) were examined based on morphometric historical data from the 1970s and from 2003 to 2015. Additionally, potential maternal effects on egg quantity and quality were examined in 2014/2015. After 2008, the gonadosomatic index increased for sardine and remained steady for anchovy, while a strong decline in mean length at first maturity indicated earlier maturation for both species. Regarding maternal effects, for both species egg quantity was positively linked to fish size but not to fish lipid reserves, while the egg quality was positively related to lipid reserves. Atresia prevalence and intensity were rather low regardless of fish condition and size. Finally, estimations of total annual numbers of eggs spawned indicated a sharp decrease for sardine since 2008 but a slight increase for anchovy during the last 5 years. This study revealed a biased allocation towards reproduction in small pelagic fish when confronted with a really low body condition. This highlights that fish can maintain high reproductive investment potentially at the cost of other traits which might explain the present disappearance of old and large individuals in the Gulf of Lions. PMID:27853538

  9. Body reserves mediate trade-offs between life-history traits: new insights from small pelagic fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Brosset, Pablo; Lloret, Josep; Muñoz, Marta; Fauvel, Christian; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Marques, Virginie; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2016-10-01

    Limited resources in the environment prevent individuals from simultaneously maximizing all life-history traits, resulting in trade-offs. In particular, the cost of reproduction is well known to negatively affect energy investment in growth and maintenance. Here, we investigated these trade-offs during contrasting periods of high versus low fish size and body condition (before/after 2008) in the Gulf of Lions. Female reproductive allocation and performance in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) were examined based on morphometric historical data from the 1970s and from 2003 to 2015. Additionally, potential maternal effects on egg quantity and quality were examined in 2014/2015. After 2008, the gonadosomatic index increased for sardine and remained steady for anchovy, while a strong decline in mean length at first maturity indicated earlier maturation for both species. Regarding maternal effects, for both species egg quantity was positively linked to fish size but not to fish lipid reserves, while the egg quality was positively related to lipid reserves. Atresia prevalence and intensity were rather low regardless of fish condition and size. Finally, estimations of total annual numbers of eggs spawned indicated a sharp decrease for sardine since 2008 but a slight increase for anchovy during the last 5 years. This study revealed a biased allocation towards reproduction in small pelagic fish when confronted with a really low body condition. This highlights that fish can maintain high reproductive investment potentially at the cost of other traits which might explain the present disappearance of old and large individuals in the Gulf of Lions.

  10. Resveratrol improves reproductive parameters of adult rats varicocelized in peripuberty.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Talita Biude; Paccola, Camila Cicconi; de Oliveira Neves, Flávia Macedo; Simas, Joana Noguères; da Costa Vaz, André; Cabral, Regina Elisabeth L; Vendramini, Vanessa; Miraglia, Sandra Maria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of resveratrol against the reproductive damage caused by left-sided experimental varicocele. There was a reduction of testicular major axis in the varicocele group when compared with the other groups; the testicular volume was reduced in varicocele group in comparison to the sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of morphologically abnormal sperm was higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups than in sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of sperm with 100% of mitochondrial activity and normal acrosome integrity were lower in varicocele group than in varicocele treated with resveratrol, sham-control and resveratrol groups. Sperm motility was also reduced in varicocele group than in other groups. The sperm DNA fragmentation was higher in varicocele group than in other groups. Testicular levels of malondialdehyde were higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups. The varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups had a significantly higher frequency of TUNEL-positive cells than sham-control and resveratrol groups; however, immunolabeling of the testes from varicocele treated with resveratrol group showed a lower number of apoptotic germ cells in comparison with the left testis of rats of the varicocele group. Reproductive alterations produced by varicocele from peripuberty were reduced by resveratrol in adulthood. Resveratrol should be better investigated as an adjuvant in the treatment of varicocele. Daily administration of resveratrol to rats with varicocele from peripuberty improves sperm quality in the adulthood.

  11. Population structure and reproductive period of two introduced fish species in a Brazilian semiarid region reservoir.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Marla Melise de Oliveira; Lopes, Suzany Iasnaya Moreira; da Costa, Rodrigo Silva; Novaes, José Luís Costa

    2015-09-01

    The Amazonian fish species Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) and Cichla monoculus Cichlidae), have been widely introduced into different reservoirs in Brazil, and have caused many negative mpacts on local fish fauna. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population structure (abundance, length structure, length-weight relationship, sex ratio, and length at first maturity) and the reprodutive period of these wo species in the Santa Cruz Reservoir (built in 2002), located in the Brazilian semiarid region, for their adequate management and local species conservation policies. Specimens were collected quarterly in eight sites from February 2010 to November 2013 using gillnets (12 to 70 mm mesh between adjacent knots). The specimens captured were counted and the following biometric and biological data were analysed: standard length, total weight, and reproductive data, such as, sex, weight and gonadal maturity stage. The species abundances were estimated by CPUE and expressed as the number of individuals per gill net area x gill net exposition time (m2 x h); length frequency histograms were built with intervals of 5 cm. The length-weight parameters were estimated with a linear regression after a logarithmic transformation of the data. With the reproductive data we estimated sex ratio, reproduction period and length at first maturity (L50). We captured a total of 1,071 specimens of P. squamosissimus and 156 specimens of C. monoculus. Both species showed higher abundances in 2010, 0.004306 m2 x h and 0.00022 m2 x h, respectively, but this parameter decreased from 2010 to 2013. Standard length ranged between 6.4 and 46.2 cm for P. squamosissimus (20.025.0 cm was the most frequent class), and 7.0 and 38.7 cm for C. monocidus (10.0-15.0 cm was the most frequent class). The length-weight relationships were described by the following equations: log10Wt = -1.8349+3.0899log10Lp and R2= 0.9795 for P. squamosissimus, and log10 Wt = -1.7944+3.0885log10Lp and Wt = 0

  12. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents progress from October 1992 through September 1993 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls, Maxwell, Westland, and Feed Canal dams on the Umatilla River, and in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River. Also reported is an effort to evaluate delayed mortality and stress responses of juvenile salmonids resulting from trapping and transport at high temperatures. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the matilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon and chinook salmon, as well as enhancement of summer steelhead.

  13. JH Biosynthesis by Reproductive Tissues and Corpora Allata in Adult Longhorned Beetles, Apriona germari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis from long-chain intermediates by specific reproductive system tissues and the corpora allata (CA) prepared from adult longhorned beetles, Apriona germari. Testes, male accessory glands (MAGs), ovaries and CA contain the long-chain intermediates in the ...

  14. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  15. Risk of predation reflects variation in the reproductive strategy of a dominant forage fish in mangrove tidal tributaries.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin M; Bell, Susan S

    2012-03-01

    The role of predators in shaping prey life histories is a central theme in the ecological literature. However, the association between degree of predation risk and prey reproductive strategies has not been clearly established. We examined reproduction in the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) from small tidal tributaries in a subtropical estuary. Our results revealed a gradient along which females produced many, small offspring at one extreme (mean = 42 offspring, 17 mg each) and fewer, larger offspring at the other (24 offspring, 29 mg each). Reproductive allotment ranged from 14.9-21.5% of maternal biomass. Based on our observation of divergent reproductive strategies, we experimentally tested the null hypothesis of no difference in predation risk among tributaries using a novel quantitative approach to estimate predation. We predicted greater risk in tributaries where mollies produced many, small offspring. Tethering confirmed increasing risk from 16.2 ± 5.3% SE to 54.7 ± 3.6% fish lost h(-1) across sites in agreement with observed variation in reproduction. Predation was unexpectedly higher than predicted at one of the four sites suggesting that additional factors (e.g., food) had influenced reproduction there. Our results provide insight into the well-studied concept of predator-mediated variation in prey reproduction by quantitatively demonstrating differential risk for mollies exhibiting divergent reproductive strategies. While the observed range of variation in reproductive traits was consistent with previous studies reporting strong predator effects, higher than expected predation in one case may suggest that the prey response does not follow a continuous trajectory of incremental change with increasing predation risk, but may be better defined as a threshold beyond which a significant shift in reproductive strategy occurs.

  16. Reproductive periodicity and steroid hormone profiles in the sex-changing coral-reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, A. J.; McCormick, M. I.; Pankhurst, N. W.

    2007-03-01

    The reproductive biology of coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) was investigated by correlating gonadal condition with plasma levels of gonadal steroids. Female fish were found to be regressed from mid-summer to early spring, after which rapid and cyclical increases in gonado-somatic index ( I G), maximum oocyte diameter (MOD) and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17β and testosterone were detected. Male fish, in contrast, commenced recrudescence slightly earlier in winter and responded with less dramatic increases in both I G and plasma concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. The mode of oocyte development was multiple group-synchronous, and cyclical fluctuations in reproductive parameters ( I G, MOD and gonadal steroid concentrations) were synchronized with new-moon lunar phases. It is likely, therefore, that individual P. leopardus have the capacity to spawn on multiple occasions, with lunar periodicity. However, evidence suggests that early bouts of reproduction may be more important in terms of reproductive investment than subsequent bouts later in the same season. It is concluded that patterns of gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in P. leopardus are similar to the patterns displayed by other tropical groupers, suggesting that management regimes and propagation protocols developed for these fishes may also be appropriate for use with P. leopardus.

  17. Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zwaan, Bas J.; Carey, James R.; Brakefield, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Female butterflies were collected from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and kept individually in cages near their natural habitat and data were collected on lifespan, oviposition, and hatching of eggs. Lifespan in captivity was longer for the sugar and the amino acid cohort, than for the banana cohorts. The longitudinal pattern of oviposition was erratic, with many days without oviposition and few periods with high numbers of eggs laid. Butterflies typically did not lay eggs during their 1st week in captivity and the length of the period between capture and first reproduction was significantly shorter for butterflies fed moistened banana. The length of the reproduction period (first reproduction–last reproduction in captivity) and the reproduction rate (total number of eggs/length of the reproduction period) did not differ significantly between the diet treatments. Those fed with amino acid and moistened banana had significantly higher egg hatchability than those fed with sugar and banana. We found no evidence for a lifespan cost of reproduction. Our results show that (1) female C. fulvescens can use amino acids in their diet for laying fertile eggs, (2) more wing-wear does correlate with lower survival in captivity (indicating aging in the wild), but not with intensity of reproduction (providing no evidence for reproductive aging), and (3) fruit-feeding butterflies may be dietary restricted in the field. PMID:19774093

  18. Comparative morphology of the reproductive system of seven species of ostariophysan fishes from the upper Das Velhas River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Gomes, Débora Diniz; Moreira, Davidson Peruci; Gomes, Maysa Regina; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2017-02-01

    The success of fishes in different environments is related with the variation of reproductive strategies developed by the systematic group, which is reflected in the morphology of the reproductive system and can have ecological and evolutionary implications. This study comparatively analyzed the morphological characteristics of the male and female reproductive systems of ostariophysan fish species from the upper Das Velhas River in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil. In order to accomplish this, 393 specimens belonging to seven fish species were sampled between April 2010 and June 2015 for histological, ultrastructural, histochemical, and morphometric analyses. All the species examined have anastomosing tubular testes with unrestricted distribution of spermatogonia. Astyanax bimaculatus, A. fasciatus, A. scabripinnis, and Harttia torrenticola had their spermatozoa embedded in a glycoprotein secretion within the tubule lumen. Most species had type I spermiogenesis, whereas Rhamdia quelen had type III spermiogenesis. While all females examined had asynchronous oocyte development, there were remarkable morphological, histochemical, and morphometric differences in the ovarian follicles and enveloping layers. Hoplias malabaricus and H. torrenticola, which exhibit parental care behaviour, had a significantly larger diameter of vitellogenic oocytes and larger spermatozoa nuclei. Apareiodon ibitiensis, H. torrenticola, and A. scabripinnis, species that have rheophilic preferences, exhibited a thicker zona radiata than the other species examined. The follicular cells of R. quelen and H. torrenticola were columnar and produced a jelly coat and mucosubstances, respectively. The females of the seven fish species studied show a correlation of the reproductive strategies with the reproductive system morphology, while males retained more similar morphological characteristics between species. J. Morphol. 278:170-181, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals,Inc.

  19. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-11-09

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility.

  20. Promoting reproductive health practices among working adolescents and young adults (industrial workers). RAS/88/P11.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    In Cambodia, Care (Deutschland), through the Cambodia Health Education Development (CHED) and the Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia, is working towards the promotion of reproductive health (RH) practices among working adolescents and young adults. The project seeks to reach a minimum target group of 10,000 out-of-school, single, working adolescents and young adults aged 12-29 years, and at least 50 trained RH providers and educators in selected project sites. It also aims to provide specialist RH services to at least 200 single adolescents and young adults per month and per newly operational RH facility in project areas; and to build the capacity of at least two partner nongovernmental organizations in adolescent RH services. As its two-part strategy, the project is sharing information, education, and communication (IEC) expertise and using CHED as an informal IEC clearing house. The main activities of the project are outlined.

  1. Reproductive biology and recruitment of the deep-sea fish community from the NW Mediterranean continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Arcaya, U.; Rotllant, G.; Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Recasens, L.; Aguzzi, J.; Flexas, M. M.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; López-Fernández, P.; García, J. A.; Company, J. B.

    2013-11-01

    Temporal patterns in deep-sea fish reproduction are presently unknown for the majority of deep continental margins. A series of seasonal trawling surveys between depths of 300 to 1750 m in the Blanes submarine canyon and its adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean) were conducted. The bathymetric size distributions and reproductive cycles of the most abundant species along the NW Mediterranean margin were analyzed to assess the occurrence of (i) temporal patterns in reproduction (i.e., spawning season) along a bathymetric gradient and (ii) preferential depth strata for recruitment. The fish assemblages were grouped in relation to their bathymetric distribution: upper slope, middle slope and lower slope species. Middle-slope species (i.e., 800-1350 m) showed short (i.e., highly seasonal) reproductive activity compared to the upper (300-800 m) and lower (1350-1750 m) ones. Our results, together with those previously published for megabenthic crustacean decapods in the area, suggest a cross-phyla depth-related trend of seasonality in reproduction. In the middle and lower slope species, the reproductive activity reached a maximum in the autumn-winter months and decreased in the spring. The observed seasonal spawning patterns appear to be ultimately correlated with changes in the downward transport of organic particles and with seasonal changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the surrounding water masses. The distribution of juveniles was associated with the bathymetric stratum where intermediate nepheloid layers interact with the continental margins, indicating that this stratum acts as a deep-sea fish nursery area.

  2. Effect on growth and reproduction of hormone immersed and masculinized fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Kirankumar, Santhakumar; Pandian, Thavamani Jegajothivel

    2002-11-01

    To produce all-male progenies in the fighting fish, Betta splendens, six groups of fry were subjected to discrete immersion treatment at different 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) doses (viz. 100, 200, 500, 700, 900, and 1,000 microg/l) for a constant duration (3 hr/day) and frequency (second, fifth, and eighth day after hatching). The treatment at 900 microg/l led to 98% masculinization and 71% survival at sexual maturity. Treated groups, which showed significant deviation from the 1:1 sex ratio, were classified into two different series: S1 and S2. The groups that showed nearly cent-percent masculinization were classified as S1, and the other groups were classified as S2. The S1 males showed remarkably slower growth and attained 3.5 cm total length compared to 6.0 cm attained by a normal male. The S2 males attained 5.4 cm total length. Apart from these morphological defects, both S1 and S2 males suffered functional (decreased sperm count and sperm motility) and behavioral defects (incomplete embracing during mating) in their reproductive ability, leading to approximately 50% and 30% reduction in fecundity per mating, respectively. The cumulative fecundity loss suffered by the S1 male during its active reproductive phase is discussed. When normal and sex-reversed males were presented, a female preferred the former. Progeny testing of the sex-reversed males showed the occurrence of 12.75% males, indicating the possible role of autosomal genes in the sex determination mechanism of this species. Discrete immersion treatment at optimal/super-optimal doses ensured not only a higher percentage of masculinization, but also a higher frequency of homogametic males (XX).

  3. Reproductive effects on freshwater fish exposed to 17α-trenbolone and 17α-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Joseph A; Staveley, Jane P; Constantine, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    17α-Trenbolone and 17α-estradiol are principal metabolites in cattle excreta following the administration of Synovex(®) ONE, which contains trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. As part of the environmental assessment of the use of Synovex(®) ONE, data were generated to characterize the effects of 17α-trenbolone and 17α-estradiol on the reproduction of freshwater fish. These substances are known endocrine disruptors, so the purpose of testing was not to clarify these properties but to identify concentrations representing population-relevant effects for use in risk characterization. The short-term reproduction assay was conducted with 17α-trenbolone using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the medaka (Oryzias latipes) and with 17α-estradiol using the fathead minnow. Adverse effects on the population-relevant endpoints of survival and fecundity were used to establish the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) for each study. For 17α-trenbolone, adverse effects on fecundity of the fathead minnow occurred at 120 ng/L; this was the LOEC, and the NOEC was 35 ng/L. 17β-Trenbolone did not adversely affect survival and fecundity of medaka at the concentrations tested, resulting in a NOEC of 110 ng/L and a LOEC of >110 ng/L. 17α-Estradiol did not adversely impact survival and fecundity of the fathead minnow at the concentrations tested, resulting in a NOEC and LOEC of 250 ng/L and >250 ng/L, respectively. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:636-644. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on reproductive parameters in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Jaafar, H; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on male reproductive parameters in adult rats. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats per group). Group 1 (control group) was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 0.2, 1.2 and 2.4 g kg(-1) body weight of honey respectively. The rats were treated orally by gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Honey did not significantly alter body and male reproductive organs weights. The rats in Group 3 which received honey at 1.2 g kg(-1) had significantly higher epididymal sperm count than those in Groups 1, 2 and 4. No significant differences were found for the percentage of abnormal sperm, elongated spermatid count, reproductive hormonal levels as well as the histology of the testis among the groups. In conclusion, Malaysian honey at a dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) daily significantly increased epididymal sperm count without affecting spermatid count and reproductive hormones. These findings might suggest that oral administration of honey at this dose for 4 weeks may enhance spermiogenesis in adult rats.

  5. Deep sexual dimorphism in adult medaka fish liver highlighted by multi-omic approach

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qin; Le Manach, Séverine; Sotton, Benoit; Huet, Hélène; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Paris, Alain; Duval, Charlotte; Ponger, Loïc; Marie, Arul; Blond, Alain; Mathéron, Lucrèce; Vinh, Joelle; Bolbach, Gérard; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism describes the features that discriminate between the two sexes at various biological levels. Especially, during the reproductive phase, the liver is one of the most sexually dimorphic organs, because of different metabolic demands between the two sexes. The liver is a key organ that plays fundamental roles in various physiological processes, including digestion, energetic metabolism, xenobiotic detoxification, biosynthesis of serum proteins, and also in endocrine or immune response. The sex-dimorphism of the liver is particularly obvious in oviparous animals, as the female liver is the main organ for the synthesis of oocyte constituents. In this work, we are interested in identifying molecular sexual dimorphism in the liver of adult medaka fish and their sex-variation in response to hepatotoxic exposures. By developing an integrative approach combining histology and different high-throughput omic investigations (metabolomics, proteomics and transcriptomics), we were able to globally depict the strong sexual dimorphism that concerns various cellular and molecular processes of hepatocytes comprising protein synthesis, amino acid, lipid and polysaccharide metabolism, along with steroidogenesis and detoxification. The results of this work imply noticeable repercussions on the biology of oviparous organisms environmentally exposed to chemical or toxin issues. PMID:27561897

  6. Metformin Exposure at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Causes Potential Endocrine Disruption in Adult Male Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemuth, Nicholas J; Jordan, Renee; Crago, Jordan; Blanksma, Chad; Johnson, Rodney; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants that have been found ubiquitously in wastewater and surface waters around the world. A major source of these compounds is incomplete metabolism in humans and subsequent excretion in human waste, resulting in discharge into surface waters by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. One pharmaceutical found in particularly high abundance in recent WWTP effluent and surface water studies is metformin, one of the world's most widely prescribed antidiabetic drugs. Interactions between insulin signaling and steroidogenesis suggest potential endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin found in the aquatic environment. Adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were chronically exposed to metformin for 4 wk, at 40 µg/L, a level similar to the average found in WWTP effluent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Genetic endpoints related to metabolism and endocrine function as well as reproduction-related endpoints were examined. Metformin treatment induced significant up-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding the egg-protein vitellogenin in male fish, an indication of endocrine disruption. The present study, the first to study the effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure in fathead minnows, demonstrates the need for further study of the endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin in aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25358780

  7. Metformin exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations causes potential endocrine disruption in adult male fish.

    PubMed

    Niemuth, Nicholas J; Jordan, Renee; Crago, Jordan; Blanksma, Chad; Johnson, Rodney; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants that have been found ubiquitously in wastewater and surface waters around the world. A major source of these compounds is incomplete metabolism in humans and subsequent excretion in human waste, resulting in discharge into surface waters by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. One pharmaceutical found in particularly high abundance in recent WWTP effluent and surface water studies is metformin, one of the world's most widely prescribed antidiabetic drugs. Interactions between insulin signaling and steroidogenesis suggest potential endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin found in the aquatic environment. Adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were chronically exposed to metformin for 4 wk, at 40 µg/L, a level similar to the average found in WWTP effluent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Genetic endpoints related to metabolism and endocrine function as well as reproduction-related endpoints were examined. Metformin treatment induced significant up-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding the egg-protein vitellogenin in male fish, an indication of endocrine disruption. The present study, the first to study the effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure in fathead minnows, demonstrates the need for further study of the endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin in aquatic organisms.

  8. Deep sexual dimorphism in adult medaka fish liver highlighted by multi-omic approach.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Qin; Le Manach, Séverine; Sotton, Benoit; Huet, Hélène; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Paris, Alain; Duval, Charlotte; Ponger, Loïc; Marie, Arul; Blond, Alain; Mathéron, Lucrèce; Vinh, Joelle; Bolbach, Gérard; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-08-26

    Sexual dimorphism describes the features that discriminate between the two sexes at various biological levels. Especially, during the reproductive phase, the liver is one of the most sexually dimorphic organs, because of different metabolic demands between the two sexes. The liver is a key organ that plays fundamental roles in various physiological processes, including digestion, energetic metabolism, xenobiotic detoxification, biosynthesis of serum proteins, and also in endocrine or immune response. The sex-dimorphism of the liver is particularly obvious in oviparous animals, as the female liver is the main organ for the synthesis of oocyte constituents. In this work, we are interested in identifying molecular sexual dimorphism in the liver of adult medaka fish and their sex-variation in response to hepatotoxic exposures. By developing an integrative approach combining histology and different high-throughput omic investigations (metabolomics, proteomics and transcriptomics), we were able to globally depict the strong sexual dimorphism that concerns various cellular and molecular processes of hepatocytes comprising protein synthesis, amino acid, lipid and polysaccharide metabolism, along with steroidogenesis and detoxification. The results of this work imply noticeable repercussions on the biology of oviparous organisms environmentally exposed to chemical or toxin issues.

  9. Identification of Sex and Female's Reproductive Stage in Commercial Fish Species through the Quantification of Ribosomal Transcripts in Gonads.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Diez, Guzman; Cancio, Ibon

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of maturity and sex of fish stocks in European waters is a requirement of the EU Data Collection Framework as part of the policy to improve fisheries management. On the other hand, research on fish biology is increasingly focused in molecular approaches, researchers needing correct identification of fish sex and reproductive stage without necessarily having in house the histological know-how necessary for the task. Taking advantage of the differential gene transcription occurring during fish sex differentiation and gametogenesis, the utility of 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) and General transcription factor IIIA (gtf3a) in the molecular identification of sex and gametogenic stage was tested in different economically-relevant fish species from the Bay of Biscay. Gonads of 9 fish species (, Atlantic, Atlantic-chub and horse mackerel, blue whiting, bogue, European anchovy, hake and pilchard and megrim), collected from local commercial fishing vessels were histologically sexed and 5S and 18S rRNA concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis to calculate a 5S/18S rRNA index. Degenerate primers permitted cloning and sequencing of gtf3a fragments in 7 of the studied species. 5S rRNA and gtf3a transcript levels, together with 5S/18S rRNA index, distinguished clearly ovaries from testis in all of the studied species. The values were always higher in females than in males. 5S/18S rRNA index values in females were always highest when fish were captured in early phases of ovary development whilst, in later vitellogenic stages, the values decreased significantly. In megrim and European anchovy, where gonads in different oogenesis stages were obtained, the 5S/18S rRNA index identified clearly gametogenic stage. This approach, to the sexing and the quantitative non-subjective identification of the maturity stage of female fish, could have multiple applications in the study of fish stock dynamics, fish reproduction and fecundity and fish biology in

  10. Reproductive health in young male adults with chronic diseases in childhood.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin

    2013-01-01

    The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist

  11. Aroclor 1242 and reproductive success of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-four pairs of adult mallards were fed a diet containing 0 or 150 ppm of the PCB Aroclor 1242 for 12 weeks during which egg laying was induced. Laying started in both groups an average of 33 days after PCB treatment began. All hens were allowed to lay a 20-egg clutch; 15 eggs from each clutch were artificially incubated. Eleven hens from each group completed the clutch. There was no difference between the two groups in the time taken to lay the clutch, nor was there a difference in fertility, embryo mortality, or hatching success. Eggshell thickness decreased 8.9% with PCB ingestion; eggs from hens fed PCB contained an average of 105 ppm PCB wet wt. No difference in survival or weight gain to 3 weeks of age was observed between young mallards from eggs laid by PCB-treated hens and control hens.

  12. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni uses acoustic communication for reproduction: sound production, hearing, and behavioral significance.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P; Ung, Uyhun S; Fernald, Russell D

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in all animals depends on effective communication between signalers and receivers. Many fish species, especially the African cichlids, are well known for their bright coloration and the importance of visual signaling during courtship and mate choice, but little is known about what role acoustic communication plays during mating and how it contributes to sexual selection in this phenotypically diverse group of vertebrates. Here we examined acoustic communication during reproduction in the social cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni. We characterized the sounds and associated behaviors produced by dominant males during courtship, tested for differences in hearing ability associated with female reproductive state and male social status, and then tested the hypothesis that female mate preference is influenced by male sound production. We show that dominant males produce intentional courtship sounds in close proximity to females, and that sounds are spectrally similar to their hearing abilities. Females were 2-5-fold more sensitive to low frequency sounds in the spectral range of male courtship sounds when they were sexually-receptive compared to during the mouthbrooding parental phase. Hearing thresholds were also negatively correlated with circulating sex-steroid levels in females but positively correlated in males, suggesting a potential role for steroids in reproductive-state auditory plasticity. Behavioral experiments showed that receptive females preferred to affiliate with males that were associated with playback of courtship sounds compared to noise controls, indicating that acoustic information is likely important for female mate choice. These data show for the first time in a Tanganyikan cichlid that acoustic communication is important during reproduction as part of a multimodal signaling repertoire, and that perception of auditory information changes depending on the animal's internal physiological state. Our results highlight the

  13. Chitosan-nanoconjugated hormone nanoparticles for sustained surge of gonadotropins and enhanced reproductive output in female fish.

    PubMed

    Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Sharma, Rupam; Gupta, Subodh; Ferosekhan, S; Ramya, V L; Jadhao, Sanjay B

    2013-01-01

    A controlled release delivery system helps to overcome the problem of short life of the leutinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) in blood and avoids use of multiple injections to enhance reproductive efficacy. Chitosan- and chitosan-gold nanoconjugates of salmon LHRH of desired size, dispersity and zeta potential were synthesized and evaluated at half the dose rate against full dose of bare LHRH for their reproductive efficacy in the female fish, Cyprinus carpio. Whereas injections of both the nanoconjugates induced controlled and sustained surge of the hormones with peak (P<0.01) at 24 hrs, surge due to bare LHRH reached its peak at 7 hrs and either remained at plateau or sharply declined thereafter. While the percentage of relative total eggs produced by fish were 130 and 67 per cent higher, that of fertilised eggs were 171 and 88 per cent higher on chitosan- and chitosan-gold nanoconjugates than bare LHRH. Chitosan nanoconjugates had a 13 per cent higher and chitosan gold preparation had a 9 per cent higher fertilization rate than bare LHRH. Histology of the ovaries also attested the pronounced effect of nanoparticles on reproductive output. This is the first report on use of chitosan-conjugated nanodelivery of gonadotropic hormone in fish.

  14. An overview of estrogen-associated endocrine disruption in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Simply and perhaps intuitively defined, endocrine disruption is the abnormal modulation of normal hormonal physiology by exogenous chemicals. In fish, endocrine disruption of the reproductive system has been observed worldwide in numerous species and is known to affect both males and females. Observations of biologically relevant endocrine disruption most commonly occurs near waste water treatment plant outfalls, pulp and paper mills, and areas of high organic loading sometimes associated with agricultural practices. Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received an overwhelmingly disproportionate amount of scientific attention compared to other EDCs in recent years. In male fishes, exposure to EEDCs can lead to the induction of testicular oocytes (intersex), measurable plasma vitellogenin protein, altered sex steroid profiles, abnormal spawning behavior, skewed population sex ratios, and lessened reproductive success. Interestingly, contemporary research purports that EDCs modulate aspects of non-reproductive physiology including immune function. Here we present an overview of endocrine disruption in fishes associated with estrogenic compounds, implications of this phenomenon, and examples of EDC related research findings by our group in the Potomac River Watershed, USA.

  15. Probabilistic assessment of risks of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in surface waters of China on reproduction of fish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Wang, Yeyao; Yang, Qi; Lv, Yibing; Jin, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Johnson, Andrew C

    2016-06-01

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is considered to be an endocrine disruptor, which unlike other chemicals that have either non-specific (e.g., narcotics) or more generalized reactive modes of action, affect the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and tend to have specific interactions with particular molecular targets within biochemical pathways. Responding to this challenge, a novel method for deriving predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERAs) for DEHP based on long-term exposure to potentially sensitive species with appropriate apical endpoints was development for protection of Chinese surface waters. PNECs based on potencies to cause lesions in reproductive tissues of fishes, which ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 μg DEHP L(-1), were significantly less than those derived based on other endpoints or other taxa, such as invertebrates. An assessment of risks posed by DEHP to aquatic organisms in surface waters of China showed that 88.17% and 78.85% of surface waters in China were predicted to pose risks to reproductive fitness of fishes with thresholds of protection for aquatic organisms based on 5% (HC5) and 10% (HC10), respectively. Assessment of risks of effects based on effects mediated by the HPG-axis should consider effects on chronic, non-lethal endpoints for specific taxa, especially for reproductive fitness of fishes.

  16. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  17. The effects of methyltestosterone on the sexual development and reproduction of adult medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Kang, Ik Joon; Yokota, Hirofumi; Oshima, Yuji; Tsuruda, Yukinari; Shimasaki, Yohei; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2008-04-08

    We examined the effects of methyltestosterone (MT) on the reproduction of medaka (Oryzias latipes). Six mating pairs of medaka were exposed for 3 weeks to MT at the measured concentrations of 22.5, 46.8, 88.1, 188, and 380 ng/L. The fecundity and fertility of paired medaka were significantly decreased in the 46.8, 88.1, 188, and 380 ng/L MT groups compared with those of controls. The gonadosomatic indices of female fish exposed to >or=46.8 ng/L were increased significantly. Gonadal histology showed degeneration of oocytes in the ovaries of fish in all MT treatment groups. Hepatic vitellogenin concentrations were significantly decreased in female fish treated with MT at 188 and 380 ng/L, and the hatchability and survival rate of the offspring were decreased in all MT treatment groups. These results clearly demonstrate that MT at >or=46.8 ng/L inhibited gonadal development and adversely affected the reproduction of medaka.

  18. Small body size in an insect shifts development, prior to adult eclosion, towards early reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Ashley D; Pexton, John J; Dytham, Calvin; Mayhew, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory has suggested that individual body size can strongly affect the allocation of resources to reproduction and away from other traits such as survival. In many insects, adults eclose with a proportion of their potential lifetime egg production that is already mature (the ovigeny index). We establish for the solitary parasitoid wasp Aphaereta genevensis that the ovigeny index decreases with adult body size, despite both initial egg load and potential lifetime fecundity increasing with body size. This outcome is predicted by adaptive models and is the first unequivocal intraspecific demonstration. Evidence suggests that a high ovigeny index carries a cost of reduced longevity in insects. Our results therefore contribute to the emerging evidence that small body size can favour a developmental shift in juveniles that favours early reproduction, but which has adverse late-life consequences. These findings are likely to have important implications for developmental biologists and population biologists. PMID:16600887

  19. Savannah River Aquatic Ecology Program. Volume I. Adult fish. Annual report, November 1983-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.; Osteen, D.V.

    1985-05-01

    A multipurpose study on the fish community of the Savannah River near the Savannah River Plant was conducted between September 1983 and August 1984. The major portion of this study examined the abundance and distribution of fishes near the Savannah River Plant in relation to the thermal discharges into the river, creeks and the floodplain swamp. Another portion of the study examined the rates of impingement of juvenile and adult fishes onto the river water intake screens in order to assess the potential influence of this plant operation on the fish community. 24 refs., 13 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Echols, K.R.; Gross, T.S.; May, T.W.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (> 1.0????g/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (> 0.1????g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (> 1.0????g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (> 0.5????g/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, ??-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; > 0.11????g/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (> 5??pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites showed

  1. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 microg/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 microg/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 microg/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 microg/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; >0.11 microg/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (>5 pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites

  2. Incorporating Temperature-driven Seasonal Variation in Survival, Growth, and Reproduction Models for Small Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in survival and reproduction can be a large source of prediction uncertainty in models used for conservation and management. A seasonally varying matrix population model is developed that incorporates temperature-driven differences in mortality and reproduction...

  3. An analysis of reproductive behavior in the mouthbreeding cichlid fish, Tilapia macrocephala (Bleeker).

    PubMed

    ARONSON, L R

    1949-01-01

    Qualitative descriptions and quantitative measurements of the patterns of reproductive behavior of the African mouthbreeding cichlid fish, Tilapia macrocephala (Bleeker), have been presented. These patterns have been grouped into three categories. The first, namely courtship, includes head-nods, approach-throat-puffs, body-quivers and tail-slaps. Most the females exhibited these courtship items during the observation periods, and at a relatively high frequency. The males performed these courtship acts at a considerably lower frequency. A high percentage of males showed some tail-slaps and body-quivers, and it is believed that if the entire spans of the pre-spawning activity of the pairs could have observed, all of the males would have performed these courtship patterns. On the other hand, it appears that a measurable portion of males do not head-nod or approach-throat-puff prior to the spawning. It is hypothesized that courtship behavior is an expression of the level of excitability of the individual. It may be thought of as a trophallactic process which through mutual stimulation serves to regulate the behavioral activities and physiological processes of the male and female so that well synchronized spawnings result. Nipping, which is closely related to courtship and which also appears to be mutually stimulating, was performed equally by the male female before the spawning, but nipping on the part of the female rises sharply directly after oviposition. Similar post-spawning increases on the part of the female were noted for all of the courtship patterns. It is suggested that the physiological changes following oviposition plus the presence of eggs are the factors responsible for this heightened activity. During the inter-spawning interval, a low level of courtship is in evidence, especially on the part of the females. The second group of reproductive patterns includes those acts which are concerned with the immediate preparation for spawing. Included here are nest

  4. The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17β-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success.

  5. Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner ear varies with sex, social status, and reproductive state

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβa, ERβb; androgen receptors: ARα, ARβ; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR) and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule) in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single

  6. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors among Teen and Young Adult Men: A Descriptive Portrait. Research Brief. Publication #2008-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…

  7. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  8. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE.
    JC Rockett, JC Luft, JB Garges and DJ Dix. Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Sponsor: G Klinefelter
    The development of wate...

  9. Evidence for the involvement of dopamine in stress-induced suppression of reproduction in the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Chabbi, A; Ganesh, C B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we examined whether stress-induced suppression of reproduction is mediated through the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the female cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. In the first experiment, application of antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; a marker for DA) in brain sections revealed the presence of intensely stained TH immunoreactive cells in the preoptic area (POA) and nucleus preopticus (NPO) during the previtellogenic phase. These cells showed weak immunoreactivity during the vitellogenic and prespawning phases concomitant with darkly stained luteinising hormone (LH) immunoreactive content in the proximal pars distalis (PPD) of the pituitary gland and fully ripened follicles (stage V) in the ovary of control fish. However, in fish exposed to aquacultural stressors, TH secreting cells remained intensely stained in POA and NPO regions during the prespawning phase, indicating increased synthetic and secretory activity, which was reflected by a significantly higher DA content compared to controls. Increased DA activity as a result of stress was associated with a decrease in the LH immunoreactive content in the PPD and an absence of stage V follicles in the ovary. In the second experiment, administration of DA caused effects similar to those in stressed fish, whereas DA receptor antagonist domperidone (DOM) treatment significantly increased the LH content in the PPD and the number of stage V follicles in unstressed fish. On the other hand, treatment of stressed fish with DOM resulted in dark accumulations of LH immunoreactive content in the PPD accompanied by the presence of stage V follicles in the ovary. Taken together, these results suggest an additional pathway for the inhibitory effects of stress through dopaminergic neurones along the reproductive axis.

  10. The potential impacts of migratory difficulty, including warmer waters and altered flow conditions, on the reproductive success of salmonid fishes.

    PubMed

    Fenkes, Miriam; Shiels, Holly A; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nudds, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change and urbanisation of watercourses affect water temperatures and current flow velocities in river systems on a global scale. This represents a particularly critical issue for migratory fish species with complex life histories that use rivers to reproduce. Salmonids are migratory keystone species that provide substantial economical value to ecosystems and human societies. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of environmental stressors on their reproductive success is critical in order to ensure their continued abundance during future climatic change. Salmonids are capital breeders, relying entirely on endogenous energy stores to fuel return migration to their natal spawning sites and reproduction upon arrival. Metabolic rates and cost of transport en-route increase with temperature and at extreme temperatures, swimming is increasingly fuelled anaerobically, resulting in an oxygen debt and reduced capacity to recover from exhaustive exercise. Thermally challenged salmonids also produce less viable gametes, which themselves are affected by water temperature after release. Passage through hydrological barriers and temperature changes both affect energy expenditure. As a result, important energetic tradeoffs emerge between extra energy used during migration and that available for other facets of the reproductive cycle, such as reproductive competition and gamete production. However, studies identifying these tradeoffs are extremely sparse. This review focuses on the specific locomotor responses of salmonids to thermal and hydrological challenges, identifying gaps in our knowledge and highlighting the potential implications for key aspects of their reproduction.

  11. The potential impacts of migratory difficulty, including warmer waters and altered flow conditions, on the reproductive success of salmonid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fenkes, Miriam; Shiels, Holly A.; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Nudds, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and urbanisation of watercourses affect water temperatures and current flow velocities in river systems on a global scale. This represents a particularly critical issue for migratory fish species with complex life histories that use rivers to reproduce. Salmonids are migratory keystone species that provide substantial economical value to ecosystems and human societies. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of environmental stressors on their reproductive success is critical in order to ensure their continued abundance during future climatic change. Salmonids are capital breeders, relying entirely on endogenous energy stores to fuel return migration to their natal spawning sites and reproduction upon arrival. Metabolic rates and cost of transport en-route increase with temperature and at extreme temperatures, swimming is increasingly fuelled anaerobically, resulting in an oxygen debt and reduced capacity to recover from exhaustive exercise. Thermally challenged salmonids also produce less viable gametes, which themselves are affected by water temperature after release. Passage through hydrological barriers and temperature changes both affect energy expenditure. As a result, important energetic tradeoffs emerge between extra energy used during migration and that available for other facets of the reproductive cycle, such as reproductive competition and gamete production. However, studies identifying these tradeoffs are extremely sparse. This review focuses on the specific locomotor responses of salmonids to thermal and hydrological challenges, identifying gaps in our knowledge and highlighting the potential implications for key aspects of their reproduction. PMID:26603555

  12. The influence of density on adults and juveniles of the estuarine fish, the sheepshead minnow (cyprinodon variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between population density and demographic rates (e.g. survival, reproduction, growth) is critical to understand population dynamics and has been widely studied in fishes. Estuarine species are regularly exposed to dramatic changes in density with daily, monthly,...

  13. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Fortune, Eric S.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female Starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for three weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  14. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  15. Reproductive and histopathological effects in wild fish inhabiting an effluent-dominated stream, Wascana Creek, SK, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, C James; Cheng, Carl; Servos, Mark R; McMaster, Mark E

    2012-04-01

    During the winter low flow periods, Wascana Creek, Saskatchewan, Canada, can be 100% treated municipal wastewater downstream of the City of Regina's Wastewater Treatment Plant. The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to municipal effluent affects the health and reproductive development of fish in an effluent-dominated stream. Field studies were conducted on post-spawning (August 2006), spawning (June 2007), recrudescent (October 2007) and pre-spawning (May 2008) sentinel fish [Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas and Brook Stickleback Culaea inconstans] to assess responses in terms of growth (condition factor), reproduction (in vitro sex steroid biosynthetic capacity, and gonadosomatic indices, histology) and survival associated with the effluent outfall. Sentinel species demonstrated varying responses depending on the season of field collections. While Stickleback collected downstream of the sewage discharge were often longer, heavier and had greater condition, Fatheads from the same site were shorter and lighter. Exposed fish of both species exhibited delayed spawning and altered gonadal development depending on the season. Exposed male Fathead Minnows also had significantly lower scores of secondary sexual characteristics (fewer nuptial tubercles, little or no development of the dorsal pad, and the lack of presence of a dorsal fin dot). Histopathology of exposed Fathead Minnows revealed thickening of the gill lamellae and alterations in structure of the kidneys (inflammation of the proximal tubules and Bowman's capsule). It is not known if the effluents are affecting natural reproduction and recruitment into this population or if these impacted populations rely on immigration from upstream reaches to sustain the populations. Climate change and human population growth will further challenge this effluent-dominated stream's ability to assimilate nutrients and contaminants which may further impair the performance of fish in this arid environment.

  16. Climate change alters the reproductive phenology and investment of a lacustrine fish, the three-spine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Hovel, Rachel A; Carlson, Stephanie M; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-11-30

    High-latitude lakes are particularly sensitive to the effects of global climate change, demonstrating earlier ice breakup, longer ice-free seasons, and increased water temperatures. Such physical changes have implications for diverse life-history traits in taxa across entire lake food webs. Here, we use a five-decade time series from an Alaskan lake to explore effects of climate change on growth and reproduction of a widely distributed lacustrine fish, the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) models to describe trends in the mean length for multiple size classes and to explore the influence of physical (date of ice breakup, surface water temperature) and biological (density of con- and heterospecifics) factors. As predicted, mean size of age 1 and older fish at the end of the growing season increased across years with earlier ice breakup and warmer temperatures. In contrast, mean size of age 0 fish decreased over time. Overall, lower fish density and warmer water temperatures were associated with larger size for all cohorts. Earlier ice breakup was associated with larger size for age 1 and older fish but, paradoxically, with smaller size of age 0 fish. To explore this latter result, we used mixing models on age 0 size distributions, which revealed an additional cohort in years with early ice breakup, lowering the mean size of age 0 fish. Moreover, early ice breakup was associated with earlier breeding, evidenced by earlier capture of age 0 fish. Our results suggest that early ice breakup altered both timing and frequency of breeding; three-spine stickleback spawned earlier and more often in response to earlier ice breakup date. While previous studies have shown the influence of changing conditions in northern lakes on breeding timing and growth, this is the first to document increased breeding frequency, highlighting another pathway by which climate change can alter the ecology of northern lakes.

  17. Reproduction, preweaning survival, and survival of adult sea otters at Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, Daniel H.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotelemetry methods were used to examine the demographic characteristics of sea otters inhabiting the leading edge of an expanding population on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Fifteen male and 30 female sea otters were instrumented and followed from 1986 to 1990. Twenty-one percent of females were sexually mature (had pupped) at age 2, 57% by age 3, 88% by age 4, and 100% by age 5. Fifteen females produced 26 pups, an overall reproduction rate of 94% for mature females. The reproduction rate was 17, 45, 66, and 100% for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. Eighty-five percent of observed pups survived to weaning (120 days), and the percentage of pups weaned ranged from 34% for pups of 2-year-olds to 100% for pups of 5-year-olds. At least three of four known pup losses occurred within a month of parturition. The mean pup dependency period for weaned pups was 153 days and the mean gestation period was 218 days. No synchrony in pupping activity was observed. Mean annual survival of adults was high. Estimates of survival ranged from 89 to 96% for females and 86 to 91% for males. Human harvest was the primary source of known mortality of adults. Our estimates of reproductive rates and survival of adults are at the high end of those reported for sea otters, but preweaning survival stands out as being particularly high. Abundant food resources and the availability of protected water presumably contributed to the high reproductive success observed in this recently established sea otter population.

  18. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish.

  19. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    PubMed

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates.

  20. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    It is generally believed that butterflies (and other holometabolous insects) rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction, whereas the carbohydrate-rich adult diet is thought to mainly cover energy requirements. In at least some species though, realization of the full reproductive potential is extensively affected by post-eclosion nutrition. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of adult-derived amino acids and micronutrients is controversial and largely unknown, respectively. We here focus on the effects of different adult diets on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). Carbohydrates were the most important adult-derived nutrients affecting reproduction. Adding amino acids, vitamins or minerals to sucrose-based solutions did not yield a reproductive output equivalent to that of fruit-fed females, which showed the highest performance throughout. This suggests that either not yet identified compounds of fruit substantially contribute to reproduction, or that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance. Apart from adult income, realized fecundity depended on egg size and longevity, with the former dominating when dietary quality was low, but the latter when quality was high. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off seems to be affected by female nutrition.

  1. Catecholaminergic innervation of central and peripheral auditory circuitry varies with reproductive state in female midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Ghahramani, Zachary N; Monestime, Camillia M; Kurochkin, Philip; Chernenko, Alena; Milkis, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA) innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE) which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic signals.

  2. Catecholaminergic Innervation of Central and Peripheral Auditory Circuitry Varies with Reproductive State in Female Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Ghahramani, Zachary N.; Monestime, Camillia M.; Kurochkin, Philip; Chernenko, Alena; Milkis, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA) innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE) which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic signals. PMID

  3. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  4. Electric fish: new insights into conserved processes of adult tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Unguez, Graciela A

    2013-07-01

    Biology is replete with examples of regeneration, the process that allows animals to replace or repair cells, tissues and organs. As on land, vertebrates in aquatic environments experience the occurrence of injury with varying frequency and to different degrees. Studies demonstrate that ray-finned fishes possess a very high capacity to regenerate different tissues and organs when they are adults. Among fishes that exhibit robust regenerative capacities are the neotropical electric fishes of South America (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes). Specifically, adult gymnotiform electric fishes can regenerate injured brain and spinal cord tissues and restore amputated body parts repeatedly. We have begun to identify some aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tail regeneration in the weakly electric fish Sternopygus macrurus (long-tailed knifefish) with a focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle and the muscle-derived electric organ. Application of in vivo microinjection techniques and generation of myogenic stem cell markers are beginning to overcome some of the challenges owing to the limitations of working with non-genetic animal models with extensive regenerative capacity. This review highlights some aspects of tail regeneration in S. macrurus and discusses the advantages of using gymnotiform electric fishes to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that produce new cells during regeneration in adult vertebrates.

  5. Electric fish: new insights into conserved processes of adult tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Unguez, Graciela A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biology is replete with examples of regeneration, the process that allows animals to replace or repair cells, tissues and organs. As on land, vertebrates in aquatic environments experience the occurrence of injury with varying frequency and to different degrees. Studies demonstrate that ray-finned fishes possess a very high capacity to regenerate different tissues and organs when they are adults. Among fishes that exhibit robust regenerative capacities are the neotropical electric fishes of South America (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes). Specifically, adult gymnotiform electric fishes can regenerate injured brain and spinal cord tissues and restore amputated body parts repeatedly. We have begun to identify some aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tail regeneration in the weakly electric fish Sternopygus macrurus (long-tailed knifefish) with a focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle and the muscle-derived electric organ. Application of in vivo microinjection techniques and generation of myogenic stem cell markers are beginning to overcome some of the challenges owing to the limitations of working with non-genetic animal models with extensive regenerative capacity. This review highlights some aspects of tail regeneration in S. macrurus and discusses the advantages of using gymnotiform electric fishes to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that produce new cells during regeneration in adult vertebrates. PMID:23761473

  6. Using passive acoustic telemetry to infer mortality events in adult herbivorous coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, J. A.; Welsh, J. Q.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    Mortality is considered to be an important factor shaping the structure of coral reef fish communities, but data on the rate and nature of mortality of adult coral reef fishes are sparse. Mortality on coral reefs is intrinsically linked with predation, with most evidence suggesting that predation is highest during crepuscular periods. We tested this hypothesis using passive acoustic telemetry data to determine the time of day of potential mortality events (PMEs) of adult herbivorous reef fishes. A total of 94 fishes were tagged with acoustic transmitters, of which 43 exhibited a PME. Furthermore, we identified five categories of PMEs based on the nature of change in acoustic signal detections from tagged fishes. The majority of PMEs were characterised by an abrupt stop in detections, possibly as a result of a large, mobile predator. Overall, mortality rates were estimated to be approximately 59 % per year using passive acoustic telemetry. The time of day of PMEs suggests that predation was highest during the day and crepuscular periods and lowest at night, offering only partial support for the crepuscular predation hypothesis. Visually oriented, diurnal and crepuscular predators appear to be more important than their nocturnal counterparts in terms of predation on adult reef fishes. By timing PMEs, passive acoustic telemetry may offer an important new tool for investigating the nature of predation on coral reefs.

  7. Nocturnal relocation of adult and juvenile coral reef fishes in response to reef noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, S. D.; Jeffs, A.; Montgomery, J. C.; McCauley, R. D.; Meekan, M. G.

    2008-03-01

    Juvenile and adult reef fishes often undergo migration, ontogenic habitat shifts, and nocturnal foraging movements. The orientation cues used for these behaviours are largely unknown. In this study, the use of sound as an orientation cue guiding the nocturnal movements of adult and juvenile reef fishes at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef was examined. The first experiment compared the movements of fishes to small patch reefs where reef noise was broadcast, with those to silent reefs. No significant responses were found in the 79 adults that were collected, but the 166 juveniles collected showed an increased diversity each morning on the reefs with broadcast noise, and significantly greater numbers of juveniles from three taxa (Apogonidae, Gobiidae and Pinguipedidae) were collected from reefs with broadcast noise. The second experiment compared the movement of adult and juvenile fishes to reefs broadcasting high (>570 Hz), or low (<570 Hz) frequency reef noise, or to silent reefs. Of the 122 adults collected, the highest diversity was seen at the low frequency reefs; and adults from two families (Gobiidae and Blenniidae) preferred these reefs. A similar trend was observed in the 372 juveniles collected, with higher diversity at the reefs with low frequency noises. This preference was seen in the juvenile apogonids; however, juvenile gobiids were attracted to both high and low sound treatments equally, and juvenile stage Acanthuridae preferred the high frequency noises. This evidence that juvenile and adult reef fishes orientate with respect to the soundscape raises important issues for management, conservation and the protection of sound cues used in natural behaviour.

  8. Vulnerability and diet breadth predict larval and adult parasite diversity in fish of the Bothnian Bay.

    PubMed

    Locke, Sean A; Marcogliese, David J; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of aquatic food webs show that parasite diversity is concentrated in nodes that likely favour transmission. Various aspects of parasite diversity have been observed to be correlated with the trophic level, size, diet breadth, and vulnerability to predation of hosts. However, no study has attempted to distinguish among all four correlates, which may have differential importance for trophically transmitted parasites occurring as larvae or adults. We searched for factors that best predict the diversity of larval and adult endoparasites in 4105 fish in 25 species studied over a three-year period in the Bothnian Bay, Finland. Local predator-prey relationships were determined from stomach contents, parasites, and published data in 8,229 fish in 31 species and in seals and piscivorous birds. Fish that consumed more species of prey had more diverse trophically transmitted adult parasites. Larval parasite diversity increased with the diversity of both prey and predators, but increases in predator diversity had a greater effect. Prey diversity was more strongly associated with the diversity of adult parasites than with that of larvae. The proportion of parasite species present as larvae in a host species was correlated with the diversity of its predators. There was a notable lack of association with the diversity of any parasite guild and fish length, trophic level, or trophic category. Thus, diversity is associated with different nodal properties in larval and adult parasites, and association strengths also differ, strongly reflecting the life cycles of parasites and the food chains they follow to complete transmission.

  9. Individual and combined effect of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin on reproductive system of adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alaa-Eldin, Eman Ahmad; El-Shafei, Dalia Abdallah; Abouhashem, Nehal S

    2017-01-01

    Commercial mixtures of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin pesticides are widely used to enhance the toxic effects of cypermethrin on target insects. So, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the individual and combined toxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CYP) on reproductive system of adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into main four groups: group I (control group) included 16 rats, subdivided into negative and positive control; group II (eight rats) received chlorpyrifos 6.75 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); group III (eight rats) (received cypermethrin 12.5 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); and group IV (eight rats) (received chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin at the same previously mentioned doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 12 weeks. We found that single CPF and CYP exposures significantly have adverse effects on reproductive function of adult male albino rats manifested by reduced testicular weight, decreased sperm count, motility and viability, significantly increased percent of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, and significant increments in sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) with respect to control group. Furthermore, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone levels were decreased significantly compared to control group. This was accompanied with histopathological changes in the testis of rats such as necrosis, degeneration, decreasing number of spermatogenic cells in some seminiferous tubules, edema, congested blood vessels, and exudate in interstitial tissue of the testis. Notably, all these changes were exaggerated in rats treated concomitantly with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin rendering the mixture more toxic than the additive effects of each compound and causing greater damage on the reproductive system of male albino rats than the individual pesticides.

  10. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions on the Umatilla River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    We report on our progress from October 1993 through September 1994 in evaluating juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and juvenile salmonid passage through ladder facilities, and investigating passage conditions for juvenile fish at diversion dam facilities on the lower Umatilla River in northeastern Oregon. We also report on our progress in evaluating adult salmonid passage at and between dams on the lower Umatilla River and upriver migration using radio telemetry. Two principal studies are also included. Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile salmonid bypass facilities a Feed and Furnish canals, juvenile salmonid passage through fish ladders at Stanfield, Feed Canal, Westland, and Three Mile Falls dams, and the juvenile salmonid trap and haul procedures at Westland Canal. To investigate passage conditions at all passage facilities. Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids past diversions in the lower Umatilla River and their movement in the upper river after transport, using radio telemetry, and to assess factors for successful homing. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  11. Characterization of the transcriptomes and cuticular protein gene expression of alate adult, brachypterous neotenic and adultoid reproductives of Reticulitermes labralis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaohong; Liu, He; Yang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Jiaoling; Zhang, Honggui; Xing, Lianxi; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    The separation of primary reproductive and secondary reproductive roles based on the differentiation of alate adults and neotenic reproductives is the most prominent characteristic of termites. To clarify the mechanism underlying this differentiation, we sequenced the transcriptomes of alate adults (ARs), brachypterous neotenics (BNs) and adultoid reproductives (ANs) from the last instar nymphs of Reticulitermes labralis. A total of 404,152,188 clean sequencing reads was obtained and 61,953 unigenes were assembled. Of the 54 identified cuticular protein (CP) genes of the reproductives, 22 were classified into the CPR family and 7 were classified into the CPG family. qRT-PCR analyses of the 6 CP genes revealed that the CP genes involved in exocuticle sclerotization were highly expressed in the ARs and RR-1 involved in soft endocuticle was highly expressed in the ARs and ANs. These results suggest that the alate adults might increase cuticular component deposition to adapt to new or changing environments and that the development of reproductive individuals into primary or secondary reproductives is controlled by the expression of cuticular protein genes involved in the hardening of the exocuticle. In addition, the AN caste is a transitional type between the BN and AR castes in the process of evolution. PMID:27690209

  12. Fish intake is associated with slower cognitive decline in Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bo; Plassman, Brenda L; Edwards, Lloyd J; Popkin, Barry M; Adair, Linda S; Mendez, Michelle A

    2014-10-01

    Modifiable lifestyle changes, including dietary changes, could translate into a great reduction in the global burden of cognitive impairment and dementia. Few studies evaluated the benefits of fish intake for delaying cognitive decline, and no studies were conducted in a Chinese population, which may differ with respect to types, amounts, and correlates of fish consumption compared with Western populations. We hypothesized that higher consumption of fish would predict slower decline in cognitive function, independent of a wide range of potential confounders. This prospective cohort study comprised 1566 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 55 y who completed a cognitive screening test at ≥2 waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1997, 2000, or 2004, with a mean follow-up of 5.3 y [age at entry (mean ± SD): 63 ± 6 y]. Diet was measured by 3-d 24-h recalls at baseline. Outcomes included repeated measures of global cognitive scores (baseline mean ± SD: 19 ± 6 points), composite cognitive Z-scores (standardized units), and standardized verbal memory scores (standardized units). Multivariable-adjusted linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the relation of fish intake with changes in cognitive scores. Age was found to significantly modify the association between fish consumption and cognitive change (P = 0.007). Among adults aged ≥ 65 y, compared with individuals who consumed <1 serving/wk (i.e., 100 g) fish, the mean annual rate of global cognitive decline was reduced by 0.35 point (95% CI: 0.13, 0.58) among those consuming ≥ 1 serving/wk, equivalent to the disparity associated with 1.6 y of age. Fish consumption was also associated with a slower decline in composite and verbal memory scores. No associations were observed among adults aged 55-64 y. Our findings suggest a potential role of fish consumption as a modifiable dietary factor to reduce the rate of cognitive decline in later life.

  13. Reproductive history and nest environment are correlated with circulating androgen and glucocorticoid concentrations in a parental care-providing teleost fish.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Constance M; Barthel, Brandon L; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Philipp, David P; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Using a long-term study population of wild smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in a connected river-lake system, we investigated whether circulating glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgen (testosterone) concentrations are influenced by reproductive investment and nesting environment in fish providing nest-guarding paternal care. For all individuals, we collected measures of reproductive history and the value of current parental care. We assessed nest environment and monitored individuals to quantify seasonal reproductive success. Finally, we measured circulating cortisol concentrations following a standardized stressor and circulating testosterone concentrations. Using general linear models, we found that poststress circulating cortisol concentrations were positively related to water temperature and were higher in fish nesting in the river than in the lake. Circulating testosterone concentrations were negatively related to water temperature and were higher in reproductively experienced fish. When considering the factors that influence reproductive success, we found that only parental size was positively related to current nest success. In summary, the results demonstrate that nesting environment is correlated with parental stress responses during parental care, while reproductive history and nesting environment are correlated with circulating androgen concentrations. Collectively, these results offer insight into the roles of both glucocorticoid and androgen steroid hormones during parental care in teleost fish.

  14. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of

  15. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  16. Female preference for males depends on reproductive physiology in the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Michael R; O'Connell, Lauren A; Kidd, Celeste E; Chen, Christine W; Fontenot, Miles R; Williams, Sidney J; Hofmann, Hans A

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is fundamental to sexual selection, yet little is known about underlying physiological mechanisms that influence female mating decisions. We investigated the endocrine underpinnings of female mate choice in the African cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, a non-seasonal breeder. In addition to profiling behavioral and hormonal changes across the female reproductive cycle, we tested two hypotheses regarding possible factors influencing female mate choice. We first asked whether female mate choice is influenced by male visual and/or chemical cues. A. burtoni females were housed for one full reproductive cycle in the center of a dichotomous choice apparatus with a large (attractive) or small (unattractive) conspecific male on either side. Females associated mostly with small, less attractive males, but on the day of spawning reversed their preference to large, attractive males, with whom they mated almost exclusively, although this choice depended on the relative amount of androgens released into the water by small males. We next asked whether male behavior or androgen levels change in relation to the stimulus females' reproductive state. We found that stimulus male aggression decreased and reproductive displays increased as the day of spawning approached. Moreover male testosterone levels changed throughout the females' reproductive cycle, with larger males releasing more testosterone into the water than small males. Our data suggest that female association in a dichotomous choice assay is only indicative of the actual mate choice on the day of spawning. Furthermore, we show that male behavior and hormone levels are dependent on the reproductive state of conspecific females.

  17. [Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rosa L Soto; Mejía-Arana, Fernando; Palacios, J A; Hiramatsu, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The fish Lutjanus guttatus is important in the fisheries of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica where they are captured with varied gear mainly by the artisanal fleet. We measured specimens from the commercial catch of 2002-2006. Gonadal state was determined macroscopically and age with otoliths The total length-total weight relationship was y = 0.0236x(2.8153) and total length-eviscerated weight y = 0.0216x(2.8129). Simplified relationships were y = 0.0173x3 and y = 0.0162x3. There is year-round reproduction with peaks in March (dry season) and September (rainy season). Male-female sexual ratio was 1:1. The age-length key for the gulf shows availability until the 6 years of age. The von Bertalanffy growth curve is L(t) = 65,9 (1-e(-0.13(t+2,66))).

  18. An integrated omic analysis of hepatic alteration in medaka fish chronically exposed to cyanotoxins with possible mechanisms of reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Qin; Le Manach, Séverine; Huet, Hélène; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Chaouch, Soraya; Duval, Charlotte; Sotton, Benoit; Ponger, Loïc; Marie, Arul; Mathéron, Lucrèce; Lennon, Sarah; Bolbach, Gérard; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms threaten human health as well as the population of other living organisms in the aquatic environment, particularly due to the production of natural toxic components, the cyanotoxin. So far, the most studied cyanotoxins are microcystins (MCs). In this study, the hepatic alterations at histological, proteome and transcriptome levels were evaluated in female and male medaka fish chronically exposed to 1 and 5 μg L(-1) microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to the extract of MC-producing Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7820 (5 μg L(-1) of equivalent MC-LR) by balneation for 28 days, aiming at enhancing our understanding of the potential reproductive toxicity of cyanotoxins in aquatic vertebrate models. Indeed, both MC and Microcystis extract adversely affect reproductive parameters including fecundity and egg hatchability. The liver of toxin treated female fish present glycogen storage loss and cellular damages. The quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that the quantities of 225 hepatic proteins are dysregulated. In particular, a notable decrease in protein quantities of vitellogenin and choriogenin was observed, which could explain the decrease in reproductive output. Liver transcriptome analysis through Illumina RNA-seq reveals that over 100-400 genes are differentially expressed under 5 μg L(-1) MC-LR and Microcystis extract treatments, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the omic data attests that various metabolic pathways, such as energy production, protein biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, are disturbed by both MC-LR and the Microcystis extract, which could provoke the observed reproductive impairment. The transcriptomics analysis also constitutes the first report of the impairment of circadian rhythm-related gene induced by MCs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the potential consequences of chronic exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of cyanotoxins, suggesting that Microcystis extract could impact a

  19. Remarkable vertical shift in residence depth links pelagic larval and demersal adult jellynose fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Sui, Tsung-Da; Chang, Ni-Na; Chang, Chih-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Deep-sea fish show diverse migratory behaviors across depths at different life stages. The historical residence depths of jellynose fish Ateleopus japonicus and Ijimaia dofleini (Ateleopodidae) were reconstructed from otolith microstructures and isotopic compositions. δ18O values in the otolith core areas ranged from -0.5 to -1.3‰ among individuals, suggesting that larval and post-larval stages lived in the mixed layer (50-200 m). Otolith growth increment widths surged for 10-30 rings around 300-600 μm from the core, indicating a fast-growth phase during the early post-larval stage. Fish then migrated downward to 350-800 m depth at about 2 months of age, possibly during the post-larval metamorphosis to the juvenile. Otolith growth increments became narrower and otolith δ13C values increased from -5 to -1‰, suggesting a lower growth and metabolic rate when the fish experienced colder water during the downward migration. After arrival at the deepest waters, the fish then migrated upward to the continental margin or upper slopes where the adults persistently resided. A translucent otolith zone was formed after the residence depth shift from the deepest waters to shallower depths, indicating a transition from pelagic to bathydemersal life on the continental shelf or break. The down-and-up shift in residence depth of jellynose fish represents an indirect settlement process to the adult residence depth, which might be associated with a unique post-larval stage moving offshore before the downward migration. The results filled the gap of vertical distributions of jellynose fish from pelagic larvae near the sea surface to the bathydemersal adult dwelling on the continental shelf break.

  20. Does fish reproduction and metabolic activity influence metal levels in fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, during fish spawning and post-spawning period?

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Vardić Smrzlić, Irena; Raspor, Biserka

    2014-10-01

    Application of fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, as bioindicators in metal exposure assessment usually involves estimation of their metal levels and bioconcentration factors. Metal levels in parasite final host, fishes, are influenced by fish physiology but there is no data for acanthocephalan metal levels. Gastrointestinal Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ag levels in European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) from the Sava River were significantly higher during chub spawning (April/May) compared to the post-spawning period (September). In acanthocephalans (Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae) significantly higher metal levels during chub spawning were observed only for Zn in P. laevis. Bioconcentration factors were twice as high for Fe, Mn, Ag, Pb in the post-spawning period, probably as a consequence of lower gastrointestinal metal levels in fish rather than metal exposure. Therefore, bioconcentration factors should be interpreted with caution, due to their possible variability in relation to fish physiology. In addition, gastrointestinal Cu, Cd and Pb levels were lower in infected than uninfected chub, indicating that metal variability in fishes might be affected by the presence of acanthocephalans.

  1. Gonadogenesis and annual reproductive cycles of an endangered cyprinid fish, the lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814).

    PubMed

    Hliwa, Piotr; Król, Jarosław; Sikorska, Justyna; Wolnicki, Jacek; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Kamiński, Rafał; Stabińska, Agnieszka; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    In this study, gonadogenesis, the effect of temperature (15, 20 and 25°C) on sex differentiation, and annual changes in the gonads of mature lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814) were determined. The lake minnow was found to be a primary gonochoristic fish species, where gonads are formed directly in the ovaries or testes. The morphological differentiation of gonads was initiated 35days post hatch (DPH) when two types of gonadal anlages were visible: a pear-shaped gonad attached by a single mesentery string and a spindle-shaped gonad attached on both sides to the peritoneum. Gonadogenesis occurred faster in females than in males, with the first previtellogenic oocytes and ovarian lamellae being already observed in 45 DPH fish. In males, cytological differentiation occurred approximately 85 DPH, when the fish reached an average body weight of more than 400mg. No significant effect of rearing temperature on sex ratio in lake minnow juveniles was observed. The proportion of males and females was similar (close to 1:1) in all of the thermal-treated groups, although there were effects of temperature on the final sizes of fish. Histological examination of wild, mature lake minnow ovaries during the annual cycle (from May to February the following year) showed asynchronous oocyte maturation. The testes were characteristic of multi-batch spawning fish. Quantitative dominance of spermatids and mature spermatozoa in May was observed, while the presence of primary and secondary spermatocytes in all other periods was confirmed. These changes were also reflected in the seasonal variation in the gonado-somatic index in both sexes, with the highest mean values of 11.2% (females) and 4.0% (males) in May, which were found to be significantly different to all other periods. The data presented in this study provide an important contribution to our understanding of the biology and reproductive strategy of the endangered lake minnow.

  2. Physiological responses of adult rainbow trout experimentally released through a unique fish conveyance device

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Gee, Lisa P.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the physiological stress responses (i.e., plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, and lactate) of adult Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at selected time intervals after they had passed a distance of 15 m through a unique fish conveyance device (treatment fish) or not (controls). This device differs from traditional fish pumps in two important ways: (1) it transports objects in air, rather than pumping them from and with water; and (2) it uses a unique tube for transport that has a series of soft, deformable baffles spaced evenly apart and situated perpendicular within a rigid, but flexible outer shell. Mean concentrations of the plasma constituents never differed (P > 0.05) between control and treatment fish at 0, 1, 4, 8, or 24 h after passage, and only minor differences were apparent between the different time intervals within a group. We observed no obvious injuries on any of our fish. Our results indicate that passage through this device did not severely stress or injure fish and it may allow for the rapid and safe movement of fish at hatcheries, sorting or handling facilities, or passage obstacles.

  3. Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to bisphenol-S impairs subsequent reproduction potential and hormonal balance in adults.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mohammad; Wong, Marian Y L; Gholami, Fatemeh

    2014-03-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing concern about the production and use of bisphenol-A substitute, namely bisphenol-S (BPS). Due to its novel nature, there have been few studies addressing the ability of BPS to disrupt the endocrine system of animals. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to and reared in various concentrations of BPS (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/l) for 75 days. Then adult males and females were paired in spawning tanks for 7 days in clean water and the consequent effects on fish development, reproduction, plasma vitellogenin (VTG), sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels were investigated as endpoints. After 75 days of exposure, there was a skewed sex ratio in favor of females. The results also showed that body length and weight significantly decreased in males exposed to 100 μg/l of BPS. Gonadosomatic index was significantly reduced in fish at ≥ 10 μg/l. Hepatosomatic index exhibited a significant increase in both male and female fish. At ≥ 1 μg/l of BPS, plasma 17β-estradiol levels were significantly increased in both males and females. However, plasma testosterone showed a significant reduction in males exposed to 10 and 100 μg/l of BPS. A significant induction in plasma VTG level was observed in both males and females at ≥ 10 μg/l of BPS. Plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were significantly decreased at 10 and 100 μg/l of BPS in males, and at 100 μg/l in females. Egg production and sperm count were also significantly decreased in groups received 10 and 100 μg/l of BPS. Moreover, once time to hatching and hatching rates were calculated for fertilized eggs the postponed and decreased rates of hatching were observed. Taken together, these results suggest that developmental exposure to low concentrations of BPS has adverse effects on different parts of the endocrine system in zebrafish.

  4. Reproduction potentiated in nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) by adding a synthetic peptide to their aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Davies, Keith G; Zimmerman, Brian; Dudley, Ed; Newton, Russell P; Hart, John E

    2015-03-01

    Ambient exposure to a short synthetic peptide has enhanced fecundity (number of offspring) in invertebrates and vertebrates, ostensibly by disinhibiting reproduction. In separate experiments, nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed via their aqueous environment to a dissolved synthetic hexamer (6mer) peptide, IEPVFT (EPL036), at a concentration of 1 μmol l(-1). In the case of the worms, peptide was added to their aqueous buffer daily throughout the experiment (14 days); for the guppies, peptide administration was on the first 15 alternate days in a 50 week experiment. Fecundity rose by 79% among the worms. The number of descendants of the treated guppies was more than four times that of controls by week 26 (103 versus 25, including 72 juveniles versus 6), with 15.4% more estimated biomass in the test tank in total (i.e. including founders). It was deduced that treated females bred earlier, at a smaller size, and had larger brood sizes. The total number of fish in the control tank had caught up by termination, but biomass continued to lag the test tank. There were no overt signs of toxicity among either the worms or the fish. Bioinformatics has been unilluminating in explaining these results in terms, for example, of mimicry of an endogenous regulator. A mass spectrometric campaign to identify a receptor, using murine brain for expediency, proved inconclusive. Molecular modelling in silico indicated unexpectedly that the hexamer EPL036 might be acting as an antagonist, to pro-fecundity effect; that is, as a blocker of an inhibitor. This suggests that there awaits discovery an evolutionarily conserved reproductive inhibitor and its (anti-fecundity) receptor.

  5. Geographic coupling of juvenile and adult habitat shapes spatial population dynamics of a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, Chantal M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Debrot, Adolphe O; Jongejans, Eelke

    2013-08-01

    Marine spatial population dynamics are often addressed with a focus on larval dispersal, without taking into account movement behavior of individuals in later life stages. Processes occurring during demersal life stages may also drive spatial population dynamics if habitat quality is perceived differently by animals belonging to different life stages. In this study, we used a dual approach to understand how stage-structured habitat use and dispersal ability of adults shape the population of a marine fish species. Our study area and focal species provided us with the unique opportunity to study a closed island population. A spatial simulation model was used to estimate dispersal distances along a coral reef that surrounds the island, while contributions of different nursery bays were determined based on otolith stable isotope signatures of adult reef fish. The model showed that adult dispersal away from reef areas near nursery bays is limited. The results further show that different bays contributed unequally to the adult population on the coral reef, with productivity of juveniles in bay nursery habitat determining the degree of mixing among local populations on the reef and with one highly productive area contributing most to the island's reef fish population. The contribution of the coral reef as a nursery habitat was minimal, even though it had a much larger surface area. These findings indicate that the geographic distribution of nursery areas and their productivity are important drivers for the spatial distribution patterns of adults on coral reefs. We suggest that limited dispersal of adults on reefs can lead to a source-sink structure in the adult stage, where reefs close to nurseries replenish more isolated reef areas. Understanding these spatial population dynamics of the demersal phase of marine animals is of major importance for the design and placement of marine reserves, as nursery areas contribute differently to maintain adult populations.

  6. Effects of Norethindrone and Metabolite Ethynylestradiol on Reproductive Parameters in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Norethindrone (NOR) is a progestin used in human contraceptives and has been detected in low concentrations (ng/L) in aquatic environments. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether NOR could affect reproductiv...

  7. Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure condition and energy allocated to reproduction in marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzhugh, G. R.; Wuenschel, M. J.; McBride, R. S.

    2010-04-01

    Reliable estimates of fish energy density at specific times prior to spawning may provide suitable proxies for egg production, and thereby help to explain some of the observed annual variation in recruits per spawner. Our goal is to develop and test modifications of BIA technology to measure energy allocation to reproduction for a variety of marine fishes. To date, a newly developed measuring board and probe system stabilized readings, which was demonstrated by a significant reduction in the coefficients of variation for impedance measures. Total body water, wet and dry weights could be predicted with very good precision (r2 = 0.92-0.99) using BIA measures of reactance or resistance for a number of finfish species. While constituent relationships (e.g. body water- body mass functions) did not differ seasonally, we did find that BIA measures are sensitive to body composition changes related to the seasonal spawning cycle. In an examination of monthly samples of tilefish, phase angle decreased below 15° in post-spawning (regressed) females. Such a monthly trend, which suggests available energy had decreased following the spawning season, was not evident from other, more traditional measures of condition including body-muscle water content, Fulton's K or ordinal measures of fat deposition (such as mesenteric fat). These preliminary results show that BIA technology is a promising application for tracking and efficiently predicting energetic condition of marine fishes.

  8. Dietary CdSe/ZnS quantum dot exposure in estuarine fish: bioavailability, oxidative stress responses, reproduction, and maternal transfer.

    PubMed

    Blickley, T Michelle; Matson, Cole W; Vreeland, Wyatt N; Rittschof, Daniel; Di Giulio, Richard T; McClellan-Green, Patricia D

    2014-03-01

    Continued development, use, and disposal of quantum dots (QDs) ensure their entrance into aquatic environments where they could pose a risk to biological organisms as whole nanoparticles or as degraded metal constituents. Reproductive Fundulus heteroclitus were fed a control diet with lecithin, diets containing 1 or 10 μg of lecithin-encapsulated CdSe/ZnS QD/day, or a diet containing 5.9 μg CdCl2/day for 85 days. Cadmium concentrations in liver, intestine, and eggs were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In fish fed 10 μg QD/day, QDs or their degradation products traversed the intestinal epithelia and accumulated in the liver. Less than 0.01% of the QD's cadmium was retained in the liver or intestinal tissues. This compares to 0.9% and 0.5% of the cadmium in the intestine and liver, respectively of fish fed a CdCl2 diet. Cadmium was also detected in the eggs from parents fed 10 μg QD/day. No significant changes in hepatic total glutathione, lipid peroxidation, or expression of genes involved in metal metabolism or oxidative stress were observed. While QDs in the diet are minimally bioavailable, unusual levels of vitellogenin transcription in male fish as well as declining fecundity require further investigation to determine if endocrine disruption is of environmental concern.

  9. The first success of glass eel production in the world: basic biology on fish reproduction advances new applied technology in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Hideki; Ohta, Hiromi; Unuma, Tatsuya; Nomura, Kazuharu

    2005-04-01

    The eel has long been esteemed as an important food fish in the world, especially in Japan, and has been used as an experimental fish for many fields of fish physiology. However, the decreases in eel resources have been a serious concern in recent years. The catches of glass eels as seedlings for aquaculture have shown a long-term decrease in both Europe and East Asia. To increase eel resources, the development of techniques for artificial induction of maturation and spawning and rearing their larvae have been eagerly desired. Recent progress of reproductive physiology of fish, especially mechanisms of oocyte maturation and ovulation in female and of spermatozoa maturation in male, facilitate to establish techniques for hormonal induction of maturation and spawning in sexually immature eels. With persistent effort to development of rearing techniques of larvae, we have first succeeded to produce glass eel. These applied techniques are may contribute to understand the basic reproductive physiology of the eel.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF METHOXYCHLOR AND METHYLTESTOSTERONE ON REPRODUCTION IN A SHORT-TERM ASSAY USING THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of chemicals on reproduction of fishes is an area of great uncertainty. Because full life cycle testing of fish is cost prohibitive, we have developed a short-term assay to assess the effects of chemicals on reproduction of adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). ...

  11. Tidal management sffects sub-adult fish assemblages in impounded South Carolina Marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, Ben L.; Peterson, James T.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2015-01-01

    In coastal South Carolina, most impounded marshes are managed for waterfowl; fewer are managed for fishes. Tidal control is central to each strategy but raises concerns that nursery function could be impaired. This research examined the assemblage composition of fishes during early-life stages. We sampled two impoundments of each management type monthly in 2008 and 2009. We used light traps to collect 61,527 sub-adult fish representing 21 species and 16 families and push nets to collect 12,670 sub-adult fish representing 13 species and 11 families. The effective number of species detected at larval stage in “fish” impoundments (summer mean = 2.52 ± 0.20, winter mean = 2.02 ± 0.66) was greater than in “waterfowl” impoundments (summer mean = 1.27 ± 0.14, winter mean = 1.06 ± 0.09); CI = 90 %. Species richness did not differ between management types, but hierarchical linear models predicted differences in assemblage composition. These findings underscore the importance of frequent water exchange for maintaining diverse assemblages of early-life-stage fishes in marsh impoundments.

  12. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Three-Mile Falls Dam; Umatilla River, Oregon, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from October 1989 through September 1990 on evaluating juvenile fish bypass and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR are: (1) ODFW (Report A): Operate and evaluate the juvenile fish bypass system in the West Extension Irrigation District canal at Three Mile Falls Dam; and (2) CTUIR (Report 8): Examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin that includes restorations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus Wsutch and chinook salmon 0. tshawytscha and enhancement of summer steelhead 0. mytiss.

  13. The ART of mating: alternative reproductive tactics and mating success in a nest-guarding fish.

    PubMed

    Mascolino, S; Benvenuto, C; Gubili, C; Sacchi, C; Boufana, B; Mariani, S

    2016-12-01

    Behavioural observations in the field of male Mediterranean damselfish Chromis chromis were combined with molecular analyses, using bi-parentally and maternally inherited markers, to investigate reproductive success patterns of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in terms of number of eggs sired and number of females contributing to each nest. Cuckoldry was observed in every nest sampled, with at least two and up to seven sneaker males per nest. The nesting male, however, always significantly fertilized the greater number of eggs (on average 49%) in each clutch, whereas each sneaker fertilized around 7% of the clutch. The average number of females whose eggs were fertilized by nesting males was 6·76 (range 2-13), while each sneaker on average fertilized the eggs of 1·74 (range 1-8) females. Using this sibship reconstruction, some of the factors involved in the regulation of the dynamic equilibrium of reproductive success were investigated between the two ARTs shown by C. chromis males. Results show that the sneakers' reproductive success was positively linked to egg clutch size; the density of individuals in the nesting area negatively affected the size of egg clutches; the rate of defence behaviours performed by nesting males negatively influenced the number of females contributing to each nest.

  14. Sex in troubled waters: Widespread agricultural contaminant disrupts reproductive behaviour in fish.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Michael G; Saaristo, Minna; Baumgartner, John B; Johnstone, Christopher P; Allinson, Mayumi; Allinson, Graeme; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-04-01

    Chemical pollution is a pervasive and insidious agent of environmental change. One class of chemical pollutant threatening ecosystems globally is the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The capacity of EDCs to disrupt development and reproduction is well established, but their effects on behaviour have received far less attention. Here, we investigate the impact of a widespread androgenic EDC on reproductive behaviour in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We found that short-term exposure of male guppies to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone-a common environmental pollutant associated with livestock production-influenced the amount of male courtship and forced copulatory behaviour (sneaking) performed toward females, as well as the receptivity of females toward exposed males. Exposure to 17β-trenbolone was also associated with greater male mass. However, no effect of female exposure to 17β-trenbolone was detected on female reproductive behaviour, indicating sex-specific vulnerability at this dosage. Our study is the first to show altered male reproductive behaviour following exposure to an environmentally realistic concentration of 17β-trenbolone, demonstrating the possibility of widespread disruption of mating systems of aquatic organisms by common agricultural contaminants.

  15. Castration affects reproductive but not aggressive behavior in a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Olinda; Canário, Adelino V M; Oliveira, Rui F

    2014-10-01

    Gonads are the main source of sex steroids, which have been implicated in the regulation of sexually differentiated behavior, such as reproductive and aggressive displays. In the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) territorial males have higher androgen levels than non-territorials, express reproductive behavior and use a urine-borne pheromone to signal their social status towards conspecifics. Here we investigated the effects of gonadectomy on the circulating levels of androgens and cortisol, and on the expression of aggressive and reproductive behavior (nest building, courtship behavior, and nuptial coloration). Males were either castrated, urine bladder damaged, or sham-operated and visually exposed to a group of females during 8 consecutive days and subsequently to a male on day 9. The urine bladder damaged treatment was included in the experimental design because a full castration procedure in this species causes quite often damage to the urine bladder. Gonadectomy lowers dramatically the circulating levels of androgens measured at 4 and 8days post-castration and abolishes the expression of nest building, courtship behavior and nuptial coloration, but has no effect on the expression of aggressive behavior. These results confirm the gonads as the main source of androgens in this species and show that androgens are necessary for the expression of reproductive behaviors. However, the expression of aggressive behavior seems to be decoupled from gonadal steroids, namely androgens, suggesting the action of independent central mechanisms.

  16. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat.

  17. Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun-Fang; Li, Ying-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes a variety of adverse effects on aquatic organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying inorganic Hg-induced reproductive impairment in fish remains largely unknown. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 15 and 30μg Hg/l (added as mercuric chloride, HgCl2) for 30days, and the effects on histological structure, antioxidant status and sex hormone levels in the ovary and testis, as well as the mRNA expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis were analyzed. Exposure to Hg caused pathological lesions in zebrafish gonads, and changed the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) as well as the content of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In females, although ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) content remained relatively stable, significant down-regulation of lhβ, gnrh2, gnrh3, lhr and erα were observed. In males, testosterone (T) levels in the testis significantly decreased after Hg exposure, accompanied by down-regulated expression of gnrh2, gnrh3, fshβ and lhβ in the brain as well as fshr, lhr, ar, cyp17 and cyp11b in the testis. Thus, our study indicated that waterborne inorganic Hg exposure caused histological damage and oxidative stress in the gonads of zebrafish, and altered sex hormone levels by disrupting the transcription of related HPG-axis genes, which could subsequently impair the reproduction of fish. Different response of the antioxidant defense system, sex hormone and HPG-axis genes between females and males exposed to inorganic Hg indicated the gender-specific regulatory effect by Hg. To our knowledge, this is the first time to explore the effects and mechanisms of inorganic Hg exposure on reproduction at the histological, enzymatic and molecular levels, which will greatly extend our understanding on the mechanisms underlying of reproductive

  18. A novel hormone is required for the development of reproductive phenotypes in adult female crabs.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Chung, J Sook

    2014-01-01

    The crustacean male-specific androgenic hormone is widely accepted as a key factor in sexual differentiation and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. However, the mechanism by which the plethora of different reproductive strategies are controlled and executed in crustaceans is not known. We discovered in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, a hitherto unknown neurohormone, named crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), in distinct neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk ganglia. CFSH is highly expressed in females but weakly in males, and its crucial role in developing adult female phenotypes has now been established. CFSH cDNA encodes a 225-amino acid (aa) novel protein composed of a 23-aa predicted signal peptide, 33-aa precursor-related peptide and 167-aa mature protein that did not match any other sequence in GenBank. CFSH RNA interference knockdown by multiple administrations of double-stranded RNA at the prepubertal stage causes abnormal development of brooding and mating systems upon puberty. These systems include a pair of gonopores and an egg attachment system for brooding, comprised of an enlarged semicircular abdomen and ovigerous setae. The ovigerous setae in CFSH knocked-down females were fewer and 50% shorter and the gonopores were either significantly smaller than those of controls, misplaced, or absent. We also identified CFSH in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, a species that shares a similar reproductive strategy with C. sapidus. Together, our data provide the first evidence for the presence of a female hormone in crustaceans and its importance in positively controlling anatomic features associated with brooding and mating systems. From an evolutionary standpoint, the endocrine control supporting a female-specific reproductive strategy, as previously described for many vertebrate species, has now been demonstrated for the first time in crustaceans.

  19. A juvenile-adult population model: climate change, cannibalism, reproductive synchrony, and strong Allee effects.

    PubMed

    Veprauskas, Amy; Cushing, J M

    2017-03-01

    We study a discrete time, structured population dynamic model that is motivated by recent field observations concerning certain life history strategies of colonial-nesting gulls, specifically the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). The model focuses on mechanisms hypothesized to play key roles in a population's response to degraded environment resources, namely, increased cannibalism and adjustments in reproductive timing. We explore the dynamic consequences of these mechanics using a juvenile-adult structure model. Mathematically, the model is unusual in that it involves a high co-dimension bifurcation at [Formula: see text] which, in turn, leads to a dynamic dichotomy between equilibrium states and synchronized oscillatory states. We give diagnostic criteria that determine which dynamic is stable. We also explore strong Allee effects caused by positive feedback mechanisms in the model and the possible consequence that a cannibalistic population can survive when a non-cannibalistic population cannot.

  20. [The reproductive characteristics of adolescents and young adults in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    García-Baltazar, J; Figueroa-Perea, J G; Reyes-Zapata, H; Brindis, C; Pérez-Palacios, G

    1993-01-01

    This article presents the preliminary findings of the Survey on Teenagers and Youth Reproductive Behavior in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, which contains information on 1,010 teenagers and young adults from 10 to 25 years of age interviewed in 1987. The average age was 17 years; 51.7 per cent of those interviewed were male and 48.3 per cent were female. A total of 14.6 per cent were married, being the average age at marriage 19.2 years for males and 17.8 years for females. Menarche occurred at an average age of 12.4 years, and spermarche at 14. Of those interviewed, 32.7 per cent have had sexual intercourse at least once in their lives. The average age at which sexual activity had begun, in the case of males, was 16 years and for females, 17 years. Of this group, 33.8 per cent stated that they had used some form of contraception during the first sexual intercourse; the contraceptive methods used most often were rhythm and withdrawal. The main source of supply of other methods is the pharmacy, in 67 per cent. 18.4 per cent of women had been pregnant, and 20.4 per cent of men's partners had presented this same condition. The first pregnancy occurred at 17.8 years for women and 18.7 for men. Of those men and women with a pregnancy experience 66.1 per cent and 57.3 per cent, respectively, stated that their first pregnancy was an unplanned one. Also, first pregnancy was related to their first marriage in 48.1 per cent of women and 82.4 per cent of male. The data presented here will reinforce current knowledge and will enable us to obtain a profile of the reproductive behavior of teenagers and young adults in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

  1. AOP description: Androgen receptor agonism leading to reproductive dysfunction (in fish)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between binding and activation of androgen receptor as a nuclear transcription factor in females and the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity in repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoi...

  2. Reproductive Strategies of the Insidious Fish Ectoparasite, Neobenedenia sp. (Capsalidae: Monogenea)

    PubMed Central

    Dinh Hoai, Truong; Hutson, Kate S.

    2014-01-01

    Fish monogeneans are lethal parasites in aquaculture. We provide the first experimental evidence that a notorious fish monogenean, Neobenedenia sp., can produce viable eggs in isolation for three consecutive generations. We infected individual, isolated, farmed barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) with a single oncomiracidium (larva) of the hermaphroditic monogenean Neobenedenia sp. Isolated parasites reached sexual maturity at day 10 post-hatch (24°C, 35‰) and laid ∼3,300 embryonated eggs over 17 days. Egg production rapidly increased following sexually maturity on day 10 (58±15 eggs) and peaked on day 15 (496±68 eggs) before gradually decreasing. Neobenedenia sp. exhibited egg laying and egg hatching rhythms. Parasites laid eggs continuously, but egg production increased in periods of darkness (64.3%), while the majority of oncomiracidia (81%) emerged from eggs in the first three hours of light. Eggs laid by isolated ‘parent’ parasites hatched and individual emerging oncomiracidia were used to infect more individual, isolated fish, with three consecutive, isolated, parasite generations (F1, F2 and F3) raised in the laboratory. Infection success and egg hatching success did not differ between generations. Our data show that one parasite, in the absence of a mate, presents a severe threat to captive fish populations. PMID:25264931

  3. Reproductive strategies of the insidious fish ectoparasite, Neobenedenia sp. (Capsalidae: Monogenea).

    PubMed

    Dinh Hoai, Truong; Hutson, Kate S

    2014-01-01

    Fish monogeneans are lethal parasites in aquaculture. We provide the first experimental evidence that a notorious fish monogenean, Neobenedenia sp., can produce viable eggs in isolation for three consecutive generations. We infected individual, isolated, farmed barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) with a single oncomiracidium (larva) of the hermaphroditic monogenean Neobenedenia sp.. Isolated parasites reached sexual maturity at day 10 post-hatch (24°C, 35‰) and laid ∼3,300 embryonated eggs over 17 days [corrected]. Egg production rapidly increased following sexually maturity on day 10 (58±15 eggs) and peaked on day 15 (496±68 eggs) before gradually decreasing. Neobenedenia sp. exhibited egg laying and egg hatching rhythms. Parasites laid eggs continuously, but egg production increased in periods of darkness (64.3%), while the majority of oncomiracidia (81%) emerged from eggs in the first three hours of light. Eggs laid by isolated 'parent' parasites hatched and individual emerging oncomiracidia were used to infect more individual, isolated fish, with three consecutive, isolated, parasite generations (F1, F2 and F3) raised in the laboratory. Infection success and egg hatching success did not differ between generations. Our data show that one parasite, in the absence of a mate, presents a severe threat to captive fish populations.

  4. CUNNER(TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS) AS A MODEL FISH FOR REPRODUCTIVE STUDIES IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) are being studied at our laboratory as a model species to determine the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on estuarine fish populations. Cunner was selected because this species is common in estuarine areas, is easily obtainable, an...

  5. MHC genes and parasitism in Carassius gibelio, a diploid-triploid fish species with dual reproduction strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gibel carp is a fish species with dual reproduction modes, gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, coexisting in mixed diploid-polyploid populations. Following the Red Queen (RQ) assumption, asexual organisms are, due to their low genetic diversity, targets for parasite adaptation. Because MHC polymorphism is maintained by selection from parasites and sexual selection, MHC genes are considered as a suitable candidate for testing the RQ hypothesis. In this study, we investigated MHC variability and the selection pressure acting on MHC genes in sexual diploids and asexual triploids. In addition, we tested whether the asexual form of gibel carp suffers from higher parasite loads than the sexual form. Results At the population level, genotype and allelic diversity of MHC were reduced in gynogenetic triploids when compared to sexual diploids. Different patterns in positively selected sites (PSS) between gynogens and sexual gibel carp were also found. A weak difference in parasite species richness was found between sexual fish and gynogens. However, two common clones of gynogens were significantly more parasitized than sexual diploids or other gynogens with rare MHC genotypes. At the individual level, the higher number of alleles was not associated with higher parasitism in either sexual diploids or gynogens. Conclusions The differences in MHC diversity between gynogenetic triploids and sexual diploids are in accordance with the hypothesis of sexually-mediated selection increasing MHC diversity and fulfil a prerequisite of the Red Queen hypothesis. The different patterns in PSS between gynogens and sexual gibel carp also suggest the potential role of sexual selection and supports parasite-mediated selection maintaining MHC diversity. We showed that the most common MHC genotypes of gynogenetic triploids are the target of parasite selection. Our results suggest that the MHC genotype in gibel carp is more important than allelic number for immunocompetence. PMID

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal in a coral-reef fish metapopulation: evidence of variable reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Pusack, Timothy J; Christie, Mark R; Johnson, Darren W; Stallings, Christopher D; Hixon, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Many marine organisms can be transported hundreds of kilometres during their pelagic larval stage, yet little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal. Although traditional population-genetic tools can be applied to infer movement of larvae on an evolutionary timescale, large effective population sizes and high rates of gene flow present serious challenges to documenting dispersal patterns over shorter, ecologically relevant, timescales. Here, we address these challenges by combining direct parentage analysis and indirect genetic analyses over a 4-year period to document spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal in a common coral-reef fish: the bicolour damselfish (Stegastes partitus). At four island locations surrounding Exuma Sound, Bahamas, including a long-established marine reserve, we collected 3278 individuals and genotyped them at 10 microsatellite loci. Using Bayesian parentage analysis, we identified eight parent-offspring pairs, thereby directly documenting dispersal distances ranging from 0 km (i.e., self-recruitment) to 129 km (i.e., larval connectivity). Despite documenting substantial dispersal and gene flow between islands, we observed more self-recruitment events than expected if the larvae were drawn from a common, well-mixed pool (i.e., a completely open population). Additionally, we detected both spatial and temporal variation in signatures of sweepstakes and Wahlund effects. The high variance in reproductive success (i.e., 'sweepstakes') we observed may be influenced by seasonal mesoscale gyres present in the Exuma Sound, which play a prominent role in shaping local oceanographic patterns. This study documents the complex nature of larval dispersal in a coral-reef fish, and highlights the importance of sampling multiple cohorts and coupling both direct and indirect genetic methods in order disentangle patterns of dispersal, gene flow and variable reproductive success.

  7. Fish multigeneration test with preliminary short-term reproduction assay for estrone using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ataru; Tamura, Ikumi; Takanobu, Hitomi; Yamamuro, Masumi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    The most potent chemicals potentially causing adverse effects on fish species are estrogens in human waste.Sewage is a source of these estrogens and it is difficult to reduce. In particular, although the bioactivity of estrone is estimated to be about half of that of estradiol, multiple studies report that more than 100 ng l(–1) of estrone can be detected in urban rivers, including discharges from sewage treatment works; approximately two times as high as estradiol. Few studies have been conducted to investigate the long-term effects of estrone on wildlife; therefore, we conducted fish multigeneration test using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Medaka were exposed to estrone for 27 weeks across three generations in environmentally relevant concentrations, being 5.74, 11.4, 24.0, 47.1 and 91.4 ng l(–1). No effects on reproduction were observed in the first generation; however, a decline in egg production and fertility was observed in the second generation exposed to 91.4 ng l(–1) estrone, which is lower than some known environmental concentrations in urban environments. Furthermore, histopathological abnormalities were observed in the third generation exposed to both 47.1 and 91.4 ng l(–1), suggesting that estrone possibly exerts severe effects on the third or later generations. However, appearances of testis–ova were observed in the second and third generation they were not consistent with actual effects on reproduction, notwithstanding the testis-ovais regarded as the key evidence for endocrine disruption. Accordingly, we consider that qualitative measurement of abnormalities using histopathological observations is required for appropriate evaluation of endocrine disruption.

  8. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely t...

  9. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrined-disrupting chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  10. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  11. Multiple Mating and Reproductive Skew in Parental and Introgressed Females of the Live-Bearing Fish Xiphophorus Birchmanni

    PubMed Central

    Passow, Courtney N.; Delclos, Pablo J.; Kindsvater, Holly K.; Jones, Adam G.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2015-01-01

    Just as mating patterns can promote speciation or hybridization, the presence of hybridization can shape mating patterns within a population. In this study, we characterized patterns of multiple mating and reproductive skew in a naturally hybridizing swordtail fish species, Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantified multiple mating using microsatellite markers to genotype embryos from 43 females collected from 2 wild populations. We also used a suite of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to categorize females and their inferred mates as either parental X. birchmanni or as introgressed individuals, which carried alleles from a sister species, X. malinche. We found that parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females mated multiply with both parental and introgressed males. We found no difference in mating patterns or reproductive skew between parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females. However, nonintrogressed X. birchmanni males mated more often with large, fecund females. These females also had the greatest levels of skew in fertilization success of males. Thus, our results show that X. birchmanni has a polygynandrous mating system and that introgression of X. malinche alleles has only subtle effects on mating patterns in this species. PMID:25433083

  12. Multiple mating and reproductive skew in parental and introgressed females of the live-bearing fish Xiphophorus birchmanni.

    PubMed

    Paczolt, Kimberly A; Passow, Courtney N; Delclos, Pablo J; Kindsvater, Holly K; Jones, Adam G; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2015-01-01

    Just as mating patterns can promote speciation or hybridization, the presence of hybridization can shape mating patterns within a population. In this study, we characterized patterns of multiple mating and reproductive skew in a naturally hybridizing swordtail fish species, Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantified multiple mating using microsatellite markers to genotype embryos from 43 females collected from 2 wild populations. We also used a suite of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to categorize females and their inferred mates as either parental X. birchmanni or as introgressed individuals, which carried alleles from a sister species, X. malinche. We found that parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females mated multiply with both parental and introgressed males. We found no difference in mating patterns or reproductive skew between parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females. However, nonintrogressed X. birchmanni males mated more often with large, fecund females. These females also had the greatest levels of skew in fertilization success of males. Thus, our results show that X. birchmanni has a polygynandrous mating system and that introgression of X. malinche alleles has only subtle effects on mating patterns in this species.

  13. FiRe: Reproductive disorders in Baltic fish - a presentation of a new Swedish EPA research program

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    In 1974 a considerable increase in mortality of newly hatched fry of salmon (Salmo salar) was discovered at one of the Swedish hatcheries at the Baltic Sea coast. A series of symptoms was identified towards the end of the yolk sac resorption stage and was followed by a rapidly occurring and often high mortality shortly after the first symptoms were seen. The condition was given the name M74, where M depicts ``Miljoe``, i.e. ``Environment`` in Swedish and 74 stands for the first year of official registration, i.e. 1974. Since then the mortality in M74 has fluctuated considerably, but has increased n recent years. In 1992, M74 caused mortalities of up to 90% in newly hatched fry. In 1993 the situation was considered very serious and the number of surviving fry was insufficient to produce the stipulated number of compensation salmon for some Swedish rivers. The similarity with documented reproductive disturbances in salmonids in the Great Lakes is striking and also supports a possible connection to environmental pollution. However, hard data to support this theory are still lacking. With the present level of knowledge the research project is attempting to clarify the extent of fish reproduction disturbances in the Baltic Sea, the reasons and, if possible, to suggest how to mitigate the problem. Multinational research cooperation will be encouraged.

  14. Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success and Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study with Adult- or Lifetime-Exposure in Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W.; Swaddle, John P.; Cristol, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems. We performed a dosing study with dietary methylmercury in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), at doses from 0.3 – 2.4 parts per million. Birds were exposed to mercury either as adults only or throughout their lives. All doses of mercury reduced reproductive success, with the lowest dose reducing the number of independent offspring produced in one year by 16% and the highest dose, representing approximately half the lethal dose for this species, causing a 50% reduction. While mercury did not affect clutch size or survivorship, it had the most consistent effect on the proportion of chicks that fledged from the nest, regardless of mode of exposure. Among birds exposed as adults, mercury caused a steep increase in the latency to re-nest after loss of a clutch. Birds exposed for their entire lifetimes, which were necessarily the offspring of dosed parents, had up to 50% lower reproductive success than adult-exposed birds at low doses of methylmercury, but increased reproductive success at high doses, suggesting selection for mercury tolerance at the highest level of exposure. Our results indicate that mercury levels in prey items at contaminated sites pose a significant threat to populations of songbirds through reduced reproductive success. PMID

  15. Reproductive Potential of Salmon Spawning Substrates Inferred from Grain Size and Fish Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, C. S.; Sklar, L. S.; Overstreet, B. T.; Wooster, J. K.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The river restoration industry spends millions of dollars every year on improving salmon spawning in riverbeds where sediment is too big for fish to move and thus use during redd building. However, few studies have addressed the question of how big is too big in salmon spawning substrates. Hence managers have had little quantitative basis for gauging the amount of spawning habitat in coarse-bedded rivers. Moreover, the scientific framework has remained weak for restoration projects that seek to improve spawning conditions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a physically based, field-calibrated model for the fraction of the bed that is fine-grained enough to support spawning by fish of a given size. Model inputs are fish length and easy-to-measure indices of bed-surface grain size. Model outputs include the number of redds and eggs the substrate can accommodate when flow depth, temperature, and other environmental factors are not limiting. The mechanistic framework of the model captures the biophysical limits on sediment movement and the space limitations on redd building and egg deposition in riverbeds. We explored the parameter space of the model and found a previously unrecognized tradeoff in salmon size: bigger fish can move larger sediment and thus use more riverbed area for spawning; they also tend to have higher fecundity, and so can deposit more eggs per redd; however, because redd area increases with fish length, the number of eggs a substrate can accommodate is highest for moderate-sized fish. One implication of this tradeoff is that differences in grain size may help regulate river-to-river differences in salmon size. Thus, our model suggests that population diversity and, by extension, species resilience are linked to lithologic, geomorphic, and climatic factors that determine grain size in rivers. We cast the model into easy-to-use look-up tables, charts, and computer applications, including a JavaScript app that works on tablets and mobile

  16. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  17. Saccular-specific hair cell addition correlates with reproductive state-dependent changes in the auditory saccular sensitivity of a vocal fish

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, Allison B.; Mohr, Robert A.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a seasonal breeding teleost fish for which vocal-acoustic communication is essential for its reproductive success. Female midshipman use the saccule as the primary end organ for hearing to detect and locate “singing” males that produce multiharmonic advertisement calls during the summer breeding season. Previous work showed that female auditory sensitivity changes seasonally with reproductive state; summer reproductive females become better suited than winter nonreproductive females to detect and encode the dominant higher harmonic components in the male’s advertisement call, which are potentially critical for mate selection and localization. Here, we test the hypothesis that these seasonal changes in female auditory sensitivity are concurrent with seasonal increases in saccular hair cell receptors. We show that there is increased hair cell density in reproductive females and that this increase is not dependent on body size since similar changes in hair cell density were not found in the other inner ear end organs. We also observed an increase in the number of small, potentially immature saccular hair bundles in reproductive females. The seasonal increase in saccular hair cell density and smaller hair bundles in reproductive females was paralleled by a dramatic increase in the magnitude of the evoked saccular potentials and a corresponding decrease in the auditory thresholds recorded from the saccule. This demonstration of correlated seasonal plasticity of hair cell addition and auditory sensitivity may in part facilitate the adaptive auditory plasticity of this species to enhance mate detection and localization during breeding. PMID:22279221

  18. Gonad morphology, gametogenesis, and reproductive modes in fishes of the tribe Starksiini (Teleostei, Blenniiformes).

    PubMed

    Fishelson, Lev; Baldwin, Carole C; Hastings, Philip A

    2013-05-01

    A comparative study of the reproductive organs in 17 of the 30 species of the tribe Starksiini (Labrisomidae, Blenniiformes) and related labrisomids reveals the major traits of gamete form and production and likely reproductive modes. The testes are of the lobular type and have a testicular gland and sperm ducts. Isodiametric sperm (aquasperm) with a globular head or anisodiametric sperm (introsperm) with an elongate head, or both, were observed in the studied species. Both types have either one or two flagella in the sperm tail. Ovaries of the Starksiini are bilobed and exhibit synchronous or asynchronous egg production. Although viviparity or "ovoviviparity" reportedly characterizes the group, our study revealed evidence of both internal and external fertilization and three modes of reproduction. External fertilization or ovuliparity is suggested for the Starksia atlantica and S. lepicoelia species complexes by the presence in males of a short genital papilla that is not reinforced through adhesion with the first anal-fin spine and by the absence of sperm within the ovaries. Internal fertilization and zygoparity is indicated for most species by the presence of an intromittent papilla in males that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine, "nests" of sperm within the ovaries, absence of embryos within the ovarian lamellae and usually thick egg envelopes bearing dense covers of adhesive filaments. Internal fertilization and embryoparity is indicated for starksia fulva and Xenomedea rhodopyga by an intromittent papilla that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine of males, anisodiametric sperm in males, delicate egg envelopes without adhesive filaments and developing embryos within follicular envelopes or within the follicle in females. Although many of these features are seen in the internally fertilizing clinid blennies, starksiins differ in retaining the testicular gland typical of labrisomids and in lacking sperm packaging typical of other internally fertilizing

  19. Educating and Training out of Poverty? Adult Provision and the Informal Sector in Fishing Communities, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at access to adult education and vocational education and training (VET) provision in fishing communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Fishing communities are being disadvantaged due to geographical and socio-political marginalisation, and the predominance of informal sector employment in the context of worldwide marine…

  20. Age-related changes in stem cell dynamics, neurogenesis, apoptosis, and gliosis in the adult brain: a novel teleost fish model of negligible senescence.

    PubMed

    Traniello, Ian M; Sîrbulescu, Ruxandra F; Ilieş, Iulian; Zupanc, Günther K H

    2014-05-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult central nervous system, is a reported feature of all examined vertebrate species. However, a dramatic decline in the rates of cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation occurs in mammals, typically starting near the onset of sexual maturation. In the present study, we examined possible age-related changes associated with adult neurogenesis in the brain of brown ghost knifefish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus), a teleost fish distinguished by its enormous neurogenic potential. Contrary to the well-established alterations in the mammalian brain during aging, in the brain of this teleostean species we could not find evidence for any significant age-related decline in the absolute levels of stem/progenitor cell proliferation, neuronal and glial differentiation, or long-term survival of newly generated cells. Moreover, there was no indication that the amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein or the number of apoptotic cells in the brain was altered significantly over the course of adult life. We hypothesize that this first demonstration of negligible cellular senescence in the vertebrate brain is related to the continued growth of this species and to the lack of reproductive senescence during adulthood. The establishment of the adult brain of this species as a novel model of negligible senescence provides new opportunities for the advancement of our understanding of the biology of aging and the fundamental mechanisms that underlie senescence in the brain.

  1. Perfluorooctane sulfonate effects on the reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Pereiro, N; Moyano, R; Lafuente, A

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a neurotoxic agent and it can disrupt the endocrine system activity. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of PFOS exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) in adult male rats, and to evaluate the possible morphological alterations induced by PFOS in the endocrine tissues of this axis. Adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic noradrenaline concentration increased in the anterior hypothalamus and in the median eminence, not changing in the mediobasal hypothalamus. PFOS treated rats presented a decrease of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression, increasing the mRNA levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH) in rats treated with all doses administered except with the dose of 6 mg/kg/day. PFOS also induced a raise of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) gene expression in the animals exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic GnRH concentration was modified, LH and testosterone release was inhibited and FSH secretion was stimulated. Moreover, PFOS induced several histopathological alterations in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and testis. The results obtained in the present study suggest in general terms that PFOS can inhibit the physiological activity of the reproductive axis in adult male rats, which could be explained, at least in part, by the structural alterations showed in the animals exposed to this chemical: very dense chromatin, condensed ribosomes and a loss of the morphology in the hypothalamus; a degeneration of the gonadotrophic cells, as well as a loss and degeneration of the spermatozoids and a very marked edema in the testis.

  2. Some aspects of the taxonomy and biology of adult spirurine nematodes parasitic in fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek

    2007-11-01

    About 300 species belonging to four superfamilies (Gnathostomatoidea, Habronematoidea, Physalopteroidea and Thelazioidea) of the nematode suborder Spirurina are known as the adult parasites of freshwater, brackish-water and marine fishes. They are placed in four families, of which the Gnathostomatidae, including Echinocephalus with a few species and the monotypic Metaleptus, are parasites of elasmobranchs, whereas Ancyracanthus contains one species in teleosts; the Physalopteridae is represented in fish by four genera, Bulbocephalus, Heliconema, Paraleptus and Proleptus, each with several species in both elasmobranchs and teleosts. The majority of fish spirurines belongs to the Rhabdochonidae, which includes 10 genera (Beaninema, Fellicola, Hepatinema, Heptochona, Johnstonmawsonia, Megachona, Pancreatonema, Prosungulonema, Rhabdochona and Vasorhabdochona) of species parasitizing mainly teleosts, rarely elasmobranchs, and the Cystidicolidae with about 23 genera (Ascarophis, Caballeronema, Capillospirura, Comephoronema, Crenatobronema, Cristitectus, Ctenascarophis, Cyclozone, Cystidicola, Cystidicoloides, Johnstonmawsonoides, Metabronema, Moravecnema, Neoascarophis, Parascarophis, Prospinitectus, Pseudascarophis, Pseudoproleptus, Salvelinema, Similascarophis, Spinitectoides, Spinitectus, Sterliadochona), with many species parasitic in teleosts only. Because of difficulties in studying fish spirurines, associated with their morphological and biological peculiarities, most species of these parasites are poorly known. It is apparent that their present classification system does not reflect phylogenetic relationships and a taxonomic revision of this nematode group, based on detailed morphological (including SEM and TEM), life history and molecular studies of individual species, is quite necessary. In Cystidicolidae, several genera have been based on details in the cephalic structures visible only with the aid of SEM, but it will be evident whether or not these tiny

  3. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Timothy S.; Echols, Kathy R.; Davis, Anne P.; May, Tom W.; Orazio, Carl E.; Coyle, James J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    Seven fish species were collected from 14 sites on rivers in the Colorado River Basin (CDRB) from August to October 2003. Spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants were documented and contaminant effects on the fish were assessed. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Colorado River and on the Yampa, Green, Gunnison, San Juan, and Gila Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using performance-based and instrumental methods. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) was measured using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations were elevated throughout the CDRB, and pesticides concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 ?g/g ww) at all sites except from the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 ?g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 ?g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 ?g/g ww). Concentrations of other banned pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds

  4. Evaluating the potential of effluent extracts from pulp and paper mills in Canada, Brazil, and New Zealand to affect fish reproduction: Estrogenic effects in fish.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Milestone, Craig B; Hewitt, L Mark; Guchardi, John; Heid-Furley, Tatiana; Slade, Alison; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Holdway, Douglas

    2016-11-03

    The authors examined the potential of pulp mill effluent from pulp-producing countries (Canada, Brazil, New Zealand) to affect fish reproduction. Specifically, the estrogenic effects in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) pulse-exposed to 11 different mill effluent extracts (intraperitoneal injections of solid-phase extraction-dichloromethane nonpolar fraction). The results indicated that effluent extracts were estrogenic in juvenile trout irrespective of the gender, as reflected by increasing level of plasma vitellogenin (VTG; Brazil > New Zealand > Canada). Despite the high variability observed among mills, differences in VTG levels were related to the type of mill process (kraft > elementary chlorine-free kraft > thermomechanical pulping). Moreover, effluent treatments did not appear to significantly decrease VTG induction. A consistent estrogenic effect was observed in those mills that process a combination of feedstocks (softwood and hardwood), with the highest increase in VTG related to eucalyptus feedstock. The results demonstrate significant estrogenic effects of pulp mill effluents on chronically exposed juvenile trout, suggesting that in vivo metabolic activation of precursors is necessary to cause the observed increases in VTG levels. This molecular estrogenic response provides a useful starting point for predicting population-level impacts through the adverse outcome pathway methodology. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-9. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. The importance of assessing priorities of reproductive health concerns among adolescent and young adult patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Devin; Klosky, James L; Reed, Damon R; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Shannon, Susan V; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-08-01

    Visions for the future are a normal developmental process for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with and without cancer, and these visions often include expectations of sexual and romantic relationships. AYA cancer survivors indicate reproductive health is an issue of great importance and more attention is needed in the health care setting throughout the cancer experience, beginning at diagnosis. Various practice guidelines are predominately focused on fertility; are intended to influence survivorship care plans; and do not encompass the broad scope of reproductive health that includes romantic partnering, friendships, body image, sexuality, sexual identity, fertility, contraception, and more. Although interventions to reduce reproductive health-related sequelae from treatment are best approached as an evolving process, practitioners are not certain of the priorities of these various reproductive health content areas. Strategies incongruent with the reproductive health priorities of AYAs will likely thwart adequate follow-up care and foster feelings of isolation from the treatment team. Research is needed to identify these priorities and ensure discussions of diverse content areas. This review explored various domains of reproductive health and emphasized how understanding the priorities of the AYA cancer cohort will guide future models of care.

  6. The effects of perinatal tebuconazole exposure on adult neurological, immunological, and reproductive function in rats.

    PubMed

    Moser, V C; Barone, S; Smialowicz, R J; Harris, M W; Davis, B J; Overstreet, D; Mauney, M; Chapin, R E

    2001-08-01

    Studies are under way to address concerns of potential persistent immunotoxic, reproductive, and neurotoxic effects of perinatal exposure to several pesticides. Tebuconazole, a triazole fungicide, was evaluated as part of this project. Sprague-Dawley dams were administered tebuconazole (0, 6, 20, or 60 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND)7; the pups were then dosed daily at the same levels from PND7-42. Separate groups of rats were used for testing of immunological parameters, neurobehavioral testing using a screening battery of functional tests, and cognitive evaluations. Other groups of rats were evaluated for reproductive development and function, while yet others were sacrificed at the end of the dosing period for histological analyses of major organs systems, including neuropathological assessments. Pup viability and body weight were decreased in the highest dose group. There were no differences in the fertility indices in the exposed rats mated as adults. In the sheep RBC-immunized high-dose rats, spleen weights and cellularity were increased, and the ratio of cell types was altered compared to controls. There were, however, no biologically significant changes in the immune function of these rats. At necropsy on PND46 or 152, kidney, liver, and spleen weights were altered by tebuconazole treatment, but a dose-response relationship was not clear for most organs; only decreased kidney and increased liver weights were consistent in both sexes. Histological analyses were generally unremarkable outside of the brain. One month after the end of dosing, acquisition of learning the platform location in a water tank (i.e., Morris water maze) was impaired in the high-dose group; there were no differences in neuromuscular ability, motor activity, or swim speed to account for this finding. Furthermore, there was no effect on recall of the position during a free-swim trial. Neuropathological evaluations revealed pyknotic cells across

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  8. Novel use of an ultrasonic cleaning device for fish reproductive studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, L. M.; van der Meulen, D. E.; Orchard, B. A.; Gray, C. A.

    2013-02-01

    A major challenge commonly faced in reproductive studies of teleosts is to cost effectively and safely separate oocytes from one another and from surrounding ovarian tissue. This challenge is exacerbated when ovarian tissue has been chemically preserved. Using Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus, a platycephalid species found within oceanic waters along the east coast of Australia, as an example species, within this study we describe and assess the utility of an ultrasonic cleaning device to separate oocytes from preserved ovarian tissue. The ultrasonic cleaning device was observed to separate oocytes from the surrounding ovarian tissue within less than 80 min of treatment and had no deleterious effects on the number of oocytes present. Treatment within the ultrasonic cleaning device reduced oocyte diameters at a constant rate of 3.9 μm per hour among the samples tested. As the ultrasonic cleaning device was able to separate oocytes from connective tissue within 80 min, this observed rate of reduction in oocyte diameters is unlikely to be detected at the resolution at which oocytes are traditionally measured and is less than that reported to occur using alternate chemically derived methods to separate oocytes from preserved connective tissue. Following the assessment of using an ultrasonic cleaning device to separate oocytes from ovarian tissue for P. caeruleopunctatus, this technique has been successfully employed to separate oocytes from preserved ovarian tissue for a variety of other teleost species including Macquaria colonorum, Platycephalus longispinis and Ratabulus diversidens. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning device to separate oocytes from preserved ovarian tissue will increase the efficiency of future investigations into teleost reproductive biology and potentially in other fields of research where particle separation and analysis are required.

  9. Reproductive strategies and seasonal changes in the somatic indices of seven small-bodied fishes in Atlantic Canada in relation to study design for environmental effects monitoring.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Timothy J; Brasfield, Sandra M; Carroll, Leslie C; Doyle, Meghan A; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2015-05-01

    Small-bodied fishes are more commonly being used in environmental effects monitoring (EEM) studies. There is a lack of understanding of the biological characteristics of many small-bodied species, which hinders study designs for monitoring studies. For example, 72% of fish population surveys in Canada's EEM program for pulp and paper mills that used small-bodied fishes were conducted outside of the reproductive period of the species. This resulted in an inadequate assessment of the EEM program's primary effect endpoint (reproduction) for these studies. The present study examined seasonal changes in liver size, gonad size, and condition in seven freshwater and estuarine small-bodied fishes in Atlantic Canada. These data were used to examine differences in reproductive strategies and patterns of energy storage among species. Female gonadal recrudescence in all seven species began primarily in the 2-month period in the spring before spawning. Male gonadal development was concurrent with females in five species; however, gonadal recrudescence began in the fall in male three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). The spawning period for each species was estimated from the decline in relative ovary size after its seasonal maximum value in spring. The duration of the spawning period reflected the reproductive strategy (single vs multiple spawning) of the species. Optimal sampling periods to assess reproductive impacts in each species were determined based on seasonal changes in ovary size and were identified to be during the prespawning period when gonads are developing and variability in relative gonad size is at a minimum.

  10. The Release Rate of Environmental DNA from Juvenile and Adult Fish

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Kondoh, Michio; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) technique is expected to become a powerful, non-invasive tool for estimating the distribution and biomass of organisms. This technique was recently shown to be applicable to aquatic vertebrates by collecting extraorganismal DNA floating in the water or absorbed onto suspended particles. However, basic information on eDNA release rate is lacking, despite it being essential for practical applications. In this series of experiments with bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), we examined the effect of fish developmental stage on eDNA release rate. eDNA concentration reached equilibrium 3 days after the individual fish were introduced into the separate containers, enabling calculation of the eDNA release rate (copies h−1) from individual fish on the assumption that the number of eDNA released from the fish per unit time equals total degradation in the container (copies h−1). The eDNA release rate was 3–4 times higher in the adult (body weight: 30–75 g) than in the juvenile group (0.5–2.0 g). Such positive relationship between fish size and eDNA release rate support the possibility of biomass rather than density estimation using eDNA techniques. However, the eDNA release rate per fish body weight (copies h−1 g−1) was slightly higher in the juvenile than the adult group, which is likely because of the ontogenetic reduction in metabolic activity. Therefore, quantitative eDNA data should be carefully interpreted to avoid overestimating biomass when the population is dominated by juveniles, because the age structure of the focal population is often variable and unseen in the field. eDNA degradation rates (copies l−1 h−1), calculated by curve fitting of time-dependent changes in eDNA concentrations after fish removal, were 5.1–15.9% per hour (half-life: 6.3 h). This suggests that quantitative eDNA data should be corrected using a degradation curve attained in the target field. PMID:25479160

  11. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  12. Field evidence of reproduction impairment through sperm DNA damage in the fish nase (Chondrostoma nasus) in anthropized hydrosystems.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie; Plenet, Sandrine; Sagnes, Pierre; Segura, Samuel; Suaire, Rémi; Novak, Morgane; Gilles, André; Olivier, Jean-Michel

    2015-12-01

    This work aims to explore in the field the relationship between the integrity of sperm DNA and the quality of offspring as a possible cause of the decline of a feral fish population through reproduction impairment. Mature nase (Chondrostoma nasus) were caught during the breeding season in three locations (A-C) of the Rhône River basin and gametes collected by stripping. Sampling locations were chosen according to the following gradient of contamination due to human activities on the watershed: A≤Bfish caught in the most contaminated area reached high values up to 15% and 80%, respectively, the hypothesis that the observed nase decline in Rhône River stemming through selection forces can be put forward.

  13. Small pelagic fish reproductive strategies in upwelling systems: A natal homing evolutionary model to study environmental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochier, T.; Colas, F.; Lett, C.; Echevin, V.; Cubillos, L. A.; Tam, J.; Chlaida, M.; Mullon, C.; Fréon, P.

    2009-12-01

    Although little is known about the individual-level mechanisms that influence small pelagic fish species’ reproductive strategy, Mullon et al. [Mullon, C., Cury, P., Penven, P., 2002. Evolutionary individual-based model for the recruitment of anchovy ( Engraulis capensis) in the southern Benguela. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59, 910-922] showed that the observed anchovy spawning patterns in the southern Benguela Current system off South Africa could be accurately reproduced by simulating a natal homing reproductive strategy, i.e. individuals spawning at their natal date and place. Here we used a similar method, i.e., an individual-based model of the natal homing reproductive strategy, and applied it to other upwelling systems: the northern Humboldt Current system off Peru, the southern Humboldt Current system off Chile and the central Canary Current system off Morocco. We investigated the spatial (horizontal and vertical) and seasonal spawning patterns that emerged after applying different environmental constraints in the model, and compared these to observed spawning patterns of sardine and anchovy in their respective systems. The selective environmental constraints tested were: (1) lethal temperature; (2) retention over the continental shelf; and (3) avoidance of dispersive structures. Simulated horizontal spatial patterns and seasonal patterns compared reasonably well with field data, but vertical patterns in most cases did not. Similarly to what was found for the southern Benguela, temperature was a determinant constraint in the southern Humboldt. The shelf retention constraint led to selection of a particular spawning season during the period of minimum upwelling in all three of the upwelling regions considered, and to spatial patterns that matched observed anchovy spawning off Chile and sardine spawning off Morocco. The third constraint, avoidance of dispersive structures, led to the emergence of a spawning season during the period of

  14. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Tobin, Andrew J; Coker, Darren J; Cooke, Steven J; Clark, Timothy D

    2016-11-03

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems.

  15. Screening of ecotoxicological, qualitative and reproductive variables in male European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) reared in three different fish farms: Facility location and typology.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Corsi, Ilaria; Bonacci, Stefano; Sensini, Cristiana; Cicero, Nicola; Focardi, Silvano; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both facility location and typology of fish farm on some ecotoxicological, qualitative and reproductive variables in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. Several variables were investigated: gonado-somatic index (GSI), liver-somatic index (LSI); 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase and acetylcholinesterase activities; glutathione (GSH), testosterone, 17β-estradiol, total lipid, phospholipid (PL) and triglyceride contents. In addition, the histological sections of gonads were examined. Results suggest that LSI, EROD activity, GSI, GSH, PL, hormone levels and gonad morphology were influenced by different facility locations and typologies of fish farm.

  16. Relation of water level and fish availability to wood stork reproduction in the southern Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, James A.; Ogden, John C.; Higer, Aaron L.

    1975-01-01

    The wood stork is a species of colonial wading bird in the Everglades that is most sensitive to changes in the availability of food. Previous studies have shown that the initiation and success of wood stork nesting depends on high densities of fish concentrated in ponds and other catchment basins during the dry season. The extreme dependence of the wood stork on the cyclic hydrologic regime of the southern Florida wetlands makes it an indicator of the well-being and ecological stability of the Everglades. The wood stork has declined in numbers over the last 25 years. One reason for the decline in wood stork population was the change in the hydrologic regimen of the Everglades which affected the feeding habitat and the food production. The fish on which the wood stork feeds increase in density during the dry season as water levels fall. In the Everglades marsh, densities were highest in front of the drying edge of surface water at a depth of about 0.3 m. Dry-season densities were greatest when a drought occurred the previous year. Historically wood stork nesting success was associated with high summer water levels, high rates of surface-water discharge and high rates of drying. Before the closure of the south side of Conservation Area 3 in 1962, years of successful and unsuccessful nesting were characterized by different patterns of drying. These patterns changed after 1962 and generally the predictability of successful nesting breaks down thereafter. Only two nesting years after 1962 were successful and in only one of these was the drying rate similar to years of successful nesting before 1962. Two other potentially successful years failed after 1962. This suggests that further changes in the hydrobiological relations occurred within the Everglades after 1962. Lack of successful nesting after 1962 can be attributed in large part to late colony formation and the interruption of nesting by winter rainfall. In this period (1962-72), colonies formed earlier in years of

  17. Identification of Sex and Female’s Reproductive Stage in Commercial Fish Species through the Quantification of Ribosomal Transcripts in Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Diez, Guzman; Cancio, Ibon

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of maturity and sex of fish stocks in European waters is a requirement of the EU Data Collection Framework as part of the policy to improve fisheries management. On the other hand, research on fish biology is increasingly focused in molecular approaches, researchers needing correct identification of fish sex and reproductive stage without necessarily having in house the histological know-how necessary for the task. Taking advantage of the differential gene transcription occurring during fish sex differentiation and gametogenesis, the utility of 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) and General transcription factor IIIA (gtf3a) in the molecular identification of sex and gametogenic stage was tested in different economically-relevant fish species from the Bay of Biscay. Gonads of 9 fish species (, Atlantic, Atlantic-chub and horse mackerel, blue whiting, bogue, European anchovy, hake and pilchard and megrim), collected from local commercial fishing vessels were histologically sexed and 5S and 18S rRNA concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis to calculate a 5S/18S rRNA index. Degenerate primers permitted cloning and sequencing of gtf3a fragments in 7 of the studied species. 5S rRNA and gtf3a transcript levels, together with 5S/18S rRNA index, distinguished clearly ovaries from testis in all of the studied species. The values were always higher in females than in males. 5S/18S rRNA index values in females were always highest when fish were captured in early phases of ovary development whilst, in later vitellogenic stages, the values decreased significantly. In megrim and European anchovy, where gonads in different oogenesis stages were obtained, the 5S/18S rRNA index identified clearly gametogenic stage. This approach, to the sexing and the quantitative non-subjective identification of the maturity stage of female fish, could have multiple applications in the study of fish stock dynamics, fish reproduction and fecundity and fish biology in

  18. Young adult donor bone marrow infusions into female mice postpone age-related reproductive failure and improve offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Selesniemi, Kaisa; Lee, Ho-Joon; Niikura, Teruko; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2008-11-14

    The female reproductive axis is the first major organ system of the body to fail with advancing age. In addition to a permanent cessation of fertile potential, the loss of cyclic ovarian function in humans heralds the onset of menopause, which in turn underlies the emergence of a diverse spectrum of health issues in aging women. Recently, it was reported that bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) into adult female mice conditioned a week earlier with highly cytotoxic drugs rescues ovarian function and fertility. Herein we show in mice receiving no prior conditioning regimen that once-monthly infusions of BM-derived cells retrieved from young adult female donors bearing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene sustain the fertile potential of aging wild-type females long past their time of normal reproductive senescence. The fertility-promoting effects of female donor BM are observed regardless whether the infusions are initiated in young adult or middle-aged females. Although the mechanism by which BM infusions benefit the reproductive performance of aging females remains to be elucidated, the absence of EGFP-expressing offspring suggests that it does not depend on development of mature eggs derived from germline-committed cells in the donor marrow. However, donor BM-derived somatic cells accumulate in the recipients, indicating efficient donor cell engraftment without prior conditioning. These findings provide a strong impetus to further explore development of adult stem cell-based technologies to safely extend function of the female reproductive axis into advanced age without the need for toxic pre-conditioning protocols routinely used in other models of stem cell delivery.

  19. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change.

  20. Antioxidant enzyme activity and mRNA expression in reproductive tract of adult male European Bison (Bison bonasus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Gilun, P; Fraser, L; Koziorowski, M; Kordan, W; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidants in the male reproductive tract are the main defence factors against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species production, which compromises sperm function and male fertility. This study was designed to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the testicular and epididymidal tissues of adult male European bison (Bison bonasus). The reproductive tract tissues were subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis to quantify mRNA expression levels of five antioxidant enzymes: copper/zinc SOD (Cu/Zn SOD), secretory extracellular SOD (Ec-SOD), CAT, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and GPx5. The corpus and cauda epididymidal tissues displayed greater (p < 0.05) SOD activity compared with the testicular tissue. It was found that CAT activity was lowest (p < 0.05) in the cauda epididymidis, whereas negligible GPx activity was detected in the reproductive tract tissues. There were no detectable differences in the mRNA expression level of Cu/Zn SOD among the different reproductive tract tissues. Small amounts of Ec-SOD mRNA were found in the reproductive tract, particularly in the epididymides. The caput and cauda epididymides exhibited greater (p < 0.05) level of CAT mRNA expression, whereas PHGPx mRNA was more (p < 0.05) expressed in the testis. Furthermore, extremely large amounts of GPx5 mRNA were detected in the caput epididymidal tissue compared with other tissues of the reproductive tract. It can be suggested that the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and the relative gene expression of the enzymes confirm the presence of tissue-specific antioxidant defence systems in the bison reproductive tract, which are required for spermatogenesis, epididymal maturation and storage of spermatozoa.

  1. Forebrain AVT and courtship in a fish with male alternative reproductive tactics.

    PubMed

    Grober, Matthew S; George, Andrew A; Watkins, Kelly K; Carneiro, Luis A; Oliveira, Rui F

    In this paper, we present the results of cellular and molecular studies on the neuroendocrine correlates of male sexual polymorphism in a population of the blenniid fish Salaria pavo (Risso). Bigger and older males defend nests, whereas smaller and younger males mimic female nuptial coloration and behavior to gain access to nests and sneak fertilizations. In this population, sex-role reversal in courtship also occurs (i.e., females are the courting sex). Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to examine the production of arginine vasotocin (AVT) peptide and messenger RNA, respectively. The expression of AVT mRNA on a per-cell basis was correlated with mating behavior, rather than with sex morphotype, which suggests that the greater level of AVT mRNA expression in females and sneakers is correlated with the production of courtship behavior. On the other hand, the number and size of AVT peptide-producing cells in both male types is higher or larger, respectively, than in females, which suggests that it is correlated with sex morphotype, rather than with mating behavior.

  2. Electrocommunication signals alone are sufficient to increase neurogenesis in the brain of adult electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Kent D; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Jashari, Denisa

    2008-10-01

    Social interaction can have profound influences on the structure of the adult brain, but little is known about the precise stimulus feature found within social interaction that induces such brain plasticity. We examined the effects of social stimuli on cell addition and radial glial fiber formation in the brains of adult electric fish. These fish communicate primarily through weak, quasi-sinusoidal electric signals. Fish were housed in isolation, paired with another fish or exposed to only the electrocommunication signals of another fish for 7 days. After 3 days of exposure to these stimulus conditions, fish were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to mark newborn cells. We sacrificed the fish 4 days after BrdU injection and used immunohistochemistry to measure cell addition (BrdU+), the fraction of added cells that differentiated into neurons (BrdU+/NeuroTrace+) and the density of radial glia fibers (vimentin+) in the periventricular zone of the diencephalon. Fish that were exposed only to the electrocommunication signals of another fish and no other social stimuli had equivalent levels of cell addition and radial glial fiber density to fish that were housed with full social interaction and higher levels than fish housed in isolation. About 60% of the added cells differentiated into neurons; this fraction did not differ among treatment groups. Artificial sine wave electrical stimuli that mimicked electrocommunication signals were ineffective in increasing cell addition and glia fiber formation above those found in isolated fish. Thus, stimuli through a single modality are sufficient for inducing this brain plasticity, but the waveform or dynamic features of communication signals are crucial for the effect.

  3. Plate-like permanent dental laminae of upper jaw dentition in adult gobiid fish, Sicyopterus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Keita; Watanabe, Shun; Iida, Midori; Sahara, Noriyuki

    2010-04-01

    Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae) possesses a unique upper jaw dentition different from that known for any other teleosts. In the adults, many (up to 30) replacement teeth, from initiation to attachment, are arranged orderly in a semicircular-like strand within a capsule of connective tissue on the labial side of each premaxillary bone. We have applied histological, ultrastructural, and three-dimensional imaging from serial sections to obtain insights into the distribution and morphological features of the dental lamina in the upper jaw dentition of adult S. japonicus. The adult fish has numerous permanent dental laminae, each of which is an infolding of the oral epithelium at the labial side of the functional tooth and forms a thin plate-like structure with a wavy contour. All replacement teeth of a semicircular-like strand are connected to the plate-like dental lamina by the outer dental epithelium and form a tooth family; neighboring tooth families are completely separated from each other. The new tooth germ directly buds off from the ventro-labial margin of the dental lamina, whereas no distinct free end of the dental lamina is present, even adjacent to this region. Cell proliferation concentrated at the ventro-labial margin of the dental lamina suggests that this region is the site for repeated tooth initiation. During tooth development, the replacement tooth migrates along a semicircular-like strand and eventually erupts through the dental lamina into the oral epithelium at the labial side of the functional tooth. This unique thin plate-like permanent dental lamina and the semicircular-like strand of replacement teeth in the upper jaw dentition of adult S. japonicus probably evolved as a dental adaptation related to the rapid replacement of teeth dictated by the specialized feeding habit of this algae-scraping fish.

  4. Reproduction and Feeding of the Electric Fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio (Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae) and the Discussion of a Life History Pattern for Gymnotiforms from High Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Giora, Julia; Tarasconi, Hellen M.; Fialho, Clarice B.

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive biology and feeding habits of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio were studied. The species has seasonal reproductive behavior, with breeding occurring during the Southern Hemisphere spring and summer, and having a positive relation with the photoperiod variation. Brachyhypopomus gauderio was defined as a fractional spawner, with low relative fecundity and high first maturation size. Sexual dimorphism was registered, males undergoing hypertrophy of the distal portion of caudal filament. The results on reproductive biology herein obtained are in agreement with data concerning gymnotiforms from Southern Brazil and Uruguay, pointing to an ecological pattern for the species from high latitudes, differing from species with tropical distribution. According to the analysis of the food items, B. gauderio feed mainly on autochthonous insects, likewise the other gymnotiforms previously investigated, leading to conclude that there is no variation on the diet of the species of the order related to climatic conditions or even to habitat of occurrence. PMID:25207924

  5. Reproduction and feeding of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio (Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae) and the discussion of a life history pattern for gymnotiforms from high latitudes.

    PubMed

    Giora, Julia; Tarasconi, Hellen M; Fialho, Clarice B

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive biology and feeding habits of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio were studied. The species has seasonal reproductive behavior, with breeding occurring during the Southern Hemisphere spring and summer, and having a positive relation with the photoperiod variation. Brachyhypopomus gauderio was defined as a fractional spawner, with low relative fecundity and high first maturation size. Sexual dimorphism was registered, males undergoing hypertrophy of the distal portion of caudal filament. The results on reproductive biology herein obtained are in agreement with data concerning gymnotiforms from Southern Brazil and Uruguay, pointing to an ecological pattern for the species from high latitudes, differing from species with tropical distribution. According to the analysis of the food items, B. gauderio feed mainly on autochthonous insects, likewise the other gymnotiforms previously investigated, leading to conclude that there is no variation on the diet of the species of the order related to climatic conditions or even to habitat of occurrence.

  6. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (P< 0·05), 2 h postprandial glucose (P< 0·05) and glucose-area under the curve (AUC) (five measurements over 2 h, P< 0·05) after fish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (P< 0·05), concomitant with increased 30 min and decreased 90 min and 2 h insulin C-peptide level (P< 0·05), and reduced LDL-cholesterol (P< 0·05). Body muscle % was increased (P< 0·05) and body fat % was reduced (P< 0·05) after 4 weeks' supplementation. Physical activity and energy and macronutrients intake did not change during the course of the study. In conclusion, short-term daily supplementation with a low dose of fish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  7. Morphometric analysis of Mauthner axon cytoskeletal components in adult and subadult fish.

    PubMed

    Alfei, L; Medolago-Albani, L; Zezze, G M; Stefanelli, A

    1992-01-01

    A previous cytoskeletal analysis on trout MA during developmental stages demonstrated, during the subadult stages, neurofilaments (NF) as main components as expressed by the high values of neurofilament to microtubules (MT) ratio which was found to be of the order of 300:1. Since the MA cytoskeletal composition is not known in the adult fish, the MA cytoskeletal composition has been compared to other axons of much smaller diameter of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis (flm) among which the MA run in the ventral spinal cord. The following parameters were measured on conventional electron microscopy in MA and flm axons cross sections micrographs by means of a computer linked graphic tablet (Apple II): axonal caliber, number of microtubules (MT), microtubular (MT/microns2) and neurofilament (NF/microns2) densities. The analysis of these parameters demonstrated that neurofilaments are the main architectural components in the adult and subadult fish MA and flm axons. However, MA cytoskeletal composition differs from the other flm axons because of its particular very high ratio of neurofilaments to microtubules. The inverse relationship of axonal caliber to microtubular density, previously found in the trout during developmental stages and suggested also for many other vertebrate species, was further confirmed for flm axons which, with calibers 10 times smaller than MA, exhibit a microtubular density 10 times larger.

  8. p53 Mutation suppresses adult neurogenesis in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Isoe, Yasuko; Okuyama, Teruhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Kubo, Takeo; Takeuchi, Hideaki

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Progenitor migration is accompanied by an increase in their numbers in the adult brain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 Mutation suppressed an increase in the number of the migrated progenitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decreased progenitor number is not due to enhanced cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 Mutation did not affect proliferation of stem cells. -- Abstract: Tumor suppressor p53 negatively regulates self-renewal of neural stem cells in the adult murine brain. Here, we report that the p53 null mutation in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) suppressed neurogenesis in the telencephalon, independent of cell death. By using 5-bromo-29-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, we identified 18 proliferation zones in the brains of young medaka fish; in situ hybridization showed that p53 was expressed selectively in at least 12 proliferation zones. We also compared the number of BrdU-positive cells present in the whole telencephalon of wild-type (WT) and p53 mutant fish. Immediately after BrdU exposure, the number of BrdU-positive cells did not differ significantly between them. One week after BrdU-exposure, the BrdU-positive cells migrated from the proliferation zone, which was accompanied by an increased number in the WT brain. In contrast, no significant increase was observed in the p53 mutant brain. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP) nick end-labeling revealed that there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells in the telencephalon of p53 mutant and WT medaka, suggesting that the decreased number of BrdU-positive cells in the mutant may be due to the suppression of proliferation rather than the enhancement of neural cell death. These results suggest that p53 positively regulates neurogenesis via cell proliferation.

  9. Farnesoid X receptor immunolocalization in reproductive tissues of adult female rabbits.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Hernández, Arely; Méndez-Tepepa, Maribel; Hernández-Aragón, Laura G; Pacheco, Pablo; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2014-07-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been involved in lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and aromatase expression, as well as in the steroid synthesis and signaling. Considering that these events occur in reproductive tissues in females, the aim of the present study was to determine the immunolocalization of FXR in the ovary, oviduct, uterus, and vagina of rabbits. Rabbits were sacrificed and their reproductive tissues were excised and histologically processed. Immunohistochemistry for FXR was done and reproductive tissues were photographed. FXR immunoreactivity was found in all types of ovarian follicles, ovarian stroma, and corpus luteum of virgin and pregnant rabbits. Also, oviductal and vaginal epithelium of virgins, as well as the oviductal smooth muscle, showed anti-FXR immunoreactivity. The uterine epithelium and musculature of virgins had scarce anti-FXR immunoreactivity. Although the role of FXR in female reproductive tissues is still not known, it is possible to consider various functions related to the reproductive tissue.

  10. Mycobacteria in adult salmonid fishes returning to national fish hatcheries in Washington, Oregon and California in 1958-59

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.

    1963-01-01

    Incidence of acid-fast bacillus infections in salmonid fishes at West Coast hatcheries was determined for 1957-59. No evidence was obtained which would indicate a definite trend towards either increased or decreased rates of infection. It is apparent that the incidence of infection is higher in hatchery-marked fish than in unmarked fish. Only one hatchery was found free of infection during the 3 years covered by the investigation. This installation had never used raw salmon products in diet.

  11. Proliferation zones in the brain of adult fish Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiform: Rivulidae): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A S; Rosillo, J C; Casanova, G; Olivera-Bravo, S

    2011-08-25

    In contrast with mammals, adult fish brains exhibit an enormous potential to produce new cells. Proliferation zones, however, have been described in only a few species, hindering comparisons among genuses and orders. Here we analyzed brain cell proliferation in annual teleostean fishes Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiform: Rivulidae). Immunocytochemistry against 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was quantitated and mapped 24 h after injection in three species with different phylogenetic positions or habitats. All species had similar brain anatomy and total volume, but olfactory bulbs, torus longitudinalis and cerebellum were of different sizes in different species. Cell proliferation was found throughout the brain. Three-D reconstructions provided evidence for contiguity along the rostro-caudal axis and concentration in the vicinity of the ventricles. Brain regions analyzed exhibited high mitotic activity, and the torus longitudinalis had the highest volume-normalized proliferation index. A. affinis exhibited the highest normalized proliferation indexes in visual regions but the lowest in olfactory bulb. A. reicherti showed an inverse pattern, suggesting that these species have a different hierarchy of sensorial modalities that could be related to phylogeny or habitat. Double immunostaining against BrdU and cell-type specific markers was performed to determine the fate of proliferating cells. A widespread gliogenesis was evidenced. Few cells positive for both BrdU and the neuronal marker HuC/D were found in the brain of the three species, demonstrating neurogenesis in the adult Austrolebias brain. Summarizing, adult members of the three species showed similar brain anatomy and cell proliferation patterns. Among species, volume-normalized proliferation indexes varied in regions involved in different sensory modalities. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing proliferating cells with neuronal markers as earlier as 24 h after BrdU injection.

  12. Characteristic features of reproductive hormone profiles in late adolescent and adult females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doehnert, Ulla; Bertelloni, Silvano; Werner, Ralf; Dati, Eleonora; Hiort, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about gonadotropins and sex steroid levels in postpubertal women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). In order to define reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS and intact gonads, 42 postpubertal females with proven CAIS (age range 14-50 years) with testes in situ were examined. Reproductive hormone values [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] were assessed by commercially available immunoassays. In women with CAIS, LH levels (median 18.5 IU/l, range 5.5-51.1 IU/l) were elevated above the usual adult reference ranges, whereas FSH values (3.5 IU/l, 0.4-16.3 IU/l) were not. Basal T (20 nmol/l, 6-52 nmol/l) and E2 values (113 pmol/l; 18-257 pmol/l) were found in the usual adult male reference ranges; SHBG levels (53 nmol/l, 15-180 nmol/l) were in the adult female reference range. Calculated free androgen indices (Tx10³/SHBG: 380, 114-863) and aromatization indices (E2/T: 0.052, 0.020-0.196) did not differ from the reference ranges for adult men given in the literature (Tx10³/SHBG: 315-936; E2/T: 0.03-0.07). Reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS do not follow the usual male/female pattern, suggesting a specific postpubertal hormone milieu. Albeit calculation of CAIS-specific reference ranges requires larger series and standardization of laboratory methods, these results may be a prerequisite for the identification of pathologic hormone patterns in women with CAIS and gonads in situ. The present data will also be useful to monitor hormone replacement therapy in individuals with removed gonads.

  13. Subacute and Reproductive Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Hydroethanolic Extract of Jacaranda decurrens Roots in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joyce Alencar; Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Piccinelli, Ana Cláudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença (Bignoniaceae) is a species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Previous findings from our group reported scientifically that J. decurrens has anti-inflammatory efficacy. However, more toxicological studies are needed to support and ensure its safe use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of a prolonged treatment with hydroethanolic root extract of J. decurrens (EJD) on hematological, biochemical, and reproductive parameters in adult male rats. The animals received by oral gavage 0; 250; 500; or 1000 mg/kg body weight of EJD for 28 days. After the treatment, biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and reproductive parameters were analyzed. The EJD treatment did not cause adverse effects on body weight gain, feed and water consumption, hematological and biochemical profiles, or histopathological analysis of liver and kidney. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in reproductive parameters, such as sperm production, number of sperm in the epididymis, and sperm morphology. These results demonstrate the absence of subacute toxicity as a result of the oral treatment with EJD for 28 days in adult male rats. However, other studies should be performed to evaluate the total safety of this plant.

  14. Diploidized eggs reprogram adult somatic cell nuclei to pluripotency in nuclear transfer in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Kaftanovskaya, Elena; Motosugi, Nami; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Arai, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Masato; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Ozato, Kenjiro; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2007-12-01

    Reprogramming of adult somatic cell nuclei to pluripotency has been unsuccessful in non-mammalian animals, primarily because of chromosomal aberrations in nuclear transplants, which are considered to be caused by asynchrony between the cell cycles of the recipient egg and donor nucleus. In order to normalize the chromosomal status, we used diploidized eggs by retention of second polar body release, instead of enucleated eggs, as recipients in nuclear transfer of primary culture cells from the caudal fin of adult green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) transgenic medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We found that 2.7% of the reconstructed embryos grew into adults that expressed GFP in various tissues in the same pattern as in the donor fish. Moreover, these fish were diploid, fertile and capable of passing the marker gene to the next generation in Mendelian fashion. We hesitate to call these fish 'clones' because we used non-enucleated eggs as recipients; in effect, they may be chimeras consisting of cells derived from diploid recipient nuclei and donor nuclei. In either case, fish adult somatic cell nuclei were reprogrammed to pluripotency and differentiated into a variety of cell types including germ cells via the use of diploidized recipient eggs.

  15. Mode of action of human pharmaceuticals in fish: the effects of the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride, on reproduction as a case study.

    PubMed

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Hannah, Robert E; Sumpter, John P

    2013-03-15

    In recent years, a growing number of human pharmaceuticals have been detected in the aquatic environment, generally at low concentrations (sub-ng/L-low μg/L). In most cases, these compounds are characterised by highly specific modes of action, and the evolutionary conservation of drug targets in wildlife species suggests the possibility that pharmaceuticals present in the environment may cause toxicological effects by acting through the same targets as they do in humans. Our research addressed the question of whether or not dutasteride, a pharmaceutical used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, may cause adverse effects in a teleost fish, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), by inhibiting the activity of both isoforms of 5α-reductase (5αR), the enzyme that converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Mammalian pharmacological and toxicological information were used to guide the experimental design and the selection of relevant endpoints, according to the so-called "read-across approach", suggesting that dutasteride may affect male fertility and steroid hormone dynamics. Therefore, a 21-day reproduction study was conducted to determine the effects of dutasteride (10, 32 and 100 μg/L) on fish reproduction. Exposure to dutasteride significantly reduced fecundity of fish and affected several aspects of reproductive endocrine functions in both males and females. However, none of the observed adverse effects occurred at concentrations of exposure lower than 32 μg/L; this, together with the low volume of drug prescribed every year (10.34 kg in the UK in 2011), and the extremely low predicted environmental concentration (0.03 ng/L), suggest that, at present, the potential presence of dutasteride in the environment does not represent a threat to wild fish populations.

  16. Reproductive Health Issues for Adults with a Common Genomic Disorder: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chrystal; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Silversides, Candice K.; Chow, Eva W.C.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Survival to reproductive age and beyond is now the norm. Several manifestations of this syndrome, such as congenital cardiac disease and neuropsychiatric disorders, may increase risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the general population. However, there are limited data on reproductive health in 22q11.2DS. We performed a retrospective chart review for 158 adults with 22q11.2DS (75 male, 83 female; mean age 34.3 years) and extracted key variables relevant to pregnancy and reproductive health. We present four illustrative cases as brief vignettes. There were 25 adults (21>age 35 years; 21 female) with a history of one or more pregnancies. Outcomes for women with 22q11.2DS, compared with expectations for the general population, showed a significantly elevated prevalence of small for gestational age liveborn offspring (p<0.001), associated mainly with infants with 22q11.2DS. Stillbirths also showed elevated prevalence (p<0.05). Not all observed adverse events appeared to be attributable to transmission of the 22q11.2 deletion. Recurring issues relevant to reproductive health in 22q11.2DS included the potential impact of maternal morbidities, inadequate social support, unsafe sexual practices, and delayed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS and/or lack of genetic counseling. These preliminary results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and long term follow-up that could help facilitate genetic counseling for men and women with 22q11.2DS. We propose initial recommendations for pre-conception management, educational strategies, pre-natal planning, and preparation for possible high-risk pregnancy and/or delivery. PMID:25579115

  17. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  18. Indirect Effects of Impoundment on Migrating Fish: Temperature Gradients in Fish Ladders Slow Dam Passage by Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Christopher C.; Keefer, Matthew L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Naughton, George P.; Burke, Brian J.; Peery, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  19. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus).

    PubMed

    Reichard, Martin; Ondracková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, Carl; Bryja, Josef

    2009-02-01

    The spatial distribution of breeding resources can have pronounced demographic and evolutionary consequences. We used 20 experimental groups of the bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), an annual fish with a promiscuous, resource-based mating system, and extended breeding season to investigate how the spatial distribution (clumped or regular) of bitterling oviposition sites (live freshwater mussels) affected offspring production, variation in reproductive success, and directional selection on phenotypic traits over their entire reproductive lifetime. We did not detect any effect of resource distribution on offspring production or variation in reproductive success among individual fish, although variation between replicates was higher with a clumped distribution. This finding is discussed with regard to the incidence of alternative mating behaviors (sneaking) within the limitations imposed by our experimental design. Breeding resource distribution had a significant effect on selection on male phenotypic traits. Stronger directional selection on traits associated with intrasexual competition for fertilizations, gonad mass (an indicator of sperm competition), and the extent of red, carotenoid-based pigment in the iris (an index of dominance status), was detected with a clumped resource distribution. With a regular resource distribution, a stronger positive selection on male body size was detected. We discuss the implications of our results for natural populations.

  20. Short-term fish reproduction assays with methyl tertiary butyl ether with zebrafish and fathead minnow: Implications for evaluation of potential for endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Mihaich, Ellen; Erler, Steffen; Le Blanc, Gerald; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-09-01

    The authors report on short-term fish reproduction assays in zebrafish and fathead minnow conducted to examine the potential for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to cause effects on the endocrine system. Both studies were performed under good laboratory practice and in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and US Environmental Protection Agency test guidelines. The results of the first study demonstrated that exposure to a high test concentration (147 mg/L) of MTBE impaired reproductive output of female zebrafish, evident by a reduction in fecundity. Based on the endpoints evaluated in the present study however, there was no supporting evidence to indicate that this effect was caused by disruption of or interaction with the endocrine system. In the second study, fathead minnows exposed to a wider but lower range of test concentrations showed no effects on any reproductive parameter of male or female fish, at the maximum recommended testing concentration of 100 mg/L (62 mg/L measured). The results of these 2 guideline studies indicate that MTBE does not interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of zebrafish or fathead minnow.

  1. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ceinos, Rosa M; Guillot, Raúl; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José M; Rotllant, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern.

  2. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  3. Community-Based Adult Education for the Fisherwomen of Rajapalyam Fishing Village in Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    Rajapalyam village is located in the Tuticorin district along the biodiversity rich Gulf of Mannar coast in southeastern India. The people of this village are economically backward and most of the men are engaged in fishing. The fisherwomen of this village are less literate than the men, or illiterate. Adult education has been introduced to the…

  4. Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

  5. The Consequences of Feminization in Breeding Groups of Wild Fish

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Catherine A.; Hamilton, Patrick B.; Runnalls, Tamsin J.; Vinciotti, Veronica; Henshaw, Alan; Hodgson, Dave; Coe, Tobias S.; Jobling, Susan; Tyler, Charles R.; Sumpter, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The feminization of nature by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a key environmental issue affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. A crucial and as yet unanswered question is whether EDCs have adverse impacts on the sustainability of wildlife populations. There is widespread concern that intersex fish are reproductively compromised, with potential population-level consequences. However, to date, only in vitro sperm quality data are available in support of this hypothesis. Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether wild endocrine-disrupted fish can compete successfully in a realistic breeding scenario. Methods In two competitive breeding experiments using wild roach (Rutilus rutilus), we used DNA microsatellites to assign parentage and thus determine reproductive success of the adults. Results In both studies, the majority of intersex fish were able to breed, albeit with varying degrees of success. In the first study, where most intersex fish were only mildly feminized, body length was the only factor correlated with reproductive success. In the second study, which included a higher number of more severely intersex fish, reproductive performance was negatively correlated with severity of intersex. The intersex condition reduced reproductive performance by up to 76% for the most feminized individuals in this study, demonstrating a significant adverse effect of intersex on reproductive performance. Conclusion Feminization of male fish is likely to be an important determinant of reproductive performance in rivers where there is a high prevalence of moderately to severely feminized males. PMID:21362587

  6. Biology of the harlequin fish Othos dentex (Serranidae), with particular emphasis on sexual pattern and other reproductive characteristics.

    PubMed

    French, B; Potter, I C; Hesp, S A; Coulson, P G; Hall, N G

    2014-01-01

    Key biological characteristics of the harlequin fish Othos dentex, a representative of a monospecific genus of the Anthiinae (Serranidae), were determined from samples collected around reefs on the south coast of Western Australia. The females of this relatively long-lived species (maximum recorded age in this study = 37 years) attained only a slightly greater maximum total length and age than males and neither the length nor the age-frequency distributions showed a conspicuous sex-based bimodality. Furthermore, gonads from a wide size and age range of O. dentex were shown by histology, at several locations along their length, to always comprise exclusively either ovarian or testicular tissues. Thus, O. dentex is a gonochorist, a sexual pattern only previously recorded definitively for one other anthiine serranid, i.e. Epinephelides armatus, which also occurs in south-western Australia. Similar to E. armatus, O. dentex possesses 'solid' testes with a central sperm duct, thereby differing in structure from those typically found in serranids, in which there is a central membrane-bound 'ovarian' lumen and peripherally located sperm sinuses. The gonadal characteristics and sexual pattern of these two gonochoristic anthiines are not consistent with a recent proposal for the trends exhibited by the evolution of gonochorism and protogyny within the Serranidae. Othos dentex has indeterminate fecundity and a protracted spawning period (7 months) and, on the basis of underwater observations and a low gonado-somatic index (I(G)) for males, is a pair spawner, which is unusual for a gonochorist of a serranid or member of a related family. While the large spots on the lower half of the body of O. dentex are shown quantitatively to be similarly yellow in juveniles and adult females, they then become blue in males at maturity and this intensifies during the spawning period, when they presumably play an important role in agonistic interactions among males and courtship with

  7. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-11-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors.

  8. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-01-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors. PMID:12454077

  9. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  10. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.

  11. The effect of red wine consumption on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Michał; Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Stachoń, Małgorzata; Kołota, Aleksandra; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Malik, Agnieszka; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rusaczonek, Anna; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Very little is known about the effects of red wine consumption on male reproductive functions. Here we report the effect of regular drinking of different types of red wine on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats. Dry red wine (D-RW) exerted higher antioxidant activity and was characterized by higher concentration of phenolic compounds compared to semi-dry (SD-RW), sweet (S-RW) and semi-sweet (SS-RW) wines. No differences in total antioxidant status of rat plasma after six weeks of drinking of the wines were detected. Increased plasma follicle-stimulating hormone levels in S-RW versus control and D-RW (5.26 vs. 3.06 and 3.21 ng mL(-1)) groups were found. The plasma testosterone concentration was lower in D-RW compared to control, SD-RW, S-RW and SS-RW groups (0.25 vs. 1.12, 1.09, 1.54 and 1.25 ng mL(-1)). Higher plasma 17β-estradiol level in S-RW versus SD-RW and SS-RW (10.94 vs. 7.18 and 6.72 pg mL(-1)) group was stated. The prolactin level was higher in plasma of S-RW versus D-RW and SS-RW (17.35 vs. 9.74 and 8.59 ng mL(-1)) rats. The effects of red wine drinking on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system depend on the type and the dose of red wine. Chemical compounds naturally occurring in red wines (i.e. phenolics) may modulate the effects of ethyl alcohol, but also directly affect the male reproduction.

  12. Methoprene effects on survival and reproductive performance of adult female and male Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Brabant, Peter Joseph; Dobson, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    Methoprene is a juvenile hormone analog commonly used for the control of mosquito larvae. It acts through interference with normal metamorphosis, resulting in mortality prior to and during adult emergence. Methoprene is not commonly used for the control of adult mosquitoes, due to an absence of acute effects. Here, we have evaluated for chronic effects caused by the exposure of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to methoprene. We applied methoprene to adults, both through 1) topical application to the abdomen and 2) as an aerosol, examining for treatment effects on ovary development, adult longevity, and fecundity. The results demonstrate that relatively high doses are required to affect adult survivorship. In contrast, significant impacts on both fecundity and egg hatch were observed in females treated at the lower dosages. We discuss the results in relation to autocidal strategies for mosquito control in which the release of fecund females is to be avoided.

  13. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  14. Co-expression and interaction of cubilin and megalin in the adult male rat reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Van Praet, Oliver; Argraves, W Scott; Morales, Carlos R

    2003-02-01

    Cubilin is a peripheral membrane protein that cooperates with the endocytic receptor megalin to mediate endocytosis of ligands in various polarized epithelia. Megalin is expressed in the male reproductive tract where it has been implicated in the process of sperm membrane remodeling. A potential role for cubilin in the male reproductive tract has not been explored. Using RT-PCR, we found that cubilin and megalin mRNAs are expressed in the efferent ducts, corpus and cauda epididymis, and proximal and distal vas deferens. Immunohistological analysis revealed that cubilin was expressed in nonciliated cells of the efferent ducts, principal cells of the corpus and cauda epididymis and vas deferens. Immunogold EM showed cubilin in endocytic pits, endocytic vesicles, and endosomes of these cells. The expression profile of cubilin in the male reproductive tract was coincident with that of megalin except in principal cells of the caput epididymis. Double immunogold labeling showed that cubilin and megalin co-localized within the endocytic apparatus and recycling vesicles of efferent duct cells. Neither protein was found in lysosomes. Injection of RAP, an antagonist of megalin interaction with cubilin, reduced the level of intracellular cubilin in cells of the efferent ducts and vas deferens. In conclusion, cubilin and megalin are co-expressed in cells of the epididymis and vas deferens and the endocytosis of cubilin in these tissues is dependent on megalin. Together, these findings highlight the potential for a joint endocytic role for cubilin and megalin in the male reproductive tract.

  15. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). SNOOK,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FISHES, *MARINE BIOLOGY , ADULTS, RECREATION, SEASONS, COMMERCIAL FISHING, ECOLOGY , ENVIRONMENTS, REQUIREMENTS, PRESSURE, BRACKISH WATER, INSHORE...AREAS, STREAMS, TIDES, COASTAL REGIONS, DEGRADATION, HABITATS, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, ESTUARIES, FRESH WATER, OCEANS, INVERTEBRATES, HISTORY, LIFE( BIOLOGY ...LIMITATIONS, LOW LEVEL, LOW TEMPERATURE, POPULATION, SALTS, SWAMPS, PROFILES, YOUTH, DOCUMENTS, WATER, FISHERIES, FLORIDA, SOUTH(DIRECTION), TAXONOMY , LIFE CYCLES, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY)

  16. Stage-specific biomass overcompensation by juveniles in response to increased adult mortality in a wild fish population.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Øystein; Edeline, Eric; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2011-12-01

    Recently developed theoretical models of stage-structured consumer-resource systems have shown that stage-specific biomass overcompensation can arise in response to increased mortality rates. We parameterized a stage-structured population model to simulate the effects of increased adult mortality caused by a pathogen outbreak in the perch (Perca fluviatilis) population of Windermere (UK) in 1976. The model predicts biomass overcompensation by juveniles in response to increased adult mortality due to a shift in food-dependent growth and reproduction rates. Considering cannibalism between life stages in the model reinforces this compensatory response due to the release from predation on juveniles at high mortality rates. These model predictions are matched by our analysis of a 60-year time series of scientific monitoring of Windermere perch, which shows that the pathogen outbreak induced a strong decrease in adult biomass and a corresponding increase in juvenile biomass. Age-specific adult fecundity and size at age were higher after than before the disease outbreak, suggesting that the pathogen-induced mortality released adult perch from competition, thereby increasing somatic and reproductive growth. Higher juvenile survival after the pathogen outbreak due to a release from cannibalism likely contributed to the observed biomass overcompensation. Our findings have general implications for predicting population- and community-level responses to increased size-selective mortality caused by exploitation or disease outbreaks.

  17. Effects of Two Endocrine-active Pharmaceuticals, Tamoxifen and Anastrozole, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended, adverse impacts on the reproduction of aquatic organisms, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with ...

  18. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Coleen C; Clark, Melody S; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A; Thorne, Michael A S; Harper, Elizabeth M; Peck, Lloyd S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. Adults took at least 6-8 months to acclimate to the altered conditions, but beyond this, there was no detectable effect of temperature or pH. Animals were spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered conditions, with markedly different outcomes. At 6 months, the percentage hatching and larval survival rates were greatest in the animals kept at 0 °C under current pH conditions, whilst those under lowered pH and +2 °C performed significantly less well. After 17 months, performance was not significantly different across treatments, including controls. However, under the altered conditions urchins produced larger eggs compared with control animals. These data show that under long-term culture adult S. neumayeri appear to acclimate their metabolic and reproductive physiology to the combined stressors of altered pH and increased temperature, with relatively little measureable effect. They also emphasize the importance of long-term studies in evaluating effects of altered pH, particularly in slow developing marine species with long gonad maturation times, as the effects of altered conditions cannot be accurately evaluated unless gonads have fully matured under the new conditions.

  19. Regenerating Fish Optic Nerves and a Regeneration-Like Response in Injured Optic Nerves of Adult Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M.; Belkin, M.; Harel, A.; Solomon, A.; Lavie, V.; Hadani, M.; Rachailovich, I.; Stein-Izsak, C.

    1985-05-01

    Regeneration of fish optic nerve (representing regenerative central nervous system) was accompanied by increased activity of regeneration-triggering factors produced by nonneuronal cells. A graft of regenerating fish optic nerve, or a ``wrap-around'' implant containing medium conditioned by it, induced a response associated with regeneration in injured optic nerves of adult rabbits (representing a nonregenerative central nervous system). This response was manifested by an increase of general protein synthesis and of selective polypeptides in the retinas and by the ability of the retina to sprout in culture.

  20. Age & reproduction in three reef - dwelling serranid fishes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf: Pronotogrammus martinicensis, Hemanthias vivanus & Serranus phoebe (with preliminary observations on the Pomacentrid fish, Chromis enchrysurus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, Paul E.; McBride, Richard S.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Dennis, George D.

    2004-01-01

    Specimens of the four study species were collected during cruises to outer-continental shelf reefs of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Age was estimated for all serranid species using whole otoliths and C. enchrysurus ages were determined from transverse sections of sagittal otoliths. Ring structure observed on otoliths was validated as having an annual periodicity for P. martinicensis using marginal increment analysis. Ring structure on remaining species was assumed to correspond to age (years). Pronotogrammus martinicensis, H. vivanus, S. phoebe, and C. enchrysurus exhibited maximum ages of 9, 8, 5, and 11, respectively. Spatial variations in size-at-age were observed in P. martinicensis populations. Individuals inhabiting reefs in the Madison-Swanson Reserve area on the West Florida Shelf edge exhibited the fastest growth rates, while the slowest growing P. martinicensis were collected from the Alabama Alps Reef, the farthest west study reef. Pronotogrammus martinicensis and H. vivanus are both protogynous hermaphrodites. Evidence of active spawning was observed in the months from February through July for P. martinicensis, and March and May for H. vivanus. Serranus phoebe was observed to be a simultaneous hermaphroditic capable of spawning year-round. Batch fecundity estimates for P. martinicensis ranged from 149-394 oocytes per fish. Size selectivity was evident in our primary sampling method, hook and line using small tandem bait hooks. Smaller size-classes of all species examined were under-represented in our samples, hindering accurate growth modeling. Due to the protogynous nature of P. martinicensis and H. vivanus, hook and line sampling also tended to select for males. Future descriptions of the reproductive biology of both protogynous species would be more complete if less selective sampling methods could be successfully employed. The data presented here contribute to a better assessment of the fish community of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Little

  1. The Psychology of Antecedents to Adult Reproductive Disorders in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Sharon N.; Martinez, Pedro E; Popat, Vaishali; Nandagopal, Radha; Ryan, Mary; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    The normal developmental tasks and roles of adolescence are altered with a diagnosis of a reproductive disorder. The crisis of impaired fertility affects both parent and child, stressing the family system. For the adolescent girl, a reproductive disorder impacts her developing sense of self, body-image and sexuality which, in turn, can affect her self-esteem and relationships with others. Because of the sexual nature of a reproductive disorder, feelings of embarrassment or protectiveness are often engendered that can make it difficult for families to discuss. Nonetheless, families do best with openness and honesty regarding the condition and should be discouraged from keeping the diagnosis a secret. Adolescence encompasses a broad spectrum of emotional maturity, which needs to be considered by parents and clinicians when communicating information. Understanding that the family is an emotional unit, a family systems approach to deal with health issues is most appropriate. In this context, parents need to first deal with their own feelings about the diagnosis, before they can help their child. Secondly, parents must be provided with tools to build an ongoing conversation with their child that will avoid stigmatizing her condition and handicapping her growth into healthy adulthood. The goal for parent and clinician is to help the adolescent girl formulate positive self-esteem and body image, despite impaired fertility. PMID:18574221

  2. Effect of estrogenic activity, and phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents in an experimental fish diet on reproduction and hepatic vitellogenin production in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Inudo, Makiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Naomi; Matsuoka, Munekazu; Mori, Taiki; Taniyama, Shigeto; Kadokami, Kiwao; Koga, Minoru; Shinohara, Ryota; Hutchinson, T H; Iguchi, Taisen; Arizono, Koji

    2004-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are giving rise to serious concerns for humans and wildlife. Phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein in plants, and organochlorine pesticides are suspected EDCs, because their chemical structure is similar to that of natural or synthetic estrogens and they have estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. We assessed estrogenic activity and dietary phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents of various fish diets made in the United Kingdom, and compared them with those features of diets made in Japan that were tested in a previous study. Genistein and daidzein were detected in all of the diets. Using an in vitro bioassay, many of these diets had higher activation of estrogen beta-receptors than estrogen alpha-receptors. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, beta-benzene hexachloride (BHC), and gamma-BHC were detected in all fish diets. On the basis of these data, we investigated the effect of differing dietary phytoestrogen content in Japanese fish diets on hepatic vitellogenin production and reproduction (fecundity and fertility) in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Assessment of the effects of a 28-day feeding period on reproduction of paired medaka did not indicate significant differences in the number of eggs produced and fertility among all feeding groups. However, hepatic vitellogenin values were significantly higher for male medaka fed diet C (genistein, 58.5 +/- 0.6 microg/g; daidzein, 37.3 +/- 0.2 microg/g) for 28 days compared with those fed diet A (genistein, < 0.8 microg/g; daidzein, < 0.8 microg/g) or diet B (genistein, 1.4 +/- 0.1 microg/g; daidzein, 2.0 +/- 0.1 microg/g). Our findings indicate that fish diets containing high amounts of phytoestrogens, such as diet C, have the potential to induce hepatic vitellogenin production in male medaka, even if reproductive parameters are unaffected. Therefore, some diets, by affecting vitellogenin production in males, may alter estrogenic activity of in

  3. Zebrafish olfactory receptor ORA1 recognizes a putative reproductive pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Korsching, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Teleost v1r-related ora genes constitute a small and highly conserved olfactory receptor gene family, and their direct orthologs are present in lineages as distant as cartilaginous fishes. Recently, the first member of the ora gene family was deorphanized. ORA1 detects p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid with high sensitivity and specificity. This compound elicits olfactory-mediated oviposition behavior in adult zebrafish mating pairs, suggesting a potential function as a reproductive pheromone for pHPAA itself or a related substance. This association of an odor and its cognate receptor with an oviposition response may provide a molecular basis for studying neural circuits involved in fish reproduction. PMID:26842458

  4. Relating fish health and reproductive metrics to contaminant bioaccumulation at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill site

    SciTech Connect

    Pracheil, Brenda M.; Marshall Adams, S.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Fortner, Allison M.; Greeley, Mark S.; Murphy, Cheryl A.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Peterson, Mark J.

    2016-05-06

    A 4.1 million m3 release of coal ash into the Emory and Clinch rivers in December 2008 at Tennessee Valley Authority s Kingston Fossil Plant has prompted a long-term, large-scale biological monitoring effort to determine if there are chronic effects of this spill on biota. Of concern in this spill were arsenic (As) and selenium (Se), heavy metal constituents of coal ash that can be toxic to fish and wildlife and also mercury (Hg): a legacy contaminant that can interact with Se in organisms. We used fish filet bioaccumulation data from Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, Redear Lepomis microlophus, Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus and metrics of fish health including fish condition indices, blood chemistry parameters and liver histopathology data collected from 2009-2013 to determine whether tissue heavy metal burdens relate 1) to each other 2) to metrics of fish health (e.g., blood chemistry characteristics and liver histopathology) and condition, and 3) whether relationships between fish health characteristics and heavy metals are related to site and ash-exposure. We found that burdens of Se and As are generally related to each other between tissues, but burdens of Hg between tissues are not generally positively associated. Taking analyses together, there appears to be reductions in growth and sublethal liver and kidney dysfunction in Bluegill and Largemouth Bass as indicated by blood chemistry parameters (elevated blood protein, glucose, phosphorous, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in ash-affected sites) and related to concentrations of As and Se. Seeing sub-lethal effects in these species of fish is interesting because Redear had the highest filet burdens of Se, but did not have biomarkers indicating disease or dysfunction. We conclude our study by highlighting the complexities inherent in multimetric fish health data and the need for continued monitoring to further untangle contaminant and fish health

  5. Relating fish health and reproductive metrics to contaminant bioaccumulation at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill site

    DOE PAGES

    Pracheil, Brenda M.; Marshall Adams, S.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; ...

    2016-05-06

    A 4.1 million m3 release of coal ash into the Emory and Clinch rivers in December 2008 at Tennessee Valley Authority s Kingston Fossil Plant has prompted a long-term, large-scale biological monitoring effort to determine if there are chronic effects of this spill on biota. Of concern in this spill were arsenic (As) and selenium (Se), heavy metal constituents of coal ash that can be toxic to fish and wildlife and also mercury (Hg): a legacy contaminant that can interact with Se in organisms. We used fish filet bioaccumulation data from Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, Redear Lepomis microlophus, Largemouth Bass Micropterusmore » salmoides and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus and metrics of fish health including fish condition indices, blood chemistry parameters and liver histopathology data collected from 2009-2013 to determine whether tissue heavy metal burdens relate 1) to each other 2) to metrics of fish health (e.g., blood chemistry characteristics and liver histopathology) and condition, and 3) whether relationships between fish health characteristics and heavy metals are related to site and ash-exposure. We found that burdens of Se and As are generally related to each other between tissues, but burdens of Hg between tissues are not generally positively associated. Taking analyses together, there appears to be reductions in growth and sublethal liver and kidney dysfunction in Bluegill and Largemouth Bass as indicated by blood chemistry parameters (elevated blood protein, glucose, phosphorous, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in ash-affected sites) and related to concentrations of As and Se. Seeing sub-lethal effects in these species of fish is interesting because Redear had the highest filet burdens of Se, but did not have biomarkers indicating disease or dysfunction. We conclude our study by highlighting the complexities inherent in multimetric fish health data and the need for continued monitoring to further untangle contaminant and fish health

  6. Geographical variations in adult body size and reproductive life history traits in an invasive anuran, Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Pujol-Buxó, Eudald; San Sebastián, Olatz; Llorente, Gustavo A; Hammou, Mohamed Aït; Sanuy, Delfi

    2016-06-01

    Variability in life history traits positively affects the establishment and expansive potential of invasive species. In the present study, we analysed the variation of body size in seven populations - two native and five invasive - of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus, Anura: Discoglossidae), native to North Africa and introduced in southern France and the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Other life history traits (age at maturity, size at maturity, longevity, median age and potential reproductive lifespan) were analysed in a native and an invasive population. We observed geographic variations in adult body size, related mainly to mean annual precipitation. Thus, populations had greater body size as mean annual precipitation increased, resulting in bigger specimens in the invasive populations. Adult body size and growth rates also varied between sexes in all studied populations, with males significantly larger than females. Age distribution varied between native (1-5 years) and invasive populations (2-4 years) and also between sexes. Our results suggest that higher precipitation promotes faster growth rates and larger adult body size that could facilitate the successful establishment of invasive populations.

  7. The COP1 ortholog PPS regulates the juvenile-adult and vegetative-reproductive phase changes in rice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Hironori; Sentoku, Naoki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Izawa, Takeshi; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2011-06-01

    Because plant reproductive development occurs only in adult plants, the juvenile-to-adult phase change is an indispensable part of the plant life cycle. We identified two allelic mutants, peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) and pps-2, that prolong the juvenile phase in rice (Oryza sativa) and showed that rice PPS is an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1. The pps-1 mutant exhibits delayed expression of miR156 and miR172 and the suppression of GA biosynthetic genes, reducing the GA(3) content in this mutant. In spite of its prolonged juvenile phase, the pps-1 mutant flowers early, and this is associated with derepression of RAP1B expression in pps-1 plants independently of the Hd1-Hd3a/RFT1 photoperiodic pathway. PPS is strongly expressed in the fourth and fifth leaves, suggesting that it regulates the onset of the adult phase downstream of MORI1 and upstream of miR156 and miR172. Its ability to regulate the vegetative phase change and the time of flowering suggests that rice PPS acquired novel functions during the evolution of rice/monocots.

  8. Energy allocation during the maturation of adults in a long-lived insect: implications for dispersal and reproduction.

    PubMed

    David, G; Giffard, B; van Halder, I; Piou, D; Jactel, H

    2015-10-01

    Energy allocation strategies have been widely documented in insects and were formalized in the context of the reproduction process by the terms 'capital breeder' and 'income breeder'. We propose here the extension of this framework to dispersal ability, with the concepts of 'capital disperser' and 'income disperser', and explore the trade-off in resource allocation between dispersal and reproduction. We hypothesized that flight capacity was sex-dependent, due to a trade-off in energy allocation between dispersal and egg production in females. We used Monochamus galloprovincialis as model organism, a long-lived beetle which is the European vector of the pine wood nematode. We estimated the flight capacity with a flight mill and used the number of mature eggs as a proxy for the investment in reproduction. We used the ratio between dry weights of the thorax and the abdomen to investigate the trade-off. The probability of flying increased with the adult weight at emergence, but was not dependent on insect age or sex. Flight distance increased with age in individuals but did not differ between sexes. It was also positively associated with energy allocation to thorax reserves, which increased with age. In females, the abdomen weight and the number of eggs also increase with age with no negative effect on flight capacity, indicating a lack of trade-off. This long-lived beetle has a complex strategy of energy allocation, being a 'capital disperser' in terms of flight ability, an 'income disperser' in terms of flight performance and an 'income breeder' in terms of egg production.

  9. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Rigby, Francesca L.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual’s first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span. PMID:27457937

  10. Effects of adult nutrition on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly: the role of fruit decay and dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus; Hartstein, Steffi; Janowitz, Susann; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

    2007-09-01

    It was generally believed that butterflies and other holometabolous insects rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction. Recent studies, however, highlight the often fundamental importance of adult nutrition to realize the full reproductive potential. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of most other adult-derived substances is only partially resolved. We here focus on the effects of dietary lipids (cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids) and fruit decay (dietary yeast, ethanol) on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). We found that banana-fed control females outperformed all other groups fed on sucrose-based diets. Lipids, yeast or ethanol added to a sugar solution did not yield a similarly high reproductive output compared to fruit-fed females. Groups fed fresh or decaying banana showed no differences in reproductive performance. As we could not identify a single pivotal substance, we conclude that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance for maximum reproductive output. Further, dietary quality may affect egg hatching success in spite of no obvious effects on egg size and number. Thus, any implications about potential fitness effects of different diets need to consider egg (and hatchling) viability in addition to fecundity.

  11. Embryonic exposure to dimethoate and/or deltamethrin impairs sexual development and programs reproductive success in adult male offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Ben Slima, A; Ben Abdallah, F; Keskes-Ammar, L; Mallek, Z; El Feki, A; Gdoura, R

    2012-05-01

    Pesticides can be toxic to desirable plants and animals, including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive effects of low doses of pesticides on male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. Three groups of five female mice were treated daily by oral gavage with dimethoate (5 mg kg(-1) per day), deltamethrin (5 mg kg(-1) per day) and their mixture at 5 mg kg(-1) per day from day 3 to day 21 of pregnancy. Fertility, sexual behaviour and a number of reproductive endpoints, such as organ weights, sperm evaluations and testicular histology, were examined on four adult male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. When compared with control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg kg j(-1) causes a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes of exposed mice and it affects their fertility by reducing the density, mobility and vitality of sperm and increasing the number of abnormal forms of these cells (P ≤ 0.01). The same results were obtained in mice exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg j(-1) combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin. This study demonstrated that deltamethrin and combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin caused a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes, which affected the sperm parameters of male offspring of exposed mice to a low dose of these pesticides during pregnancy.

  12. The expression of several reproductive hormone receptors can be modified by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Lafuente, A

    2016-07-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of several reproductive hormone receptors on the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis activity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The studied receptors are the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHr), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), and the androgen receptor (Ar). Adult male rats were orally treated with 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS kg(-1) d(-1) for 28 days. In general terms, PFOS can modify the relative gene and protein expressions of these receptors in several tissues of the reproductive axis. At the testicular level, apart from the expected inhibition of both gene and protein expressions of FSHr and Ar, PFOS also stimulates the GnRHr protein and the LHr gene expression. The receptors of the main hormones involved in the HPT axis may have an important role in the disruption exerted by PFOS on this axis.

  13. Gonad histology and serum 11-KT profile during the annual reproductive cycle in sterlet sturgeon adult males, Acipenser ruthenus.

    PubMed

    Golpour, A; Broquard, C; Milla, S; Dadras, H; Baloch, A R; Saito, T; Pšenička, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess monthly testicular development in the cultured breeding stock of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus, using histological and serum sex steroid changes. Testicular development in the adult male was examined monthly and showed four distinct phases including resting, pre-spawning, spawning and post-spawning. Also, seasonal changes of the testes were described according to its variations in gonadosomatic index (GSI) during different phases of testicular development. Using histology, we identified continuous spermatogenesis and asynchronous gonad development pattern in the testes of male sterlet, which shows that regulation of annual gonadal cycle is influenced by season. Results also showed variation in the GSI value and number of spermatogenic cells according to each season during annual cycle of gonad, as the highest value of GSI was recorded during spawning phase (spring; March-May). Hormonal profiles of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) showed peak, which indicated a seasonal pattern of gonadal development. The 11-KT concentration increased considerably during the spermatogenesis (pre-spawning phase) and remained quite high throughout the pre-spermiation period. In the final phase of testicular development (spawning phase), the 11-KT markedly dropped. This study undertook an examination of complete reproductive development in cultured sterlet sturgeon to provide a valuable guide for the future sterlet studies, and allows comparison of reproductive development between sturgeon species.

  14. An embryonic atrazine exposure results in reproductive dysfunction in adult zebrafish and morphological alterations in their offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Weber, Gregory J.; Sepúlveda, Maria S.; Lin, Tsang-Long; Jannasch, Amber S.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine, a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), frequently contaminates potable water supplies. Studies suggest alterations in the neuroendocrine system along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, most studies address either developmental, pubertal, or adulthood exposures, with few investigations regarding a developmental origins hypothesis. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (ppb) atrazine through embryogenesis and then allowed to mature with no additional chemical exposure. Reproductive function, histopathology, hormone levels, offspring morphology, and the ovarian transcriptome were assessed. Embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in a significant increase in progesterone levels in the 3 and 30 ppb groups. A significant decrease in spawning and a significant increase in follicular atresia in the 30 ppb group were observed. In offspring, a decrease in the head length to body ratio in the 30 ppb group, along with a significant increase in head width to body ratio in the 0.3 and 3 ppb groups occurred. Transcriptomic alterations involved genes associated with endocrine system development and function, tissue development, and behavior. This study provides evidence to support atrazine as an EDC causing reproductive dysfunction and molecular alterations in adults exposed only during embryogenesis and morphological alterations in their offspring. PMID:26891955

  15. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-01-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex. PMID:9541101

  16. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-03-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex.

  17. Relationships between adult abdominal color and reproductive potential in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdominal colors in the adult stage: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. A previous report showed that—relative to blue/green individuals—gray/brown indi...

  18. Social Reproduction in Non-Formal Adult Education: The Case of Rural Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Using fieldnotes from the non-formal adult education classes run by a non-profit international education with ground operations in rural Mozambique, this article documents how the comments made by class facilitators and class participants in those classes reflect inherent power inequalities between non-profit staff and local participants. These…

  19. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  20. Phytoestrogens β -sitosterol and genistein have limited effects on reproductive endpoints in a female fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Brown, A C; Stevenson, L M; Leonard, H M; Nieves-Puigdoller, K; Clotfelter, E D

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are produced by plants and may cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. The present study hypothesizes that phytoestrogen exposure of female Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) may disrupt endogenous steroid levels, change agonistic behavior expression, and potentially also disrupt oocyte development. However, only the pharmacologic dose of β-sitosterol had a significant effect on opercular flaring behavior, while we did not find significant effects of β-sitosterol or genistein on steroids or gonads. These findings are in direct contrast with previous studies on the effects of phytoestrogens in female fish. Results of the current study support previous work showing that the effects of phytoestrogen exposure may be less acute in mature female B. splendens than in other fish.

  1. Phytoestrogens β-Sitosterol and Genistein Have Limited Effects on Reproductive Endpoints in a Female Fish, Betta splendens

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. C.; Stevenson, L. M.; Leonard, H. M.; Nieves-Puigdoller, K.; Clotfelter, E. D.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are produced by plants and may cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. The present study hypothesizes that phytoestrogen exposure of female Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) may disrupt endogenous steroid levels, change agonistic behavior expression, and potentially also disrupt oocyte development. However, only the pharmacologic dose of β-sitosterol had a significant effect on opercular flaring behavior, while we did not find significant effects of β-sitosterol or genistein on steroids or gonads. These findings are in direct contrast with previous studies on the effects of phytoestrogens in female fish. Results of the current study support previous work showing that the effects of phytoestrogen exposure may be less acute in mature female B. splendens than in other fish. PMID:24707495

  2. Effect of prehatching weightlessness on adult fish behavior in dynamic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. B.; Salinas, G. A.; Boyd, J. F.; Baky, A. A.; Von Baumgarten, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    At 16-17 months of age, three groups of fish from the embryonated eggs in the ASTP killifish experiment were subjected to postflight tests consisting of rapidly changing environments. It was found that the group of fish with the least amount of development at orbital insertion (A-32) had a decreased rheotropism for both the moving background and the rotating water current tests when compared to ground control fish. Exposure to parabolic aircraft flight conditions revealed that the A-32 fish were less disoriented during zero gravity periods and were hypersensitive to high-gravity periods. These results suggested a modified vestibular competency due to a 9-d prehatching weightlessness exposure.

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins affect lifespan and reproductive performance of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Yan; Wan, Pin-Jun; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Being delivered as sprays or expressed in plant, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline proteins (Cry toxins) display insecticidal activities against numerous Lepidopteran, Dipteran, and Coleopteran larvae. Comparative study of toxicities of Bt Cry toxins between larvae and adults may afford important new insights into the interactions of the toxins with receptor proteins in host insect, and represent intriguing targets for the control of insect pests. However, the effectiveness of Bt Cry toxins in insect adults has paid less attention. In the present article, the effectiveness of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca on lifespans and reproductive performance of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) adults were evaluated by in vivo experiments. Considering transgenic plants express modified, truncated versions of cry genes yielding active toxin fragment, we used activated Bt toxins at the concentration of 500, 100, and 20 microg/ml in a 10% sucrose aquous solution. At the highest concentration, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca shortened 48.1 and 48.9% of H. armigera female lifespan, and 43.5 and 38.5% of S. exigua female lifespan, and they reduced 37.8 and 40.3%, and 50.5 and 47.4% of H. armigera and S. exigua male lifespans respectively. Bt toxins negatively affected copulation. Exposure to 500 microg/ml of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca greatly reduced 50.0 and 46.8%, and 58.7 and 57.3% spermatophore acceptance by H. armigera and S. exigua females, respectively. Similarly, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca exposure decreased 40.0 and 50.3%, and 61.3 and 60.0% of spermatophore transfer by H. armigera and S. exigua males, respectively. Moreover, exposure females rather than males to 500 microg/ml of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca significantly dropped 57.5 and 57.5% of the number of eggs laid by H. armigera, and 35.4 and 45.8% of the number of egg masses deposited by S. exigua. In contrast, both Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca did not negatively influence the egg hatchability. At the middle and the lowest concentrations, however

  4. Juvenile hormone facilitates the antagonism between adult reproduction and diapause through the methoprene-tolerant gene in the female Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Li, Yi; Zhu, Li; Zhu, Fen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In insects, the process whereby juvenile hormone (JH) regulates short-day (SD)-induced reproductive diapause has been previously investigated. However, we still do not understand the mechanism by which JH regulates long-day (LD)-induced reproductive diapause. In this study, we use a cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, which is a serious pest of cruciferous vegetables in Asia capable of entering reproductive diapause under LD conditions, as a model to test whether JH regulates female reproductive diapause similar to the mechanism of SD-induced diapause. Our results showed that the JH analog (JHA) methoprene significantly induced ovarian development but inhibited lipid accumulation of diapause-destined adults. Meanwhile, the transcripts of the vitellogenin (Vg) genes were upregulated, whereas the expression of the fat synthesis and stress tolerance genes were downregulated. RNA interference of the JH candidate receptor gene methoprene-tolerant (Met) blocked JH-induced ovarian development and Vg transcription, suggesting a positive regulatory function for JH-Met signaling in reproduction. Furthermore, under reproduction-inducing conditions, Met depletion promoted a diapause-like phenotype, including arrested ovarian development and increased lipid storage, and stimulated the expression of diapause-related genes involved in lipid synthesis and stress tolerance, suggesting JH-Met signaling plays an important role in the inhibition of diapause. Accordingly, our data indicate that JH acts through Met to facilitate development of the reproductive system by upregulating Vg expression while inhibiting diapause by suppressing lipid synthesis and stress tolerance in the cabbage beetle. Combined with previous studies in SD-induced reproductive diapause, we conclude that JH may regulate female reproductive diapause using a conserved Met-dependent pathway, regardless of the length of the photoperiod inducing diapause in insects.

  5. 5S rRNA and accompanying proteins in gonads: powerful markers to identify sex and reproductive endocrine disruption in fish.

    PubMed

    Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Bizarro, Cristina; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Cancio, Ibon

    2012-07-17

    In anuran ovaries, 5S rDNA is regulated transcriptionally by transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), which upon transcription, binds 5S rRNA, forming 7S RNP. 5S rRNA can be stockpiled also in the form of 42S RNP bound to 42sp43. The aim of the present study was to assess the differential transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA and associated proteins in thicklip gray mullet (Chelon labrosus) gonads. Up to 75% of the total RNA from mullet ovaries was 5S rRNA. qPCR quantification of 5S rRNA expression, in gonads of histologically sexed individuals from different geographical areas, successfully sexed animals. All males had expression levels that were orders of magnitude below expression levels in females, throughout an annual reproductive cycle, with the exception of two individuals: one in November and one in December. Moreover, intersex mullets from a polluted harbor had expression levels between both sexes. TFIIIA and 42sp43 were also very active transcriptionally in gonads of female and intersex mullets, in comparison to males. Nucleocytoplasmatic transport is important in this context and we also analyzed transcriptional levels of importins-α1, -α2, and -β2 and different exportins. Importin-αs behaved similarly to 5S rRNA. Thus, 5S rRNA and associated proteins constitute very powerful molecular markers of sex and effects of xenosterogens in fish gonads, with potential technological applications in the analysis of fish stock dynamics and reproduction as well as in environmental health assessment.

  6. Reproductive biology of Ilisha elongata (Teleostei: Pristigasteridae) in Ariake Sound, Japan: Implications for estuarine fish conservation in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Takita, Toru; Zhang, Chunguang

    2009-01-01

    Elongate ilisha ( Ilisha enlongata) is a commercially important species that contributes to clupeoid fisheries in Asian countries. In the present study, the reproductive biology of I. elongata in Ariake Sound, Japan is determined for the first time. Six maturity stages were described using ovarian and testicular histology throughout the annual cycle. The spawning season in Ariake Sound lasts from May to July, with peak spawning activity in May and June. Age at first maturity was estimated to be 2 years, with a few exceptions of 1 year in well-developed males. Ovaries that contained both tertiary yolk oocytes and postovulatory follicles occurred from late May to late July, indicating that I. elongata is a multiple spawner. The size-frequency distribution of oocytes provided evidence for its multiple spawning and accuracy of the fecundity estimates. The batch fecundity of this species was estimated at between 22,200 and 270,900 eggs per individual, increasing with age between two and six years. The present findings on the reproductive strategy of I. elongata in Ariake Sound are generally consistent with those in temperate or subtropical populations, but quite different from those of tropical population where first maturation occurs around 200 days and life spans are shorter, with a maximum age less than 3 years. The conservation implications of this reproductive strategy in a harsh, variable environment in Asian countries are also discussed.

  7. Transgenerational and developmental exposure of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to ethinylestradiol results in endocrine and reproductive differences in the response to ethinylestradiol as adults.

    PubMed

    Foran, Christy M; Peterson, Bethany N; Benson, William H

    2002-08-01

    17alpha-Ethinylestradiol (EE), a synthetic estrogen found in birth control pills, has been detected in the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants in several countries. Because EE was designed to be extremely potent at the estrogen receptor (ER), environmental exposure to low concentrations has the potential to disrupt the development of normal endocrine and reproductive function when exposure occurs during critical periods in development. Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, were used to evaluate the effect of exposure to EE during development on adult reproduction and endocrine function and the sensitivity of these animals to estrogen exposure as adults. To determine if the response to exogenous estrogen stimulation was diminished or sensitized, adults resulting from the developmental exposure groups were reexposed to EE at respectively higher concentrations. Hatchling exposure produced no changes in adult vitellogenin (VTG) content in the liver or circulating steroid concentrations, nor was reproduction affected. Reexposure of these adults inhibited reproduction, increased hepatic VTG and ER, and increased estrogen concentration measured in male plasma. Parental exposure produced permanent changes in hepatic content of ER and VTG in the adults resulting from exposure during gametogenesis and was related to a diminished response of males to subsequent estrogen exposure. The potential for this transgenerational exposure to decrease the responsiveness of males to EE is supported by comparing the concentration-response curves for hepatic VTG and ER in males exposed in ovo and as hatchlings. Our results indicate that the relationship between biomarkers and estrogen exposure will be altered by the timing and frequency of exposure.

  8. The effect of ploidy and temporal changes in the biochemical profile of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio): a cyprinid fish species with dual reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Simková, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The basic biochemical profile of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio), diploid-triploid cyprinid species complex with dual reproduction modes, was investigated. The aim of the study was to test for the effect of fish group (which combines the effects of ploidy and sex) and temporal changes on indicators of the biochemical profile of blood in gibel carp. We showed that the basic biochemical profile of blood is significantly influenced by season and fish group. Triploid gynogenetic females had a better condition measured by total protein concentration than sexual diploids. The higher concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol in triploid females when compared to diploids indicate a higher metabolic rate and higher energy intake during the whole year, which may represent a disadvantage for triploids. Differences in the concentrations of blood biochemical analytes between triploid females and diploids suggest a potential difference in the regulation of a wide range of physiological and biochemical processes in which these analytes participate. The biochemical profiles of two forms of C. gibelio could at least partially explain the changes of character of its naturally occurring populations.

  9. Triflumuron Effects on the Physiology and Reproduction of Rhodnius prolixus Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Bianca Santos; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Silva, Lucas Rangel; Codogno, Thaís Franco; Oliveira, Alyne F. R.; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Feder, Denise; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Azambuja, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the growth regulator triflumuron (TFM) in inducing mortality and disrupting both oviposition and egg hatching in Rhodnius prolixus adult females. TFM was administered via feeding, topically or by continuous contact with impregnated surfaces. Feeding resulted in mild biological effects compared with topical and impregnated surfaces. One day after treatment, the highest mortality levels were observed with topical surface and 30 days later both topical and impregnated surfaces induced higher mortalities than feeding. Oral treatment inhibited oviposition even at lower doses, and hatching of eggs deposited by treated females was similarly affected by the three delivery modes. Topical treatment of eggs deposited by nontreated females significantly reduced hatching. However, treatment per contact of eggs oviposited by untreated females did not disrupt eclosion. Additionally, oral treatment increased the number of immature oocytes per female, and topical treatment reduced the mean size of oocytes. TFM also affected carcass chitin content, diuresis, and innate immunity of treated insects. These results suggest that TFM acts as a potent growth inhibitor of R. prolixus adult females and has the potential to be used in integrated vector control programs against hematophagous triatomine species. PMID:27822479

  10. Environmental concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine impact specific behaviors involved in reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance in the fish Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow)

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Joel; Klaper, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) have been found in surface waters worldwide, but little is understood of their effects on the wildlife that inhabit these waters. Fluoxetine (Prozac; Eli Lilly), a highly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a commonly found PPCP in surface water. The purpose of this project was to determine if environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine impact behavior that is important for population survival in native fish species, including reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance. Chronic 4-week exposures were conducted with doses ranging from 100 ng/L to 100 μg/L to cover a range of environmentally relevant concentrations up to higher concentrations comparable to other published studies with the same drug that have documented various physiological impacts. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), a species native to North America, was used as it conducts a range of specific mating behaviors and therefore serves as an excellent model of specific impacts on brain function. Fluoxetine concentrations as low as 1 μg/L, a concentration that has been found in many freshwater environments, were found to significantly impact mating behavior, specifically nest building and defending in male fish. Males were also found to display aggression, isolation, and repetitive behaviors at higher concentrations. Female mating behavior was largely unaffected. In addition, predator avoidance behaviors in males and females were also impacted at 1 μg/L. Feeding was impacted at 10 μg/L and in the highest exposure (100 μg/L), egg production was limited by deaths of females due to significant male aggressive behaviors in first two weeks of exposure. Specific behavioral changes occurred at each concentration (most noticeably 1 μg/L and 100 μg/L) indicating a dose dependent effect that triggered different responses at lower exposures versus higher exposures or differential impacts of dose depending on brain region

  11. Sublethal exposure to crude oil during embryonic development alters cardiac morphology and reduces aerobic capacity in adult fish

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Corinne E.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baldwin, David H.; Willis, Maryjean L.; Myers, Mark S.; Holland, Larry; Larsen, Marie; Stekoll, Michael S.; Rice, Stanley D.; Collier, Tracy K.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Incardona, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of crude oil produces a lethal syndrome of heart failure in fish embryos. Mortality is caused by cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous components of petroleum. Here, we show that transient embryonic exposure to very low concentrations of oil causes toxicity that is sublethal, delayed, and not counteracted by the protective effects of cytochrome P450 induction. Nearly a year after embryonic oil exposure, adult zebrafish showed subtle changes in heart shape and a significant reduction in swimming performance, indicative of reduced cardiac output. These delayed physiological impacts on cardiovascular performance at later life stages provide a potential mechanism linking reduced individual survival to population-level ecosystem responses of fish species to chronic, low-level oil pollution. PMID:21482755

  12. Effects of hyperandrogenemia and increased adiposity on reproductive and metabolic parameters in young adult female monkeys.

    PubMed

    McGee, W K; Bishop, C V; Pohl, C R; Chang, R J; Marshall, J C; Pau, F K; Stouffer, R L; Cameron, J L

    2014-06-01

    Many patients with hyperandrogenemia are overweight or obese, which exacerbates morbidities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To examine the ability of testosterone (T) to generate PCOS-like symptoms, monkeys received T or cholesterol (control) implants (n = 6/group) beginning prepubertally. As previously reported, T-treated animals had increased neuroendocrine drive to the reproductive axis [increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency] at 5 yr, without remarkable changes in ovarian or metabolic features. To examine the combined effects of T and obesity, at 5.5 yr (human equivalent age: 17 yr), monkeys were placed on a high-calorie, high-fat diet typical of Western cultures [Western style diet (WSD)], which increased body fat from <2% (pre-WSD) to 15-19% (14 mo WSD). By 6 mo on WSD, LH pulse frequency in the controls increased to that of T-treated animals, whereas LH pulse amplitude decreased in both groups and remained low. The numbers of antral follicles present during the early follicular phase increased in both groups on the WSD, but maximal follicular size decreased by 50%. During the late follicular phase, T-treated females had greater numbers of small antral follicles than controls. T-treated monkeys also had lower progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although fasting insulin did not vary between groups, T-treated animals had decreased insulin sensitivity after 1 yr on WSD. Thus, while WSD consumption alone led to some features characteristic of PCOS, T + WSD caused a more severe phenotype with regard to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels.

  13. Effects of model aromatizable (17α-methyltestosterone) and non-aromatizable (5α-dihydrotestosterone) androgens on the adult mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) in a short-term reproductive endocrine bioassay.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert; Lister, Andrea; Hewitt, L Mark; MacLatchy, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Androgens originating from pulp mill processing, sewage treatment facilities and agricultural activities have the potential for discharge into aquatic receiving environments. To assess androgen effects on reproductive endocrine status in fish in estuarine environments, male and female adult northern mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus macrolepidotus) were exposed to an aromatizable androgen (17α-methyltestosterone; MT) and a non-aromatizable androgen (5α-dihydrotestosterone; DHT) in a short-term reproductive endocrine bioassay. Fish were nominally exposed to 10 μg/L or 100 μg/L DHT, or 0.1 μg/L or 1 μg/L MT for 14 days during gonadal recrudescence. Actual concentrations of androgens, as measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), were 10-49% of nominal MT 0.1, 3-6% of nominal MT 1, 5-10% of nominal DHT 10 and 3-25% of nominal DHT 100. Female mummichog were impacted to a greater degree by androgen exposure, with increased plasma testosterone (T) at 100 μg/L DHT, depressed plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) at both DHT concentrations and at 1 μg/L MT, as well as depressed in vitro E2 at both MT concentrations and 100 μg/L DHT. Males had depressed plasma T in the 10 μg/L DHT treatment and depressed in vitro 11-ketotestosterone production for both MT concentrations and 10 μg/L DHT. Ovarian aromatase gene expression was induced in females exposed to 1 μg/L MT. DHT at 100 μg/L increased hepatic vitellogenin-1 (VTG1) expression in males and depressed VTG1 expression in females. The range of responses between sexes and among species provides evidence for modes of actions and potential impacts of androgens in aquatic receiving environments.

  14. The Consumption of Breakfast, Fish and/or Caffeine does not Predict Study Progress in Adult Distance Education.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-10-06

    Consumption of breakfast, fish, or caffeine are each separately often investigated in relation to learning performance in traditional education, but not in distance education (DE). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the relations between the consumption of breakfast, fish, and/or caffeine on the one hand and learning performance on the other are also found in DE students. This population is different from traditional students and characterized by a different profile in terms of age, personal and work responsibilities as well as other demographics. In an observational longitudinal study, the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine of 1157 DE students (18-76 years old, mean 35.8±11.1 years) was used to predict learning performance using multiple regression analysis. In an online digital survey, university students provided information about their consumption of these nutritional measures and on important covariates. Learning performance, measured as study progress (i.e., the number of successfully completed modules), was evaluated objectively after 14 months. Results showed that adding the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine to the covariate model did not fit the data better, χ(2) (3, N = 1155) = 3.287, p = 0.35. This means that neither the consumption of breakfast nor fish nor caffeine predicted study progress in adults participating in DE. This study is important as it is the first to report on these relations in this specific age group and educational setting, which is increasingly important due to the increased preference for this type of education.

  15. Effects of dietary methylmercury on reproduction of fathead minnows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerschmidt, C.R.; Sandheinrich, M.B.; Wiener, J.G.; Rada, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    We examined effects of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) on reproduction of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Juvenile fish were fed one of four diets until sexual maturity (phase 1): a control diet (0.06 μg Hg g-1 dry weight) and three diets contaminated with MeHg at 0.88 (low), 4.11 (medium), and 8.46 μg Hg g-1 dry weight (high). At sexual maturity, male and female fish were paired, again fed one of the four diets, and allowed to reproduce (phase 2). To assess effects of MeHg during gametogenesis, some fish were fed diets during phase 2 that differed from those during phase 1. Spawning success of pairs fed the same diet during phases 1 and 2 was 75% for controls and 46%, 50%, and 36% for the low-, medium-, and high-MeHg treatments, respectively. Spawning success of pairs fed a contaminated diet during phase 1 and a control diet during phase 2 was 63%, 40%, and 14% for the low-, medium-, and high-MeHg treatments, respectively, whereas exposure to dietary MeHg only during phase 2 did not reduce spawning success. Dietary MeHg delayed spawning, and days to spawning was positively correlated with concentration of total mercury in the carcasses of test fish. MeHg reduced the instantaneous rate of reproduction of fish fed the same diets during phases 1 and 2. Both the gonadosomatic index and reproductive effort of female fish were inversely correlated with mercury in carcasses, whereas developmental and hatching success of embryos, 7-d survival, and 7-d growth of larvae were unrelated to mercury concentrations in parental fish or their diets. MeHg decreased reproduction of adult fathead minnows at dietary concentrations encountered by predatory fishes in aquatic systems with MeHg-contaminated food webs, implying that exposed fish populations could be adversely affected by this widespread contaminant.

  16. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  17. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  18. Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I; Julliand, Sophie; Reeds, Dominic N; Sinacore, David R; Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-associated declines in muscle mass and function are major risk factors for an impaired ability to carry out activities of daily living, falls, prolonged recovery time after hospitalization, and mortality in older adults. New strategies that can slow the age-related loss of muscle mass and function are needed to help older adults maintain adequate performance status to reduce these risks and maintain independence. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of fish oil–derived n–3 (ω-3) PUFA therapy to slow the age-associated loss of muscle mass and function. Design: Sixty healthy 60–85-y-old men and women were randomly assigned to receive n–3 PUFA (n = 40) or corn oil (n = 20) therapy for 6 mo. Thigh muscle volume, handgrip strength, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lower- and upper-body strength, and average power during isokinetic leg exercises were evaluated before and after treatment. Results: Forty-four subjects completed the study [29 subjects (73%) in the n–3 PUFA group; 15 subjects (75%) in the control group]. Compared with the control group, 6 mo of n–3 PUFA therapy increased thigh muscle volume (3.6%; 95% CI: 0.2%, 7.0%), handgrip strength (2.3 kg; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.7 kg), and 1-RM muscle strength (4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8%, 7.3%) (all P < 0.05) and tended to increase average isokinetic power (5.6%; 95% CI: −0.6%, 11.7%; P = 0.075). Conclusion: Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01308957. PMID:25994567

  19. Adults with X-linked agammaglobulinemia: impact of disease on daily lives, quality of life, educational and socioeconomic status, knowledge of inheritance, and reproductive attitudes.

    PubMed

    Winkelstein, Jerry A; Conley, Mary Ellen; James, Cynthia; Howard, Vanessa; Boyle, John

    2008-09-01

    Since many children with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) can now be expected to reach adulthood, knowledge of the status of adults with XLA would be of importance to the patients, their families, and the physicians caring for these patients. We performed the current study in adults with XLA to examine the impact of XLA on their daily lives and quality of life, their educational and socioeconomic status, their knowledge of the inheritance of their disorder, and their reproductive attitudes. Physicians who had entered adult patients with XLA in a national registry were asked to pass on a survey instrument to their patients. The patients then filled out the survey instrument and returned it directly to the investigators. Adults with XLA were hospitalized more frequently and missed more work and/or school than did the general United States population. However, their quality of life was comparable to that of the general United States population. They achieved a higher level of education and had a higher income than did the general United States population. Their knowledge of the inheritance of their disease was excellent. Sixty percent of them would not exercise any reproductive planning options as a result of their disease. The results of the current study suggest that although the disease impacts the daily lives of adults with XLA, they still become productive members of society and excel in many areas.

  20. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction. PMID:26808475

  1. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  2. Effects of sediment remediation on reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor, WA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Sol, S.Y.; Lomax, D.P.; Myers, M.S.; Collier, T.K.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor, near Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound, WA is currently designated as an EPA Superfund site because of high levels of creosote-derived PAHs in the sediments. In 1986--88, the authors conducted a series of studies evaluating reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor. These studies showed that only about 60% of adult female sole from the Eagle Harbor site entered vitellogenesis, in comparison to 80--90% of females of comparable age and size from minimally contaminated Puget Sound sites. Eagle Harbor fish also exhibited reduced spawning success and lowered egg viability in comparison to fish from unpolluted sites. Both types of reproductive function were associated with depressed plasma levels of reproductive steroids (e.g. 17-B estradiol) in Eagle Harbor fish. In September of 1993 the EPA began placement of a cap of uncontaminated sediment over the most contaminated portions of Eagle Harbor, as a means of providing clean habitat for benthic organisms and reducing risk from the contaminants contained in the sediments. Since the time of capping, the authors have been monitoring reproductive development in English sole and related benthic flatfish to determine whether this restoration will result in improved reproductive success in the resident flatfish of Eagle Harbor. Preliminary results indicate that the proportion of maturing females has increased to approximately 75%. Other reproductive parameters, including plasma steroid hormone concentration and ovarian atresia, are currently being assessed. Nonetheless, the initial data suggest that sediment remediation is associated with improved reproductive function in Eagle Harbor bottom fish.

  3. Actions of sex steroids on kisspeptin expression and other reproduction-related genes in the brain of the teleost fish European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, M V; Servili, A; Molés, G; Gueguen, M M; Carrillo, M; Kah, O; Felip, A

    2016-11-01

    Kisspeptins are well known as mediators of the coordinated communication between the brain-pituitary axis and the gonads in many vertebrates. To test the hypothesis that gonadal steroids regulate kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression in European sea bass (a teleost fish), we examined the brains of gonad-intact (control) and castrated animals, as well as castrated males (GDX) and ovariectomized females (OVX) that received testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) replacement, respectively, during recrudescence. In GDX males, low expression of kiss1 mRNA is observed by in situ hybridization in the caudal hypothalamus (CH) and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), although hypothalamic changes in kiss1 mRNA levels were not statistically different among the groups, as revealed by real-time PCR. However, T strongly decreased kiss2 expression levels in the hypothalamus, which was documented in the MBH and the nucleus of the lateral recess (NRLd) in GDX T-treated sea bass males. Conversely, it appears that E2 evokes low kiss1 mRNA in the CH, while there were cells expressing kiss2 in the MBH and NRLd in these OVX females. These results demonstrate that kisspeptin neurons are presumably sensitive to the feedback actions of sex steroids in the sea bass, suggesting that the MBH represents a major site for sex steroid actions on kisspeptins in this species. Also, recent data provide evidence that both positive and negative actions occur in key factors involved in sea bass reproductive function, including changes in the expression of gnrh-1/gonadotropin, cyp19b, er and ar genes and sex steroid and gonadotropin plasma levels in this teleost fish.

  4. Exposure to advertisement calls of reproductive competitors activates vocal-acoustic and catecholaminergic neurons in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Christopher L; Timothy, Miky; Kim, D Spencer; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Mohr, Robert A; Sisneros, Joseph A; Forlano, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    While the neural circuitry and physiology of the auditory system is well studied among vertebrates, far less is known about how the auditory system interacts with other neural substrates to mediate behavioral responses to social acoustic signals. One species that has been the subject of intensive neuroethological investigation with regard to the production and perception of social acoustic signals is the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, in part because acoustic communication is essential to their reproductive behavior. Nesting male midshipman vocally court females by producing a long duration advertisement call. Females localize males by their advertisement call, spawn and deposit all their eggs in their mate's nest. As multiple courting males establish nests in close proximity to one another, the perception of another male's call may modulate individual calling behavior in competition for females. We tested the hypothesis that nesting males exposed to advertisement calls of other males would show elevated neural activity in auditory and vocal-acoustic brain centers as well as differential activation of catecholaminergic neurons compared to males exposed only to ambient noise. Experimental brains were then double labeled by immunofluorescence (-ir) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme necessary for catecholamine synthesis, and cFos, an immediate-early gene product used as a marker for neural activation. Males exposed to other advertisement calls showed a significantly greater percentage of TH-ir cells colocalized with cFos-ir in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the dopaminergic periventricular posterior tuberculum, as well as increased numbers of cFos-ir neurons in several levels of the auditory and vocal-acoustic pathway. Increased activation of catecholaminergic neurons may serve to coordinate appropriate behavioral responses to male competitors. Additionally, these results implicate a role for specific catecholaminergic neuronal groups in

  5. Aspects of the hormonal regulation of appetite in fish with emphasis on goldfish, Atlantic cod and winter flounder: notes on actions and responses to nutritional, environmental and reproductive changes.

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène; Xu, Meiyu; MacDonald, Erin; Hoskins, Leah

    2009-05-01

    In vertebrates including fish, food intake regulation involves intricate networks of hormones produced by both brain and peripheral tissues. Under optimum conditions, nutritional intake is adequate for basal metabolic needs, growth, development, reproduction, and deposition of energy stores. As fish represent a very diverse group, different fish species live in very different environments and are exposed to variations in a wide range of factors, including not only internal factors, such as nutritional/metabolic status and reproductive events but also environmental factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. These physiological responses often include changes in appetite that might occur through modulations of the gene expression and action of feeding-regulating hormones. Despite recent advances, our current understanding of the regulation of feeding in fish is still limited and based primarily on studies involving a few fish species. This review will give a brief overview of our current knowledge of the regulation of feeding by three central (NPY, OX and CART) and two peripheral (ghrelin and GRP) appetite-related factors in a freshwater species, the goldfish (Carassius auratus) and two marine species, cod (Gadus morhua) and winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus).

  6. Comparative energetics of the 5 fish classes on the basis of dynamic energy budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    -specifically with length in non-ray-finned fish, as expected, but increases with cubed length in ray-finned fish. This pattern follows naturally from the patterns of size at birth and reserve capacity and can be seen as adaptation to the predation of prey of ray-finned fish on their tiny neonates. Both the von Bertalanffy growth rate and the specific allocation to reproduction in fully grown adults correlate positively with specific somatic maintenance among fish species. These observations support the recently proposed waste-to-hurry hypothesis. Determinatesness increases in the sequence: fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds.

  7. Relationship between reproductive success and male plasma vitellogenin concentrations in cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Lesley J; Gutjahr-Gobell, Ruth E; Horowitz, Doranne Borsay; Denslow, Nancy D; Chow, Marjorie C; Zaroogian, Gerald E

    2003-01-01

    The gene for vitellogenin, an egg yolk protein precursor, is usually silent in male fish but can be induced by estrogen exposure. For this reason, vitellogenin production in male fish has become a widely used indicator of exposure to exogenous estrogens or estrogen mimics in the aquatic environment. The utility of this indicator to predict impacts on fish reproductive success is unclear because information on the relationship between male plasma vitellogenin and reproductive end points in male and female fish is limited. In the research reported in this article, we investigated whether the presence of male plasma vitellogenin is a reliable indicator of decreased reproductive success in mature fish. Adult and sexually mature male and female cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) were exposed to 17ss-estradiol, ethynylestradiol, or estrone, three steroidal estrogens that elicit the vitellogenic response. Data were gathered and pooled on egg production, egg viability, egg fertility, sperm motility, and male plasma vitellogenin concentrations. All males, including two with plasma vitellogenin levels exceeding 300 mg/mL, produced motile sperm. Neither percent fertile eggs nor percent viable eggs produced by reproductively active fish demonstrated a significant correlation with male plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Male gonadosomatic index and average daily egg production by females showed significant, but weak, negative correlation with male plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Results suggest that male plasma vitellogenin expression is not a reliable indicator of male reproductive dysfunction in adult cunner exposed to estrogens for 2-8 weeks during their reproductive season, at least in relation to capacity to produce motile sperm or fertilize eggs. Male plasma vitellogenin expression may serve as an indicator of reduced female reproductive function caused by estrogen exposure. PMID:12515685

  8. Effects of chronic exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of brominated flame retardants on the reproductive and thyroid system in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Ernest, Sheila R; Wade, Michael G; Lalancette, Claudia; Ma, Yi-Qian; Berger, Robert G; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2012-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are incorporated into a wide variety of consumer products, are readily released into home and work environments, and are present in house dust. Studies using animal models have revealed that exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may impair adult male reproductive function and thyroid hormone physiology. Such studies have generally characterized the outcome of acute or chronic exposure to a single BFR technical mixture or congener but not the impact of environmentally relevant BFR mixtures. We tested whether exposure to the BFRs found in house dust would have an adverse impact on the adult male rat reproductive system and thyroid function. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to a complex BFR mixture composed of three commercial brominated diphenyl ethers (52.1% DE-71, 0.4% DE-79, and 44.2% decaBDE-209) and hexabromocyclododecane (3.3%), formulated to mimic the relative congener levels in house dust. BFRs were delivered in the diet at target doses of 0, 0.02, 0.2, 2, or 20 mg/kg/day for 70 days. Compared with controls, males exposed to the highest dose of BFRs displayed a significant increase in the weights of the kidneys and liver, which was accompanied by induction of CYP1A and CYP2B P450 hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. BFR exposure did not affect reproductive organ weights, serum testosterone levels, testicular function, or sperm DNA integrity. The highest dose caused thyroid toxicity as indicated by decreased serum thyroxine (T4) and hypertrophy of the thyroid gland epithelium. At lower doses, the thickness of the thyroid gland epithelium was reduced, but no changes in hormone levels (T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone) were observed. Thus, exposure to BFRs affected liver and thyroid physiology but not male reproductive parameters.

  9. Aromatase activity in hindbrain vocal control region of a teleost fish: divergence amoung males with alternative reproductive tactics

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, B. A.; Greco, C.; Bass, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Type I male midshipman fish acoustically court females, whereas type II males do not but instead sneak or satellite spawn to compete with type I males for fertilizations. 'Singing' type I males diverge from type II males and females in the organization of an expansive hindbrain pacemaker–motoneuron circuit that establishes the physical attributes of vocalizations. Here, levels of aromatase activity were determined in homogenates of brain by measuring the conversion of 3H-androstenedione (AE) to 3H-oestrone (E1) and 3H-oestradiol (E2). Levels were highest in the telencephalon–preoptic area and similar for all morphs. Lower levels were in a region including the diencephalon, midbrain and cerebellum, although levels were significantly higher in females compared with type I males. In the vocal hindbrain region, aromatase levels were three- to five-fold higher in type II males and females than in type I males, and in castrated type II males than in castrated type I males. Conversion of testosterone to oestrogen in type II males and females may effectively prevent testosterone-induced maturation of the vocal system that characterizes type I males. Aromatase may thus be a key enzyme regulating the expression of individual-specific brain circuitry and behaviours among members of one sex.

  10. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G

    2009-12-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.

  11. The effect of 17α-ethynylestradiol on steroidogenesis and gonadal cytokine gene expression is related to the reproductive stage in marine hermaphrodite fish.

    PubMed

    Cabas, Isabel; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; Mulero, Victoriano; García-Ayala, Alfonsa

    2013-12-11

    Pollutants have been reported to disrupt the endocrine system of marine animals, which may be exposed through contaminated seawater or through the food chain. Although 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE₂), a drug used in hormone therapies, is widely present in the aquatic environment, current knowledge on the sensitivity of marine fish to estrogenic pollutants is limited. We report the effect of the dietary intake of 5 µg EE₂/g food on different processes of testicular physiology, ranging from steroidogenesis to pathogen recognition, at both pre-spermatogenesis (pre-SG) and spermatogenesis (SG) reproductive stages, of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a marine hermaphrodite teleost. A differential effect between pre-SG and SG specimens was detected in the sex steroid serum levels and in the expression profile of some steroidogenic-relevant molecules, vitellogenin, double sex- and mab3-related transcription factor 1 and some hormone receptors. Interestingly, EE₂ modified the expression pattern of some immune molecules involved in testicular physiology. These differences probably reflect a developmental adjustment of the sensitivity to EE₂ in the gilthead seabream gonad.

  12. The Effect of 17α-Ethynylestradiol on Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Cytokine Gene Expression Is Related to the Reproductive Stage in Marine Hermaphrodite Fish

    PubMed Central

    Cabas, Isabel; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; Mulero, Victoriano; García-Ayala, Alfonsa

    2013-01-01

    Pollutants have been reported to disrupt the endocrine system of marine animals, which may be exposed through contaminated seawater or through the food chain. Although 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a drug used in hormone therapies, is widely present in the aquatic environment, current knowledge on the sensitivity of marine fish to estrogenic pollutants is limited. We report the effect of the dietary intake of 5 µg EE2/g food on different processes of testicular physiology, ranging from steroidogenesis to pathogen recognition, at both pre-spermatogenesis (pre-SG) and spermatogenesis (SG) reproductive stages, of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a marine hermaphrodite teleost. A differential effect between pre-SG and SG specimens was detected in the sex steroid serum levels and in the expression profile of some steroidogenic-relevant molecules, vitellogenin, double sex- and mab3-related transcription factor 1 and some hormone receptors. Interestingly, EE2 modified the expression pattern of some immune molecules involved in testicular physiology. These differences probably reflect a developmental adjustment of the sensitivity to EE2 in the gilthead seabream gonad. PMID:24335523

  13. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Kimberly L; Yackulic, Charles B; Kennedy, Theodore A; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-12-01

    Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may increase dispersal downriver where other fish species may be a priority (e.g., endangered species). There is an urgent need to understand the drivers of trout population dynamics in tailwaters, in particular the role of flow management. Here, we evaluate how flow, fish density, and other physical factors of the river influence recruitment and mean adult length in tailwaters across western North America, using data from 29 dams spanning 1-19 years. Rainbow trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high annual, summer, and spring flow and dam latitude, and positively correlated with high winter flow, subadult brown trout catch, and reservoir storage capacity. Brown trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high water velocity and daily fluctuations in flow (i.e., hydropeaking) and positively correlated with adult rainbow trout catch. Among these many drivers, rainbow trout recruitment was primarily correlated with high winter flow combined with low spring flow, whereas brown trout recruitment was most related to high water velocity. The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics

  14. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Nicholas Rountrey, Adam; Jane Meeuwig, Jessica; John Newman, Stephen; Zinke, Jens; Gregory Meekan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  15. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Rountrey, Adam Nicholas; Meeuwig, Jessica Jane; Newman, Stephen John; Zinke, Jens; Meekan, Mark Gregory

    2015-06-08

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations.

  16. Fish community dynamics in northeastern Lake Ontario with emphasis on the growth and reproductive success of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and white perch (Morone americana), 1978 to1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Burnett, John A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Fishes were assessed in Guffin, Chaumount, and Black River bays in northeastern Lake Ontario with a 7.9-m (headrope) bottom trawl during late September and early October, 1978 to 1997. Fish density declined in the early 1990s with sharp declines in abundance of spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), and johnny darter (Etheostoma nigrum) occurring in 1993 to 1995. Rising numbers of piscivores, walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), increased predation pressure, presumably acting in concert with oligotrophication to lower fish density, particularly after 1991 when large numbers of adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) no longer migrated to the northeast basin in spring. Annual mortality of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from age 2 to 5 rose from 33% in 1980–83 to 65% in 1992–95 and was positively related to piscivore numbers (P = 0.01, r = 0.96, n = 5). Annual mortality of yellow perch from age 0 to 2 also peaked in 1992–95. Abundance of yellow perch YOY in fall varied 40 fold and was not related to water warming in spring (P = 0.45, r = −0.19, n = 18) but was negatively related to the abundance of adult alewives in spring (P = 0.04, r = −0.49, n = 18). Although yellow perch produced moderate to strong year classes each year during 1991–95, stock size failed to increase because of rapidly accelerating mortality. Fully 85% of the variation in mean length of yellow perch YOY was explained by a multiple regression model which included YOY abundance, mean total phosphorus, and cumulative degree days > 13.5°C (P < 0.01, n = 15). Abundance of white perch (Morone americana) YOY varied nearly 200 fold and was not related to water warming or spring alewife abundance (P > 0.15). Variation in mean length of white perch YOY was related to cumulative degree days > 15°C (P < 0.01, r = 0.69).

  17. Excessive dietary calcium in the disruption of structural and functional status of adult male reproductive system in rat with possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    K Chandra, Amar; Sengupta, Pallav; Goswami, Haimanti; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2012-05-01

    Calcium is essential for functioning of different systems including male reproduction. However, it has also been reported as chemo-castrative agent. The study has been undertaken to elucidate the effect of excessive dietary calcium on male reproductive system in animals with possible action. Adult male healthy rats fed CaCl(2) at different doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g%) in diet for 13 and 26 days to investigate reproductive parameters as well as the markers of oxidative stress. Significant alteration was found (P < 0.05) in testicular and accessory sex organs weight, epididymal sperm count, testicular steroidogenic enzyme (Δ(5) 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD) activities, serum testosterone, LH, FSH, LPO, activities of antioxidant enzymes, testicular histoarchitecture along with adrenal Δ(5) 3β-HSD activity with corticosterone level in dose- and time-dependent manner. Overall observations suggest that excessive dietary calcium enhances the generation of free-radicals resulting in structural and functional disruption of male reproduction.

  18. Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis. PMID:21042469

  19. Effect of substituting live feed with formulated feed on the reproductive performance and fry survival of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens (Regan, 1910).

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sagar C; Kohli, Mahinder P S; Das, Pronob; Singh, Soibam K; Munilkumar, Sukham; Sarma, Kamal; Baruah, Kartik

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of partial or complete replacement of live feed (LF) (Tubifex) with formulated feed (FF) on the reproductive performance of Betta splendens. Three hundred B. splendens fry (average weight 0.19 ± 0.01 g) were equally distributed into five different groups, each with three replicates. They were fed for 105 days with following different diets: control (C)-100% LF; T1-75% LF, 25% FF; T2-50% LF, 50% FF; T3-25% LF, 75% FF, and T4-100% FF. Results showed that the average number of hatched larvae (654 ± 101) and fry survival after 2 weeks of rearing (428 ± 70), after completion of three spawning, were recorded highest in the control group, which was, however, not significantly different from the T1, T2, and T3 groups. At the end of the feeding trial, the highest hatching percentage (90.3%) was registered in the T2 group, which was not significantly different from the control and T1 groups. The T2 group also recorded highest fry survival (65.54%) after completion of three spawning, which was not significantly (P < 0.05) different from the T1 and T3 groups. Control diet contained higher saturated fatty acid (63.23%) than formulated diet (29.80%). In the whole-body tissue, highest level of EPA (0.42%) and DHA (3.13%) were found in the T4 group followed by T3 group. The DHA/EPA ration was recorded highest in the T2 group (10.96%), which did not differ significantly from the T1 and T3 groups. Significant positive correlation was observed between saturated fatty acid levels in fish whole-body tissue and number of hatched larvae (Y = 30.81 × -825.3, R(2) = 0.968) and fry survival after 2 weeks of rearing (Y = 21.38 × -580.9, R(2) = 0.967). Considering all these factors, it can be concluded that the live feed Tubifex can be replaced up to 50% without any adverse effect on the reproductive performance and fry survival of B. splendens.

  20. REVIEW IV: SCIENCE LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURES WITH FERTILITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IMPACTS IN THE ADULT FEMALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design: Reviewed articles indexed in PubMed from 1999-2007 addressing environment and puberty, menstrual and ovarian function, fertility, and menopause. Results: The strongest evidence of environmental contaminant exposures interfering with healthy reproductive function in adu...

  1. Effects of Low-Dose Aspirin and Fish Oil on Platelet Function and NF-kappaB in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Block, Robert C; Abdolahi, Amir; Smith, Brian; Meednu, N; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Cai, Xueya; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker; Brenna, J. Thomas; Georas, S

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Many diabetics are insensitive to aspirin’s platelet anti-aggregation effects. The possible modulating effects of coadministration of aspirin and fish oil in subjects with diabetes are poorly characterized. Participants and Methods Thirty adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were treated with aspirin 81 mg/d for 7 days, then with fish oil 4g/day for 28 days, then the combination of fish oil and aspirin for another 7 days. Results Aspirin alone and in combination with fish oil reduced platelet aggregation in most participants. Five of 7 participants classified as aspirin insensitive 1 week after daily aspirin ingestion were sensitive after the combination. Although some platelet aggregation measures correlated positively after aspirin and fish oil ingestion alone and (in combination) in all individuals, correlation was only observed in those who were aspirin insensitive after ingestion of the combination. Conclusions Co-adminstration of aspirin and fish oil may reduce platelet aggregation more than aspirin alone in adults with diabetes mellitus. PMID:23664596

  2. Sex- and melanism-specific variations in the oxidative status of adult tawny owls in response to manipulated reproductive effort.

    PubMed

    Emaresi, Guillaume; Henry, Isabelle; Gonzalez, Esther; Roulin, Alexandre; Bize, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, determined by the balance between the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences, is hypothesized to play an important role in shaping the cost of reproduction and life history trade-offs. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated reproductive effort in 94 breeding pairs of tawny owls (Strix aluco) to investigate the sex- and melanism-specific effects on markers of oxidative stress in red blood cells (RBCs). This colour polymorphic bird species shows sex-specific division of labour and melanism-specific history strategies. Brood sizes at hatching were experimentally enlarged or reduced to increase or decrease reproductive effort, respectively. We obtained an integrative measure of the oxidative balance by measuring ROS production by RBCs, intracellular antioxidant glutathione levels and membrane resistance to ROS. We found that light melanic males (the sex undertaking offspring food provisioning) produced more ROS than darker conspecifics, but only when rearing an enlarged brood. In both sexes, light melanic individuals had also a larger pool of intracellular antioxidant glutathione than darker owls under relaxed reproductive conditions (i.e. reduced brood), but not when investing substantial effort in current reproduction (enlarged brood). Finally, resistance to oxidative stress was differently affected by the brood size manipulation experiment in males and females independently of their plumage coloration. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that reproductive effort can alter the oxidative balance in a sex- and colour-specific way. This further emphasizes the close link between melanin-based coloration and life history strategies.

  3. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1, Examination of Fish at Lookingglass Hatchery in 1996 : Addendum to Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Groberg, Warren J.

    1996-11-01

    This information is an addendum to the report 'Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids, Phase 1: Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996' by Ralph Elston because there may be relevant observations included here. The author of this document participated in the examinations at Lower Granite Dam described in that report. Because of Endangered Species Act issues, the Rapid River stock of spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery on the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon are annually being captured as returning adults at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River and trucked to Lookingglass. During the peak migration period they are held in an adult holding facility at Lower Granite for as long as 72 hours and then transported by truck to Lookingglass for holding in an adult pond for spawning. In 1996 a total of 572 adults were transported from Lower Granite Dam between May 3 and August 6. Two-hundred eighty-one of these were later transported from Lookingglass to Wallowa Hatchery for artificial spawning and the remaining 291 were held for spawning at Lookingglass. On May 21, 24, 30 and June 2, 1996 hatchery personnel identified a total of 32 off-loaded fish with lesions on the dorsal area of the head they described as having the appearance of blisters (Robert Lund personal communication). By date these are shown in Table 1 (fish with similar lesions were also observed on May 27 but the number of these was not recorded). Such lesions were not observed on fish offloaded on any other dates. On May 24, 1996 hatchery personnel took photographs of fish with these lesions but do to light-meter problems the photographs did not turn out. On June 28, 1996 personnel of the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Fish Pathology laboratory in La Grande were notified by James Lauman, ODFW Northeast Region supervisor, of discussions and concerns of head burn on returning adult chinook while he was on a visitation to Lower Granite Dam. That led

  4. Diagnosis of adults Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma by immunohistochemistry and FISH assays: clinicopathological data from ethnic Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Gu, Chengyuan; Wang, Hongkai; Chang, Kun; Yang, Xiaoqun; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Dai, Bo; Zhu, Yao; Shi, Guohai; Zhang, Hailiang; Ye, Dingwei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the utility of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay in diagnosis of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11.2 RCC) and to compare the clinicopathological features between adult Xp11.2 RCC and non-Xp11.2 RCC. 76 pathologically suspected Xp11.2 RCCs were recruited from our institution. Both TFE3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and TFE3 FISH assay were performed for the entire cohort. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. FISH analysis confirmed 30 Xp11.2 RCCs, including 28 cases with positive TFE3 immunostaining and 2 cases with negative immunostaining. The false-positive and false-negative rates were 6.7% (2/30) and 4.3% (2/46), respectively, for TFE3 IHC compared with FISH assay. Xp11.2 RCC was significantly associated with higher pathological stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade compared with non-Xp11.2 RCC (P < 0.05). The median PFS and OS for TFE3 FISH-positive group were 13.0 months (95% CI, 8.4–17.6 months) and 50.0 months (95% CI, 27.6–72.4 months), respectively, while the median PFS and OS had not been reached for TFE3 FISH-negative group. In conclusion, TFE3 break-apart FISH assay is a highly useful and standard diagnostic method for Xp11.2 RCC. Adult Xp11.2 RCC is clinically aggressive and often presents at advanced stage with poor prognosis. PMID:26880493

  5. Reproductive Health CHOICES for Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease or Trait: Randomized Controlled Trial Outcomes over Two Years.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Agatha M; Wilkie, Diana J; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Stahl, Christiane; Hershberger, Patricia E; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigoberto; Carrasco, Jesus; Angulo, Veronica; Thompson, Alexis A

    2016-04-01

    Interventions to assist reproductive health decision-making in populations affected by sickle cell disease (SCD) or trait (SCT) lack proven efficacy over time. Our aim was to compare effects of CHOICES, a Web-based multimedia education program on implementing informed reproductive plans, and usual care education (e-Book) on reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior over 24 months. We randomized 234 participants with SCD (n = 138) or SCT (n = 96) (age 18-35 years, 35 % male, 94 % African American) to CHOICES and e-Book groups. Participants completed a sickle cell-specific reproductive measure before and four times after the intervention (6, 12, 18 and 24 months). Compared to the e-Book group the CHOICES group had significantly more improvement in knowledge over time (p = .004) but not intention (p = .18) or behavior (p = .69). At baseline, 114 (48.7 %) participants reported having partners who would not put the couple at risk for their children inheriting SCD. Of the 116 (49.6 %) at-risk participants, a higher poroportion of those who were in the CHOICES group chose partners that reduced their risk by the last visit than the e-Book group (p = .04). Study findings provide important insights for designing a national trial of the CHOICES intervention focusing on subjects whose partner status puts them at risk for having a child with SCD.

  6. Characterization of an EPG waveform library for pre-reproductive adult Lygus lineolaris and L. hesperus feeding on cotton squares

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris and L. hesperus, are among the most important pests affecting production of cotton in the mid-southern and western United States, respectively. Previous studies have focused on feeding damage to cotton reproductive structures from destructive enzymatic saliva. ...

  7. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research.

  8. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1990-1991 Progress Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1992-06-01

    We report on our effort from October 1990 through March 1991 to prepare for the evaluation of the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. We also report on our preliminary activities to prepare for future evaluations at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. A detailed sampling plan was written to guide our efforts in the evaluation process and associated preparatory activities were conducted. In the sampling plan, we developed experimental designs for evaluating the passage of juvenile salmonids through the bypass system including the evaluation at design flow of injury and mortality rates, and passage of juvenile salmonids through and over the screens. We designed and fabricated fish nets for screen leakage tests, and holding facilities for test fish. Modifications to improve evaluation activities were incorporated into the collection facility, and our sampling gear. We designed and fabricated collection systems for the juvenile fish bypass facilities at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. Preliminary monitoring of system operation was performed at Westland Diversion Dam. We offer recommendations for improving preparations and designs of future evaluations, and also recommend that a detailed evaluation of the Maxwell and Westland juvenile facilities, including evaluation of fish condition and fish passage through or over the screens, be conducted.

  9. Body growth and reproduction of individuals of the sciaenid fish Stellifer rastrifer in a shallow tropical bight: A cautionary tale for assumptions regarding population parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pombo, Maíra; Denadai, Márcia Regina; Turra, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge of population parameters and the ability to predict their responses to environmental changes are useful tools to aid in the appropriate management and conservation of natural resources. Samples of the sciaenid fish Stellifer rastrifer were taken from August 2003 through October 2004 in shallow areas of Caraguatatuba Bight, southeastern Brazil. The results showed a consistent presence of length-frequency classes throughout the year and low values of the gonadosomatic index of this species, indicating that the area is not used for spawning or residence of adults, but rather shelters individuals in late stages of development. The results may serve as a caveat for assessments of transitional areas such as the present one, the nursery function of which is neglected compared to estuaries and mangroves. The danger of mismanaging these areas by not considering their peculiarities is emphasized by using these data as a study case for the development of some broadly used population-parameter analyses. The individuals' body growth parameters from the von Bertalanffy model were estimated based on the most common approaches, and the best values obtained from traditional quantification methods of selection were very prone to bias. The low gonadosomatic index (GSI) estimated during the period was an important factor in stimulating us to select more reliable parameters of body growth (L∞ = 20.9, K = 0.37 and Z = 2.81), which were estimated based on assuming the existence of spatial segregation by size. The data obtained suggest that the estimated mortality rate included a high rate of migration of older individuals to deeper areas, where we assume that they completed their development.

  10. Evaluation of toxic effects of CdTe quantum dots on the reproductive system in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangrong; Yuwen, Lihui; Yang, Wenjing; Weng, Lixing; Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are highly promising nanomaterials for various biological and biomedical applications because of their unique optical properties, such as robust photostability, strong photoluminescence, and size-tunable fluorescence. Several studies have reported the in vivo toxicity of QDs, but their effects on the male reproduction system have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs at a high dose of 2.0 nmol per mouse and a low dose of 0.2 nmol per mouse. Body weight measurements demonstrated there was no overt toxicity for both dose at day 90 after exposure, but the high dose CdTe affected body weight up to 15 days after exposure. CdTe QDs accumulated in the testes and damaged the tissue structure for both doses on day 90. Meanwhile, either of two CdTe QDs treatments did not significantly affect the quantity of sperm, but the high dose CdTe significantly decreased the quality of sperm on day 60. The serum levels of three major sex hormones were also perturbed by CdTe QDs treatment. However, the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those mated with untreated male mice. These results suggest that CdTe QDs can cause testes toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The low dose of CdTe QDs is relatively safe for the reproductive system of male mice. Our preliminary result enables better understanding of the reproductive toxicity induced by cadmium-containing QDs and provides insight into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological and environmental systems.

  11. Successful treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in an adult by use of a fish oil-based lipid source.

    PubMed

    Venecourt-Jackson, Esra; Hill, Simon J; Walmsley, Russell S

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease occurs in 15% to 40% of adults on long-term parenteral nutrition, with steatosis being more common than cholestasis in the adult population. This problem has been well reported in the pediatric population, but we describe the case of a man who became profoundly jaundiced after being on parenteral nutrition for 3 y and responded rapidly to a change in lipid source from soybean and olive oil-based emulsion (ClinOleic) to a fish oil-based lipid emulsion (Omegaven).

  12. No Association between Fish Intake and Depression in over 15,000 Older Adults from Seven Low and Middle Income Countries–The 10/66 Study

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Emiliano; Lombardo, Flavia L.; Dangour, Alan D.; Guerra, Mariella; Acosta, Daisy; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan de Jesus; Salas, Aquiles; Schönborn, Claudia; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Prince, Martin J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence on the association between fish consumption and depression is inconsistent and virtually non-existent from low- and middle-income countries. Using a standard protocol, we aim to assess the association of fish consumption and late-life depression in seven low- and middle-income countries. Methodology/Findings We used cross-sectional data from the 10/66 cohort study and applied two diagnostic criteria for late-life depression to assess the association between categories of weekly fish consumption and depression according to ICD-10 and the EURO-D depression symptoms scale scores, adjusting for relevant confounders. All-catchment area surveys were carried out in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India, and over 15,000 community-dwelling older adults (65+) were sampled. Using Poisson models the adjusted association between categories of fish consumption and ICD-10 depression was positive in India (p for trend = 0.001), inverse in Peru (p = 0.025), and not significant in all other countries. We found a linear inverse association between fish consumption categories and EURO-D scores only in Cuba (p for trend  = 0.039) and China (p<0.001); associations were not significant in all other countries. Between-country heterogeneity was marked for both ICD-10 (I2>61%) and EURO-D criteria (I2>66%). Conclusions The associations of fish consumption with depression in large samples of older adults varied markedly across countries and by depression diagnosis and were explained by socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Experimental studies in these settings are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:22723900

  13. Hard time to be parents? Sea urchin fishery shifts potential reproductive contribution of population onto the shoulders of the young adults

    PubMed Central

    Guala, Ivan; Pires da Silva, Rodrigo; Brundu, Gianni; Baroli, Maura; Farina, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Background In Sardinia, as in other regions of the Mediterranean Sea, sustainable fisheries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have become a necessity. At harvesting sites, the systematic removal of large individuals (diameter ≥ 50 mm) seriously compromises the biological and ecological functions of sea urchin populations. Specifically, in this study, we compared the reproductive potential of the populations from Mediterranean coastal areas which have different levels of sea urchin fishing pressure. The areas were located at Su Pallosu Bay, where pressure is high and Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo, a marine protected area where sea urchin harvesting is low. Methods Reproductive potential was estimated by calculating the gonadosomatic index (GSI) from June 2013 to May 2014 both for individuals of commercial size (diameter without spines, TD ≥ 50 mm) and the undersized ones with gonads (30 ≤ TD < 40 mm and 40 ≤ TD < 50 mm). Gamete output was calculated for the commercial-size class and the undersized individuals with fertile gonads (40 ≤ TD < 50 mm) in relation to their natural density (gamete output per m2). Results The reproductive potential of populations was slightly different at the beginning of the sampling period but it progressed at different rates with an early spring spawning event in the high-pressure zone and two gamete depositions in early and late spring in the low-pressure zone. For each fertile size class, GSI values changed significantly during the year of our study and between the two zones. Although the multiple spawning events determined a two-fold higher total gamete output of population (popTGO) in the low-pressure zone, the population mean gamete output (popMGO) was similar in the two zones. In the high-pressure zone, the commercial-sized individuals represented approximatively 5% of the population, with almost all the individuals smaller than 60 mm producing an amount of gametes nearly three times lower than the undersized ones

  14. A New and Fast Technique to Generate Offspring after Germ Cells Transplantation in Adult Fish: The Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Model

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Samyra M. S. N.; Batlouni, Sergio R.; Costa, Guilherme M. J.; Segatelli, Tânia M.; Quirino, Bruno R.; Queiroz, Bruno M.; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; França, Luiz R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Germ cell transplantation results in fertile recipients and is the only available approach to functionally investigate the spermatogonial stem cell biology in mammals and probably in other vertebrates. In the current study, we describe a novel non-surgical methodology for efficient spermatogonial transplantation into the testes of adult tilapia (O. niloticus), in which endogenous spermatogenesis had been depleted with the cytostatic drug busulfan. Methodology/Principal Findings Using two different tilapia strains, the production of fertile spermatozoa with donor characteristics was demonstrated in adult recipient, which also sired progeny with the donor genotype. Also, after cryopreservation tilapia spermatogonial cells were able to differentiate to spermatozoa in the testes of recipient fishes. These findings indicate that injecting germ cells directly into adult testis facilitates and enable fast generation of donor spermatogenesis and offspring compared to previously described methods. Conclusion Therefore, a new suitable methodology for biotechnological investigations in aquaculture was established, with a high potential to improve the production of commercially valuable fish, generate transgenic animals and preserve endangered fish species. PMID:20505774

  15. Exploring ecotoxicological fish bioassay for the evaluation of uranium reprotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Olivier; Floc'h, Estelle; Geffroy, Benjamin; Frelon, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    Although reproduction in fish is known to be sensitive to metal exposure, few ecotoxicological studies have focused on the toxicological effects of metals. Because uranium (U) is naturally present in aquatic ecosystems (0.6-2 mg/L), freshwater organisms are subjected to chronic U exposure. Although new standardized assays are currently being developed to mimic realistic exposure conditions, they could be improved by taking into account the contamination that occurs throughout the life cycle of fish. The authors initially evaluated the effect of food (commercial flakes vs pure Spirulina) and ionic composition of the exposure medium on the reproductive performance of Danio rerio. The effects of U exposure on reproduction then were assessed 1) for the F0 adult stage at short exposure times (5 d, 20 d, and 40 d), and 2) for the F0 stage and the F1 generation after 200 d of exposure to control, low (20 µg U/L), and moderate (250 µg U/L) waterborne levels of U. Reproductive endpoints (reproductive success, fecundity, number of spawns, egg and larvae viability, and hatching) were measured mainly after the first spawn and after 10 d of cumulative spawns. The authors evaluated the plasticity of these endpoints and compared the effect of exposure conditions to identify the most relevant markers of the effect of U exposure on reproductive performance of D. rerio.

  16. The Effects of a Single Developmentally Entrained Pulse of Testosterone in Female Neonatal Mice on Reproductive and Metabolic Functions in Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyeran; Bhasin, Shalender; Guarneri, Tyler; Serra, Carlo; Schneider, Mary; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Guo, Wen; Fried, Susan K; Pencina, Karol; Jasuja, Ravi

    2015-10-01

    Early postnatal exposures to sex steroids have been well recognized to modulate predisposition to diseases of adulthood. There is a complex interplay between timing, duration and dose of endocrine exposures through environmental or dietary sources that may alter the sensitivity of target tissues to the exogenous stimuli. In this study, we determined the metabolic and reproductive programming effects of a single developmentally entrained pulse of testosterone (T) given to female mice in early postnatal period. CD-1 female mice pups were injected with either 5 μg of T enanthate (TE) or vehicle (control [CON] group) within 24 hours after birth and followed to adult age. A total of 66% of T-treated mice exhibited irregular cycling, anovulatory phenotype, and significantly higher ovarian weights than vehicle-treated mice. Longitudinal nuclear magnetic resonance measurements revealed that TE group had greater body weight, whole-body lean, and fat mass than the CON group. Adipose tissue cellularity analysis in TE group revealed a trend toward higher size and number than their littermate CONs. The brown adipose tissue of TE mice exhibited white fat infiltration with down-regulation of several markers, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor, α-subunit-like effector A, bone morphogenetic protein 7 as well as brown adipose tissue differentiation-related transcription regulators. T-injected mice were also more insulin resistant than CON mice. These reproductive and metabolic reprogramming effects were not observed in animals exposed to TE at 3 and 6 weeks of age. Collectively, these data suggest that sustained reproductive and metabolic alterations may result in female mice from a transient exposure to T during a narrow postnatal developmental window.

  17. A Comparison of Anthropometric, Metabolic, and Reproductive Characteristics of Young Adult Women from Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Korsoff, Pirkko; Bogl, Leonie H.; Korhonen, Päivi; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Rose, Richard J.; Kaaja, Risto; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to androgens has been linked to masculinization of several traits. We aimed to determine whether putative female intra-uterine exposure to androgens influences anthropometric, metabolic, and reproductive parameters using a twin design. Methods: Two cohorts of Finnish twins born in 1975–1979 and 1983–1987 formed the basis for the longitudinal FinnTwin16 (FT16) and FinnTwin12 (FT12) studies. Self-reported anthropometric characteristics, disease status, and reproductive history were compared between 679 same-sex (SS) and 789 opposite-sex (OS) female twins (mean age ± SD: 34 ± 1.1) from the wave 5 of data collection in FT16. Serum lipid and lipoprotein subclass concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared in 226 SS and 169 OS female twins (mean age ± SD: 24 ± 2.1) from the wave 4 of data collection in FT12 and FT16. Results: Anthropometric measures, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 did not differ significantly between females from SS and OS twin pairs at age 34. Similarly, the prevalence of infertility, age at first pregnancy and number of induced and spontaneous abortions did not differ significantly between these two groups of women. The serum lipid and lipoprotein profile did not differ between females from SS and OS twins at age 24. Conclusion: We found no evidence that androgen overexposure of the female fetus affects obesity, metabolic profile, or reproductive health in young adult females. However, these results do not exclude the possibility that prenatal androgen exposure in females could be adversely associated with these phenotypes later in life. PMID:24639667

  18. Exposure to Hypoxia at High Altitude (5380 m) for 1 Year Induces Reversible Effects on Semen Quality and Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels in Young Male Adults.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xiaokang; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Qiong; Cao, Jinjun; Yu, Wuzhong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypoxia at high altitude on the semen quality and the serum reproductive hormone levels in male adults. A total of 52 male soldiers were enrolled in this cohort study. They were exposed to hypoxia at high altitude (5380 m) for 12 months when undergoing a service. After exposure, they were followed up for 6 months. The samples of semen and peripheral blood were collected at 1 month before exposure (M0), 6 months of exposure (M6), 12 months of exposure (M12), and 6 months after exposure (M18). The semen quality was assessed with computer-assisted analysis system, and the serum levels of reproductive hormones, including prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were analyzed by ELISA. Compared with those at M0, total sperm count, sperm density, motility, survival rate, and serum levels of LH, PRL and testosterone were significantly decreased, whereas the liquefaction time was significantly prolonged and serum FSH level was significantly increased at M6 (p<0.05). At M12, total sperm count and sperm density increased, whereas sperm motility, survival rate, and the liquefaction time further decreased. Sperm velocities, progression ratios, and lateral head displacements were also decreased. Serum FSH level decreased while serum LH, PRL, and testosterone levels increased. Compared with those at M6, the changes in these detected parameters of semen and hormone at M12 were significant (p<0.05). At M18, all these detected parameters except testosterone level returned to levels comparable to those before exposure. In conclusion, hypoxia at high altitude causes adverse effects on semen quality and reproductive hormones, and these effects are reversible.

  19. Atrazine reduces reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Papoulias, D.M.; Whyte, J.J.; Richter, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine, the widely used herbicide, has shown to affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in certain vertebrate species, but few studies have examined reproductive effects of this chemical on fish. Our study was designed to evaluate a population endpoint (egg production) in conjunction with histological (e.g., gonad development) and biochemical (e.g., hormone production) phenotypes associated with atrazine exposure in fathead minnows. Adult virgin breeding groups of 1 male and 2 females were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50 ??g/L of atrazine in a flow-through diluter for 14 or 30 days. Total egg production was lower (19-39%) in all atrazine-exposed groups as compared to the controls. The decreases in cumulative egg production of atrazine treated fish were significant by 17-20 days of exposure. Reductions in egg production in atrazine treatment groups were most attributable to reduced numbers of spawning events with increased atrazine exposure concentrations. Gonad abnormalities were observed in both male and female fish of atrazine-exposed fish. Our results also indicate that atrazine reduces egg production through alteration of final maturation of oocytes. The reproductive effects observed in this study warrant further investigation and evaluation of the potential risks posed by atrazine, particularly feral populations of fish from streams in agricultural areas with high use of this herbicide. ?? 2010.

  20. Reproductive failure of the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) after exposure to an exogenous estrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGree, M.M.; Winkelman, D.L.; Vieira, N.K.M.; Vajda, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been detected in surface waters worldwide and can lead to developmental and reproductive disruption in exposed fishes. In the US Great Plains, EDCs are impacting streams and rivers and may be causing adverse reproductive effects. To examine how estrogenic EDCs might affect reproductive success of plains fishes, we experimentally exposed male red shiners (Cyprinella lutrensis) to exogenous 17b-estradiol. We characterized the effects of estradiol on male gonadal histology and secondary sexual characteristics, determined whether exposure reduced reproductive success, and examined the effects of depuration. Adults were exposed to a mean concentration of 70 ng L-1 estradiol, a solvent control, or a water control for at least 83 days. Male exposure to estradiol resulted in elevated plasma vitellogenin concentrations, changes in spermatogenesis, reduced mating coloration and tubercles, altered mating behaviors, and reduced reproductive success with no viable progeny produced. Reproductive endpoints improved upon depuration (28 days). Exposure to estradiol had significant adverse effects on red shiners, indicating that wild populations may face developmental and reproductive difficulties if they are chronically exposed to estradiol.

  1. Effects unrelated to anti-inflammation of lipid emulsions containing fish oil in parenteral nutrition for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Mateu de Antonio, Javier; Florit-Sureda, Marta

    2017-02-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses on modulated inflammatory and immunologic responses after the administration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in different diseases and conditions have been published. However, omega-3 PUFAs exert several other actions which are not directly related to immunologic or inflammatory responses. The aim of this paper was to review the effects which are not directly related to immunologic and inflammatory responses of intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) containing fish oil (FO) in parenteral nutrition (PN) for adult patients. IVLEs containing FO could have a role in the prevention of alterations in liver enzyme tests (LETs) or PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). Studies using FO doses of ≥ 0.150 mg/kg/day or IVLEs with high FO concentration reported more positive results than those with lower doses. Once PNALD was developed, the use of IVLEs exclusively composed of FO at doses of 0.25-1 g of FO/kg/day for several weeks could attenuate or even eradicate cholestasis and liver alteration. IVLEs containing FO seemed to have faster blood clearance, and this could be beneficial for some patients. Some studies also suggested a possible improvement of respiratory function by the administration of these IVLEs. In general, IVLEs containing FO were safe. Their use did not increase oxidative stress but, in contrast, increased plasma tocopherol content. They did not alter insulin sensitivity or glycemic control, and studies have found no relevant clinical effect on platelet aggregation or hemostasis. In conclusion, the use of IVLEs containing FO in PN may be beneficial with regard to older IVLEs, in addition to the modulation of systemic inflammation response.

  2. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner. PMID:27073594

  3. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner.

  4. Cloning of multiple ERα mRNA variants in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), and differential expression by tissue type, stage of reproduction, and estrogen exposure in fish from polluted and unpolluted environments.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Kellie A; Nacci, Diane; Champlin, Denise; Chuprin, Jane; Callard, Gloria V

    2015-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that alternative splicing could be an adaptive mechanism for populations subject to multi-generational estrogenic exposures, we compared estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) splicing variants in two populations of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): one resident in an estrogenic polluted environment (New Bedford Harbor, NBH, MA, USA) and one from a relatively uncontaminated reference site (Scorton Creek, SC, MA, USA). In total we identified 19 ERα variants, each with deletions of one or more coding exons. Four of the variants with potential functional relevance were analyzed by qPCR to test for population differences in expression by tissue type, site, sex, seasonal reproductive status and estrogen treatment. Significantly, a 5'-truncated short form variant (ERαS) was highly expressed in liver and ovary, and was associated with seasonal reproductive activity in SC but not NBH fish. Both ERαS and the full-length long variant (ERαL) were estrogen-inducible (ERαS>ERαL) but the induction response was lower in NBH than in SC fish. In contrast, NBH killifish were hyper-responsive to estrogen as measured by expression of two other estrogen responsive genes: vitellogenin (Vtg) and aromatase B (AroB). Most strikingly, two ERα deletion variants (Δ6 and Δ6-8), lacking ligand binding and activation function domains, were identified in a subset of NBH fish, where they were associated with reduced responsiveness to estrogen treatment. Together, these results support the hypothesis that alternative splicing of the esr1 gene of killifish could be an autoregulatory mechanism by which estrogen modulates the differential expression of ERα, and suggests a novel and adaptive mechanistic response to xenoestrogenic exposure.

  5. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Mobile, Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint, Savannah, and Pee Dee River Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; May, Tom W.; Claunch, Rachael; Wieser, Carla; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from 13 sites in 4 river basins in the southeastern United States to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Mercury concentrations in bass samples from all sites exceeded toxicity thresholds for mammals [>0.1 micrograms per gram wet weight (ug/g ww)], fish (>0.2 ug/g ww), and birds (>0.3 ug/g ww) and were greatest (>0.5 ug/g ww) in samples from the Alabama River at Eureka Landing, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks, Alabama; the Apalachicola River at Blountstown, Florida; the Savannah River at Sylvania, Georgia; and the Pee Dee River at Bucksport, South Carolina. Selenium concentrations were relatively high (>0.75 ug/g ww) in fish from the Tombigbee River at Lavaca, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks; and the Chattahoochee River at Omaha, Georgia compared to those from other sites. Concentrations of 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)- 1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were high in fish from the Chattahoochee River at Omaha and the Mobile River near Bucks, which was near a 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-1,1- dichloroethylene (DDT) formulating facility that historically discharged into the lower Mobile River. Toxaphene concentrations in fish from the Flint River near Albany, Georgia (60-100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) ww) may pose a risk to fish. Concentrations of other formerly used (total chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, aldrin, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene) and currently used (pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole

  6. The impact of dietary restriction, intermittent feeding and compensatory growth on reproductive investment and lifespan in a short-lived fish

    PubMed Central

    Inness, Claire L.W; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    While dietary restriction usually increases lifespan, an intermittent feeding regime, where periods of deprivation alternate with times when food is available, has been found to reduce lifespan in some studies but prolong it in others. We suggest that these disparities arise because in some situations lifespan is reduced by the costs of catch-up growth (following the deprivation) and reproductive investment, a factor that has rarely been measured in studies of lifespan. Using three-spined sticklebacks, we show for the first time that while animals subjected to an intermittent feeding regime can grow as large as continuously fed controls that receive the same total amount of food, and can maintain reproductive investment, they have a shorter lifespan. Furthermore, we show that this reduction in lifespan is linked to rapid skeletal growth rate and is due to an increase in the instantaneous risk of mortality rather than in the rate of senescence. By contrast, dietary restriction caused a reduction in reproductive investment in females but no corresponding increase in longevity. This suggests that in short-lived species where reproduction is size dependent, selection pressures may lead to an increase in intrinsic mortality risk when resources are diverted from somatic maintenance to both growth and reproductive investment. PMID:18445563

  7. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  8. Ontogenetic improvement of visual function in the medaka Oryzias latipes based on an optomotor testing system for larval and adult fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carvalho, Paulo S. M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a system for evaluation of visual function in larval and adult fish. Both optomotor (swimming) and optokinetic (eye movement) responses were monitored and recorded using a system of rotating stripes. The system allowed manipulation of factors such as width of the stripes used, rotation speed of the striped drum, and light illuminance levels within both the scotopic and photopic ranges. Precise control of these factors allowed quantitative measurements of visual acuity and motion detection. Using this apparatus, we tested the hypothesis that significant posthatch ontogenetic improvements in visual function occur in the medaka Oryzias latipes, and also that this species shows significant in ovo neuronal development. Significant improvements in the acuity angle alpha (ability to discriminate detail) were observed from approximately 5 degrees at hatch to 1 degree in the oldest adult stages. In addition, we measured a significant improvement in flicker fusion thresholds (motion detection skills) between larval and adult life stages within both the scotopic and photopic ranges of light illuminance. Ranges of flicker fusion thresholds (X?? ?? SD) at log I=1.96 (photopic) varied from 37.2 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young adults to 18.6 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. At log I= - 2.54 (scotopic), flicker fusion thresholds varied from 5.8 ?? 0.7 cycles/s in young adults to 1.7 ?? 0.4 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. Light sensitivity increased approximately 2.9 log units from early hatched larval stages to adults. The demonstrated ontogenetic improvements in visual function probably enable the fish to explore new resources, thereby enlarging their fundamental niche. ?? 2002 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does Fish Oil Have an Anti-Obesity Effect in Overweight/Obese Adults? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichun; Jin, Jie; Fang, Wenjun; Su, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Context Accumulating evidence has suggested favorable effects of fish oil on weight loss in animal experiments; however, findings remain inconsistent in humans. Objects The meta-analysis was performed to investigate the influence of fish oil on some parameters of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Design Human randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified by a systematic search of Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, web of science and reference lists of related reviews and articles. The random-effects model was used to estimate the calculated results. Results In total, 21 studies with 30 study arms were included in this analysis. Calculated results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that fish oil had no effect on reducing body weight (overall SMD = -0.07, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.07, P = 0.31) and BMI (overall SMD = -0.09, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.03, P = 0.14) whether alone or combined with life modification intervention in overweight/obese subjects. However, waist circumference was significantly reduced (SMD = -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.06, P = 0.008) in those with fish oil supplementation combined with life modification intervention. Waist hip ratio (WHR) was significantly reduced (overall SMD = -0.52 95% CI -0.76 to -0.27, P < 0.0005) in fish oil supplemented individuals with or without combination life modification intervention. Conclusion Current evidence cannot support an exact anti-obesity role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in overweight/obese subjects. However, these subjects may benefit from reducing abdominal fat with fish oil supplementation especially when combined with life modification intervention. Further large-scale and long-term clinical trials are needed to gain definite conclusions. PMID:26571503

  10. Low-dose and combined effects of oral exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on the male reproductive system in adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Hong-Qiang; Cui, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Li; Zhang, Wen-Long; Liu, Wen-Bin; Han, Fei; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jin-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Study of the joint action of xenobiotics is important to fully explore their toxicity and complete risk analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of low-dose and combined exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the reproductive system in adult male rats. The results showed that the sperm motility decreased in the BPA/DES and combined groups. Sperm deformity ratios and histological lesions of the testes were significantly higher and more significant, respectively, in the combined group compared with the single treated groups. No dose-effect relationship or significant additive effect on serum hormone levels was observed after combined exposure to BPA/DES. Ultrastructural results showed lesions of the Sertoli and Leydig cells, mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in all treated groups. ER stress molecular sensor IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after BPA and DES treatment in this study. The protein levels of ES stress molecular marker CHOP were significantly up-regulated after exposure to BPA, DES, and BPA and DES combined. These findings indicate that ER stress is important in BPA/DES-induced damage in rat testes. Low-dose and combined exposure to BPA and DES may have toxic effects on male fertility in the adult population.

  11. Chronic perchlorate exposure impairs stickleback reproductive behaviour and swimming performance

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Richard R.; von Hippel, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We describe behavioural changes in two generations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of perchlorate. The first generation (G0,2002) was exposed as two-year-old adults to perchlorate in experimental groups ranging in concentration from less than the method detection limit (<1.1 ppb) to 18.6 ppm for up to 22 days during their courtship, spawning, egg guarding, and first five days of fry guarding. No differences were noted in the behaviour or reproductive output of these fish that were exposed as adults. However, perchlorate exposure throughout development caused widespread effects in the second generation (G1,2003), which was spawned and raised through sexual maturity in one of four nominal experimental groups (0, 30 and 100 ppm, and a ‘variable’ treatment that progressively increased from <1.1 ppb to approximately 60 ppm perchlorate). Dose-dependent effects were found during the G1,2003’s swimming and behavioural evaluations, including higher mortality rates among treated fish following stressful events. Perchlorate-exposed fish had higher failure rates during swimming trials and failed at lower flow rates than control fish. A number of treated fish exhibited seizures. Progressively fewer males completed benchmark metrics, such as nest building, spawning, nursery formation, or fry production, in a dose-dependent manner. Fewer males from higher treatments courted females, and those that did initiated courtship later and had a reduced behavioural repertoire compared to fish from lower treatments. The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for swimming performance, reproductive behaviour, survivorship and recruitment was 30 ppm perchlorate (our lowest G1,2003 treatment), and near complete inhibition of reproductive activity was noted among males raised in 100 ppm perchlorate. A small number of treated G1,2003 females were isolated in aquaria, and some performed reproductive

  12. Effects of a mixture of pesticides on the adult female reproductive system of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Pascotto, Viviane M; Guerra, Marina T; Franci, Janete Aparecida Anselmo; de Camargo, João Lauro V; Kempinas, Wilma G; Franchi, Carla A S

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian federal government Agency for Health Surveillance detected pesticide residues in fresh food available for consumers all over the country. The current study investigated the effects of a mixture of some of those pesticides (dichlorvos, dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan, and permethrin) on the reproductive system of Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (WT), and Lewis (LEW) rats. Female rats from each strain were randomized into three experimental groups and were fed a control diet or diets added with pesticides mixture at their respective no-observed-effect level (NOEL)/no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) (low dose) (mg/kg/d): dichlorvos (0.23), dicofol (0.5), dieldrin (0.025), endosulfan (0.7), permethrin (5), or lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL)/lowest-effect level (LEL)/ lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) (toxically effective dose) (mg/kg/d): dichlorvos (2.3), dicofol (2.1), dieldrin (0.05), endosulfan (3.8), and permethrin (25) as reported in the literature. Euthanasia was performed between wk 10 and 12, during the estrous stage. Decreased body weights gain (SD and WT) and increased liver weights (SD, WT, and LEW) were observed in each strain fed the pesticides mixture at the higher levels. At that dose level, rat strains also varied in their responses regarding the estrous cycle, hormonal levels, and number of developing ovarian follicles. The studied mixture of pesticides was found to interfere with the female reproductive system when individual pesticides were mixed above a certain level, indicating a threshold exists for each of the strains studied.

  13. Association of cigarette smoking with reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy adult men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Chen, Yi-Ling; Kantaria, Khyati N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in 192 healthy men 20-65 years old, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Exposure to cigarette smoking was classified three ways based on: 1) smoking status (yes vs. no); 2) the number of cigarettes per day (0, 1-10, > 10); and 3) pack-years (0, 1-10, 11-20, > 20). Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and total estradiol (TE) were measured. Semen quality, including concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology, were assessed. Mean levels of smoking, semen quality, and hormones were compared using the multiple linear regression, while controlling for possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), cadmium levels in seminal plasma, and alcohol consumption. Current smokers, who smoked 10 cigarettes per day, had a lower mean percentage of normal morphology (3.2% and 5.5% in nonsmokers, P = 0.040), and a higher mean level of TT (454.7 pmol/L and 439.8 pmol/L in nonsmokers, P = 0.048), as compared with nonsmokers. Also, current smokers at > 20 pack-year had a lower percentage of normal morphology and a lower mean level of TT as compared with nonsmokers; no significant difference was observed in LH, FSH, sperm concentration, vitality, and motility between smokers and nonsmokers based on the number of cigarette per day and the pack-year. Sperm vitality statistically correlated with FSH (β = -0.36 P = 0.015) and TE (β = 0.35, P = 0.018), while motility statistically correlated with TT (β = 0.228, P = 0.045). Normal morphology did not statistically correlated with all reproductive hormones.

  14. Effects of different spawning agents on serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones and cortisol level in adult female Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874).

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Takavar; Malekpouri, Pedram; Zare, Mojtaba; Zainodini, Mohammad Anwar

    2015-12-01

    The question of whether, as hormone therapies, spawning agents differ from each other to induce physiological pathways of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation in fish remains important, because it could modify undesirable changes, regulated by endocrine systems of individual fish. A series of experimental treatments were applied to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) in which female bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) fish respond differently to hormone therapies. Female broodstocks were injected twice (with 12 h interval) by three different treatments namely A, B and C. The treatment A received carp pituitary extract (CPE) + luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRHα2) (0.5 mg CPE kg(-1) BW for first injection and 2 mg CPE kg(-1) BW + 10 µg LHRHα2 kg(-1) for second injection), treatment B received CPE (0.5 and 3.5 mg kg(-1) BW), and treatment C received ovaprim (0.1 and 0.15 ml kg(-1) BW). Blood samples were collected at four different time intervals, including prior to injections, 6 h after first injection, 6 h after second injection and at the time of spawning, and serum steroid hormones, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17β as well as cortisol, were measured. Results showed significant increases in serum estradiol-17β following all treatments, but the most profound response was found in treatments A and B. Testosterone was higher in larger broodfish than in small-sized broodfish (>1.5 vs. <1.5 kg) in all treatments. CPE led to higher concentration of testosterone rather than two other treatments. CPE also increases the progesterone following first injection and approximately remains unchanged till the end of experiment. Change in progesterone level was only significant after second injection of ovaprim as well as after spawning compared with previous time. Linear regression analyses indicated that cortisol had adverse effects on progesterone and testosterone levels of weight group <1.5 kg. These results suggest that among inducing

  15. The influence of dietary fish oil vs. sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl-esters in healthy, adult cats.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, E A; Beynen, A C

    2003-12-01

    The question addressed was whether the fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) in cats reflects the intake of fatty acids. Diets containing either fish oil or sunflower oil were fed to six healthy, adult cats in a cross-over trial. The dry cat foods contained approximately 18.5% crude fat, of which two-third was in the form of the variable oil. Blood samples were collected at the end of each 4-week feeding period, and the fatty acid composition of plasma CEs and plasma concentrations of lipoproteins were determined. Consumption of the diet with fish oil was associated with significantly greater proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and myristic acid in plasma CEs. The intake of fish oil instead of sunflower oil reduced the percentage of linoleic acid in CEs. The plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides were not affected by fish oil vs. sunflower oil feeding.

  16. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, David B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Matter, William J.; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 μg/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17β-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = −0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = −0.45) and control (r = −0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed.

  17. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, D.B.; Paretti, N.V.; Cordy, G.; Gross, T.S.; Zaugg, S.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Matter, W.J.; Gwinn, J.; McIntosh, D.

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 ??g/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17??-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17??-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = -0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = -0.45) and control (r = -0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Walker, David B; Paretti, Nicholas V; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S; Zaugg, Steven D; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Matter, William J; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis

    2009-11-08

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 microg/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p=0.021) yet higher levels of 17beta-estradiol (p=0.002) and vitellogenin (p=0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17beta-estradiol than control females (p=0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r=0.00) versus control (r=-0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r=-0.45) and control (r=-0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed.

  19. Lead effects on the predictability of reproductive behavior in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas): A mathematical model

    SciTech Connect

    Alados, C.L.; Weber, D.N.

    1999-10-01

    Lead (Pb) has been shown to affect the behavior of a wide variety of vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, and mammals. This article re-examines previous data on the effect of short-term, sublethal levels of waterborne Pb on the reproductive behavior of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Previous research has found that Pb decreased the time spent in displaying specific reproductive behaviors in male minnows. Because each activity performed within a sequence depends upon previous parts of the sequence, the reproductive behavior of fish is not randomly distributed but is presented as a long-range self-similar correlation. By treating these data as a fractal dimension, it is now possible to determine changes in the long-term correlation of different behavioral sequences involved in nest maintenance owing to Pb exposure, both before and after adult males attain reproductive maturity. The authors hypothesized that the scaling exponent of this fluctuation varies in relation with environmental contaminants. Known Pb-induced changes in hormonal activity may account for changes in observed reproductive and nest maintenance behaviors. Pb-exposed fish exhibited higher levels of predictability in their behavioral sequences, i.e., they demonstrated an increase in the scaling parameter of the fluctuation {alpha}. However, if Pb was introduced after sexual maturity was observed, there was no significant difference in the scaling component {alpha}. Thus, the use of fractal dimension may provide a useful tool to analyze the effects of environmental contaminants and other stresses.

  20. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (<3 ng/mL) in adult females during the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (<0.48 ng/mL) and VTG (<0.001 mg/mL) were low in males throughout the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points

  1. Reproductive biology of two macrourid fish, Nezumia aequalis and Coelorinchus mediterraneus, inhabiting the NW Mediterranean continental margin (400-2000 m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Arcaya, U.; Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Rotllant, G.; Recasens, L.; Murua, H.; Quaggio-Grassiotto, I.; Company, J. B.

    2013-08-01

    Nezumia aequalis and Coelorinchus mediterraneus are abundant species on the upper and lower continental slopes, respectively, in the Mediterranean Sea. A study on the reproductive strategy of the two species was conducted on the Catalan margin (NW Mediterranean). The reproductive cycle of both species was investigated using visual analyses of gonads and histological screening. The shallower species, N. aequalis, showed continuous reproduction with a peak of spawning females in winter months. In contrast, the deeper-living species, C. mediterraneus, showed semi-continuous reproduction with a regression period during the spring. Juveniles of N. aequalis were present in all seasons, but most abundant in the spring. Only two juveniles of C. mediterraneus were found. Both species had asynchronous oocyte development. The average fecundity of N. aequalis was 10,630 oocytes per individual, lower than known for the same species in the Atlantic Ocean. The fecundity of C. mediterraneus was measured for the first time in this study, with an average of 7693 oocytes per individual. Males of both species appear to have semi-cystic spermatogenesis.

  2. Novel method for the nuclear transfer of adult somatic cells in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes): use of diploidized eggs as recipients.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2008-08-01

    Until recently, the nuclear transfer of adult somatic cell nuclei in fish has been unsuccessful. This is primarily because of chromosomal aberrations in nuclear transplants, which are thought to arise due to asynchrony between the cell cycles of the recipient egg and donor nucleus. We recently succeeded in circumventing this difficulty by using a new nuclear transfer method in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Instead of enucleated eggs, the method uses non-enucleated and diploidized eggs, obtained by retention of the second polar body release, as recipients in the nuclear transfer of primary culture cells from the caudal fin of an adult green fluorescent protein gene (GFP)-transgenic strain. We found that 2.7% of the reconstructed embryos grew into diploid and fertile adults exhibiting donor expression characteristics and transmission of the GFP marker gene to progeny. The mechanism underlying the generation of nuclear transplants using this method is unknown at present; however, analyses of donor and recipient nuclei behavior and the cytoskeletal mechanisms involved in the early developmental stages, as well as the special ability of diploidized eggs to facilitate reprogramming of the donor nuclei will result in elucidation of the mechanism.

  3. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001). Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased lean mass and

  4. From Embryos to Adults: A DOHaD Perspective on In Vitro Fertilization and Other Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, Sky; Rinaudo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a treatment for infertility is regarded as one of the most outstanding accomplishments of the 20th century, and its use has grown dramatically since the late 1970s. Although IVF is considered safe and the majority of children appear healthy, reproductive technologies have been viewed with some skepticism since the in vitro environment deviates substantially from that in vivo. This is increasingly significant because the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis has illuminated the sensitivity of an organism to its environment at critical stages