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Sample records for adult flea emergence

  1. Efficacy of indoxacarb applied to cats against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, flea eggs and adult flea emergence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of indoxacarb applied to cats on adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence. Methods Sixteen cats were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Eight cats were treated with a 19.5% w/v topical spot-on solution of indoxacarb on day 0 and eight cats served as untreated controls. Each cat was infested with 50 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. On Days 1, 2, and 3, and at 2 and 3 days after each post treatment reinfestation flea eggs were collected from the pan under each cat cage. Eggs were counted and viability assessed by evaluating adult flea emergence 28 days after egg collection. Three days after treatment or infestation, each cat was combed to remove and count live fleas. Results Treatment with indoxacarb provided 100% efficacy following infestations on day -2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and efficacy was 99.6% following infestations on days 35 and 42. Egg production from indoxacarb treated cats was reduced by 99.9% within 72 hours of treatment. For subsequent infestations no eggs were produced from treated cats from day 8 through day 30. Egg production was still reduced by ≥95.8% through day 45. Indoxacarb treatment also reduced adult flea emergence from eggs for 5 weeks after treatment. The combination of reduction in egg numbers and egg viability from indoxacarb treated cats reduced predicted flea emergence by 100% from days 2 – 31 and 99.9%, 100%, 96.4% and 99.0% on days 37, 38, 44 and 45, respectively. Conclusions A topical spot-on formulation of indoxacarb provided ≥99.6% efficacy against flea infestations on cats for 6 weeks following a single treatment. Indoxacarb also eliminated or markedly reduced egg production for the entire evaluation period and reduced the viability of the few eggs that were produced from Day 1 through Day 38. Given indoxacarb’s effect on adult fleas, egg production and egg viability; this formulation can

  2. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study. PMID:25547077

  3. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  4. Fleas

    MedlinePlus

    ... article/001329.htm Fleas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fleas are small insects that feed on the blood of humans, dogs, cats, and other warm-blooded animals. Causes Fleas prefer to live on dogs and cats. They may also be ...

  5. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and immature stages of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) on cats.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christine; Tielemans, Eric; Prullage, Joseph B; Chester, S Theodore; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; Young, David R; Everett, William R; Rosentel, Joseph K

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v) and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®)) was tested against adult and immature stages of Ctenocephalides felis fleas in six studies. For that purpose, fleas from different colonies from North America, Germany and South Africa were used to induce infestations in cats under laboratory conditions. In each study, between 12 and 16 cats were allocated randomly to 2 groups. Cats in Group 1 were not treated and served as controls. Cats in Group 2 were treated once on Day 0 with BROADLINE(®) at the minimum recommended dosage of 0.12 mg/kg body weight. In 4 studies, all animals were infested experimentally with unfed C. felis (100 ± 5) on Days 2 (or 1), 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Live fleas were counted 24h post-treatment or infestation. In 2 additional studies, animals were infested at the same frequency with gravid C. felis fleas (100 ± 5) that were fed previously on an untreated host. Forty-eight hours post-infestation, flea eggs were collected, counted and incubated for the evaluation of the reduction of emergence of adults. The combined curative efficacy against adult fleas at 24h after treatment was 94.3% and the combined preventive efficacy values remained greater than 95.9% at 24h after 5 subsequent weekly infestations. In addition, the product reduced dramatically the emergence of new adult fleas for at least 5 weeks (>98.1% for one month and 93.2% at 5 weeks after infestation), demonstrating its efficiency in preventing environmental contamination by immature stages. PMID:24703078

  6. Ecological Opportunity, Evolution, and the Emergence of Flea-Borne Plague.

    PubMed

    Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Chouikha, Iman; Sun, Yi-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    The plague bacillus Yersinia pestis is unique among the pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae in utilizing an arthropod-borne transmission route. Transmission by fleabite is a recent evolutionary adaptation that followed the divergence of Y. pestis from the closely related food- and waterborne enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis A combination of population genetics, comparative genomics, and investigations of Yersinia-flea interactions have disclosed the important steps in the evolution and emergence of Y. pestis as a flea-borne pathogen. Only a few genetic changes, representing both gene gain by lateral transfer and gene loss by loss-of-function mutation (pseudogenization), were fundamental to this process. The emergence of Y. pestis fits evolutionary theories that emphasize ecological opportunity in adaptive diversification and rapid emergence of new species. PMID:27160296

  7. Fleas infesting pets in the era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila. All these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are emerging at the same time. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans cause discomfort, nuisance, allergic reactions, anaemia, and may transmit several pathogens, some of them are of importance for public health. The present article reviews the importance of fleas in small animal practice and their sanitary relevance for dogs, cats and humans, and discusses current control methods in the present era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes, towards a possible changing perspective for controlling key parasites affecting companion animals. PMID:23497511

  8. Ultimate mechanisms of age-biased flea parasitism.

    PubMed

    Hawlena, Hadas; Abramsky, Zvika; Krasnov, Boris R

    2007-12-01

    Mechanisms that cause nonrandom patterns of parasite distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of both parasites and hosts, but are still poorly understood. We studied whether survival, reproduction, and behavioral responses of fleas (Xenopsylla conformis) changed with the age of their rodent hosts (Meriones crassus), experimentally disentangling two possible mechanisms: (a) differential survival and/or fitness reward of parasites due to host age, and (b) active parasite choice of a host of a particular age. To explore the first mechanism, we raised fleas on rodents of two age groups and assessed flea survival as well as the quantity and quality of their offspring. To explore the second mechanism, three groups of fleas that differed in their previous feeding experience (no experience, experience on juvenile or experience on adult rodents) were given an opportunity to choose between juvenile and adult rodents in a Y-maze. Fleas raised on juvenile rodents had higher survival and had more offspring that emerged earlier than fleas raised on adults. However, fleas did not show any innate preference for juvenile rodents, nor were they able to learn to choose them. In contrast to our predictions, based on a single previous exposure, fleas learned to choose adult rodents. The results suggest that two mechanisms-differential survival and fitness reward of fleas, and associative learning by them-affect patterns of flea distribution between juvenile and adult rodents. The former increases whereas the latter reduces flea densities on juvenile rodents. The ability of fleas to learn to choose adult but not juvenile hosts may be due to: (a) a stronger stimulus from adults, (b) a higher profitability of adults in terms of predictability and abundance, or (c) the evolutionary importance of recognizing adult but not juvenile hosts as representatives of the species.

  9. Targeting red-headed flea beetle larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red-headed flea beetle (RHFB), Systena frontalis, is an emerging pest of cranberry that requires significant grower investment in monitoring and repeated applications of insecticides to reduce adult populations. The adult beetles are highly mobile and consume a broad range of host plants whereas t...

  10. Population dynamics of adult fleas (Siphonaptera) on hosts and in nests of the California vole.

    PubMed

    Stark, Harold E

    2002-11-01

    Microtus californicus (Peale, 1848) were live trapped or retrapped 887 times, and fleas were collected over a 2.5-yr period in the San Francisco Watershed and Wildlife Refuge. Also, 179 M. californicus nests were collected monthly with observations to identify the environment of fleas. The ratio of the mean number of fleas per nest to the mean number collected on voles was 4.7:1 for Malaraeus telchinus (Rothschild, 1905), 13:1 for Hystrichopsylla occidentalis linsdalei Holland, 1957,9:1 for Atyphloceras multidentatus multidentatus (C. Fox, 1909), and 76:1 for Catallagia wymani (C. Fox, 1909). The proportion of each flea species per nest to those per host was not closely associated seasonally or spatially. The average nest contained 37.5% moisture content in relation to its total weight and ranged between 3 and 92%. No relationship was observed between relative humidity of air within nests and flea number, but a significant relationship existed between the moisture of nesting materials and flea number. Malaraeus telchinus and A. m. multidentatus were collected in greatest numbers from nests having 30-39% moisture content by weight, and H. o. linsdalei and C. wymani were most numerous in nests that had 40-49% moisture content. Catallagia wymani had the greatest tolerance for high moisture and was severely affected by lack of moisture and nearly absent in drier nests. No ectoparasites were collected from nests that had <12% moisture content, and nests with >50% moisture content had few fleas. A static concept of nest fleas and host fleas as suggested by averages and often used in literature is questionable. In seasonal comparison of populations of fleas on hosts and in nests, M. telchinus and H. o. linsdalei reversed so that more of the flea population was on the host than in the nest for a short time during fall. PMID:12495178

  11. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    PubMed

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  12. [Trend in the emergence of flea imagoes from cocoons in the nests of a mountain gopher (Spermophilus musicus) in the central Caucasian highland natural focus of plague].

    PubMed

    Beliavtseva, L I

    2012-01-01

    The results of observations of a trend in the emergence of flea imagoes from cocoons in the nests of mountain gopher (Spermophilus musicus) (Elbrus region) confirm that the dominant species: Citellophilus tesquorum elbrusensis and Ctenophthalmus golovi golovi have two generations. Emergence of first-generation imagoes from cocoons is recorded in July-August in the nests where the grophers constantly inhabit in May-June. These are brood-rearing and other summer nests and, to a lesser degree, former wintering ones. Hatching of the bulk of second-generation flea imagoes is observed in the nests constantly inhabited by grophers in July-August (these are nests made from summer holes and renovable wintering nests). The onset of emergence of second-generation imagoes from cocoons in both flea species is noted in September; some specimens hibernate in the cocoons, by emerging from them next April.

  13. Efficacy of selamectin against adult flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis) on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    McTier, T L; Jones, R L; Holbert, M S; Murphy, M G; Watson, P; Sun, F; Smith, D G; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin was evaluated in eight controlled studies (4 in dogs, 4 in cats) to determine the efficacy of a single topical unit dose providing the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) against Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis fleas on dogs and against C. felis on cats. In addition, the effect of bathing on the efficacy of selamectin against C. felis was evaluated. Identical studies were performed in Beagles and domestic shorthaired cats. For each study, animals were allocated randomly to treatments of 8-12 animals each. All studies (dog studies A, B, C, and D and cat studies A, B, C, and D) evaluated the efficacy of selamectin without bathing. In addition, study C in both dogs and cats evaluated efficacy with a shampoo bath at 24h after dosing, and study D evaluated the efficacy of selamectin with water soaking at 2h after dosing or with a shampoo bath at 2-6h after dosing. Dog study B evaluated efficacy against C. canis, whereas all other studies used C. felis. In each study, selamectin was administered on day 0 as a topical dose that was applied directly to the skin in a single spot at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Dogs and cats were infested with approximately 100 viable unfed C. felis or C. canis on days 4, 11, 18, and 27. On days 7, 14, 21, and 30, approximately 72h after infestation, a comb count of the number of viable fleas present on each animal was made. For C. felis and C. canis for dogs and cats, compared with controls, selamectin achieved significant reductions in geometric mean adult flea comb counts of > or =98.9% on days 7, 14, and 21 in all eight studies. On day 30, the reduction for C. felis remained at or above 98.0%. This included the dogs and cats that were soaked with water or bathed with shampoo at 2, 6, or 24h after treatment. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the flea counts from selamectin-treated animals in these studies, regardless of bathing status. On day 30, a significant

  14. Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826).

    PubMed

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Yoon, Stephen S; Roques, Martine; Manavella, Coralie; Vermot, Solange; Cramer, Luiz G; Ollagnier, Catherine; Franc, Michel

    2011-07-15

    A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), 8.0mg amitraz/kg bw, and 6.0mg (S)-methoprene/kg bw. The combination was designed to enhance the efficacy against ticks of the original fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination. Each dog was infested with 100 adult unfed dog fleas within 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. At 24h after treatment or after each subsequent infestation, each dog was combed thoroughly to remove live fleas to be counted. A single treatment with CERTIFECT provided excellent knock-down of fleas within 24h after treatment and controlled re-infestations for up to 7 weeks (efficacy ≥96.5%, p<0.05).

  15. Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, prevents flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction in vitro and in a simulated home environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, has both acaricidal and insecticidal activity through potent blockage of GABA- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of fluralaner exposure on flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction. Methods Blood spiked with sub-insecticidal fluralaner concentrations (between 0.09 and 50.0 ng/mL) was fed to fleas for 10 days using a membrane system. Cessation of reproduction in exposed fleas was assessed using flea survival, egg hatchability, and control of oviposition, pupae, and flea emergence. Fluralaner efficacy for in vivo Ctenocephalides (C.) felis control on dogs was assessed using a simulated flea-infested home environment. During a pre-treatment period, dogs were infested twice on days -28 and -21 with 100 adult unfed fleas to establish a thriving population by day 0 of the study. On day 0, one group of dogs was treated with fluralaner (Bravecto™; n = 10), while another group served as negative control (n = 10). Following treatment, dogs were infested three times with 50 fleas on days 22, 50 and 78 to simulate new infestations. Live flea counts were conducted weekly on all dogs for 12 weeks starting 1 day before treatment. Results Fluralaner potently inhibited flea reproduction capacity in vitro. Oviposition ceased completely at concentrations as low as 25.0 ng/mL. While no ovicidal effect was observed, fluralaner exerted a larvicidal effect at exceptionally low concentrations (6.25 ng/mL). In the simulated flea-infested home environment, flea-control efficacy on fluralaner-treated dogs was >99% at every time point measured for 12 weeks. No adverse events were observed in fluralaner-treated dogs. Conclusions Fluralaner completely controls egg laying, larval development and flea reproduction even at sub-insecticidal concentrations. Oral treatment of dogs with fluralaner is highly effective for eliminating fleas in a simulated flea-infested home

  16. Tungiasis (sand flea disease): a parasitic disease with particular challenges for public health.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H; Sentongo, E; Krantz, I

    2013-01-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is caused by the penetration of females of Tunga penetrans into the skin of the feet. Within 2 weeks of penetration the burrowed flea increases its volume by a factor of 2,000. This is paralleled by intense inflammation of the surrounding tissue. Acute and chronic inflammation leads to the development of painful and debilitating clinical pathology. This results in impaired physical fitness and mobility. The social implications of tungiasis-associated morbidity are multifold. Children with tungiasis are teased and ridiculed, adults feel ashamed and stigmatized. There is anecdotal evidence that tungiasis negatively affects educational achievements. Impaired mobility and physical fitness will have a negative impact on household economics. Sand flea disease is common in resource-poor communities in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa with prevalence in the general population of up to 60%. In East Africa, it has re-emerged in epidemic dimensions in recent years. Hitherto, no effective drug treatment has been at hand. Traditional treatment, i.e., the manipulation of burrowed sand fleas with blunt and inappropriate instruments may facilitate the transmission of blood-derived pathogens. Prevention is feasible through regular application of a repellent based on coconut oil. Owing to its strong association with poverty, sand flea disease would be an excellent starting point for a community-based fight against rural poverty. PMID:22941398

  17. Tungiasis (sand flea disease): a parasitic disease with particular challenges for public health.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H; Sentongo, E; Krantz, I

    2013-01-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is caused by the penetration of females of Tunga penetrans into the skin of the feet. Within 2 weeks of penetration the burrowed flea increases its volume by a factor of 2,000. This is paralleled by intense inflammation of the surrounding tissue. Acute and chronic inflammation leads to the development of painful and debilitating clinical pathology. This results in impaired physical fitness and mobility. The social implications of tungiasis-associated morbidity are multifold. Children with tungiasis are teased and ridiculed, adults feel ashamed and stigmatized. There is anecdotal evidence that tungiasis negatively affects educational achievements. Impaired mobility and physical fitness will have a negative impact on household economics. Sand flea disease is common in resource-poor communities in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa with prevalence in the general population of up to 60%. In East Africa, it has re-emerged in epidemic dimensions in recent years. Hitherto, no effective drug treatment has been at hand. Traditional treatment, i.e., the manipulation of burrowed sand fleas with blunt and inappropriate instruments may facilitate the transmission of blood-derived pathogens. Prevention is feasible through regular application of a repellent based on coconut oil. Owing to its strong association with poverty, sand flea disease would be an excellent starting point for a community-based fight against rural poverty.

  18. Dose confirmation and non-interference evaluations of the oral efficacy of a combination of milbemycin oxime and spinosad against the dose limiting parasites, adult cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), in dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Wiseman, Scott

    2012-03-23

    Two separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose and non-interference of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination or alone to dogs for the treatment and control of experimentally induced flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis) and adult hookworm infections (Ancylostoma caninum). For each study, dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment adult flea and hookworm egg counts to one of four treatment groups of 10 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient, or individually alone using the full dose range, were given orally to dogs on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A placebo control was treated similarly. In one study, on Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 28 and 35 each dog was infested with approximately 100 unfed adult C. felis obtained from the investigator's established flea colony. All dogs were infested via the same method. Forty-eight hour post-infestation flea comb counts were conducted on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 37 and were used to determine the knockdown and residual flea activity. In the second study, on Day -27 each of 48 dogs were experimentally inoculated with 100 third-stage infective larvae of the hookworm, A. caninum. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and necropsied on Day 7 or Day 8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract were collected on Day 7 or Day 8, identified and counted by species and stage. Post-treatment, the geometric mean live flea counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad/MO combination and the spinosad only treatment groups as compared to the vehicle control group. The flea counts in the MO only group and the control group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group and the spinosad only treatment group demonstrated significantly different knockdown (100

  19. Effect of temperature on cat flea (Siphonaptera:Pulicidae) development and overwintering.

    PubMed

    Metzger, M E; Rust, M K

    1997-03-01

    Cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), were reared at different temperatures to examine further the effects on egg-to-adult development and emergence of adults from cocoons. Three different temperatures (26.7, 21.1, and 15.5 degrees C) were used to rear fleas. Emergence of adults from cocoons was monitored using 2 experimental designs-cocoons maintained in groups and cocoons individually isolated. At cooler temperatures, cocoons kept in groups had a higher incidence of late-emerging adults than did individual cocoons. At 15.5 degrees C, adults continued to emerge from grouped cocoons up to 80 d after all had emerged from individual cocoons. Developmental time of prepupae and pupae was determined by inhibiting cocoon formation of late 3rd instars. Male prepupae and pupae developed approximately 20% slower than did females. Comparisons between emergence of adults from cocoons and from naked pupae indicate that a large percentage of adults emerge from cocoons soon after molting. The possible association of developmental temperatures and emergence from cocoons with overwintering populations is discussed. PMID:9103760

  20. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  1. Perspectives on housing among homeless emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Tiffany N; Thompson, Sanna J

    2013-02-01

    Homeless emerging adults need the safety and stability of housing programs if they are to avoid the elements and victimization of the streets, however, barriers to obtaining housing are numerous. This study identified factors associated with perspectives of housing services among 29 homeless emerging adults (ages 18-23 years) through one-on-one interviews. Data were gathered and analyzed using grounded theory methodology for qualitative information. Major themes of peer support and positive personal and programmatic interactions in the context of emerging adult development were noted as important factors in housing service utilization. These major themes should be taken into consideration for current housing programs, due to homeless emerging adults' oscillation between their desire for formal support and personal independence. Greater emphasis on services that do not require long term commitments and are more flexible in addressing specific barriers to housing for homeless emerging adults may increase use.

  2. Susceptibility of Adult Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to Insecticides and Status of Insecticide Resistance Mutations at the Rdl and Knockdown Resistance Loci.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Vetter, Richard; Denholm, Ian; Blagburn, Byron; Williamson, Martin S; Kopp, Steven; Coleman, Glen; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell; Mencke, Norbert; Rees, Robert; Foit, Sabrina; Böhm, Claudia; Tetzner, Kathrin

    2015-08-01

    The susceptibility of 12 field-collected isolates and 4 laboratory strains of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was determined by topical application of some of the insecticides used as on-animal therapies to control them. In the tested field-collected flea isolates the LD50 values for fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.09 to 0.35 ng/flea and 0.02 to 0.19 ng/flea, respectively, and were consistent with baseline figures published previously. The extent of variation in response to four pyrethroid insecticides differed between compounds with the LD50 values for deltamethrin ranging from 2.3 to 28.2 ng/flea, etofenprox ranging from 26.7 to 86.7 ng/flea, permethrin ranging from 17.5 to 85.6 ng/flea, and d-phenothrin ranging from 14.5 to 130 ng/flea. A comparison with earlier data for permethrin and deltamethrin implied a level of pyrethroid resistance in all isolates and strains. LD50 values for tetrachlorvinphos ranged from 20.0 to 420.0 ng/flea. The rdl mutation (conferring target-site resistance to cyclodiene insecticides) was present in most field-collected and laboratory strains, but had no discernible effect on responses to fipronil, which acts on the same receptor protein as cyclodienes. The kdr and skdr mutations conferring target-site resistance to pyrethroids but segregated in opposition to one another, precluding the formation of genotypes homozygous for both mutations.

  3. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed. PMID:26999217

  4. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K

    2016-03-17

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed.

  5. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed. PMID:26999217

  6. Acquisition of Rickettsia felis by Cat Fleas During Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Kathryn E.; Kearney, Michael T.; Foil, Lane D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Evidence for horizontal routes of transmission for Rickettsia felis has come from detection of R. felis infection in vertebrates and multiple blood-feeding arthropods; however, infection of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, during blood feeding has not been demonstrated. In this study, the ability of cat fleas to acquire R. felis through an infectious blood meal with subsequent vertical transmission was examined. Utilizing an artificial feeding system, Rickettsia-naive fleas were exposed to R. felis–infected blood meals and monitored for subsequent infection at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. At 7 days postexposure (dpe) ∼52% of fleas successfully acquired rickettsiae and R. felis DNA; rickettsial transcript and DNA was detected in cat flea feces. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction determined that both the R. felis infection load and R. felis infection density was significantly greater in fleas assessed at later time points. Although a persistent R. felis infection was detected in adult fleas, R. felis infection was not observed in F1 progeny. This study demonstrates that cat fleas are able to acquire R. felis infection from an infectious blood meal and will serve as a model to examine R. felis transmission between arthropod and vertebrate hosts. PMID:21214386

  7. Acquisition of Rickettsia felis by cat fleas during feeding.

    PubMed

    Reif, Kathryn E; Kearney, Michael T; Foil, Lane D; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2011-07-01

    Evidence for horizontal routes of transmission for Rickettsia felis has come from detection of R. felis infection in vertebrates and multiple blood-feeding arthropods; however, infection of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, during blood feeding has not been demonstrated. In this study, the ability of cat fleas to acquire R. felis through an infectious blood meal with subsequent vertical transmission was examined. Utilizing an artificial feeding system, Rickettsia-naive fleas were exposed to R. felis-infected blood meals and monitored for subsequent infection at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. At 7 days postexposure (dpe) ~52% of fleas successfully acquired rickettsiae and R. felis DNA; rickettsial transcript and DNA was detected in cat flea feces. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction determined that both the R. felis infection load and R. felis infection density was significantly greater in fleas assessed at later time points. Although a persistent R. felis infection was detected in adult fleas, R. felis infection was not observed in F(1) progeny. This study demonstrates that cat fleas are able to acquire R. felis infection from an infectious blood meal and will serve as a model to examine R. felis transmission between arthropod and vertebrate hosts.

  8. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  9. Koru: Teaching Mindfulness to Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is much interest in teaching mindfulness to college students and other emerging adults, traditional methods of teaching mindfulness and meditation are not always effective for reaching this age group. Koru is a program, developed at Duke University, that has been specifically designed with the developmental characteristics of…

  10. Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in fleas from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Mba, Pamela Angue; Marié, Jean-Lou; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    A total of 155 fleas collected in 2009 in Lebanon from 16 cats (104 Ctenocephalides felis specimens, 1 C. canis specimen) and 2 dogs (50 C. canis specimens) were tested for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. using molecular methods, including real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), regular PCR, and sequencing of amplified PCR products. Rickettsia felis, the agent of the emerging flea-borne spotted fever in humans, was identified in 17 (16%) C. felis cat fleas. Bartonella henselae, an agent of cat scratch disease, was identified in three (2.9%) C. felis. Our results emphasize the potential risk of these emerging flea-borne infections in Lebanon.

  11. Do Social Bonds Matter for Emerging Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Christopher; Taniguchi, Travis A.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which social bonds and turning points influence criminal activity has been the focus of much empirical research. However, there have been few empirical studies exploring social bonds and turning points and offending for those who have experienced emerging adulthood, a recently identified stage of the life course. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we examined if indicators of social bonds and turning points were predictors of criminal offending. Several of the turning points and social bonds included in these analyses were found to influence decreases in criminal offending for a cohort of emerging adults. We extend previous research by examining the influence of social bonds and turning points on patterns of criminal offending during emerging adulthood. PMID:23487587

  12. Separation anxiety in families with emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2013-06-01

    In several developmental theories, separation anxiety has been identified as an important feature of close interpersonal relationships. Most often, separation anxiety has been examined in the context of mother-child dyads in infancy. Increasingly, however, it is recognized that separation anxiety is also relevant in other relationships (e.g., the father-child relationship) and in later developmental periods (e.g., adolescence and emerging adulthood). The present study aimed to investigate separation anxiety at the family level in families with emerging adults. By using the Social Relations Model, we aimed to determine the extent to which the actor, the partner, their specific relationships, and the family contribute to separation anxiety in dyadic family relationships. A total of 119 Belgian two-parent families with an emerging adult participated in a round-robin design, in which family members reported on their feelings of separation anxiety toward each other. Findings showed that separation anxiety can be represented as a personal characteristic (i.e., an actor effect) and as a specific feature of the mother-child dyad. Further, findings indicate that separation anxiety is also characteristic of the father-mother marital relationship and of the family climate as a whole. Implications for the meaning of separation anxiety and clinical practice are discussed.

  13. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  14. Homeless, Street-Involved Emerging Adults: Attitudes toward Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.; Gomez, Rebecca; Dreyer, Lauren; Popham, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that a high proportion of homeless emerging adults use substances. This article aims to understand the attitudes of these young adults concerning their substance use and its effect on their lives. A mixed methods study using semistructured interviews and self-report instruments was conducted with 87 emerging adults who…

  15. Emerging Adult versus Adult Status among College Students: Examination of Explanatory Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Jonkman, Jeffrey N.; Smith, G. Rush

    2008-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to report how many college students, 18 to 25 years of age, are classified as "emerging adults," "undecideds" or "adults." The second purpose was to determine the relationships between emerging adults versus adults and (a) background characteristics, (b) risk-taking behaviors; (c) sensation-seeking scores, and…

  16. Ready or Not? Criteria for Marriage Readiness among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Badger, Sarah; Willoughby, Brian J.; Nelson, Larry J.; Madsen, Stephanie D.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined emerging adults' criteria for marriage readiness and explored how these criteria are associated with their current attitudes and behaviors. This article establishes the psychometric value of the Criteria for Marriage Readiness Questionnaire and reports on a study of 788 emerging adults recruited from five college sites across…

  17. Candidatus ‘Rickettsia senegalensis’ in cat fleas in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Mediannikov, O.; Aubadie-Ladrix, M.; Raoult, D.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of Rickettsia felis and related bacteria are very important, because the natural cycle of this important infection has not yet been established. The recent emergence of R. felis-associated febrile diseases in West and East Africa demands insightful epidemiological studies of the vectors and reservoirs of this bacterium in Africa. Twenty-nine cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, were tested for the presence of rickettsiae, including R. felis, bartonellae, and borreliae, with specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Supporting our previous studies, R. felis was not detected in the fleas collected. In addition, neither Bartonella nor Borrelia was found. In five (17%) examined fleas, we found another species of rickettsia. We isolated three rickettsial strains, and genetic analysis demonstrated that these strains represent a probable new species, provisionally called Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis here. PMID:25755888

  18. Fleas of Small Mammals on Reunion Island: Diversity, Distribution and Epidemiological Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; LeMinter, Gildas; Licciardi, Séverine; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frédéric; Laudisoit, Anne; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and geographical distribution of fleas parasitizing small mammals have been poorly investigated on Indian Ocean islands with the exception of Madagascar where endemic plague has stimulated extensive research on these arthropod vectors. In the context of an emerging flea-borne murine typhus outbreak that occurred recently in Reunion Island, we explored fleas' diversity, distribution and host specificity on Reunion Island. Small mammal hosts belonging to five introduced species were trapped from November 2012 to November 2013 along two altitudinal transects, one on the windward eastern and one on the leeward western sides of the island. A total of 960 animals were trapped, and 286 fleas were morphologically and molecularly identified. Four species were reported: (i) two cosmopolitan Xenopsylla species which appeared by far as the prominent species, X. cheopis and X. brasiliensis; (ii) fewer fleas belonging to Echidnophaga gallinacea and Leptopsylla segnis. Rattus rattus was found to be the most abundant host species in our sample, and also the most parasitized host, predominantly by X. cheopis. A marked decrease in flea abundance was observed during the cool-dry season, which indicates seasonal fluctuation in infestation. Importantly, our data reveal that flea abundance was strongly biased on the island, with 81% of all collected fleas coming from the western dry side and no Xenopsylla flea collected on almost four hundred rodents trapped along the windward humid eastern side. The possible consequences of this sharp spatio-temporal pattern are discussed in terms of flea-borne disease risks in Reunion Island, particularly with regard to plague and the currently emerging murine typhus outbreak. PMID:25188026

  19. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care.

  20. Adult Siblings Consider the Future: Emergent Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of adult siblings regarding a future care role and compare with perceived parental wishes as family often provide a key support role in the lives of people who have an intellectual disability. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 adult siblings and an…

  1. Investigation of Bartonella acquisition and transmission in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2011-07-01

    Bartonella are emerging and re-emerging pathogens affecting humans and a wide variety of animals including rodents. Horizontal transmission of Bartonella species by different hematophagous vectors is well acknowledged but vertical transmission (from mother to offspring) is questionable and was never explored in fleas. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the rodent flea, Xenopsylla ramesis, can acquire native Bartonella from wild rodents and transmit it transovarially. For this aim, Bartonella-free laboratory-reared X. ramesis fleas were placed on six naturally Bartonella-infected rodents and six species-matched Bartonella-negative rodents (three Meriones crassus jirds, two Gerbillus nanus gerbils and one Gerbillus dasyurus gerbil) for 7 days, 12-14h per day. The fleas that were placed on the Bartonella-positive rodents acquired four different Bartonella genotypes. Eggs and larvae laid and developed, respectively, by fleas from both rodent groups were collected daily for 7 days and molecularly screened for Bartonella. All eggs and larvae from both groups were found to be negative for Bartonella DNA. Interestingly, two of five gut voids regurgitated by Bartonella-positive fleas contained Bartonella DNA. The naturally infected rodents remained persistently infected with Bartonella for at least 89 days suggesting their capability to serve as competent reservoirs for Bartonella species. The findings in this study indicate that X. ramesis fleas can acquire several Bartonella strains from wild rodents but cannot transmit Bartonella transovarially.

  2. A new flea from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Mohammad Mehdi; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Changizi, Emad; Lima, Rasoul Rostami; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are obligatory ectoparsites of humans and animals. These tiny insects are hematophagous and they can transmit a wide varity of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Indeed, this pest causes a considerable economic damages and health dangers particularly in tropical and subtropical. During an investigation on ectoparasites of five Mus muscuuls in Semnan province, Iran, 15 fleas (8 males and 7 females) were collected. The extracted fleas mounted using clearing, dehydrating, mounting process and preserved with Canada balsam. After precise study, all of examined specimens were recognized as Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus using available systematic keys. This is the first report of this genus and species in Iran. And this country is new locality for Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus.

  3. Self-Perceived Emerging Adult Status and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Douglas C.; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Cleeland, Leah R.; Davis, Jordan P.

    2014-01-01

    Very little research exists on how self-perceived emerging adult status is associated with substance use among low-income emerging adults. The Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) was administered to emerging adults (EAs) ages 18–25 screened for substance use problems (n=l05) in a state-subsidized, not-for-profit treatment agency. We examined whether the defining dimensions of Arnett’s (2000a) emerging adulthood theory were associated with substance use frequency and substance-related problems, including: identity exploration, self-focus, possibilities, optimism, negativity/instability, and feeling in-between. In multivariate models, feeling in-between was positively associated with substance-related problems. An interaction term between minority status and feeling in-between approached statistical significance (p = .057). Further, IDEA scale score means were comparable to those found in college student samples. Implications for theory revision are discussed. PMID:25134032

  4. Self-perceived emerging adult status and substance use.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Cleeland, Leah R; Davis, Jordan P

    2014-09-01

    Very little research exists on how self-perceived emerging adult status is associated with substance use among low-income emerging adults. The Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) was administered to emerging adults (EAs) ages 18-25 screened for substance use problems (n = l05) in a state-subsidized, not-for-profit treatment agency. We examined whether the defining dimensions of Arnett's (2000a) emerging adulthood theory were associated with substance use frequency and substance-related problems, including: identity exploration, self-focus, possibilities, optimism, negativity/instability, and feeling in-between. In multivariate models, feeling in-between was positively associated with substance-related problems. An interaction term between minority status and feeling in-between approached statistical significance (p = .057). Further, IDEA scale score means were comparable to those found in college student samples. Implications for theory revision are discussed. PMID:25134032

  5. When to use the emergency room - adult

    MedlinePlus

    Before you have a medical problem, learn what your choices are. Check the website of your health insurance company. Put these telephone numbers in the memory of your phone: Your doctor The closest emergency department ...

  6. Emerging Adults' Identity Exploration: Illustrations from inside the "Camp Bubble"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sara K.; Goldman, Jane A.; Garey, Anita I.; Britner, Preston A.; Weaver, Shannon E.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates the experiences of emerging adults who had worked as counselors at overnight summer camps; identity-related issues emerge as most salient in the analysis of in-depth interviews conducted with 12 women and 8 men from 8 camps. Their descriptions portray the identity exploration that took place within the camp context, through…

  7. Target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in German populations of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph T; Müller, Andreas; Heimbach, Udo; Nauen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major pest of winter oilseed rape in several European countries particularly attacking young emerging plants in autumn. Over the last several decades, pyrethroid insecticides have been foliarly applied to control flea beetle outbreaks. Recent control failures in northern Germany suggested pyrethroid resistance development in cabbage stem flea beetles, which were confirmed by resistance monitoring bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin in an adult vial test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of polymorphisms in the para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene of P. chrysocephala known to be involved in knock-down resistance (kdr). By using a degenerate primer approach we PCR amplified part of the para-type sodium channel gene and identified in resistant flea beetles a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an L1014F (kdr) mutation within domain IIS6 of the channel protein, known as one of the chief pyrethroid target-site resistance mechanisms in several other pest insects. Twenty populations including four archived museum samples collected between 1945 and 1958 were analyzed using a newly developed pyrosequencing diagnostic assay. The assay revealed a kdr allele frequency of 90-100% in those flea beetle populations expressing high-level cross-resistance in discriminating dose bioassays against different pyrethroids such as lambda-cyhalothrin, tau-fluvalinate, etofenprox and bifenthrin. The presence of target-site resistance to pyrethroids in cabbage stem flea beetle is extremely worrying considering the lack of effective alternative modes of action to control this pest in Germany and other European countries, and is likely to result in major control problems once it expands to other geographies. The striking fact that cabbage stem flea beetle is next to pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus the second coleopteran pest in European winter oilseed rape resisting

  8. Hey! A Flea Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... to keep the flea population down. Wearing an insect repellent also may help. Ask your parents to apply one that contains 10%–30% DEET. Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: September ... Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  9. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in Dog and Cat Fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia. PMID:24445204

  10. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in dog and cat fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia.

  11. Effects of parasite pressure on parasite mortality and reproductive output in a rodent-flea system: inferring host defense trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Kam, Michael; Bar-Shira, Enav; Friedman, Aharon; Khokhlova, Irina S; Koren, Lee; Asfur, Mustafa; Geffen, Eli; Kiefer, Daniel; Krasnov, Boris R; Degen, A Allan

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating host resistance via parasite fitness helps place host-parasite relationships within evolutionary and ecological contexts; however, few studies consider both these processes simultaneously. We investigated how different levels of parasite pressure affect parasite mortality and reproductive success in relationship to host defense efforts, using the rodent Gerbillus nanus and the flea Xenopsylla conformis as a host-parasite system. Fifteen immune-naïve male rodents were infested with 20, 50, or 100 fleas for four weeks. During this time number of new imagoes produced per adult flea (our flea reproductive output metric), flea mortality, and change in circulating anti-flea immunoglobulin G (our measure of adaptive immune defense) were monitored. Three hypotheses guided this work: (1) increasing parasite pressure would heighten host defenses; (2) parasite mortality would increase and parasite reproductive output would decrease with increasing investment in host defense; and (3) hosts under high parasite pressure could invest in behavioral and/or immune responses. We predicted that at high infestation levels (a) parasite mortality would increase; (b) flea reproductive output per individual would decrease; and (c) host circulating anti-flea antibody levels would increase. The hypotheses were partially supported. Flea mortality significantly increased and flea reproductive output significantly decreased as flea pressure increased. Host adaptive immune defense did not significantly change with increasing flea pressure. Therefore, we inferred that investment in host behavioral defense, either alone or in combination with density-dependent effects, may be more efficient at increasing flea mortality and decreasing flea reproductive output than antibody production during initial infestation in this system. PMID:27130319

  12. Effects of parasite pressure on parasite mortality and reproductive output in a rodent-flea system: inferring host defense trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Kam, Michael; Bar-Shira, Enav; Friedman, Aharon; Khokhlova, Irina S; Koren, Lee; Asfur, Mustafa; Geffen, Eli; Kiefer, Daniel; Krasnov, Boris R; Degen, A Allan

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating host resistance via parasite fitness helps place host-parasite relationships within evolutionary and ecological contexts; however, few studies consider both these processes simultaneously. We investigated how different levels of parasite pressure affect parasite mortality and reproductive success in relationship to host defense efforts, using the rodent Gerbillus nanus and the flea Xenopsylla conformis as a host-parasite system. Fifteen immune-naïve male rodents were infested with 20, 50, or 100 fleas for four weeks. During this time number of new imagoes produced per adult flea (our flea reproductive output metric), flea mortality, and change in circulating anti-flea immunoglobulin G (our measure of adaptive immune defense) were monitored. Three hypotheses guided this work: (1) increasing parasite pressure would heighten host defenses; (2) parasite mortality would increase and parasite reproductive output would decrease with increasing investment in host defense; and (3) hosts under high parasite pressure could invest in behavioral and/or immune responses. We predicted that at high infestation levels (a) parasite mortality would increase; (b) flea reproductive output per individual would decrease; and (c) host circulating anti-flea antibody levels would increase. The hypotheses were partially supported. Flea mortality significantly increased and flea reproductive output significantly decreased as flea pressure increased. Host adaptive immune defense did not significantly change with increasing flea pressure. Therefore, we inferred that investment in host behavioral defense, either alone or in combination with density-dependent effects, may be more efficient at increasing flea mortality and decreasing flea reproductive output than antibody production during initial infestation in this system.

  13. [Fleas community in introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus Laxmann) in Forest of Sénart, France].

    PubMed

    Pisanu, B; Marmet, J; Beaucournu, J C; Chapuis, J L

    2008-03-01

    We examined the fleas community in an introduced population of Siberian chipmunks, Tamias sibiricus, between 2005 and 2007, in the Forest of Sénart (Essonne, France). We collected and identified 383 fleas on 463 chipmunks (total: 1,891 captures on 471 chipmunks). In 2005, 120 fleas were also collected on 65 bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, and on 25 wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, trapped within the same area. Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum formed 73.6% of the chipmunks' flea community, with an annual prevalence (P) ranging between 8 and 13% and a mean intensity (I) ranging between 1.1 and 1.6 fleas per individual. Among the six other species infecting this Sciurid, Ctenophthalmus agyrtes impavidus constituted 17.2% (P: 1.6-2.2%; I: 1.1-2.6), and Megabothris turbidus 8.1% (P: 0.8-1.9%; I: 1.0-1.4) of the flea community, respectively. These last two species represented respectively 60.8% and 36.6% of the flea community on the bank vole and the wood mouse. Originated from Asia, chipmunks did not import any flea species to Sénart, probably because they were used as pets before their release in the wild. Abundance in C. s. sciurorum increased with adult chipmunk density and with juvenile density in summer. On adult chipmunks C. s. sciurorum tented to decrease with increasing abundance of red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris]. Moreover, the two other flea species mainly infected young chipmunks during the fall, and their number was not related to chipmunk density. However, the distribution of species within the flea community became more balanced with increase juvenile chipmunk density. Overall, these results indicate that the close phyletic relationship between chipmunks and red squirrels contributed in the acquisition and the spread of fleas by chipmunks. Primary and secondary hosts densities, their habitat use, and more specifically burrowing activities and tree canopy use, also played a role in the spread of fleas on chipmunks.

  14. [Medical emergencies in the adult immigrant].

    PubMed

    Junyent, M; Núñez, S; Miró, O

    2006-01-01

    The need for medical care of the immigrant population is growing in proportion to the increase in the number of immigrants resident in Spain. This article reviews the socio-demographic characteristics of the immigrant population that come for consultations in the emergency services and discusses those particularities, both medical (neurocysticercosis, tuberculosis, infection by the AIDS virus, hepatitis, malaria, parasitosis, Ulysses syndrome) and paramedical (knowledge of the health card, concept of medicine, language barrier), that differentiate them from the native population. Nonetheless, since we are dealing with a young population that is in principle healthy, their reasons for consultation do not greatly differ from the general population. It is worth drawing attention to the high level of satisfaction of this population with the care afforded them in the hospital emergency services. PMID:16721415

  15. Sentence Interpretation Strategies in Emergent Bilingual Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Iliana; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sentence processing in emergent bilingual children and young adults in both English (second language -- L2) and Spanish (first language -- L1). One hundred participants from five different age groups (5;4-7;11, 8;0-10;11, 11;2-13;11, 14;0-16;8 years, and college-age adults) participated in this study. An online sentence…

  16. Developmental Differences in Parenting Behavior: Comparing Adolescent, Emerging Adult, and Adult Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…

  17. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  18. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  19. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  20. Factors Associated with Truancy: Emerging Adults' Recollections of Skipping School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Although truancy has been studied extensively, less attention has been given to the actual voices of the truants themselves. The current study helps fill that gap by examining recollections from a sample of 34 emerging adults (ages 18-25) who experienced various levels of high school truancy across different geographical settings. A qualitative…

  1. Personal and Ethnic Identity in Swedish Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Mansoory, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes empirical evidence about identity development in Swedish adolescents and emerging adults and highlights cultural and contextual influences that may be specific to coming of age in Sweden. Broad trends in identity options are evident in the lives of many youth living in Sweden. Although research on identity and diversity is in…

  2. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  3. Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Social Networking Online: Homophily or Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Richards, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    More than half of all online American adolescents and emerging adults have created personal profiles for social networking on the Internet. Does homophily in their offline friendships extend online? Drawing mainly on research of face-to-face friendship, we collected data from the public spaces, called "walls," of 129 young Americans ages 16 to 19…

  4. Generation XXX: Pornography Acceptance and Use among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Olson, Chad D.; McNamara Barry, Carolyn; Madsen, Stephanie D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined correlates of pornography acceptance and use within a normative (nonclinical) population of emerging adults (individuals aged 18-26). Participants included 813 university students (500 women; M age = 20 years) recruited from six college sites across the United States. Participants completed online questionnaires regarding their…

  5. Academic Risks Associated with Emerging Adults Seeking the College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strage, Amy; Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Sadly, data collected from universities across the nation continue to suggest that fully half of the "emerging adults" (Arnett, 2015) who make their way to college will not graduate. This vexing statistic is particularly troublesome because it reflects a tremendous cost--in dollars, in time, and in self-esteem. In this study, we report…

  6. Suffering, Selfish, Slackers? Myths and Reality about Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2007-01-01

    Many myths about adolescence have been refuted by research, but similar myths have grown up in recent years around emerging adulthood. This essay addresses three of those myths: the claim that they suffer from a normative "crisis"; the accusations that they are "selfish"; and their alleged reluctance to "grow up" and become adults. For each issue,…

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  8. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  9. A Song to Remember: Emerging Adults Recall Memorable Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Julia R.; Greenwood, Dara N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study employs a mixed methods approach to understanding the psychological functions and contexts of music use. Seventy-six emerging adults selected a single piece of music that they considered personally significant and elaborated on the reasons for this significance in response to written prompts. A constant comparative analysis of…

  10. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  11. The Effect of Childhood Supervisory Neglect on Emerging Adults' Drinking.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Merritt, Darcey H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of childhood supervisory neglect on emerging adults' drinking. Child supervisory neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States, but few studies explore supervisory neglect separate from other forms of maltreatment among emerging adults, 18-25 years old. The study sample included (n = 11,117) emerging adults, 18-25 years old who participated in Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We conducted separate analyses for male and female emerging adults, because they have different rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol risk behaviors. Our study used latent class analysis to understand how patterns of alcohol risk behaviors clustered together. For males, we found the following four classes: (1) multiple-risk drinkers, (2) moderate-risk drinkers, (3) binge-drinkers, and (4) low-risk drinkers or abstainers. For females, we found the following three classes: (1) multiple-risk drinkers, (2) moderate-risk drinkers, and (3) low-risk drinkers or abstainers. For both males and females, supervisory neglect increased the odds of membership in the multiple-risk drinkers' class compared to the low-risk drinkers or abstainers' class. Single males who did not live with their parents, and who were white had increased odds of being in the multiple-risk drinkers. For females, being more educated, or in a serious romantic relationship increased the odds of membership in the multiple-risk drinkers' class. Practitioners should ask about histories of supervisory neglect among emerging adults who engage in alcohol risk behaviors. PMID:26771736

  12. Efficacy of Spinosad Tablets Administered to a Colony of 15 Indoor Cats Naturally Infested with Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Cadiergues, Marie-Christine; Pressanti, Charline

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were (i) to describe adult fleas distribution in a strictly indoor cat colony composed of cats with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) and non-FAD cats and (ii) to evaluate the efficacy of spinosad used alone. Skin lesions were scored according to the SCORing Feline Allergic Dermatitis lesion severity scale (SCORFAD) on days 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90. Cats were combed prior to the treatment (days 0, 30, and 60) and on days 15, 45, and 90; collected fleas were replaced on the animals. All cats received flavored spinosad tablets (Comfortis) at a dosage of 50–75 mg/kg on days 0, 30, and 60. Cats were fed immediately afterwards. On day 0, a total of 60 fleas were collected (mean: 4 ± 4). Cats with FAD had a SCORFAD of 6, 8, 12, and 13 and harbored 0, 2, 1, and 0 fleas, respectively. Tablets were taken voluntarily by 8, 11, and 12 cats on days 0, 30, and 60, respectively. No adverse event was recorded. From day 15 to day 90, no fleas could be collected. SCORFAD was reduced by 40%, 71%, 80%, 89%, and 98% on days 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, respectively. PMID:24977046

  13. Emergency Department Use Among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-04-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to 2011 (2549-6087 per 100,000 admissions). Adults with ASD visited ED for: primary psychiatric disorder (15%ASD vs. 4.2%noASD), primary non-psychiatric disorder (16%ASD vs. 14%noASD), and any injury (24%ASD vs. 28%noASD). Mean total ED charges for adults with ASD were 2.3 times higher than for adults without ASD. Findings emphasize the need to examine the extent of frequent ED use in this population.

  14. On the probability of dinosaur fleas.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Katharina; Zhu, Qiyun; Hastriter, Michael W; Whiting, Michael F

    2016-01-11

    Recently, a set of publications described flea fossils from Jurassic and Early Cretaceous geological strata in northeastern China, which were suggested to have parasitized feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and early birds or mammals. In support of these fossils being fleas, a recent publication in BMC Evolutionary Biology described the extended abdomen of a female fossil specimen as due to blood feeding.We here comment on these findings, and conclude that the current interpretation of the evolutionary trajectory and ecology of these putative dinosaur fleas is based on appeal to probability, rather than evidence. Hence, their taxonomic positioning as fleas, or stem fleas, as well as their ecological classification as ectoparasites and blood feeders is not supported by currently available data.

  15. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Van Dongen, Stefan; Davis, Stephen; Neerinckx, Simon; Deckers, Jozef; Libois, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P. irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because they provide an indicator that can be surveyed to assess the risk for plague. PMID:17553245

  16. On the probability of dinosaur fleas.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Katharina; Zhu, Qiyun; Hastriter, Michael W; Whiting, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a set of publications described flea fossils from Jurassic and Early Cretaceous geological strata in northeastern China, which were suggested to have parasitized feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and early birds or mammals. In support of these fossils being fleas, a recent publication in BMC Evolutionary Biology described the extended abdomen of a female fossil specimen as due to blood feeding.We here comment on these findings, and conclude that the current interpretation of the evolutionary trajectory and ecology of these putative dinosaur fleas is based on appeal to probability, rather than evidence. Hence, their taxonomic positioning as fleas, or stem fleas, as well as their ecological classification as ectoparasites and blood feeders is not supported by currently available data. PMID:26754250

  17. The Emerging Adult with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Challenges and Recommendations for the Adult Gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising. Adult gastroenterologists are seeing increasing numbers of young adults with IBD, a subpopulation with unique needs and challenges that can impair their readiness to thrive in an adult healthcare system. Most adult gastroenterologists might not have the training or resources to address these needs. “Emerging adulthood” is a useful developmental lens through which this group can be studied. With complex disease phenotype and specific concerns of medication side effects and reproductive health, compounded by challenges of geographical and social flux and lack of adequate health insurance, emerging adults with IBD (EAI) are at risk of disrupted care with lack of continuity. Lessons learned from structured healthcare transition process from pediatric to adult services can be applied towards challenges in ongoing care of this population in the adult healthcare system. This paper provides an overview of the challenges in caring for the post transition EAI from the perspective of adult gastroenterologists and offers a checklist of provider and patient skills that enable effective care. This paper discusses the system-based challenges in care provision and search for meaningful patient-oriented outcomes and presents a conceptual model of determinants of continuity of care in this unique population. PMID:26064089

  18. Emergency Department Use among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to…

  19. Noise in the adult emergency department of Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Douglas; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J; West, James E

    2007-04-01

    While hospitals are generally noisy environments, nowhere is the pandemonium greater than in an emergency department, where there is constant flow of patients, doctors, nurses, and moving equipment. In this noise study we collected 24 h measurements throughout the adult emergency department of Johns Hopkins Hospital, the top ranked hospital in the U.S. for 16 years running. The equivalent sound pressure level (Leq) throughout the emergency department is about 5 dB(A) higher than that measured previously at a variety of in-patient units of the same hospital. Within the emergency department the triage area at the entrance to the department has the highest Leq, ranging from 65 to 73 dB(A). Sound levels in the emergency department are sufficiently high [on average between 61 and 69 dB(A)] to raise concerns regarding the communication of speech without errors--an important issue everywhere in a hospital and a critical issue in emergency departments because doctors and nurses frequently need to work at an urgent pace and to rely on oral communication.

  20. Fleas as parasites of the family Canidae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Historically, flea-borne diseases are among the most important medical diseases of humans. Plague and murine typhus are known for centuries while the last years brought some new flea-transmitted pathogens, like R. felis and Bartonella henselae. Dogs may play an essential or an accidental role in the natural transmission cycle of flea-borne pathogens. They support the growth of some of the pathogens or they serve as transport vehicles for infected fleas between their natural reservoirs and humans. More than 15 different flea species have been described in domestic dogs thus far. Several other species have been found to be associated with wild canids. Fleas found on dogs originate from rodents, birds, insectivores and from other Carnivora. Dogs therefore may serve as ideal bridging hosts for the introduction of flea-borne diseases from nature to home. In addition to their role as ectoparasites they cause nuisance for humans and animals and may be the cause for severe allergic reactions. PMID:21767354

  1. Fleas as parasites of the family Canidae.

    PubMed

    Dobler, Gerhard; Pfeffer, Martin

    2011-07-18

    Historically, flea-borne diseases are among the most important medical diseases of humans. Plague and murine typhus are known for centuries while the last years brought some new flea-transmitted pathogens, like R. felis and Bartonella henselae. Dogs may play an essential or an accidental role in the natural transmission cycle of flea-borne pathogens. They support the growth of some of the pathogens or they serve as transport vehicles for infected fleas between their natural reservoirs and humans. More than 15 different flea species have been described in domestic dogs thus far. Several other species have been found to be associated with wild canids. Fleas found on dogs originate from rodents, birds, insectivores and from other Carnivora. Dogs therefore may serve as ideal bridging hosts for the introduction of flea-borne diseases from nature to home. In addition to their role as ectoparasites they cause nuisance for humans and animals and may be the cause for severe allergic reactions.

  2. Academic versus Non-Academic Emerging Adult College Student Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Joan Ann; Walker, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adult college students have developmental and educational needs which are unique to their phase of life. Emerging adults are also increasingly identified by their technology use and practices. Collegiate instructors will be better equipped for educating these individuals when armed with insights concerning emerging adults' technology…

  3. Academic versus Non-Academic Emerging Adult College Student Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Joan Ann; Walker, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adult college students have developmental and educational needs which are unique to their phase of life. The purpose of this study was to examine academic and non-academic technology use by emerging adult college students. Survey results (N = 235) provided insights into emerging adult college student technology preferences and frequency…

  4. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine H; Guarna, Giuliana; Tsao, Pamela; Jesuthasan, Jude R; Lau, Adrian NC; Siddiqi, Ferhan S; Gilmour, Julie Anne; Ladha, Danyal; Halapy, Henry; Advani, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases. Methods The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years) with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included. Results A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated. Conclusion While the majority of studies reported positive outcomes, these studies focused on promoting the cessation of adverse behaviors rather than promoting positive behaviors. In addition, conclusions were limited by the high risk of bias present in the majority of studies, as well as lack of follow-up after the incentive period. Whether behavioral incentives facilitate the adoption of positive health choices in this population remains to be determined. PMID:27069356

  5. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  6. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Kauppi, Paula; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Ilmarinen, Pinja

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident asthma and whether they affect clinical asthma are evaluated. Obesity, independently or as a part of metabolic syndrome, DM2, and depression are risk factors for incident asthma. In contrast, the effects of comorbidities on clinical asthma are less well-known and mostly studies are lacking. Cross-sectional studies in obese asthmatics suggest that they may have less well controlled asthma and worse lung function. However, no long-term clinical follow-up studies with these comorbidities and asthma were identified. These emerging comorbidities often occur in the same multimorbid adult patient and may have in common metabolic pathways and inflammatory or other alterations such as early life exposures, systemic inflammation, inflammasome, adipokines, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, lung mechanics, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed nitric oxide metabolism, and leukotrienes. PMID:27212806

  7. Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How discoveries of invertebrate diseases are advancing modern science.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Review of: “Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How discoveries of invertebrate diseases are advancing modern science”. Elizabeth W. Davdison. 2006. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. 208 pp. Dr. Davidson links many of the accomplishments in invertebrate pathology to subsequent successes in the l...

  8. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S)-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, F; Fourie, J; Chalvet-Monfray, K

    2012-05-01

    Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200±5) on Days -28 and -21. Each animal's sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100±5) were placed in the plastic cup in each animal's sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p<0.05) between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60). The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment group 3 was intentionally

  9. 30 Is the New 20: Emerging Adult Perspectives on Success in English Developmental Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Borja, Nadine Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined aspects of emerging adulthood that contribute to success in English developmental courses. The research approach included qualitative interviews with a collective case study of 12 emerging adults between the ages of 18-25 who successfully completed EN085 and EN085L at the University of Guam. The emerging adults shared…

  10. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: Teaching Communication to Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    The new developmental stage of emerging adulthood (age 18-25) offers a framework for thinking about younger millennials in our classrooms. Smith, Christoffersen, Davidson, and Herzog's (2011) profile of emerging adults, based on longitudinal study of over 3200 emerging adults and culminating in 230 in-depth interviews, parallels research of the…

  11. Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jody A.; Ginde, Adit A.; Lowenstein, Steven R.; Betz, Marian E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC) in the United States (U.S.). Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years) and younger (18–64 years) MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults. Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6–8.3) visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0–18.8) visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46–9.36). Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86), have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77–3.14), or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42–2.23) as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8–19.2) of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8–7.5) of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71–4.43), and

  12. [Fleas of small mammals from the northeastern Russian Far East].

    PubMed

    Medvedev, S G; Dokuchaev, N E; Tret'iakov, K A; Iamborko, A V; Kiselev, S V

    2014-01-01

    Results of the study of fleas (Siphonaptera) collected from small mammals (insectivores and rodents) in the Russian Far East (Magadan Province, and Khabarovsk and Kamchatka Territories) are represented. Fourteen flea species were revealed in 17 species of small mammals.

  13. Uniting multi-adult households during emergency evacuation planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sirui; Murray-Tuite, Pamela M; Schweitzer, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    When a no-notice emergency prompts an evacuation, family members in different locations throughout a city may unite so that they can evacuate as a group. This paper draws on data from more than 300 interviews conducted in the metropolitan area of Chicago, Illinois, United States. The study uses discrete choice models to analyse the expectations of respondents regarding whether their likely plans for evacuation involve gathering spouses, parents, adult-age children, and/or non-family members. In addition, it addresses the matter of whether respondents plan to reunite with family members at home. Individuals' access to a personal car is the dominating factor in predicting whether respondents plan to gather a spouse. Being the parent of a child under the age of 18 years increases the tendency to report planning to reunite with family members at home. Both commute mode and car availability are not significantly associated with plans to reunite at home.

  14. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones. PMID:19410527

  15. Quality of adult book reading affects children's emergent literacy.

    PubMed

    Reese, E; Cox, A

    1999-01-01

    The authors assessed the relative benefits of 3 styles of adult book reading for preschoolers' emergent literacy. A describer style focused on describing pictures during the reading, a comprehender style focused on story meaning, and a performance-oriented style introduced the book and discussed story meaning on completion. Forty-eight 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the 3 reading styles over a 6-week period. Pretests and posttests measured children's receptive vocabulary, print, and story comprehension skills. A describer style of reading resulted in the greatest overall benefits for children's vocabulary and print skills, but a performance-oriented style was also beneficial when children's initial skill levels were taken into account. Future book-reading interventions should be tailored to children's initial skill levels.

  16. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones.

  17. Chronic psychosocial stressors and salivary biomarkers in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Mallick, Aditi; Nishita, Denise; Wei, Xin; Michel, Martha; Wacholder, Aaron; David, Sean P.; Swan, Gary E.; Reid, Mark W.; Simons, Anne; Andrews, Judy A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We investigated whole saliva as a source of biomarkers to distinguish individuals who have, and who have not, been chronically exposed to severe and threatening life difficulties. We evaluated RNA and DNA metrics, expression of 37 candidate genes, and cortisol release in response to the Trier Social Stress Test, as well as clinical characteristics, from 48 individuals stratified on chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors within the last year as measured by the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Candidate genes were selected based on their differential gene expression ratio in circulating monocytes from a published genome-wide analysis of adults experiencing different levels of exposure to a chronic stressor. In univariate analyses, we observed significantly decreased RNA integrity (RIN) score (P = 0.04), and reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes (Ps < 0.05) in whole saliva RNA from individuals exposed to chronic stressors, as compared to those with no exposure. In those exposed, we observed significantly decreased BMI (P < 0.001), increased ever-smoking and increased lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (P ≤ 0.03), and a reduction of cortisol release. In post hoc multivariate analyses including clinical and biospecimen-derived variables, we consistently observed significantly decreased expression of IL8 (Ps < 0.05) in individuals exposed, with no significant association to RIN score. Alcohol use disorders, tobacco use, a reduced acute stress response and decreased salivary IL8 gene expression characterize emerging adults chronically exposed to severe and threatening psychosocial stressors. PMID:22172638

  18. Experimental evidence of negative interspecific interactions among imago fleas: flea and host identities matter.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Irina S; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Krasnov, Boris R

    2016-03-01

    We investigated interspecific interactions between two flea species (Parapulex chephrenis and Xenopsylla ramesis) via evaluation of their feeding success (the size of a blood meal and time to death after a single blood meal) when they exploited rodent hosts [Acomys cahirinus (a characteristic host of the former) or Meriones crassus (a characteristic host of the latter)] in single-species or mixed-species groups. We predicted that the negative interactions between the two fleas will result in smaller blood meals and shorter survival time in mixed- versus single-species infestations. We also predicted that the negative effect of mixed-species infestation on feeding performance would be less pronounced when fleas exploited their characteristic host rather than a non-characteristic host. When exploiting a characteristic host, P. chephrenis took larger blood meals in single- than in mixed-species groups, whereas the blood meal size in X. ramesis did not differ between treatments. When exploiting a non-characteristic host, no effect of group composition was found in either flea species. Survival time after a single blood meal was not affected by co-infestation or host species in either flea. Our results suggest context-dependence of the negative effect of co-infestation on feeding performance in fleas with the manifestation of this effect varying in dependence of flea and host species identities.

  19. New data on flea beetle management in cranberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Report of two trials conducted this summer for flea beetle management. The first one, conducted in the greenhouse, compares efficacy of native WI nematodes to chemical insecticides for flea beetle control. In this trial, nematodes provided similar control for flea beetles as both insecticides (Belay...

  20. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans.

  1. Emerging from the Echo Chamber: An Activity Theory Perspective on L2 Teachers of Adult Emergent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Rachel Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The surge in second language adult emergent readers and the push for professionalization in the field of adult education has shifted conversations among language teacher educators, program administrators, teachers and researchers alike in the direction of mutual understanding and collaboration in an effort to target the needs of both teachers and…

  2. DDO 68: A Flea with Smaller Fleas that on Him Prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annibali, Francesca; Nipoti, Carlo; Ciotti, Luca; Tosi, Monica; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bellazzini, Michele; Cignoni, Michele; Cusano, Felice; Paris, Diego; Sacchi, Elena

    2016-08-01

    We present new photometry of the dwarf irregular galaxy DDO 68, one of the most metal-poor and least massive dwarfs, located in the Lynx-Cancer Void. The images were acquired with the Large Binocular Telescope in the g and r passbands and show unequivocally that DDO 68 has previously unknown stellar streams related to the accretion of at least two smaller companions: a flea with smaller fleas biting it, to put it in Jonathan Swift’s words (from Jonathan Swift’s On Poetry: a Rhapsody: So, naturalists observe, a flea/has smaller fleas that on him prey/and these have smaller still to bite em/and so proceed ad infinitum). Our data provide direct observational evidence of multiple galaxy merging occurring at very low galactic mass scales. We present the results of an N-body simulation of the interaction of three dwarf galaxies that reproduce well the main morphological features of DDO 68.

  3. Bartonella Infection in Rodents and Their Flea Ectoparasites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Krasnov, Boris; Morick, Danny; Gottlieb, Yuval; Khokhlova, Irina S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies worldwide have reported a high prevalence and a great diversity of Bartonella species, both in rodents and their flea parasites. The interaction among Bartonella, wild rodents, and fleas reflects a high degree of adaptation among these organisms. Vertical and horizontal efficient Bartonella transmission pathways within flea communities and from fleas to rodents have been documented in competence studies, suggesting that fleas are key players in the transmission of Bartonella to rodents. Exploration of the ecological traits of rodents and their fleas may shed light on the mechanisms used by bartonellae to become established in these organisms. The present review explores the interrelations within the Bartonella–rodent–flea system. The role of the latter two components is emphasized. PMID:25629778

  4. Bartonella infection in rodents and their flea ectoparasites: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Krasnov, Boris; Morick, Danny; Gottlieb, Yuval; Khokhlova, Irina S; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies worldwide have reported a high prevalence and a great diversity of Bartonella species, both in rodents and their flea parasites. The interaction among Bartonella, wild rodents, and fleas reflects a high degree of adaptation among these organisms. Vertical and horizontal efficient Bartonella transmission pathways within flea communities and from fleas to rodents have been documented in competence studies, suggesting that fleas are key players in the transmission of Bartonella to rodents. Exploration of the ecological traits of rodents and their fleas may shed light on the mechanisms used by bartonellae to become established in these organisms. The present review explores the interrelations within the Bartonella-rodent-flea system. The role of the latter two components is emphasized.

  5. Emergency Department Use Among Older Adults With Dementia.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Michael A; Stump, Timothy E; Messina, Frank C; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Although persons with dementia are frequently hospitalized, relatively little is known about the health profile, patterns of health care use, and mortality rates for patients with dementia who access care in the emergency department (ED). We linked data from our hospital system with Medicare and Medicaid claims, Minimum Data Set, and Outcome and Assessment Information Set data to evaluate 175,652 ED visits made by 10,354 individuals with dementia and 15,020 individuals without dementia over 11 years. Survival rates after ED visits and associated charges were examined. Patients with dementia visited the ED more frequently, were hospitalized more often than patients without dementia, and had an increased odds of returning to the ED within 30 days of an index ED visit compared with persons who never had a dementia diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.29; P<0.001). Survival rates differed significantly between patients by dementia status (P<0.001). Mean Medicare payments for ED services were significantly higher among patients with dementia. These results show that older adults with dementia are frequent ED visitors who have greater comorbidity, incur higher charges, are admitted to hospitals at higher rates, return to EDs at higher rates, and have higher mortality after an ED visit than patients without dementia.

  6. Emerging Technologies for Pediatric and Adult Trauma Care

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Steven L.; Haley-Andrews, Stephanie; Mulligan, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Review Current EMS protocols rely on provider directed care for evaluation, management and triage of injured patients from the field to a trauma center. New methods to quickly diagnose, support and coordinate the movement of trauma patients from the field to the most appropriate trauma center are in development. These methods will enhance trauma care and promote trauma system development. Recent Findings Recent advances in machine learning, statistical methods, device integration and wireless communication are giving rise to new methods for vital sign data analysis and a new generation of transport monitors. These monitors will collect and synchronize exponentially growing amounts of vital sign data with electronic patient care information. The application of advanced statistical methods to these complex clinical data sets has the potential to reveal many important physiological relationships and treatment effects. Summary Several emerging technologies are converging to yield a new generation of smart sensors and tightly integrated transport monitors. These technologies will assist pre-hospital providers in quickly identifying and triaging the most severely injured children and adults to the most appropriate trauma centers. They will enable the development of real-time clinical support systems of increasing complexity, able to provide timelier, more cost-effective, autonomous care. PMID:20407375

  7. Establishment of safety paradigms and trust in emerging adult relationships

    PubMed Central

    Mullinax, Margo; Sanders, Stephanie; Higgins, Jenny; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need to understand the interplay between relationship trust and public health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of emerging adult women’s processes of establishing trust in sexual relationships. Twenty-five women aged 18–24 years participated in semi-structured interviews. Throughout the interviews, women compared and contrasted experiences in which they felt comfortable engaging in sexual intercourse with a partner versus times in which they did not feel comfortable. Analysis was based on a critical qualitative research orientation. When asked to speak to instances when they felt comfortable having sex, most women spoke about relationship trust. Many participants conceptualised trust based on past experiences with bad relationships or sexual violence. Based on their previous experiences of feeling unsafe or undervalued, emotional and physical security became prioritised in relationship development. Trust was developed through friendship, communication over time, and through shared life experiences. This research is among the first to qualitatively investigate trust formation and other impersonal dynamics related to sexual health decision-making. Insights from this study should be translated into future action by public health practitioners to promote healthy sexual relationships and communication about sexual health topics as a form of trust building. PMID:26943023

  8. Evaluation of the speed of kill, effects on reproduction, and effectiveness in a simulated infested-home environment of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Carter, Lori; Gale, Boyd; Young, David R; Mahabir, Sean P; Chapin, Sara; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Four studies were conducted to evaluate the speed of kill, effect on egg production, and efficacy in a simulated infested-home environment of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), against fleas on dogs. Individually identified and housed, purpose-bred Beagles were used in each study and were allocated randomly to groups based on pretreatment parasite counts. In two speed of kill studies, groups of dogs infested with 100 fleas prior to treatment were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2mg/kg and then re-infested with fleas weekly for five weeks post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at one to three, four, eight and 12h after treatment and each subsequent infestation. In the egg production study, sarolaner- and placebo-treated dogs were similarly challenged with fleas and at 48h after each infestation the dogs were housed for 20h in cages allowing the collection and counting of all flea eggs produced during this period. Collected eggs were incubated to evaluate hatch and development to adults. The last study used dogs housed in a flea-infested simulated-home environment. Dogs were allocated to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner tablets providing a dose of 2mg/kg once a month for three treatments. Flea infestations were assessed by comb counts (fleas were replaced on the dogs) on Days 14, 30, 44, 60, 74 and 90. The speed of kill studies demonstrated that a single 2mg/kg oral dose of sarolaner started killing fleas within three to four hours after treatment or subsequent re-infestations for up to a month, and achieved ≥98% control of fleas by eight hours after treatment or re-infestation for 28 days. In the study to assess effects on flea reproduction, a single oral treatment of sarolaner resulted in the complete cessation of egg-laying for 35 days. This rapid kill of fleas and inhibition of reproduction were confirmed in a simulated-home environment

  9. Evaluation of the speed of kill, effects on reproduction, and effectiveness in a simulated infested-home environment of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Carter, Lori; Gale, Boyd; Young, David R; Mahabir, Sean P; Chapin, Sara; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Four studies were conducted to evaluate the speed of kill, effect on egg production, and efficacy in a simulated infested-home environment of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), against fleas on dogs. Individually identified and housed, purpose-bred Beagles were used in each study and were allocated randomly to groups based on pretreatment parasite counts. In two speed of kill studies, groups of dogs infested with 100 fleas prior to treatment were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2mg/kg and then re-infested with fleas weekly for five weeks post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at one to three, four, eight and 12h after treatment and each subsequent infestation. In the egg production study, sarolaner- and placebo-treated dogs were similarly challenged with fleas and at 48h after each infestation the dogs were housed for 20h in cages allowing the collection and counting of all flea eggs produced during this period. Collected eggs were incubated to evaluate hatch and development to adults. The last study used dogs housed in a flea-infested simulated-home environment. Dogs were allocated to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner tablets providing a dose of 2mg/kg once a month for three treatments. Flea infestations were assessed by comb counts (fleas were replaced on the dogs) on Days 14, 30, 44, 60, 74 and 90. The speed of kill studies demonstrated that a single 2mg/kg oral dose of sarolaner started killing fleas within three to four hours after treatment or subsequent re-infestations for up to a month, and achieved ≥98% control of fleas by eight hours after treatment or re-infestation for 28 days. In the study to assess effects on flea reproduction, a single oral treatment of sarolaner resulted in the complete cessation of egg-laying for 35 days. This rapid kill of fleas and inhibition of reproduction were confirmed in a simulated-home environment

  10. The Role of Higher Education in Their Life: Emerging Adults on the Crossroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Shu-Chen; Hawley, Josh

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experience of younger, so called "emerging" adults, as they transition to full-time work, focusing specifically on the role of education in this process. When leaving their family-of-origin, emerging adults re-center themselves to settle down in permanent identity and different role commitments. Our findings show…

  11. General Education Development (GED®) Credential Attainment, Externalizing Disorders, and Substance Use Disorders in Disconnected Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Andrea; Kong, Grace; Pope, Alice

    2014-01-01

    There are many benefits for emerging adults, both financial and personal, in obtaining a General Education Development (GED®) credential (Ou, 2008). However, little is known about the correlates of GED® credential attainment in "disconnected" emerging adults attending GED® programs. Our goal was to examine whether externalizing…

  12. "Why Should I Leave?" Belgian Emerging Adults' Departure from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kins, Evie; De Mol, Jan; Beyers, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In today's Western societies, the transition to adulthood is prolonged, creating a separate developmental phase between adolescence and adulthood referred to as "emerging adulthood". Following from this general delay in adult commitment-making, a considerable number of emerging adults continues to live in the parental household. The…

  13. Emerging Adults at Work and at Play: Leisure, Work Engagement, and Career Indecision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstam, Varda; Lehmann, Ilana S.

    2011-01-01

    To expand the understanding of how leisure and recreational activities can inform career indecision, this research examined the relationship between career indecision, work engagement, and leisure in emerging adults, 25-30 years of age. Independent sample t tests reveal that career indecisive emerging adults scored significantly lower on all three…

  14. Perceived Stress and Avoidant Coping Moderate Disordered Gambling among Emerging Adults in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lostutter, Ty W.; Larimer, Mary E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kaljee, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling research conducted in Asia has been limited, despite a continued growth of the gambling industry within the region. Outside Asia, research suggests emerging adults have high rates of gambling behavior and experience serious consequences. The current study examines gambling behavior within an emerging adult (ages 16-24) population in…

  15. Acculturative Stress, Perceived Discrimination, and Vulnerability to Suicide Attempts among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the…

  16. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  17. Self-Definition as Resistance: Understanding Identities among LGBTQ Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagaman, M. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have questioned the relevance of existing identity categories and labels for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth and emerging adults. Little is understood, however, about the ways in which LGBTQ emerging adults perceive their own identities and self-define the aspects of themselves that are most relevant to who…

  18. Detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum RNA in fleas and ticks collected from naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Fabio A; Odorizzi, Rosa M F N; Laurenti, Marcia D; Galati, Eunice A B; Canavez, Flavio; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L

    2011-08-01

    The occurrence of the insect vector (sand flies) with low rates of Leishmania infection, as well as autochthonous transmission in the absence of the natural vector in dogs, have been reported. These unexpected data suggest a hypothesis of other arthropods as a possible way of Leishmania transmission. The prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in fleas and ticks collected from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), as well as parasite viability, were evaluated herein. The presence of L. (L.) infantum was assayed by PCR and ELISA in ectoparasites and biological samples from 73 dogs living in a Brazilian endemic area. As the occurrence of Leishmania DNA in ticks and fleas is expected given their blood-feeding habits, we next investigated whether parasites can remain viable inside ticks. PCR and ELISA confirmed that 83% of the dogs had CVL. Fleas and ticks (nymphs, male and female adults) were collected in 55% and 63% of the 73 dogs, respectively. Out of the 60 dogs with CVL, 80% harbored ectoparasites infected with L. (L.) infantum. The infection rates of the ectoparasites were 23% and 50% for fleas and ticks, respectively. The RNA analysis of the extract from ticks left in laboratory conditions during 7 to 10 days after removal from CVL dogs showed that parasites were alive. In addition, live parasites were also detected inside adult ticks recently molted in laboratory conditions. These findings indicate a higher infection rate of L. (L.) infantum in ticks and fleas, but they do not conclusively demonstrate whether these ticks can act as vectors of CVL, despite the fact that their rates were higher than those previously described in Lutzomyia longipalpis. The presence of viable L. (L.) infantum in ticks suggests the possible importance of dog ectoparasites in CVL dissemination. PMID:21221638

  19. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  20. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  1. Getting higher: Co-occurring drug use among marijuana using emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Tzilos, Golfo K.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used illicit drug in the United States (US) continues to be marijuana, and its use among emerging adults continues to rise. Marijuana use can result in a range of negative consequences and has been associated with other drug use in adolescents and emerging adults. This study examined the relationship between marijuana use frequency and use of six other drug classes (opiates, cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and sleep medications) among emerging adults. The design was a cross-sectional interview with a community sample of 1,075 emerging adults in the northeastern US. Using logistic regression analysis controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, and frequency of binge alcohol, daily marijuana use was associated with a significant increase in the expected odds of opiate, cocaine, stimulant, hallucinogen, inhalant, and tobacco use. The findings identify a subgroup of emerging adult marijuana users – those who use daily –that may be vulnerable to additional negative consequences associated with polysubstance use. PMID:25115183

  2. Natural Mentoring Processes Deter Externalizing Problems Among Rural African American Emerging Adults: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2011-01-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths’ externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  3. Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2011-12-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths' externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  4. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    PubMed

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    DNA methylation and brain development. Supporting the family and break the silence that frequently covers the traumatic events and feelings, will give the opportunity for the elaboration of all these aspects which could capture and imprison the subject in a dramatic circle of psychopathology. Moreover, the effectiveness of early interventions and child psychotherapy is now a common ground, so we have to use all our clinical instruments (dialogue, symbolic play, drawing, storytelling) in order to help the child and have the best possible result. Finally, concerning clinical practice, the emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology is so frequent that mental health experts should take it into serious account while developing an appropriate clinical treatment for such patients.

  5. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    PubMed

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    DNA methylation and brain development. Supporting the family and break the silence that frequently covers the traumatic events and feelings, will give the opportunity for the elaboration of all these aspects which could capture and imprison the subject in a dramatic circle of psychopathology. Moreover, the effectiveness of early interventions and child psychotherapy is now a common ground, so we have to use all our clinical instruments (dialogue, symbolic play, drawing, storytelling) in order to help the child and have the best possible result. Finally, concerning clinical practice, the emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology is so frequent that mental health experts should take it into serious account while developing an appropriate clinical treatment for such patients. PMID:22796972

  6. Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S)-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nambi, Ayyanampakkam Pandurangan; Rathi, Badal; S, Kavitha; Dudhatra, Ghanshyam; Yamini, Hamsa S.; Ali Bhat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) (Fiprofort® Plus) was tested against ticks and fleas in naturally infested dogs. A total of fifty dogs were allocated in the study with ticks infestation (n = 35) and fleas infestation (n = 15). On day 0, thirty-five tick and fifteen flea infested dogs received the test formulation, a combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) spot-on solution. Ticks and flea counts were taken on days 0 (pretreatment) and 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of haematological parameters on days 0 (pretreatment) and 7, 21, and 35 after treatment. All the adult ticks and fleas collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, respectively. The efficacy of spot-on formulation against ticks was 34.00% (day 3), 53.14% (day 7), 62.71% (day 14), 65.48% (day 21), 59.80% (day 28), and 58.82% (day 35), whereas against fleas it was 38.00% (day 3), 64.34% (day 7), 89.67% (day 14), 95.40% (day 21), 100.00% (day 28), and 100.00% (day 35). Haematological parameters for ticks and fleas infested dogs were statistically nonsignificant as compared to control. The combination of fipronil and (S)-methoprene eliminated the existing ticks and fleas infestation and prevented the dogs from flea and tick infestation for four weeks. PMID:27190688

  7. Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S)-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs.

    PubMed

    Nambi, Ayyanampakkam Pandurangan; Rathi, Badal; S, Kavitha; Dudhatra, Ghanshyam; Yamini, Hamsa S; Ali Bhat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) (Fiprofort® Plus) was tested against ticks and fleas in naturally infested dogs. A total of fifty dogs were allocated in the study with ticks infestation (n = 35) and fleas infestation (n = 15). On day 0, thirty-five tick and fifteen flea infested dogs received the test formulation, a combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) spot-on solution. Ticks and flea counts were taken on days 0 (pretreatment) and 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of haematological parameters on days 0 (pretreatment) and 7, 21, and 35 after treatment. All the adult ticks and fleas collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, respectively. The efficacy of spot-on formulation against ticks was 34.00% (day 3), 53.14% (day 7), 62.71% (day 14), 65.48% (day 21), 59.80% (day 28), and 58.82% (day 35), whereas against fleas it was 38.00% (day 3), 64.34% (day 7), 89.67% (day 14), 95.40% (day 21), 100.00% (day 28), and 100.00% (day 35). Haematological parameters for ticks and fleas infested dogs were statistically nonsignificant as compared to control. The combination of fipronil and (S)-methoprene eliminated the existing ticks and fleas infestation and prevented the dogs from flea and tick infestation for four weeks.

  8. Differences in Weekday versus Weekend Drinking among Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation sought to examine “day of the week” drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to: (1) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, (2) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) as relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were 238 (63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years) heavy drinking noncollege-attenders recruited from the community. They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend drinking increases were related to social expectancies but not tension reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday/weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension reduction and social facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  9. Differences in weekday versus weekend drinking among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    In the current investigation, we sought to examine "day-of-the-week" drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to (a) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, and (b) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were heavy-drinking noncollege attenders recruited from the community (N = 238; 63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years). They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension-reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend-drinking increases were related to social expectancies, but not tension-reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday-weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension-reduction and social-facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply that different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking, and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  10. Unemployment and Depression Among Emerging Adults in 12 States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The high rate of unemployment among emerging adults (aged 18 to 25 years) is a public health concern. The risk of depression is higher among the unemployed than among the employed, but little is known about the relationship between unemployment and mental health among emerging adults. This secondary data analysis assessed the relationship between unemployment and depression among emerging adults. Methods Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. Responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 provided data about the prevalence of depression. Bivariate relationships were assessed using χ2 tests, and multivariable adjusted odds ratios were calculated with logistic regressions. Sociodemographic variables were sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and education. In addition, logistic regression models adjusted for health insurance status, disability, smoking, and body mass index. The analyses were completed using SAS 9.3 survey procedures to account for the complex sampling design. Results Almost 12% of emerging adults were depressed (PHQ-8 ≥10) and about 23% were unemployed. Significantly more unemployed than employed emerging adults were classified with depression. In the final model, the odds of depression were about 3 times higher for unemployed than employed emerging adults. Conclusion The relationship between unemployment and depression is significant among emerging adults. With high rates of unemployment for this age group, this population may benefit from employment- and mental-health–focused interventions. PMID:25789499

  11. The effect of ecological and temporal factors on the composition of Bartonella infection in rodents and their fleas.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; Cohen, Carmit; Hawlena, Hadas; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-08-01

    The composition of Bartonella infection was explored in wild Gerbillus andersoni rodents and their Synosternus cleopatrae fleas. Rodent blood samples and fleas were collected in two periods (two different seasons; 4 months apart) from juveniles and adult hosts, and their bartonellae lineages were identified by a 454-pyrosequencing analysis targeting a specific Bartonella citrate synthase gene (gltA) fragment. The rate of Bartonella spp. co-infection was estimated and the assemblage and distribution of bartonellae lineages across the samples with respect to ecological and phylogenetic distance similarities were analyzed. Moreover, environmental factors that could explain potential differences between samples were investigated. Out of the 91 bartonellae-positive samples, 89% were found to be co-infected with more than two phylogenetically distant Bartonella genotypes and additional closely related (but distinguishable) variants. These bartonellae lineages were distributed in a non-random manner, and a negative interaction between lineages was discovered. Interestingly, the overall composition of those infections greatly varied among samples. This variability was partially explained by factors, such as type of sample (blood versus fleas), flea sex and period of collection. This investigation sheds light on the patterns of Bartonella infection and the organization of Bartonella lineages in fleas and rodents in nature.

  12. The effect of ecological and temporal factors on the composition of Bartonella infection in rodents and their fleas

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; Cohen, Carmit; Hawlena, Hadas; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    The composition of Bartonella infection was explored in wild Gerbillus andersoni rodents and their Synosternus cleopatrae fleas. Rodent blood samples and fleas were collected in two periods (two different seasons; 4 months apart) from juveniles and adult hosts, and their bartonellae lineages were identified by a 454-pyrosequencing analysis targeting a specific Bartonella citrate synthase gene (gltA) fragment. The rate of Bartonella spp. co-infection was estimated and the assemblage and distribution of bartonellae lineages across the samples with respect to ecological and phylogenetic distance similarities were analyzed. Moreover, environmental factors that could explain potential differences between samples were investigated. Out of the 91 bartonellae-positive samples, 89% were found to be co-infected with more than two phylogenetically distant Bartonella genotypes and additional closely related (but distinguishable) variants. These bartonellae lineages were distributed in a non-random manner, and a negative interaction between lineages was discovered. Interestingly, the overall composition of those infections greatly varied among samples. This variability was partially explained by factors, such as type of sample (blood versus fleas), flea sex and period of collection. This investigation sheds light on the patterns of Bartonella infection and the organization of Bartonella lineages in fleas and rodents in nature. PMID:24577352

  13. Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott

    2014-07-01

    In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and strained healthcare systems. In response, geriatric emergency medicine clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations, equipment, policies, and protocols. These Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attributes of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors of each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce emergency medicine and geriatric healthcare providers to the guidelines while providing recommendations for continued refinement of these proposals through educational dissemination, formal effectiveness evaluations, cost-effectiveness studies, and eventually institutional credentialing. PMID:24890806

  14. Comparing Adult Learning Systems: An Emerging Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning systems have come to be dominated by the view that the essential role of adult learning is to generate the high levels of skills deemed necessary for competitiveness and growth in the globalised economy. This 'education gospel' is underpinned by human capital theory (HCT) and its contemporary conceptualisation in terms of…

  15. "Family Comes First!" Relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim

    2014-12-01

    We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by means of a qualitative approach. Participants were 39 emerging adults (51% males), who were interviewed individually or within a focus group. In Study II, we sought to examine how family and friend importance to identity were related to life satisfaction through a quantitative approach. Participants were 474 (47.3% males) emerging adults who filled a self-report questionnaire. Overall, findings indicated solid family ties and a strong impact of family importance to identity for life satisfaction. Results were independent of gender and occupational status (university students vs. workers). Thus, findings highlighted that in the Italian context young people's transition to adulthood is strongly intertwined with family relationships.

  16. Intraosseous access and adults in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Ashleigh

    This article examines the use of the intraosseous route for obtaining vascular access in adults. It discusses indications for intraosseous access, the techniques and devices used, and contraindications. PMID:21901968

  17. Racial identity and depressive symptoms among Black emerging adults: the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Sellers, Robert M; Cogburn, Courtney D; Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2013-05-01

    In the current study, we explored patterns of change in Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs during the transition to adulthood, assessed neighborhood racial composition effects on Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs, and tested the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition on the associations between Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs and depressive symptoms over time. Participants in the current study included 570 Black adolescents (52% female) who were transitioning into adulthood (senior year of high school through 5 years post- high school). We did not find average patterns of change in Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs over time. Further, neighborhood racial composition did not predict participants' beginning status or growth in racial identity beliefs over time. We, however, found evidence that neighborhood racial composition may moderate the associations between Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs and symptoms of depression over time. Findings from the current study underscore the importance of considering how the larger social context may interact with individuals' racial identity beliefs to influence Black emerging adults' psychological health.

  18. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  19. Perspectives of Young Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions on Vocational Peer Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…

  20. A Reflection on an Emergent Spirituality and the Practice of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2007-01-01

    The idea of spirituality is increasingly being used in the context of adult education. This paper will tentatively explore some of the implications of an emergent spirituality within the practice of adult education. It begins by situating our understanding of spirituality in an historical context. This is followed by a brief historical overview of…

  1. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  2. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  3. Emerging Technologies in Adult Literacy and Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Liaw, Meei-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Although information and communication technologies have become an integral part of life in the United States, they have not yet been adequately integrated into adult language and literacy programs. This raises concerns because of the potential value of technology for enhancing learning and because of the vital role of technological proficiency as…

  4. Rickettsia and Bartonella Species in Fleas from Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263

  5. Male-specific sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta flea beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flea beetles in several genera are known to possess male-specific sesquiterpenes, at least some of which serve as aggregation pheromones that attract both sexes. In continuing research on the chemical ecology of Phyllotreta flea beetles, six new male-specific sesquiterpenes were identified, one fro...

  6. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  7. The Role of Rainfall in Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adult Emergence From the Soil After Its Winter Dormant Period.

    PubMed

    Guillermina Socías, M; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Casmuz, Augusto S; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report the effect of rainfall on Sternechus subsignatus Boheman, 1836, adult emergence after winter dormancy. This weevil is a univoltine soybean pest found in northwestern Argentina, a subtropical region with dry winters and rainy summers. Before harvest, fully grown larvae burrow into the soil where they overwinter. In the spring, they emerge as adults and recolonize the crop during its planting and early vegetative stages. Our study examines the seasonal timing of adult emergence with the aim of improving chemical control strategies and avoiding unnecessary pesticide applications. To do so, we developed a regression model to predict adult emergence onset as a function of cumulated rainfall after 1st November. The regression with the highest coefficient of determination between cumulated rainfall and adult emergence onset was Emergence onset (Julian day) = -7.98 Ln(cumulative rainfall) + 65.7. The negative relationship showed that adults emerged earlier in wet years than in dry years. Also it was observed that adults emerged from late November to mid-March, in pulses following periods of rainfall. Males were more abundant than females at first, but then the reverse was true toward the end of the period. In most cases, there was a suggestion of relationship (though not significantly) between peaks of adult emergence with peaks of rainfall 15 d before adult emergence. These results reveal that rainfall has a significant impact on the beginning and dynamics of adult emergence from the soil. PMID:27235846

  8. Psychological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity: Evidence from Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekin, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…

  9. Adverse food reactions--an emerging issue for adults.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are classified according to the presence or absence of involvement of the immune system, which may or may not include the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. This review focuses on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of adverse food reactions, primarily in adults, and excluding celiac disease and lactose intolerance. Reported reactions to foods are often believed to be manifestations of a food allergy; however, IgE-mediated food allergy only affects 1% to 4% of adults, with seafood, tree nuts, peanuts, fruits, and vegetables being the most common triggers. Diagnosis is challenging and most commonly achieved through careful evaluation of clinical history followed by elimination and reintroduction or challenge with the suspected offending food. With acute-onset allergic reactions, estimation of food-specific IgE antibodies is frequently used to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Recent developments, such as single allergen assays, enhance the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy, but the gold standard remains oral food challenge. Despite recent advances in the management of food allergy, including the promotion of oral tolerance, the mainstay of management is still the avoidance of food triggers. Dietary management can be compromised by nutritional inadequacy, accidental exposure, food labeling, and quality of life or adherence issues. It is essential that adults with confirmed food allergy receive optimal nutrition and dietetic support to enable them to manage their condition. PMID:22117664

  10. Detection of Rickettsia Species in Fleas Collected from Cats in Regions Endemic and Nonendemic for Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in California.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Sarah A; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Jett, Lindsey A; Wournell, Andrea L; Kjemtrup, Anne M; Padgett, Kerry A; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco E; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-03-01

    Rickettsia typhi, transmitted by rat fleas, causes most human flea-borne rickettsioses worldwide. Another rickettsia, Rickettsia felis, found in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, has also been implicated as a potential human pathogen. In the continental United States, human cases of flea-borne rickettsioses are reported primarily from the southern regions of Texas and California where the cat flea is considered the principal vector. In California, more than 90% of locally acquired human cases are reported from suburban communities within Los Angeles and Orange counties despite the almost ubiquitous presence of cat fleas and their hosts throughout the state. The objective of this study is to assess the presence and infection rate of Rickettsia species in cat fleas from selected endemic and nonendemic regions of California. Cat fleas were collected from cats in Los Angeles County (endemic region) and Sacramento and Contra Costa counties (nonendemic region). Sequencing of 17 amplicons confirmed the presence of R. felis in both the endemic and non-endemic regions with a calculated maximum likelihood estimation of 131 and 234 per 1000 fleas, respectively. R. typhi was not detected in any flea pools. Two R. felis-like genotypes were also detected in fleas from Los Angeles County; Genotype 1 was detected in 1 flea pool and Genotype 2 was found in 10 flea pools. Genotype 1 was also detected in a single flea pool from Sacramento County. Results from this study show that R. felis is widespread in cat flea populations in both flea-borne rickettsioses endemic and nonendemic regions of California, suggesting that a high prevalence of this bacterium in cat fleas does not predispose to increased risk of human infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of R. felis and the two R. felis-like organisms as etiologic agents of human flea-borne rickettsioses in California.

  11. Faunal distribution of fleas and their blood-feeding preferences using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays from farm animals and human shelters in a new rural region of southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Shahriari, Bahador; Azizi, Kourosh; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Jalal; Amin, Masoume

    2016-03-01

    Blood sucking insects, such as fleas, are responsible for the transmission of many infectious disease-causing agents which impose an intolerable burden on the health of people living particularly in endemic parts of the world. Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are found in many parts of the world including Iran. Both adult male and female fleas are obligatory ectoparasites. They are one of the main public health concerns as a result of their nuisance or the potential to act as vectors of a number of medically-important pathogens. The current study was conducted to examine the geographical distribution and fauna of fleas and their anthropophagic index in part of Fars province, southern Iran. This study was the first to be done in Iran. A total of 20 villages were randomly selected. From October 2011 to May 2012, adult fleas were collected by direct hand catch from human to animal shelters. Overall 848 fleas, most of which were blood-fed, were captured from the floor or the body of farm animal hosts (cattle, sheep, goat and hens). Only two different genera of fleas were identified, the main species (99.76 %) was human flea, Pulex irritans. The village of Shamsabad was the most heavily infested area. P. irritans had an anthropophagic index of 15 % using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). It could be concluded that P. irritans is widely distributed in this area. Based on their blood feeding activity, fleas thus posed a serious health threat to residents and their economically important livestock in this part of Iran.

  12. Faunal distribution of fleas and their blood-feeding preferences using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays from farm animals and human shelters in a new rural region of southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Shahriari, Bahador; Azizi, Kourosh; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Jalal; Amin, Masoume

    2016-03-01

    Blood sucking insects, such as fleas, are responsible for the transmission of many infectious disease-causing agents which impose an intolerable burden on the health of people living particularly in endemic parts of the world. Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are found in many parts of the world including Iran. Both adult male and female fleas are obligatory ectoparasites. They are one of the main public health concerns as a result of their nuisance or the potential to act as vectors of a number of medically-important pathogens. The current study was conducted to examine the geographical distribution and fauna of fleas and their anthropophagic index in part of Fars province, southern Iran. This study was the first to be done in Iran. A total of 20 villages were randomly selected. From October 2011 to May 2012, adult fleas were collected by direct hand catch from human to animal shelters. Overall 848 fleas, most of which were blood-fed, were captured from the floor or the body of farm animal hosts (cattle, sheep, goat and hens). Only two different genera of fleas were identified, the main species (99.76 %) was human flea, Pulex irritans. The village of Shamsabad was the most heavily infested area. P. irritans had an anthropophagic index of 15 % using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). It could be concluded that P. irritans is widely distributed in this area. Based on their blood feeding activity, fleas thus posed a serious health threat to residents and their economically important livestock in this part of Iran. PMID:27065620

  13. Emerging HIV Epidemic Among Older Adults in Nanning, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinqin; Xu, Yongfang; Chen, Shiyi; Shi, Jian; Morisky, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The HIV/AIDS surveillance data indicates that the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) who were 50 years old or older increased to 42.7% in 2011 from 16.5% in 2007 in Nanning, the capital city of Guangxi Province. A greater number of newly diagnosed HIV cases compared to clinical AIDS cases were identified from older adults. The dominant HIV transmission mode among older PLWHAs was heterosexual although approximately 30% of all PLWHAs acquired HIV through heterosexual contacts. PMID:22984779

  14. Prewinter management affects Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) prepupal physiology and adult emergence and survival.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; James, Rosalind R

    2009-08-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), is widely used as a pollinator for production of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., seed, and populations of these bees can be maintained by alfalfa seed growers or can be purchased from mostly Canadian bee providers. M. rotundata raised in Canada have higher survival rates during the incubation that occurs after winter storage than do bees produced in the northwestern United States, but no reason has been found for this difference. We investigated whether storing immature M. rotundata for various time periods at a warm temperature (16 degrees C) before winter or allowing them to remain unmanaged at ambient temperatures affects physiological aspects of prepupae during the winter as well as the survival and longevity of adult bees after spring or summer incubation. Our results show that the timing of the onset of winter storage and incubation does affect prepupal weights, prepupal lipid and water contents, adult emergence, and adult female longevity. Winter storage of prepupae in November or December with a late June incubation resulted in heavier adults that emerged more readily than bees incubated in late May. However, adult females incubated in May thrived longer than June-incubated bees if fed a honey-water diet. Thus, some prewinter management regimes for M. rotundata commercial stocks may be more effective than others for achieving optimal adult emergence synchrony, as well as adult survival and longevity for pollination of a summer crop. PMID:19736750

  15. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Sprayable Polymer Gel Against Crucifer Flea Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Canola.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2016-08-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), is a key pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in the northern Great Plains of North America. The efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.), a sprayable polymer gel, and a combination of both were assessed on canola for flea beetle management. Plots were treated soon after colonization by adult flea beetles, when canola was in the cotyledon to one-leaf stage. Ten plants along a 3.6-m section of row were selected and rated at pre-treatment and 7 and 14 d post treatment using the damage-rating scheme advanced by the European Plant Protection Organization, where 1 = 0%, 2 = 2%, 3 = 5%, 4 = 10%, and 5 = 25% leaf area injury. Under moderate flea beetle feeding pressure (1-3.3% leaf area damaged), seeds treated with Gaucho 600 (Bayer CropScience LP Raleigh, NC) (imidacloprid) produced the highest yield (843.2 kg/ha). Meanwhile, Barricade (Barricade International, Inc. Hobe Sound, FL) (polymer gel; 1%) + Scanmask (BioLogic Company Inc, Willow Hill, PA) (Steinernema feltiae) resulted in the highest yields: 1020.8 kg/ha under high (2.0-5.3% leaf area damaged), and 670.2 kg/ha at extremely high (4.3-8.6 % leaf area damaged) feeding pressure. Our results suggest that Barricade (1%) + Scanmask (S. feltiae) can serve as an alternative to the conventional chemical seed treatment. Moreover, Scanmask (S. feltiae) can be used to complement the effects of seed treatment after its protection has run out. PMID:27329629

  16. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  17. Phenotype-environment matching in sand fleas.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin; Broderick, Annette C; Godley, Brendan J; Lown, Alice E; Troscianko, Jolyon; Weber, Nicola; Weber, Sam B

    2015-08-01

    Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator strategy in nature, found in numerous animal groups. A long-standing prediction is that individuals should have camouflage tuned to the visual backgrounds where they live. However, while several studies have demonstrated phenotype-environment associations, few have directly shown that this confers an improvement in camouflage, particularly with respect to predator vision. Here, we show that an intertidal crustacean, the sand flea (Hippa testudinaria), has coloration tuned to the different substrates on which it occurs when viewed by potential avian predators. Individual sand fleas from a small, oceanic island (Ascension) matched the colour and luminance of their own beaches more closely than neighbouring beaches to a model of avian vision. Based on past work, this phenotype-environment matching is likely to be driven through ontogenetic changes rather than genetic adaptation. Our work provides some of the first direct evidence that animal coloration is tuned to provide camouflage to prospective predators against a range of visual backgrounds, in a population of animals occurring over a small geographical range. PMID:26268993

  18. Structural modeling of snow flea antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-Hsu; Graham, Laurie A; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2007-03-01

    The glycine-rich antifreeze protein recently discovered in snow fleas exhibits strong freezing point depression activity without significantly changing the melting point of its solution (thermal hysteresis). BLAST searches did not detect any protein with significant similarity in current databases. Based on its circular dichroism spectrum, discontinuities in its tripeptide repeat pattern, and intramolecular disulfide bonding, a detailed theoretical model is proposed for the 6.5-kDa isoform. In the model, the 81-residue protein is organized into a bundle of six short polyproline type II helices connected (with one exception) by proline-containing turns. This structure forms two sheets of three parallel helices, oriented antiparallel to each other. The central helices are particularly rich in glycines that facilitate backbone carbonyl-amide hydrogen bonding to four neighboring helices. The modeled structure has similarities to polyglycine II proposed by Crick and Rich in 1955 and is a close match to the polyproline type II antiparallel sheet structure determined by Traub in 1969 for (Pro-Gly-Gly)(n). Whereas the latter two structures are formed by intermolecular interactions, the snow flea antifreeze is stabilized by intramolecular interactions between the helices facilitated by the regularly spaced turns and disulfide bonds. Like several other antifreeze proteins, this modeled protein is amphipathic with a putative hydrophobic ice-binding face. PMID:17158562

  19. Structural modeling of snow flea antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-Hsu; Graham, Laurie A; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2007-03-01

    The glycine-rich antifreeze protein recently discovered in snow fleas exhibits strong freezing point depression activity without significantly changing the melting point of its solution (thermal hysteresis). BLAST searches did not detect any protein with significant similarity in current databases. Based on its circular dichroism spectrum, discontinuities in its tripeptide repeat pattern, and intramolecular disulfide bonding, a detailed theoretical model is proposed for the 6.5-kDa isoform. In the model, the 81-residue protein is organized into a bundle of six short polyproline type II helices connected (with one exception) by proline-containing turns. This structure forms two sheets of three parallel helices, oriented antiparallel to each other. The central helices are particularly rich in glycines that facilitate backbone carbonyl-amide hydrogen bonding to four neighboring helices. The modeled structure has similarities to polyglycine II proposed by Crick and Rich in 1955 and is a close match to the polyproline type II antiparallel sheet structure determined by Traub in 1969 for (Pro-Gly-Gly)(n). Whereas the latter two structures are formed by intermolecular interactions, the snow flea antifreeze is stabilized by intramolecular interactions between the helices facilitated by the regularly spaced turns and disulfide bonds. Like several other antifreeze proteins, this modeled protein is amphipathic with a putative hydrophobic ice-binding face.

  20. Phenotype–environment matching in sand fleas

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Broderick, Annette C.; Godley, Brendan J.; Lown, Alice E.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Weber, Nicola; Weber, Sam B.

    2015-01-01

    Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator strategy in nature, found in numerous animal groups. A long-standing prediction is that individuals should have camouflage tuned to the visual backgrounds where they live. However, while several studies have demonstrated phenotype–environment associations, few have directly shown that this confers an improvement in camouflage, particularly with respect to predator vision. Here, we show that an intertidal crustacean, the sand flea (Hippa testudinaria), has coloration tuned to the different substrates on which it occurs when viewed by potential avian predators. Individual sand fleas from a small, oceanic island (Ascension) matched the colour and luminance of their own beaches more closely than neighbouring beaches to a model of avian vision. Based on past work, this phenotype–environment matching is likely to be driven through ontogenetic changes rather than genetic adaptation. Our work provides some of the first direct evidence that animal coloration is tuned to provide camouflage to prospective predators against a range of visual backgrounds, in a population of animals occurring over a small geographical range. PMID:26268993

  1. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h post-contact, five fleas were found on the receiver cats, with three cats having one flea and one cat, two fleas. The number of fleas recovered on receiver cats increased towards the end of the study. At 24 h, 20% of the fleas were found on the receiver cats, and at 48 h, 23%. In a second experiment, the six flea-free cats were put in contact with the six donor cats which were each infested by 100 fleas 48 h before. Fewer fleas were found on the receiver cats (n = 15), representing 3.8% of all fleas recovered (n = 403). All the observed fleas had fed. The fleas collected on receiving cats comprised 10 males and 5 females, and 4 of the 5 females were engorged and contained eggs. The fleas collected on donor cats comprised 153 males and 235 females, they were all fed and all females contained eggs. This experiment demonstrated that gravid female fleas have a tendency to become permanently but not exclusively parasitic. Nevertheless, a few can change their cat host in as little as 1 h, which may play a role in the rapid introduction of a new flea population into a cat environment. PMID:24309021

  2. Flea-borne rickettsioses in the north of Caldas province, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Mercado, Marcela; De la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Pérez, Jorge E; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2013-05-01

    Rickettsia typhi and R. felis are the etiological agents of murine typhus and flea-borne spotted fever, respectively. Both are emerging acute febrile zoonotic diseases for which fleas are vectors; they also have similar clinical characteristics and global distribution. In 2005, we identified the circulation of murine typhus in 6 towns within the mountainous coffee-growing area north of Caldas, Colombia. We now report the specific seroprevalence against R. typhi and R. felis, and associated risk factors in 7 towns of this province. The combined seroprevalence against the 2 flea-borne rickettsioses is the highest yet reported in the literature: 71.7% (17.8% for R. felis, 25.2% for R. typhi, and 28.7% for both). We also report a prospective analysis of 26 patients with a febrile illness compatible with rickettsioses, including murine typhus; 9 of these patients had a rickettsiosis. This supports our sero-epidemiological results and highlights the diagnostic complexity of febrile syndromes in this region.

  3. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis in different flea species from Caldas, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Pérez, Jorge E; Mercado, Marcela; de la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Correa, Maria I; Duque, Laura; Ariza, Juan S; Henao, Cesar; Valbuena, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2013-09-01

    Rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. Historically, the northern region of the province of Caldas in Colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both R. felis and R. typhi. In the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify gltA, ompB, and 17kD genes. Positive samples were sequenced to identify the species of Rickettsia. Of 1,341 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (76.7%). Positive PCR results in the three genes were evidenced in C. felis (minimum infection rates; 5.3%), C. canis (9.2%), and Pulex irritans (10.0%). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analyses of sequences showed high identity values (> 98%) with R. felis, and all were highly related by phylogenetic analyses. This work shows the first detection of R. felis in fleas collected from animals in Colombia.

  4. Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in the North of Caldas Province, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Mercado, Marcela; De la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Pérez, Jorge E.; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Rickettsia typhi and R. felis are the etiological agents of murine typhus and flea-borne spotted fever, respectively. Both are emerging acute febrile zoonotic diseases for which fleas are vectors; they also have similar clinical characteristics and global distribution. In 2005, we identified the circulation of murine typhus in 6 towns within the mountainous coffee-growing area north of Caldas, Colombia. We now report the specific seroprevalence against R. typhi and R. felis, and associated risk factors in 7 towns of this province. The combined seroprevalence against the 2 flea-borne rickettsioses is the highest yet reported in the literature: 71.7% (17.8% for R. felis, 25.2% for R. typhi, and 28.7% for both). We also report a prospective analysis of 26 patients with a febrile illness compatible with rickettsioses, including murine typhus; 9 of these patients had a rickettsiosis. This supports our sero-epidemiological results and highlights the diagnostic complexity of febrile syndromes in this region. PMID:23473218

  5. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Different Flea Species from Caldas, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Pérez, Jorge E.; Mercado, Marcela; de la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Correa, Maria I.; Duque, Laura; Ariza, Juan S.; Henao, Cesar; Valbuena, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. Historically, the northern region of the province of Caldas in Colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both R. felis and R. typhi. In the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify gltA, ompB, and 17kD genes. Positive samples were sequenced to identify the species of Rickettsia. Of 1,341 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (76.7%). Positive PCR results in the three genes were evidenced in C. felis (minimum infection rates; 5.3%), C. canis (9.2%), and Pulex irritans (10.0%). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analyses of sequences showed high identity values (> 98%) with R. felis, and all were highly related by phylogenetic analyses. This work shows the first detection of R. felis in fleas collected from animals in Colombia. PMID:23878183

  6. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  7. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia. PMID:26346455

  8. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.

  9. Fleas (Siphonaptera) are Cretaceous, and evolved with Theria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiyun; Hastriter, Michael W; Whiting, Michael F; Dittmar, Katharina

    2015-09-01

    Fleas (order Siphonaptera) are highly-specialized, diverse blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals and birds with an enigmatic evolutionary history and obscure origin. We here present a molecular phylogenetic study based on a comprehensive taxon sampling of 259 flea taxa, representing 16 of the 18 extant families of this order. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree with strong nodal support was recovered, consisting of seven sequentially derived lineages with Macropsyllidae as the earliest divergence, followed by Stephanocircidae. Divergence times of flea lineages were estimated based on fossil records and host specific associations to bats (Chiroptera), suggesting that the common ancestor of extant Siphonaptera diversified during the Cretaceous. However, most of the intraordinal divergence into extant lineages took place after the K-Pg boundary. Ancestral states of host association and biogeographical distribution were reconstructed, suggesting with high likelihood that fleas originated in the southern continents (Gondwana) and migrated from South America to their extant distributions in a relatively short time frame. Theria (placental mammals and marsupials) represent the most likely ancestral host group of extant Siphonaptera, with marsupials occupying a more important role than previously assumed. Major extant flea families evolved in connection to post K-Pg diversification of Placentalia. The association of fleas with monotremes and birds is likely due to later secondary host association. These results suggest caution in casually interpreting recently discovered Mesozoic fossil "dinosaur fleas" of Northeast Asia as part of what we currently consider Siphonaptera. PMID:25987528

  10. [Questionnaire on the incidence and control of fleas in dogs and cats presented to German small animal practices].

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Pfister, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    2590 small animal practitioners in Germany have been asked by a questionnaire from which 1694 (65.4%) replied. 1186 of these veterinarians (70%) often see ectoparasite infestation. Fleas are predominant and occur on cats (1016/60%), followed by dogs (424/25%), small mammals and birds (254/15%). Flea infestations on dogs and cats are observed throughout the year, but the prevalences are generally higher during the summer season. The results reveal that topically administered spot-on formulations is the most popular method used for flea control. The most common applied antiparasitic substances both in dogs and in cats were fipronil (535/31.6%; 690/40.7%), imidacloprid (290/17.1%; 417/24.6%) and selamectin (267/15.8%; 319/18.8%). Due to 771 (45.5%) of the answering veterinarians the animal owner himself, and according 694 (41%) respectively 229 (13.5%) of the replies the veterinarian or the veterinary technician applies the antiparasiticide onto the skin. 1457 veterinarians (86%) administer compounds against adult fleas and their developmental stages also in the animal's environment. PMID:17009722

  11. Enhancing care of older adults in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Susan E; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Evans, Dian Dowling

    2012-01-01

    The findings from a recent comprehensive systematic review, in combination with a case study, are used to illustrate the importance of translational research to inform advanced practice nursing. The review article discussed in this column is a comprehensive systematic review of age-friendly nursing interventions in the management of older persons in the emergency department (ED). Two themes were synthesized from the research and texts: (1) the ED can be a foreign and challenging environment for older patients, and (2) older ED patients need specialized care to meet their complex physical and psychosocial needs. At the same time, these authors acknowledged that much more high-quality research is needed in this field. Comments by a certified geriatric nurse practitioner elaborate on these findings and provide practical suggestions for the ED advanced practice registered nurse. PMID:22842961

  12. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides f. felis) is the dominant flea on domestic dogs and cats in Australian veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Slapeta, Jan; King, Jessica; McDonell, Denise; Malik, Richard; Homer, David; Hannan, Pip; Emery, David

    2011-08-25

    This study was undertaken to determine the flea diversity on urban dogs and cats in Australia in 2009-2010. A total of 2530 fleas were recovered from 291 animals (151 dogs, 69 cats and 71 uncategorised dogs or cats) from veterinary clinics across five states of Australia. The majority of specimens were from coastal areas. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) was the most frequent flea species identified (98.8%, 2500/2530). The only other flea species identified was the stickfast flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea) from Western Australia. Sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II mtDNA revealed a single haplotype across Australia within a subset of C. f. felis (n=19). Our study demonstrated dominance and haplotype homogeneity of C. f. felis on dogs and cats. Although Ctenocephalides canis was recovered from a feral fox, it was not identified from the sample of fleas analysed. This suggests that, under current conditions, it is unlikely that foxes are reservoirs of C. canis for domestic dogs or cats residing in coastal Australia, as previously speculated. PMID:21515000

  13. Emergency admissions due to swallowed foreign bodies in adults

    PubMed Central

    Erbil, Bülent; Karaca, Mehmet Ali; Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; İbrahimov, Zaur; Kunt, Mehmet Mahir; Akpinar, Erhan; Özmen, Mehmet Mahir

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study a retrospective analysis of patients who presented to the emergency departments (ED) with complaints related to foreign body ingestions. METHODS: Patients older than 16 years of age who presented to the ED between January 1st and December 31st of 2010 with complaints related to swallowed foreign bodies were identified from electronic health records and patient charts. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients presented with a complaint of foreign body ingestion during the study period. Overall, an X-ray was performed on 75 patients, and a fiberoptic evaluation was performed on 45 patients. A foreign body was detected in 46 (46%) patients. The diagnostic yield of the X-ray was 27 (36%) out of 75 patients, while the diagnostic yield of the fiberoptic evaluations was 21 (47%) out of 45 patients. The detected foreign bodies were mostly located in the esophagus (17 out of 46 foreign bodies detected). When the types of ingested foreign bodies were evaluated, 52 (52%) patients reported ingesting food, and 19 (19%) patients reported swallowing pins. An X-ray was performed on 33 patients with accidental food ingestions but yielded a positive result in only two cases. In 12 out of 21 patients with accidental food ingestion who underwent fiberoptic evaluation, the foreign material was detected and removed. CONCLUSION: Plain radiography is helpful in the localization of radiopaque swollen foreign bodies, while fiberoptic methods are useful as both diagnostic and therapeutic tools, regardless of radiopacity. PMID:24151363

  14. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management.

    PubMed

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R; Aisiku, Imoigele P

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  15. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R.; Aisiku, Imoigele P.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  16. Efficacy and safety of selamectin against fleas and heartworms in dogs and cats presented as veterinary patients in North America.

    PubMed

    Boy, M G; Six, R H; Thomas, C A; Novotny, M J; Smothers, C D; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    A series of randomized, controlled, masked field studies was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of selamectin in the treatment of flea infestations on dogs and cats, and in the prevention of heartworm infection in dogs. In addition, observations were made on the beneficial effect of selamectin treatment on dogs and cats showing signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD). In all studies selamectin was applied topically, once per month, in unit doses providing a minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1). Dogs and cats with naturally occurring flea infestations, some of which also had signs associated with FAD, were assigned randomly to receive three months of topical treatment with selamectin (220 dogs, 189 cats) or a positive-control product (dogs: fenthion, n=81; cats: pyrethrins, n=66). Selamectin was administered on days 0, 30, and 60. Day 0 was defined as the day that the animal first received treatment. Flea burdens were assessed by flea comb counts and clinical evaluations of FAD were performed before treatment, and on days 14, 30, 60, and 90. On days 30, 60, and 90, mean flea counts in selamectin-treated dogs were reduced by 92.1, 99.0, and 99.8%, and mean flea counts in fenthion-treated dogs were reduced by 81.5, 86.8, and 86.1%, respectively, compared with day 0 counts. Also, on days 30, 60, and 90, mean flea counts in selamectin-treated cats were reduced by 92.5, 98.3, and 99.3%, and mean flea counts in pyrethrin-treated cats were reduced by 66.4, 73.9, and 81.3%, respectively, compared with day 0 counts. Selamectin also was beneficial in alleviating signs in dogs and cats diagnosed clinically with FAD. A total of 397 dogs free of adult heartworm infection from four heartworm-endemic areas of the USA were allocated randomly to six months of treatment with selamectin (n=298) or ivermectin (n=99). Selamectin achieved a heartworm prevention rate of 100%, with all dogs testing negative for microfilariae and adult heartworm antigen on days 180 and 300. Selamectin was

  17. A review of plague persistence with special emphasis on fleas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we note a potentially pivotal role for fleas. These epizootic plague vectors should be closely studied with newer more exacting methods to determine their potential to serve as participants in or accomplices to a plague persistence reservoir.

  18. [Fleas (Siphonaptera) infesting birds of West Siberian plain].

    PubMed

    Sapegina, V F; Ravkin, Iu S

    2003-01-01

    The four species of fleas associated with birds in West Siberian Plain have been recorded. Ceratophyllus styx is a specific parasite of Riparia riparia. Ceratophyllus garei, C. gallinae, and C. tribulis parasitize various setting of birds.

  19. Emerging Adults' Stress and Health: The Role of Parent Behaviors and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…

  20. Emerging Adult Civic and Political Disengagement: A Longitudinal Analysis of Lack of Involvement with Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Political engagement among U.S. emerging adults aged 18 to 24 was examined via quantitative and qualitative data. The data analyzed are from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR). The NSYR consists of three waves of a nationally representative (a) telephone survey (Wave 1 n = 4,161), (b) in-person interviews (Wave 3 n = 230) collected…

  1. Family Cultural Socialization Practices and Ethnic Identity in College-Going Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…

  2. How Private Is the Relation with God? Religiosity and Family Religious Socialization in Romanian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negru, Oana; Haragâs, Cosmina; Mustea, Anca

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dynamics of religious cognitions, behaviors, and emotions in emerging adult discourse in a sample of Romanian youth of heterogeneous socioeconomic, denominational (Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic, Neo-protestant), and educational background. Also, from a parent-child dyad perspective, we investigate the role…

  3. Associations between Online Friendship and Internet Addiction among Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smahel, David; Brown, B. Bradford; Blinka, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from…

  4. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  5. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  6. Examining Emerging-Adults' and Parents' Expectations about Autonomy during the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2009-01-01

    Our research goals were to document levels and examine the potential discrepancies of emerging-adults' and parents' expectations for autonomous behavior during the transition to college. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 204 incoming college freshmen (n = 150 females, n = 54 males) and 226 parents (n = 173 mothers, n = 53…

  7. Financial Parenting, Financial Coping Behaviors, and Well-Being of Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon; Mishra, Anubha; Tang, Chuanyi

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to consider the role of parents in the development of their children's financial independence by the time the children are old enough to enter college. Using data from 2,098 first-year university students, we examined two pathways to emerging adults' financial, psychological, and personal well-being, combining research…

  8. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  9. Ethiopian Emerging Adult Immigrants in Israel: Coping with Discrimination and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sophie D.; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka

    2012-01-01

    Experiences of discrimination and racism and individual coping strategies were examined among 22 emerging adult Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. In-depth interviews explored the way they perceive, understand, respond to, and cope with experiences of discrimination. Qualitative analysis identified an initial contrast between those interviewees who…

  10. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  11. Differential effects of binge drinking on learning and memory in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Paul, Margot D; Silveri, Marisa M

    2013-04-26

    Alterations in memory function due to alcohol exposure have been observed in both animal models and human populations. The human literature on neurocognitive consequences of binge alcohol use in emerging adults has not systematically investigated its potential negative impacts on visuospatial memory. For instance, these impacts have not yet been assessed using a human analogue of the Morris Water Maze Task (WMT), a key memory measure in the animal literature. Accordingly, this study compared performance between emerging adult binge drinkers (BD, n=22) and age- and sex-matched light drinkers (LD, n=29) using the Morris WMT, as well as verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Emerging adult BD demonstrated worse performance on verbal learning and memory relative to LD. However, no significant group differences were observed on spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, no sex differences or interactions with drinking status were observed on either memory domain. These data suggest that in emerging adults who are at a heightened risk for alcohol abuse disorders, but who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria, verbal learning is uniquely impacted by the neurotoxic effects of binge drinking, whereas spatial learning is relatively spared between bouts of intoxication.

  12. Patterns of Romantic Involvement among Emerging Adults: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Scharf, Miri; Livne, Yaara; Barr, Tamuz

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined patterns of romantic involvement in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 males) who were followed from age 22 to 29 years. Analyses of interviews at age 29 yielded four distinctive relational patterns that are associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Intimately committed, Intimate, Non- intimately committed,…

  13. Emerging Adults in Sweden: Identity Formation in the Light of Love, Work, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Wangqvist, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the identity formation of emerging adults in Sweden was investigated in order to discover how identity issues concerning love, work and family are handled. The study group comprised 136 24- to 26-year-olds. The results revealed differences between men and women with regard to their position in the identity formation process. While…

  14. Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC): Factor Structure and Invariance across Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moura, Octavio; dos Santos, Rute Andrade; Rocha, Magda; Matos, Paula Mena

    2010-01-01

    The Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC) is based on the cognitive-contextual framework for understanding interparental conflict. This study investigates the factor validity and the invariance of two factor models of CPIC within a sample of Portuguese adolescents and emerging adults (14 to 25 years old; N = 677). At the…

  15. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  16. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltz, Marie; Parke, Belinda; Shuluk, Joseph; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Galvin, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses' views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile.…

  17. Adult-Onset Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: Associations with Adolescent Family Processes and Emerging Adulthood Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by conceptual and empirical work on emerging adulthood, this study investigated the role of closeness to mother and father and behavioral autonomy during adolescence on the development of adult-onset antisocial behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we identified four aggressive…

  18. Concepts of Infidelity among African American Emerging Adults: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Flythe, Michelle; Hoffman, Valerie; Fraser, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used an exploratory methodology to determine what cultural models African American emerging adults use to understand infidelity/cheating. Cultural models are defined as "cognitive schema[s] that [are] intersubjectively shared by a social group" (D'Andrade, 1987, p. 112). We interviewed 144 participants ages 19-22 from three…

  19. Exploring the Experiences of Female Emerging Adult Mentors: Building a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Julianne; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Sollie, Donna L.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    While mentoring programs are prevalent, limited research focused on the mentors' experiences exist, particularly during critical periods of development. Using a qualitative, grounded theory approach, this study explores the elements of the mentoring experience for a cohort of late adolescent/emerging adult women in a long-term program. Outcomes…

  20. Diverse Patterns in the Development of Depressive Symptoms among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Alice A.; Liem, Joan H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines depressive symptoms over a 4-year period in a racially diverse community sample of 1,143 18- to 22-year-old emerging adults using latent growth and mixture modeling and data collected at three time points. Participants were high school seniors randomly chosen from nine public schools in a metropolitan region in the…

  1. A Comparison of Two Approaches for Facilitating Identity Exploration Processes in Emerging Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2005-01-01

    This article, using a controlled design, reports the results of an exploratory study to investigate the impact of two types of intervention strategies (cognitively vs. emotionally focused) on two types of identity processes (self-construction and self-discovery) in a culturally diverse sample of 90 emerging adult university students. A…

  2. Self-Presentation and Interaction in Blogs of Adolescents and Young Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Kozarian, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzed 124 blogs, chronological, journal-type entries published on public hosting Web sites, as new and popular places for adolescents and emerging adults aged 15 to 19 to play openly with their self-presentation, an important aspect of identity exploration. Findings indicate that most young persons write emotionally toned entries;…

  3. A Christian Integrative Perspective on Nurturing Civic Development among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoppa, Tara M.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores civic development and its roles in the lives of emerging adults, and the ways in which college contexts--particularly Christian colleges and universities--may foster adaptive civic development. First, the article presents an argument for the importance of fostering civic development as rooted in historic truths of the…

  4. Reading Electronic and Printed Books with and without Adult Instruction: Effects on Emergent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal-Drori, Ora; Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electronic book (e-book) and printed book reading on children's emergent reading with and without adult instruction were investigated. One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 6-year-old kindergarten children from low SES families were randomly assigned to one of four groups (32 children each): (1) independently reading the e-book (EB); (2)…

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Koru: A Mindfulness Program for College Students and Other Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Juberg, Michael K.; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Participants: Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Methods: Randomized controlled trial. It was hypothesized that Koru, compared with a wait-list…

  6. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  7. Growing up Perfect: Perfectionism, Problematic Internet Use, and Career Indecision in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Ilana S.; Konstam, Varda

    2011-01-01

    Among emerging adults who are career indecisive, perfectionism and problematic Internet use (PIU) are underdeveloped areas of inquiry. The authors examined the relationship between perfectionism and PIU to measure their contributions to career indecision. The full model was significant, yielding an R[superscript 2] of 0.46 (p less than 0.0001).…

  8. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  9. Career Pursuit Pathways among Emerging Adult Men and Women: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Barr, Tamuz; Livneh, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Vasalampi, Kati; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined career pursuit pathways in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 men) who were followed from age 22 to 29. Employing a semi-structured interview at the age of 29, participants were asked about current work and educational status, work and educational goals and status changes in recent years, and to reflect on the meaning of…

  10. Neosomes of tungid fleas on wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Tunga is the most specialized genus among the Siphonaptera because adult females penetrate into the skin of their hosts and, after mating and fertilization, undergo hypertrophy, forming an enlarged structure known as the neosome. In humans and other warm-blooded animals, neosomes cause tungiasis, which arises due to the action of opportunistic agents. Although its effects on humans and domestic animals are well described in the literature, little is known about the impact of tungiasis on wild animals. This review focuses on the morphology, taxonomy, geographical distribution, hosts, prevalence, sites of attachment, and impact of tungid neosomes on wild and domestic animals. Because neosomes are the most characteristic form of the genus Tunga and also the form most frequently found in hosts, they are here differentiated and illustrated to aid in the identification of the 13 currently known species. Perspectives for future studies regarding the possibility of discovering other sand flea species, adaptation to new hosts, and the transfer of tungids between hosts in natural and modified habitats are also presented. PMID:25141814

  11. Neosomes of tungid fleas on wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Tunga is the most specialized genus among the Siphonaptera because adult females penetrate into the skin of their hosts and, after mating and fertilization, undergo hypertrophy, forming an enlarged structure known as the neosome. In humans and other warm-blooded animals, neosomes cause tungiasis, which arises due to the action of opportunistic agents. Although its effects on humans and domestic animals are well described in the literature, little is known about the impact of tungiasis on wild animals. This review focuses on the morphology, taxonomy, geographical distribution, hosts, prevalence, sites of attachment, and impact of tungid neosomes on wild and domestic animals. Because neosomes are the most characteristic form of the genus Tunga and also the form most frequently found in hosts, they are here differentiated and illustrated to aid in the identification of the 13 currently known species. Perspectives for future studies regarding the possibility of discovering other sand flea species, adaptation to new hosts, and the transfer of tungids between hosts in natural and modified habitats are also presented.

  12. [The history of the flea in art and literature].

    PubMed

    Roncalli Amici, R

    2004-06-01

    The flea has been, indirectly, one of the protagonists in the history of man. As one of the two vectors of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agents of the Black Death, the flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) has contributed, over the centuries, to the death of millions of people in many countries. Galileo Galilei was the first to observe the flea with a microscope (1624), but the credit of depicting it with a stunning drawing goes to the Britisher Robert Hooke in 1665. A number of zoologists, including Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek and Diacinto Cestoni, well described and illustrated the life cycle of the flea in the XVII century. Some of these reports inspired scholars such as J. Swift and J. Donne for the composition of classic poems. Also, the flea, alone and with its hosts, has inspired a number of artists to create fine paintings; among them: G. M. Crespi, G. B. Piazzetta, G. de la Tour and others. Colorful sonnets on the flea in the Roman dialect were written by G. Belli and Trilussa. The flea also, as a theme, inspired musicians such as G. F. Ghedini and M. Mussorgsky, play writers such as Feydeau and moviemakers such as Charlie Chaplin. The flea is, indissolubly, connected with the history of Black Death. This disease in man is, in fact, caused--as demonstrated by Yersin and Simond--by the triad: bacterium (Yersinia pestis)/rat/flea (Xenopsylla cheopis). Over the centuries, Black Death has had a deep impact on both the visual arts and literature and, as a result, a very large number of paintings and other works of art have been produced to remember these tragic episodes. In the field of literature, Black Death has been skillfully described by writers such as Boccaccio, Manzoni and Camus. Finally, in recent years, following the discovery of the existence of a large market for the control of fleas in small animals, the interest in this minute insect has been resurrected and, parallel to that, the rebirth of the flea iconography, through electromicroscopy, has also taken place

  13. [The history of the flea in art and literature].

    PubMed

    Roncalli Amici, R

    2004-06-01

    The flea has been, indirectly, one of the protagonists in the history of man. As one of the two vectors of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agents of the Black Death, the flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) has contributed, over the centuries, to the death of millions of people in many countries. Galileo Galilei was the first to observe the flea with a microscope (1624), but the credit of depicting it with a stunning drawing goes to the Britisher Robert Hooke in 1665. A number of zoologists, including Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek and Diacinto Cestoni, well described and illustrated the life cycle of the flea in the XVII century. Some of these reports inspired scholars such as J. Swift and J. Donne for the composition of classic poems. Also, the flea, alone and with its hosts, has inspired a number of artists to create fine paintings; among them: G. M. Crespi, G. B. Piazzetta, G. de la Tour and others. Colorful sonnets on the flea in the Roman dialect were written by G. Belli and Trilussa. The flea also, as a theme, inspired musicians such as G. F. Ghedini and M. Mussorgsky, play writers such as Feydeau and moviemakers such as Charlie Chaplin. The flea is, indissolubly, connected with the history of Black Death. This disease in man is, in fact, caused--as demonstrated by Yersin and Simond--by the triad: bacterium (Yersinia pestis)/rat/flea (Xenopsylla cheopis). Over the centuries, Black Death has had a deep impact on both the visual arts and literature and, as a result, a very large number of paintings and other works of art have been produced to remember these tragic episodes. In the field of literature, Black Death has been skillfully described by writers such as Boccaccio, Manzoni and Camus. Finally, in recent years, following the discovery of the existence of a large market for the control of fleas in small animals, the interest in this minute insect has been resurrected and, parallel to that, the rebirth of the flea iconography, through electromicroscopy, has also taken place.

  14. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S)-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, F.; Fourie, J.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.

    2012-01-01

    Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S)-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200 ± 5) on Days -28 and -21. Each animal’s sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100 ± 5) were placed in the plastic cup in each animal’s sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p < 0.05) between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60). The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment group 3 was

  15. Predictive modelling of adult emergence in a polyphagous Eucolaspis (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Doddala, P R C; Trewick, S A; Rogers, D J; Minor, M A

    2013-04-01

    Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is a pest that inflicts huge economic loss in many organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in New Zealand. The timing of control methods for this pest has been shown to be crucial for success. To aid in planning control programs, we studied threshold temperature and degree-days required for the development of Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" pupae and modeled adult emergence in the field. Pupal development was observed at three constant temperatures. Pupae required 237.0 +/- 21.67 degree-days above lower threshold temperature of 4.7 degrees C +/- 0.89 degrees C to develop into adults. The emergence of adults was modeled with these thermal values and the model was tested for accuracy with field data. The model performed well with a precision of +/- 4 d. The proposed phenology model has wide applicability in monitoring and planning pest control measures. PMID:23786080

  16. Predictive modelling of adult emergence in a polyphagous Eucolaspis (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Doddala, P R C; Trewick, S A; Rogers, D J; Minor, M A

    2013-04-01

    Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is a pest that inflicts huge economic loss in many organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in New Zealand. The timing of control methods for this pest has been shown to be crucial for success. To aid in planning control programs, we studied threshold temperature and degree-days required for the development of Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" pupae and modeled adult emergence in the field. Pupal development was observed at three constant temperatures. Pupae required 237.0 +/- 21.67 degree-days above lower threshold temperature of 4.7 degrees C +/- 0.89 degrees C to develop into adults. The emergence of adults was modeled with these thermal values and the model was tested for accuracy with field data. The model performed well with a precision of +/- 4 d. The proposed phenology model has wide applicability in monitoring and planning pest control measures.

  17. Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Wachholtz, Amy; Stone, Rosalie Torres

    2015-01-01

    Data from emerging adults (ages 18–29, N = 900) in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study was used to examine the influence of childhood and emerging adult religiosity and religious-based decision-making, and childhood adversity, on alcohol use. Childhood religiosity was protective against early alcohol use and progression to later abuse or dependence, but did not significantly offset the influence of childhood adversity on early patterns of heavy drinking in adjusted logistic regression models. Religiosity in emerging adulthood was negatively associated with alcohol use disorders. Protective associations for religiosity varied by gender, ethnicity and childhood adversity histories. Higher religiosity may be protective against early onset alcohol use and later development of alcohol problems, thus, should be considered in prevention programming for youth, particularly in faith-based settings. Mental health providers should allow for integration of clients’ religiosity and spirituality beliefs and practices in treatment settings if clients indicate such interest. PMID:26146565

  18. Diverse transitional giant fleas from the Mesozoic era of China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Diying; Engel, Michael S; Cai, Chenyang; Wu, Hao; Nel, André

    2012-02-29

    Fleas are one of the major lineages of ectoparasitic insects and are now highly specialized for feeding on the blood of birds or mammals. This has isolated them among holometabolan insect orders, although they derive from the Antliophora (scorpionflies and true flies). Like most ectoparasitic lineages, their fossil record is meagre and confined to Cenozoic-era representatives of modern families, so that we lack evidence of the origins of fleas in the Mesozoic era. The origins of the first recognized Cretaceous stem-group flea, Tarwinia, remains highly controversial. Here we report fossils of the oldest definitive fleas--giant forms from the Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous periods of China. They exhibit many defining features of fleas but retain primitive traits such as non-jumping hindlegs. More importantly, all have stout and elongate sucking siphons for piercing the hides of their hosts, implying that these fleas may be rooted among the pollinating 'long siphonate' scorpionflies of the Mesozoic. Their special morphology suggests that their earliest hosts were hairy or feathered 'reptilians', and that they radiated to mammalian and bird hosts later in the Cenozoic.

  19. Do I Really Need Someone in Order to become an Adult?: Romantic Relationships during Emerging Adulthood in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Margherita; Tagliabue, Semira

    2007-01-01

    Italian emerging adults stay at home with their parents until they marry. Being involved in a romantic relationship may be considered one precursor of the success of the transition to adulthood. In this study, 92 dating and 84 nondating emerging adults were compared on when they left the parental home and their future plans. They were also…

  20. "You're Always First a Girl": Emerging Adult Women, Gender, and Sexuality in the Israeli Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli army drafts both men and women, and most Israelis complete their military service during their emerging adulthood years. This study examined Israeli women's experiences as soldiers in the army. Twenty-three women (18 emerging adults, 5 young adults) were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed about how they experienced…

  1. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  2. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  3. Increased Marijuana Use and Gender Predict Poorer Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255

  4. Eliminating Medicaid adult dental coverage in California led to increased dental emergency visits and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Caplan, Daniel J; Jones, Michael P; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Buresh, Christopher T; Isman, Robert; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Dental coverage for adults is an elective benefit under Medicaid. As a result of budget constraints, California Medicaid eliminated its comprehensive adult dental coverage in July 2009. We examined the impact of this policy change on emergency department (ED) visits by Medicaid-enrolled adults for dental problems in the period 2006-11. We found that the policy change led to a significant and immediate increase in dental ED use, amounting to more than 1,800 additional dental ED visits per year. Young adults, members of racial/ethnic minority groups, and urban residents were disproportionately affected by the policy change. Average yearly costs associated with dental ED visits increased by 68 percent. The California experience provides evidence that eliminating Medicaid adult dental benefits shifts dental care to costly EDs that do not provide definitive dental care. The population affected by the Medicaid adult dental coverage policy is increasing as many states expand their Medicaid programs under the ACA. Hence, such evidence is critical to inform decisions regarding adult dental coverage for existing Medicaid enrollees and expansion populations. PMID:25941275

  5. Evaluation of the curative and preventive efficacy of a single oral administration of afoxolaner against cat flea Ctenocephalides felis infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, James S; Dumont, Pascal; Chester, Theodore S; Young, David R; Fourie, Josephus J; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner for treatment and prevention of repeated infestations with adult Ctenocephalides felis on dogs was evaluated in two studies after administration of a beef-flavored soft chew. In each study, 32 dogs were divided randomly into four equal groups. Dogs in Groups 1 and 3 were not treated and served as controls. Dogs in Groups 2 and 4 were treated on Day 0 with a combination of chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum therapeutic dose of 2.5mg/kg. All animals were infested experimentally with unfed C. felis (100 ± 5) on Days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Flea killing efficacy was evaluated in both studies while, efficacy against flea egg production was assessed in Study 1. Live fleas were counted at 12 (Groups 1 and 2) and 24h (Groups 3 and 4), after treatment or after weekly infestations. In Study 1, flea eggs were collected and counted at either 12 or 24h after each flea infestation on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. The results of both studies demonstrate the long lasting and rapid efficacy of afoxolaner against C. felis, when administered as a single oral dose to dogs. For flea counts conducted 24h after treatment or infestation, efficacy was 100% for all time points up to Day 36 in both studies, except for one time point (99.9% on Day 22) for Study 2. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestation, efficacy was ≥ 95.2% until Day 21 in both studies. Efficacy at 12h was ≥ 93.0% on Day 35 in Study 1 and ≥ 89.7% on Day 35 in Study 2. The treated groups had significantly fewer fleas than untreated control dogs in both studies for all flea counts (p=0.003 Study 1, p=0.0006 Study 2). In Study 1, for all egg counts performed at or beyond Day 7, efficacy in egg reduction was >99% for all time points between Days 7 and 35.

  6. Parenting styles and emerging adult drug use in Cebu, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Rebecca S.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Bass, Judith K.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Parenting style is a potent and malleable influence on emerging adult substance use. Most of the parenting-substance use literature has been conducted in Western populations and it is unknown whether findings are generalizable to other cultures and contexts. We extended the parenting-substance use literature to a cohort of emerging adults in the Philippines using the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We assessed associations between mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) reported by offspring at age 18 and odds of offspring-reported drug use three years later, adjusted for a range of offspring- and parent/household-level characteristics. Females were dropped from analyses due to low prevalence of drug users. We found that many emerging adults in Cebu reported having used drugs, particularly methamphetamine—a dangerous drug with high abuse potential. Authoritative (warm, firm) mothering was significantly associated with sons’ reduced odds of drug use and neglectful fathering was related at a trend level with sons’ increased odds of having tried drugs. Findings underscore the relation of parenting styles to emerging adults’ drug use and add to the literature on cross-cultural variability in parenting styles. PMID:27330559

  7. Flea (Siphonaptera) species richness in the Great Basin Desert and island biogeography theory.

    PubMed

    Bossard, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    Numbers of flea (Siphonaptera) species (flea species richness) on individual mammals should be higher on large mammals, mammals with dense populations, and mammals with large geographic ranges, if mammals are islands for fleas. I tested the first two predictions with regressions of H. J. Egoscue's trapping data on flea species richness collected from individual mammals against mammal size and population density from the literature. Mammal size and population density did not correlate with flea species richness. Mammal geographic range did, in earlier studies. The intermediate-sized (31 g), moderately dense (0.004 individuals/m(2)) Peromyscus truei (Shufeldt) had the highest richness with eight flea species on one individual. Overall, island biogeography theory does not describe the distribution of flea species on mammals in the Great Basin Desert, based on H. J. Egoscue's collections. Alternatively, epidemiological or metapopulation theories may explain flea species richness.

  8. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine–ketoconazole shampoo

    PubMed Central

    Liebenberg, JE; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. Methods and Results We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed‐breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post‐infestation. Conclusion Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. PMID:26220323

  9. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners.

  10. Emerging adults' stress and health: the role of parent behaviors and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-02-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers' behaviors (via the Parental Bonding Instrument and Alabama Parenting Questionnaire), their cognitions (via the Stress Appraisal Measure, Negative Mood Regulation Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Ruminative Response Scale-Abbreviated), and their stress/health outcomes (via the Perceived Stress Scale and Short-Form Health Survey). Results of this study suggested that emerging adults' cognitions partially mediated the relationship between their mothers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes and fully mediated the relationship between their fathers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes. Future research should examine parent behaviors as important distal variables in emerging adults' stress/health outcomes but should examine cognitions as more salient, immediate predictors of their stress/health outcomes. PMID:22610746

  11. Adverse childhood experiences and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emerging adults who experienced stressful childhoods may engage in substance use as a maladaptive coping strategy. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, adverse childhood experiences may play a prominent role in substance use decisions as these events violate the assumptions of group oriented cultural paradigms. Alternatively, adverse childhood events might not increase the risk of substance use because strong family ties could mitigate the potential maladaptive behaviors associated with these adverse experiences. This study examined whether adverse childhood experiences were associated with substance use among Hispanic emerging adults. Method Participants (n=1420, mean age=22, 41% male) completed surveys indicating whether they experienced any of 8 specific adverse experiences within their first 18 years of life, and past-month cigarette use, marijuana use, hard drug use, and binge drinking. Logistic regression models examined the associations between adverse childhood experiences and each category of substance use, controlling for age, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results The number of adverse childhood experiences was significantly associated with each category of substance use. A difference in the number of adverse childhood experiences, from 0 to 8, was associated with a 22% higher probability of cigarette smoking, a 24% higher probability of binge drinking, a 31% higher probability of marijuana use, and a 12% higher probability of hard drug use respectively. Conclusions These findings should be integrated into prevention/intervention programs in hopes of quelling the duration and severity of substance use behaviors among Hispanic emerging adults. PMID:26160522

  12. Reducing recidivism and symptoms in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions and justice system involvement.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J; McCart, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18-21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n = 41) were aged 17-20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post-analyses revealed significant reductions in participants' MH symptoms, justice system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  13. Examining Gender Differences for Gambling Engagement and Gambling Problems Among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Saw, Anne; Chan, Alan Ka Ki

    2016-01-01

    Gambling is fast becoming a public health problem in the United States, especially among emerging adults (18–25 year olds). Since 1995, rates have recently doubled with around 7–11 % of the emerging adult population having problems with gambling (Shaffer et al. in Am J Public Health 89(9):1369–1376, 1999; Cyders and Smith in Pers Individ Diff 45(6):503–508, 2008). Some states have lowered their gambling age to 18 years old; in turn, the gambling industry has recently oriented their market to target this younger population. However, little is known about the gender variation and the factors placing emerging adults at risk for getting engaged and developing problems with gambling. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors accounting for gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems. Mediation analyses revealed that impulsive coping and risk-taking were significant partial mediators for gender differences on engagement in gambling. Men took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping than women, and those who took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping were more likely to engage in gambling. Risk-taking and social anxiety were the significant mediators for gender differences in problems with gambling. Men took more risks and were more socially anxious than women, and greater risk-taking and more socially anxious individuals tended to have more problems with gambling. Implications for counseling preventions and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:22585283

  14. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n=41) were aged 17–20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post analyses revealed significant reductions in participants’ MH symptoms, justice-system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  15. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Craighead, W. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members’ health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N=119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members’ health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. PMID:25277497

  16. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Hamilton, Derek A.; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Crowley, David J.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  17. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition.

  18. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Hamilton, Derek A; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-02-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  19. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  20. [FLEAS (SIPHONAPTERA) OF MAMMALS AND BIRDS IN THE GREAT CAUCASUS].

    PubMed

    Kotti, B K

    2015-01-01

    There are 116 species of fleas in the territory of the Great Caucasus. 21 species are parasites of birds, others are the fleas of mammals. Among 41 genera of Caucasus' fauna only Caenopsylla, Phaenopsylla and Araeopsylla are absent in the Great Caucasus. There are 11 endemic species. Fleas of 66 species are distributed along all mountain system. Parasites of some birds and carnivorous mammals, insectivores and rodents live from lowlands till highlands. Some species are living at the forest altitudinal belt, others prefer the foothills and the mid-height areas; they are absent atthe highlands. Their hosts may live at all longitudinal belts; the distribution of other species is limited to lowlands in accordance with distribution of their main hosts. PMID:26827488

  1. [FLEAS (SIPHONAPTERA) OF MAMMALS AND BIRDS IN THE GREAT CAUCASUS].

    PubMed

    Kotti, B K

    2015-01-01

    There are 116 species of fleas in the territory of the Great Caucasus. 21 species are parasites of birds, others are the fleas of mammals. Among 41 genera of Caucasus' fauna only Caenopsylla, Phaenopsylla and Araeopsylla are absent in the Great Caucasus. There are 11 endemic species. Fleas of 66 species are distributed along all mountain system. Parasites of some birds and carnivorous mammals, insectivores and rodents live from lowlands till highlands. Some species are living at the forest altitudinal belt, others prefer the foothills and the mid-height areas; they are absent atthe highlands. Their hosts may live at all longitudinal belts; the distribution of other species is limited to lowlands in accordance with distribution of their main hosts.

  2. Sleep problems and pain: a longitudinal cohort study in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Janssens, Karin A M

    2016-04-01

    Sleep and pain are thought to be bidirectional related on a daily basis in adolescents with chronic pain complaints. In addition, sleep problems have been shown to predict the long-term onset of musculoskeletal pain in middle-aged adults. Yet, the long-term effects of sleep problems on pain duration and different types of pain severity in emerging adults (age: 18-25) are unknown. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between sleep problems and chronic pain, and musculoskeletal pain, headache, and abdominal pain severity in a general population of emerging adults. We studied whether these relationships were moderated by sex and whether symptoms of anxiety and depression, fatigue, or physical inactivity mediated these effects. Data of participants from the longitudinal Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey were used. Follow-up data were collected in 1753 participants who participated in the fourth (N = 1668, mean age: 19.0 years [SD = 0.6]) and/or fifth (N = 1501, mean age: 22.3 years [SD = 0.6]) assessment wave. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were used for analyses. Sleep problems were associated with chronic pain, musculoskeletal pain, headache and abdominal pain severity, and predicted chronic pain and an increase in musculoskeletal pain severity at 3 years of follow-up. This prospective effect was stronger in females than in males and was mediated by fatigue but not by symptoms of anxiety and depression or physical inactivity. Only abdominal pain had a small long-term effect on sleep problems. Our results suggest that sleep problems may be an additional target for treatment in female emerging adults with musculoskeletal pain complaints.

  3. Teaching adults-best practices that leverage the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning.

    PubMed

    Mahan, John D; Stein, David S

    2014-07-01

    It is important in teaching adults to recognize the essential characteristics of adult learners and how these characteristics define their learning priorities and activities. The seven key premises and practices for teaching adults provide a good guide for those interested in helping adults learn. The emerging science of the neurobiology of learning provides powerful new insights into how learning occurs in the complex integrated neural network that characterizes the adult. Differentiation of the two types of thinking: System 1 (fast, intuitive, and, often, emotional) and System 2 (slower, deliberate, and logical). System 1 thinking helps explain the basis for quick decisions and reliance of humans on heuristics (or rules of thumb) that leads to the type of convenient thinking associated with errors of thinking and judgment. We now know that the learning experience has an objective location-in the temporal and parietal lobes-as persistent dynamic networks of neurons and neuronal connections. Learning is initially stored in transient working memory (relatively limited capacity and time frame) and then moved under the right conditions to more long-lasting/stable memory (with larger capacity) that is stored for future access and development. It is clear that memories are not static and are not destined, once developed, to forever remain as stable constructs; rather, memories are dynamic, always available for modulation and alteration, and heavily invested with context, emotion, and other operant factors. The framework for such neural networks involves new neuronal connections, enhanced neuronal synaptic transmission, and neuron generation. Ten key teaching and learning concepts derived from recent neurobiology studies on learning and memory are presented. As the neurobiology of learning is better defined, the basis for how adults best learn, and even the preferences they display, can be employed as the physiological foundation for our best methods to effectively teach

  4. Teaching adults-best practices that leverage the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning.

    PubMed

    Mahan, John D; Stein, David S

    2014-07-01

    It is important in teaching adults to recognize the essential characteristics of adult learners and how these characteristics define their learning priorities and activities. The seven key premises and practices for teaching adults provide a good guide for those interested in helping adults learn. The emerging science of the neurobiology of learning provides powerful new insights into how learning occurs in the complex integrated neural network that characterizes the adult. Differentiation of the two types of thinking: System 1 (fast, intuitive, and, often, emotional) and System 2 (slower, deliberate, and logical). System 1 thinking helps explain the basis for quick decisions and reliance of humans on heuristics (or rules of thumb) that leads to the type of convenient thinking associated with errors of thinking and judgment. We now know that the learning experience has an objective location-in the temporal and parietal lobes-as persistent dynamic networks of neurons and neuronal connections. Learning is initially stored in transient working memory (relatively limited capacity and time frame) and then moved under the right conditions to more long-lasting/stable memory (with larger capacity) that is stored for future access and development. It is clear that memories are not static and are not destined, once developed, to forever remain as stable constructs; rather, memories are dynamic, always available for modulation and alteration, and heavily invested with context, emotion, and other operant factors. The framework for such neural networks involves new neuronal connections, enhanced neuronal synaptic transmission, and neuron generation. Ten key teaching and learning concepts derived from recent neurobiology studies on learning and memory are presented. As the neurobiology of learning is better defined, the basis for how adults best learn, and even the preferences they display, can be employed as the physiological foundation for our best methods to effectively teach

  5. Insect Nicotinic Receptor Agonists as Flea Adulticides in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Dai Tan; Hsu, Walter H.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Fleas are significant ectoparasites of small animals. They can be a severe irritant to animals and serve as a vector for a number of infectious diseases. In this article, we discuss the pharmacological characteristics of four insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists used as fleacides in dogs and cats, which include three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and dinotefuran) and spinosad. Insect nAChR agonists are one of the most important new classes of insecticides, which are used to control sucking insects both on plants and on companion animals. These new compounds provide a new approach for practitioners to safely and effectively eliminate fleas. PMID:20646191

  6. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Department (ED) Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Pharmaceuticals* among Adults Aged 18 to 34, by Alcohol ... 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 * Nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals includes taking more than the prescribed dose of ...

  7. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses’ views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile. Results: 5 central themes emerged from the analysis, representing a lack of older personhospital environment fit in the ED: (a) respect for the older adult and carers, (b) correct and best procedures and treatment, (c) time and staff to do things right, (d) transitions, and (e) a safe and enabling environment. The nurses offered solutions to address lack of fit, including modifications to the social climate, policies and procedures, care systems and processes, and physical design. Implications: The nurses’ descriptions of the pressing issues surrounding care of older adults in the ED provide useful information to consider when developing a senior-friendly ED. Results also illuminate solutions that can be taken to address issues. These solutions give direction for future intervention research. PMID:23442380

  8. [The flea in cultural history and first effects of its control].

    PubMed

    Schmäschke, R

    2000-04-01

    The knowledge about the biology and the origin of fleas from different periods of time as well as different geographical regions are described, starting from antiquity. Among this, the role of fleas in literature and art, for example in fairy tales and legends, proverbs and fables, painting and music and also the so called "circus of fleas" are covered. In connection with those aspects of cultural history the first efforts of control of flea plagues are mentioned. In addition to magic spells, these also include more or less complicated fleatraps for fleas and attempts of chemical control. PMID:10816916

  9. The Nature and Meaning of Insulin Pump Use in Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to investigate the meaning of living with an insulin pump for the management of type 1 diabetes during the period of emerging adulthood. Through a phenomenological narrative, this study contributes to the reflective understanding of the everyday life experiences of this population. Methods. A hermeneutic phenomenological design was used for this study of nine emerging adults (aged 19–24 years). Data were generated through face-to-face interviews and analyzed using the phenomenological approach of Max van Manen. Results. Four themes represent the essence of the day-to-day experiences of these emerging adults: seeking control, becoming responsible, staying connected, and accepting me. Conclusions. An in-depth understanding of the meaning of daily experiences with insulin pump technology has the potential to promote a developmentally appropriate approach to this age-group. The human understanding gained through this study is essential to the development of evidence-based practice guidelines and resources for this vulnerable population. PMID:25987805

  10. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults. PMID:25239659

  11. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults.

  12. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Jirsová, Dagmar; Panáková, Lucia; Ionică, Angela M; Gilchrist, Katrina; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca J; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides are the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats world-wide. The species Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis are competent vectors for zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. Improved knowledge on the diversity and phylogenetics of fleas is important for understanding flea-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Fleas infesting privately owned dogs and cats from the Czech Republic (n=97) and Romania (n=66) were subjected to morphological and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis. There were a total of 59 (60.82%) cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis), 30 (30.93%) dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis), 7 (7.22%) European chicken fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and 1 (1.03%) northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus) collected in the Czech Republic. Both C. canis and C. felis felis were identified in Romania. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing at the cox1 gene on a cohort of 40 fleas revealed the cosmopolitan C. felis felis clade represented by cox1 haplotype 1 is present in the Czech Republic. A new C. felis felis clade from both the Czech Republic and Romania is also reported. A high proportion of C. canis was observed from dogs and cats in the current study and phylogeny revealed that C. canis forms a sister clade to the oriental cat flea Ctenocephalides orientis (syn. C. felis orientis). Out of 33 fleas tested, representing C. felis felis, C. canis and Ce. gallinae, 7 (21.2%) were positive for R. felis using diagnostic real-time PCR targeting the gltA gene and a conventional PCR targeting the ompB gene. No samples tested positive for Bartonella spp. using a diagnostic real-time PCR assay targeting ssrA gene. This study confirms high genetic diversity of C. felis felis globally and serves as a foundation to understand the implication for zoonotic disease carriage and transmission by the flea genus Ctenocephalides.

  13. Molecular evidence for Bartonella spp. in cat and dog fleas from Germany and France.

    PubMed

    Just, F T; Gilles, J; Pradel, I; Pfalzer, S; Lengauer, H; Hellmann, K; Pfister, K

    2008-10-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-two fleas were collected from 148 cats and 133 dogs at 18 widely distributed geographic locations in Germany and France and examined for the presence of six different Bartonella spp. (Bartonella bacilliformis, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii) by PCR. Thirty-five specimens (3.7%) tested positive for either B. henselae (14 positive fleas) or B. clarridgeiae (21 positive fleas). DNA of other Bartonella spp. were not detected. Bartonella clarridgeiae was the dominating species in samples from France (19 out of 22 positive fleas), whereas B. henselae was more frequent in Germany (11 out of 13 positive fleas). With 3.5% (22 out of 632 fleas) in France and 4.1% (13 out of 320 fleas) in Germany, the overall prevalences of pathogen did not vary significantly between the flea populations of both countries. 5.4% of cats in France versus 16.1% of cats from Germany were infested by fleas carrying Bartonella, whereas 9.5% of dogs in France but none of the examined dogs from Germany were infested by Bartonella positive fleas. The molecular evidence of Bartonella infections reveals that agents of zoonotic potential are established in flea populations in Germany and France and that the spectrum of species can vary significantly from country to country.

  14. Opossums and Cat Fleas: New Insights in the Ecology of Murine Typhus in Galveston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Lucas S; Idowu, Boluwatife M; Tatsch, Tyler N; Henderson, Joshua M; Bouyer, Donald H; Walker, David H

    2016-08-01

    Murine typhus is an acute undifferentiated febrile illness caused by Rickettsia typhi The classic reservoir (Rattus spp.) and flea vector (Xenopsylla cheopis) were once culprits of murine typhus in the United States. Vector and rodent control efforts have drastically decreased the prevalence of disease, except in a few endemic foci where opossums and cat fleas play a role in transmission. Since 2012, there has been a reemergence of murine typhus in Galveston, TX. We hypothesize that opossums and cat fleas are involved in the transmission of R. typhi in Galveston. To explore this, we sought to find the seroprevalence of typhus group antibodies from opossums. We also sought to find the prevalence of R. typhi in fleas parasitizing these animals. We collected blood from 12 opossums and found that eight (66.7%) had the presence of anti-R. typhi antibodies. All opossums were infested with fleas; a total of 250 Ctenocephalides felis fleas were collected from these animals. Seven opossums (53.8%) were infested with fleas that had molecular evidence of R. typhi infection, while six (46.2%) were infested with fleas that contained Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis, an organism closely related to R. felis The minimum flea infection rate for R. typhi was 7.0%. The minimum infection rate for Candidatus R. senegalensis was 6.1%. Our study demonstrates that fleas infected with R. typhi parasitize opossums in Galveston. It is therefore likely that opossums and their fleas play a role in the city's recent reemergence of murine typhus.

  15. Basic Education for Adults: Pathways to College and Careers for Washington's Emerging Workforce. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes the Basic Education for Adults (BEdA) programs that bridge the gap between school and work, thereby creating pathways to college and careers for Washington's emerging workforce. BEdA programs teach foundational skills--reading, writing, math, technology and English language--so adults can move through college and into…

  16. Acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and vulnerability to suicide attempts among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-11-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the racial/ethnic composition included Asian, Latino, Black, and White (US-born and non-US-born) individuals. There were no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in endorsement of a suicide attempt history, with an overall rate of 8% in the sample. Asian participants reported higher acculturative stress than all other racial/ethnic groups, while both Asian and Black participants reported having experienced more discrimination in the previous year, compared to other groups. Logistic regression analyses suggested that familial acculturative stress was associated with 2 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt, overall. More specifically, it was associated with over 2 times higher odds among Asian participants, over 4 times higher odds among Black participants, and over 3 times higher odds among non-US-born White participants, while social acculturative stress was associated with over 3 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt among Latino participants. Environmental acculturative stress was associated with decreased odds of endorsing a suicide attempt history, overall, but not when examined separately by racial/ethnic group. Perceived discrimination was associated with over 5 times higher odds of a suicide attempt, overall, and specifically was associated with over 3 times higher odds among Latino participants and over 10 times higher odds among White, US-born participants. These findings suggest the importance of addressing culturally-related variables in treatment with emerging adults of racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds to reduce risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:21717234

  17. Provider Types Utilized and Recency of Mental Health Service Use among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sha-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined factors associated with mental health service utilization among African American emerging adults, specifically, when services were used (recency) and the types of providers utilized (mental health/non-mental health). Methods Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, secondary analysis of the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003) was conducted. A nationally representative sample of African American emerging adults, ages 18-29 (n=806), were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. “Evaluated need” was determined by endorsement for one of four DSM-IV diagnosis types (mood, anxiety, substance use, impulse control). Respondents who reported a need for services for emotional/substance use problems were considered to have a “perceived need”. Those who reported voluntary use of mental health/health services to address these problems were considered to have utilized services. Results 25%of the sample utilized services in their lifetime, while 9% utilized services in the past 12 months. Females were more likely than males to utilize services in three of the four service use categories (lifetime, mental health sector, and non-mental health sector).Respondents with an evaluated need for services were 2-12 times more likely to have utilized services compared to those without a need. Conclusions Little is known about why African American emerging adults underutilize mental health services. These findings indicate that being female and having an evaluated need for services were associated with greater odds of service use among this sample. This suggests the need for additional examination of gender differences in service utilization and greater mental health outreach/education among African American males. PMID:24981778

  18. Gender roles and binge drinking among Latino emerging adults: a latent class regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G

    2014-09-01

    Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.

  19. Sleep problems: predictor or outcome of media use among emerging adults at university?

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-08-01

    The pervasiveness of media use in our society has raised concerns about its potential impact on important lifestyle behaviours, including sleep. Although a number of studies have modelled poor sleep as a negative outcome of media use, a critical assessment of the literature indicates two important gaps: (i) studies have almost exclusively relied on concurrent data, and thus have not been able to assess the direction of effects; and (ii) studies have largely been conducted with children and adolescents. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study, therefore, was to examine whether both sleep duration and sleep problems would be predictors or outcomes of two forms of media use (i.e. television and online social networking) among a sample of emerging adults. Participants were 942 (71.5% female) university students (M = 19.01 years, SD = 0.90) at Time 1. Survey measures, which were assessed for three consecutive years starting in the first year of university, included demographics, sleep duration, sleep problems, television and online social networking use. Results of a cross-lagged model indicated that the association between sleep problems and media use was statistically significant: sleep problems predicted longer time spent watching television and on social networking websites, but not vice versa. Contrary to our hypotheses, sleep duration was not associated with media use. Our findings indicate no negative effects of media use on sleep among emerging adults, but instead suggest that emerging adults appear to seek out media as a means of coping with their sleep problems. PMID:24552437

  20. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  1. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Matthew R; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  2. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Matthew R.; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I.; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  3. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  4. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering. PMID:27064183

  5. Are Older Adults Prepared to Ensure Food Safety during Extended Power Outages and Other Emergencies?: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosa, Katherine M.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L.; Coppings, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters and other emergencies can cause an increased risk of foodborne illness. We conducted a nationally representative survey to understand consumers' knowledge and use of recommended practices during/after extended power outages and other emergencies. Because older adults are at an increased risk for foodborne illness, this paper…

  6. Cardiac issues in adults with the mucopolysaccharidoses: current knowledge and emerging needs.

    PubMed

    Braunlin, Elizabeth; Wang, Raymond

    2016-08-15

    The growing availability of innovative treatments for rare genetic diseases with a cardiac component-such as the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs)-has changed these syndromes from 'back of the textbook' curiosities of childhood to chronic, but rare, adult cardiac conditions that require both centres of expertise and knowledgeable subspecialists. The MPSs are inherited progressive lysosomal storage diseases, occurring in about 1:25 000 births and resulting from absence of functional hydrolases responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans, naturally occurring complex sugars ubiquitous throughout the body. In the heart, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans occurs within the cardiac valves, the epicardial coronary arteries, the myocytes and cardiac interstitium and the walls of the great vessels. As a consequence, cardiac valve regurgitation and stenosis, diffuse coronary artery stenosis, myocardial dysfunction and aortic root dilation often occur. Haematopoietic cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy have changed the previously lethal natural history of the MPSs to one of survival well into adulthood. Despite this improved lifespan, the left-sided cardiac valves continue to show progressive functional involvement and cardiac valve replacement is not uncommon, especially in adults. The risk of any intervention is increased in these patients because of the systemic effects of the disease on the respiratory system and cervical cord. Our current understanding of other cardiac issues in adults with the MPSs, especially with the coronary circulation and myocardium, is meagre and more needs to be known to effectively care for this emerging population of adults. Incorporation of the MPSs, as well as other now-treatable rare diseases, into the educational curriculum of current and future adult subspecialists is an important next step. PMID:27102649

  7. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  8. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided. PMID:23575028

  9. Risky business: Is there an association between casual sex and mental health among emerging adults?

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina M; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Donnellan, M Brent; Hudson, Monika; Weisskirch, Robert S; Kim, Su Yeong; Agocha, V Bede; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Caraway, S Jean

    2014-01-01

    A multiethnic sample of single, heterosexual, emerging-adult college students (N = 3,907) ages 18 to 25, from 30 institutions across the United States, participated in a study about identity, culture, psychological well-being, and risky behaviors. Given ongoing debates about the connection between casual sex and psychological adjustment, in the current study we assessed the cross-sectional association of participation in casual sex with psychological well-being and distress. A greater proportion of men (18.6%) compared to women (7.4%) reported having had casual sex in the month prior to assessment. Structural equation modeling indicated that casual sex was negatively associated with well-being (ß = .20, p < .001) and positively associated with psychological distress (ß = .16, p < .001). Gender did not moderate these associations. For emerging-adult college students, engaging in casual sex may elevate risk for negative psychological outcomes.

  10. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts.

  11. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided.

  12. Role of the Yersinia pestis plasminogen activator in the incidence of distinct septicemic and bubonic forms of flea-borne plague.

    PubMed

    Sebbane, Florent; Jarrett, Clayton O; Gardner, Donald; Long, Daniel; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2006-04-01

    Yersinia pestis is transmitted by fleas and causes bubonic plague, characterized by severe local lymphadenitis that progresses rapidly to systemic infection and life-threatening septicemia. Here, we show that although flea-borne transmission usually leads to bubonic plague in mice, it can also lead to primary septicemic plague. However, intradermal injection of Y. pestis, commonly used to mimic transmission by fleabite, leads only to bubonic plague. A Y. pestis strain lacking the plasmid-encoded cell-surface plasminogen activator, which is avirulent by intradermal or s.c. injection, was able to cause fatal primary septicemic plague at low incidence, but not bubonic plague, when transmitted by fleas. The results clarify a long-standing uncertainty about the etiology of primary septicemic plague and support an evolutionary scenario in which plague first emerged as a flea-borne septicemic disease of limited transmissibility. Subsequent acquisition of the plasminogen activator gene by horizontal transfer enabled the bubonic form of disease and increased the potential for epidemic spread.

  13. Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M

    2014-01-31

    Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a

  14. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. PMID:27047971

  15. Relationships and Health among Emerging Adults with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study's goal was to examine the impact of parent and peer relationships on health behaviors and psychological well-being of those with and without type 1 diabetes over the transition to emerging adulthood. Emerging adulthood is an understudied developmental period and a high risk period—especially for those with type 1 diabetes. Methods Youth with (n = 117) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed questionnaires during their senior year of high school and one year later. Measures included supportive and problematic aspects of parent and peer relationships, health behaviors, psychological well-being, and, for those with diabetes, self-care behavior and glycemic control. Results Prospective multiple and logistic regression analysis revealed that friend conflict was a more potent predictor than friend support of changes in health behaviors and psychological well-being. Parent support was associated with positive changes in psychological well-being and decreases in smoking, whereas parent control was related to increases in smoking and depressive symptoms. There was some evidence of cross-domain buffering such that supportive relationships in one domain buffered adverse effects of problematic relationships in the other domain on health outcomes. Conclusions This longitudinal study showed that parent relationships remain an important influence on and peer relationships continue to influence the health behaviors and psychological well-being of emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Parent relationships also have the potential to buffer the adverse effects of difficulties with peers. PMID:23914816

  16. Evaluation of the bacterial microbiome of two flea species using different DNA-isolation techniques provides insights into flea host ecology.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Chong, Rowena; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca; Brown, Graeme; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Fleas (Siphonaptera) are ubiquitous blood-sucking pests of animals worldwide and are vectors of zoonotic bacteria such as Rickettsia and Bartonella. We performed Ion Torrent PGM amplicon sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to compare the microbiome of the ubiquitous cat flea (Ctenocephalides f. felis) and the host-specific echidna stickfast flea (Echidnophaga a. ambulans) and evaluated potential bias produced during common genomic DNA-isolation methods. We demonstrated significant differences in the bacterial community diversity between the two flea species but not between protocols combining surface sterilisation with whole flea homogenisation or exoskeleton retention. Both flea species were dominated by obligate intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia, and the echidna stickfast fleas possessed the endosymbiont Cardinium. Cat fleas that were not surface sterilised showed presence of Candidatus 'Rickettsia senegalensis' DNA, the first report of its presence in Australia. In the case of Rickettsia, we show that sequencing depth of 50 000 was required for comparable sensitivity with Rickettsia qPCR. Low-abundance bacterial genera are suggested to reflect host ecology. The deep-sequencing approach demonstrates feasibility of pathogen detection with simultaneous quantitative analysis and evaluation of the inter-relationship of microbes within vectors. PMID:26542076

  17. Coping-motivated marijuana use correlates with DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and psychological distress among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Christopher, Paul P; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Compared to other age cohorts, emerging adults, ages 18-25 years, have the highest rates of marijuana (MJ) use. We examined the relationship of using MJ to cope with negative emotions, relative to using MJ for enhancement or social purposes, to MJ-associated problems and psychological distress among emerging adults. Participants were 288 community-dwelling emerging adults who reported current MJ use as part of a "Health Behaviors" study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the adjusted association of coping-motivated MJ use with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) cannabis use disorder, MJ-related problem severity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. After adjusting for other variables in the regression model, using MJ to cope was positively associated with having DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.31, 2.62], p < .01), MJ problem severity (b = .41, 95% CI [.24, .57], p < .01), depression (b = .36, 95% CI [.23, .49], p < .01), and perceived stress (b = .37, 95% CI [.22, .51], p < .01). Using MJ for enhancement purposes or for social reasons was not associated significantly with any of the dependent variables. Using MJ to cope with negative emotions in emerging adults is associated with MJ-related problems and psychological distress. Assessment of MJ use motivation may be clinically important among emerging adults.

  18. Six Month Outcomes of a Peer-Enhanced Community Reinforcement Approach for Emerging Adults with Substance Misuse: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Davis, Jordan P; Ureche, Daniel J; Dumas, Tara M

    2016-02-01

    Little substance use disorder (SUD) treatment research with emerging adults ages 18-25 has been done in community settings, and it is well-known that peers influence emerging adult substance use. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a peer-enhanced behavioral treatment for emerging adults with substance use problems. Emerging adults (n=35) received a peer-enhanced version of the Community Reinforcement Approach (Peer-CRA), in which their peers (n=34) were trained to provide alcohol-specific social support. Both identified clients and peers were interviewed at treatment intake, and again three and six months later. Six month outcomes included days of abstinence adjusted for controlled environment days, social costs due to substance use, and binge drinking days in the past 90 days. Treatments were delivered with high fidelity, and a high proportion of participants were retained in treatment and follow-up assessments. Growth curve analyses revealed that emerging adults and their peers significantly increased their days of abstinence and reduced their binge drinking over time. Larger randomized trials should a) test whether peer-enhanced treatments are efficacious relative to treatment as usual, b) investigate whether secondary benefits exist for non-treatment seeking peers supporting another's treatment, and c) examine whether proposed mechanisms of change (i.e., peer support and peer reductions in substance use) account for any differences in outcomes.

  19. Coping-motivated marijuana use correlates with DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and psychological distress among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Christopher, Paul P; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Compared to other age cohorts, emerging adults, ages 18-25 years, have the highest rates of marijuana (MJ) use. We examined the relationship of using MJ to cope with negative emotions, relative to using MJ for enhancement or social purposes, to MJ-associated problems and psychological distress among emerging adults. Participants were 288 community-dwelling emerging adults who reported current MJ use as part of a "Health Behaviors" study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the adjusted association of coping-motivated MJ use with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) cannabis use disorder, MJ-related problem severity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. After adjusting for other variables in the regression model, using MJ to cope was positively associated with having DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.31, 2.62], p < .01), MJ problem severity (b = .41, 95% CI [.24, .57], p < .01), depression (b = .36, 95% CI [.23, .49], p < .01), and perceived stress (b = .37, 95% CI [.22, .51], p < .01). Using MJ for enhancement purposes or for social reasons was not associated significantly with any of the dependent variables. Using MJ to cope with negative emotions in emerging adults is associated with MJ-related problems and psychological distress. Assessment of MJ use motivation may be clinically important among emerging adults. PMID:25915689

  20. Selection on the timing of adult emergence results in altered circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailesh; Kumar, Dhanya; Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; R, Akarsh C; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2007-03-01

    To investigate whether circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster evolve as a consequence of selection on the timing of adult emergence, we raised four replicate populations each of early (early(1..4)) and late (late(1..4)) emerging flies by selecting for adults that emerged during the morning and the evening hours. We estimated the percentage of flies that emerged during the two selection windows to evaluate the direct response to selection, and the circadian phenotypes of adult emergence and locomotor activity rhythms under light/dark (LD) and constant darkness (DD) to assess the correlated response to selection. After 55 generations, the percentage of flies emerging during the morning window increased in the early populations, but decreased in the late populations. The percentage of flies emerging during the evening window increased in the late populations, but decreased in the early populations. The time course and waveform of emergence and locomotor activity rhythms of the selected populations diverged from each other as well as from the controls. Further, the circadian periodicity of the early populations was significantly shorter than the controls, while that of the late populations was significantly longer than the controls. The light-induced phase response curve of the selected populations differed significantly within groups as well as from the controls. Such modifications in the circadian phenotypes of the selected populations due to heritable changes in genetic architecture, in response to imposed selection pressure, suggest that the circadian clocks underlying emergence and locomotor activity rhythms in D. melanogaster evolve as a correlated response to selection on the timing of adult emergence.

  1. Variation of availability and frequency of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography between adult and pediatric patients in the academic emergency department in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chiwon; Kim, Changsun; Kang, Bo Seung; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the availability and frequency of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography (USG) in the emergency department (ED) and the status of USG training programs in emergency medicine residencies in academic EDs in Korea. Methods In spring 2014, a link to a 16-question, multiple-choice, and rating scale web-based survey was e-mailed to all 97 academic ED residency training directors in Korea. Results The response rate was 83.5% (81/97). All respondents had their own USG machines in the ED. In total, 82.7% of respondents reported that emergency physician-performed adult USGs were usually conducted daily, whereas only 23.6% performed pediatric USGs daily. Moreover, 55.5% performed pediatric USG fewer than once a week. 74.1% of respondents had education programs for adult USG in residency training, but only 21.0% had programs for pediatric USG. There was a high association between the presence of education programs and the use of USG in both groups. The faculty members who most commonly participated in teaching ED residents how to perform USG were emergency physicians (67.9%). Only 17.3% of respondents reported that they always supported a quality assurance process. The training directors generally agreed with the advantages in emergency physician-performed USGs. Conclusion The availability of ultrasound machines was high both for adult and pediatric EDs. Nevertheless, the frequency of Emergency physician-performed USG for pediatric patients was low, which was related to the lack of the training programs for treating pediatric patients.

  2. Bursts of Self-Conscious Emotions in the Daily Lives of Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Rebar, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions play a role in regulating daily achievement strivings, social behavior, and health, but little is known about the processes underlying their daily manifestation. Emerging adults (n = 182) completed daily diaries for eight days and multilevel models were estimated to evaluate whether, how much, and why their emotions varied from day-to-day. Within-person variation in authentic pride was normally-distributed across people and days whereas the other emotions were burst-like and characterized by zero-inflated, negative binomial distributions. Perceiving social interactions as generally communal increased the odds of hubristic pride activation and reduced the odds of guilt activation; daily communal behavior reduced guilt intensity. Results illuminated processes through which meaning about the self-in-relation-to-others is constructed during a critical period of development. PMID:25859164

  3. Typologies and precursors of career adaptability patterns among emerging adults: a seven-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Shmuel; Vasalampi, Kati; Barr, Tamuz; Livne, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Pratt, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined career adaptability in 100 Israeli emerging adults who were followed from ages 22 to 29. Participants were given an in depth interview and were asked to talk about their current work, difficulties they might have had in the past and how they coped with them. In addition they were asked to elaborate on the extent to which their job fits their interests and is meaningful to them. Analyses of interviews yielded three distinctive career adaptability patterns that were associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Integrated, Compromised, and Vague. A lower level of identified motivation measured seven years earlier predicted membership in the Compromised pattern. A higher level of extrinsic motivation combined with decreased parental support predicted membership in the Vague pattern. Findings are discussed within the framework of the occupational adaptations and compromises that young people must make when approaching the age of 30. PMID:24986058

  4. Structure emerges faster during cultural transmission in children than in adults.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Gauvrit, Nicolas; Forsyth, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    How does children's limited processing capacity affect cultural transmission of complex information? We show that over the course of iterated reproduction of two-dimensional random dot patterns transmission accuracy increased to a similar extent in 5- to 8-year-old children and adults whereas algorithmic complexity decreased faster in children. Thus, children require more structure to render complex inputs learnable. In line with the Less-Is-More hypothesis, we interpret this as evidence that children's processing limitations affecting working memory capacity and executive control constrain the ability to represent and generate complexity, which, in turn, facilitates emergence of structure. This underscores the importance of investigating the role of children in the transmission of complex cultural traits.

  5. Emerging adults' lived experience of formative family stress: the family's lasting influence.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Chavez, Tom; Woulfe, Julie

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we use a phenomenology framework to explore emerging adults' formative experiences of family stress. Fourteen college students participated in a qualitative interview about their experience of family stress. We analyzed the interviews using the empirical phenomenological psychology method. Participants described a variety of family stressors, including parental conflict and divorce, physical or mental illness, and emotional or sexual abuse by a family member. Two general types of parallel processes were essential to the experience of family stress for participants. First, the family stressor was experienced in shifts and progressions reflecting the young person's attempts to manage the stressor, and second, these shifts and progressions were interdependent with deeply personal psychological meanings of self, sociality, physical and emotional expression, agency, place, space, project, and discourse. We describe each of these parallel processes and their subprocesses, and conclude with implications for mental health practice and research.

  6. Transition Needs of Parents of Adolescents and Emerging Adults With Special Health Care Needs and Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Betz, Cecily L; Nehring, Wendy M; Lobo, Marie L

    2015-08-01

    The period of health care transition (HCT) for adolescents and emerging adults with special health care needs and disabilities involves a complex realignment of the parent-child relationship, including alterations in role responsibilities and decision making. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the research designs, methodology, and findings reported in studies of parents during this transition period to provide new insights for research and clinical practice. Results showed that parents were unable to clearly envision what the future held for their children and were not well prepared by the service system to anticipate future prospects. These parents have a myriad of needs that are not yet fully understood, as HCT research is in the early stages of development. PMID:26283056

  7. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  8. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile.

  9. [Mild head injury in children and adults. Diagnostic challenges in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Lindner, T; Wolf, S; Bogner, V; Steinbeck, A; Börner, N; Peiser, C; Audebert, H J; Biberthaler, P; Kanz, K-G

    2015-01-01

    Mild head injuries are one of the most frequent reasons for attending emergency departments and are particularly challenging in different ways. While clinically important injuries are infrequent, delayed or missed injuries may lead to fatal consequences. The initial mostly inconspicuous appearance may not reflect the degree of intracranial injury and computed tomography (CT) is necessary to rule out covert injuries. Furthermore, infants and young children with a lack of or rudimentary cognitive and language development are challenging, especially for those examiners not familiar with pediatric care. Established check lists of clinical risk factors for children and adults regarding traumatic brain injuries allow specific and rational decision-making for cranial CT imaging. Clinically important intracranial injuries can be reliably detected and unnecessary radiation exposure avoided at the same time. PMID:25630884

  10. Predatory efficiency of the water bug Sphaerodema annulatum on mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus) and its effect on the adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Aditya, G; Bhattacharyya, S; Kundu, N; Saha, G K; Raut, S K

    2004-11-01

    The daily number of IV instar larva of Culex quinquefasciatus killed, rate of pupation and adult emergence was noted in presence of the predatory water bug Sphaerodema annulatum for a period of seven consecutive days, experimentally, in the laboratory. The rate of IV instar larva killed by the water bugs on an average was 65.17 per day. The rate of pupation ranged between 7.6 and 48 in control while in presence of water bugs it ranged between 6 and 35. The rate of adult emergence in control experiments varied between 1.4 and 4.8 per day, which was reduced to only 0.4-28.8 per day in case of the water bugs. The results clearly indicate that the water bugs on its way of predation reduces the rate of pupation and adult emergence of Cx. quinquefasciatus significantly which calls for an extensive field trials.

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Two prospective studies of changes in stress generation across depressive episodes in adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-11-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. The participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mothers' history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6-12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with two or more prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with three or more prior MDEs. In Study 2, the participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were reassessed for depression and stress approximately 8 months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multifactorial relation between stress and depression is discussed.

  13. A Personality-Based Latent Class Analysis of Emerging Adult Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-12-01

    Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Dose determination of a novel formulation of metaflumizone plus amitraz for control of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) and brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Rugg, D; Hair, J A

    2007-12-15

    A novel spot-on formulation containing metaflumizone and amitraz (ProMeris/ProMeris Duo for Dogs, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Overland Park, KS) was evaluated in a laboratory study to determine the appropriate dose for efficacy against fleas and ticks on dogs for 1 month. Thirty-six Beagles were randomly allocated to six equal groups and individually housed. One group remained nontreated. Another was treated with a placebo formulation (solvents with no active ingredients). Three groups of dogs were treated topically with the metaflumizone plus amitraz formulation (150mg of each of metaflumizone and amitraz/ml), at volumes providing doses of 10, 20 and 40mgeachactive/kg. The final group was treated with a commercial spot-on providing 6.7mgfipronil/kg. All treatments were applied to the skin at a single spot between the scapulae on Day 0. Dogs were infested with 50 adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on each of Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33 and 40, and with 100 cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) on Days -1, 6, 13, 20, 27, 34 and 41. Dogs were examined and parasites "finger counted" on Day 1 to estimate knock down efficacy, and all animals were comb counted to determine the numbers of viable fleas and ticks on Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. There were no significant differences in parasite counts between the nontreated control and the placebo-treated control groups for either fleas or ticks (P>0.05) except for very slight reductions on Day 7 for fleas and Day 14 for ticks, demonstrating that the formulation excipients had no activity. The qualitative finger counts on Day 1 indicated that all of the insecticidal treatments resulted in a noticeable reduction in flea and tick numbers within 1 day of treatment. All of the metaflumizone and amitraz treatments and fipronil resulted in significantly lower flea and tick numbers relative to nontreated controls on all posttreatment count days (P<0.05). For the metaflumizone plus amitraz treatments, mean flea and

  15. EMERGENCY BRAKING IN ADULTS VERSUS NOVICE TEEN DRIVERS: RESPONSE TO SIMULATED SUDDEN DRIVING EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Venk; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death in teens in the United States. Newly licensed drivers are the group most at risk for crashes. Their driving skills are very new, still very often untested, so that their ability to properly react in an emergency situation remains a research question. Since it is impossible to expose human subjects to critical life threatening driving scenarios, researchers have been increasingly using driving simulators to assess driving skills. This paper summarizes the results of a driving scenario in a study comparing the driving performance of novice teen drivers (n=21) 16–17 year olds with 90 days of provisional licensure with that of experienced adult drivers (n=17) 25–50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years. As part of a 30 to 35 simulated drive that encompassed the most common scenarios that result in serious crashes, participants were exposed to a sudden car event. As the participant drove on a suburban road, a car surged from a driveway hidden by a fence on the right side of the road. To avoid the crash, participants must hard brake, exhibiting dynamic control over both attentional and motor resources. The results showed strong differences between the experienced adult and novice teen drivers in the brake pressure applied. When placed in the same situation, the novice teens decelerated on average 50% less than the experienced adults (p<0.01). PMID:26709330

  16. An Exploration of the Sexual Behaviors of Emerging Adult Men Attending a Historically Black College/University

    PubMed Central

    Younge, Sinead N.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Geter, Angelica; Barker, Judith C.; Corneille, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide formative data on the sexual behaviors of emerging adult Black men who attended a historically Black college/university. A convenience sample of 19 participants completed a demographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. This study utilized a phenomenological qualitative approach to explore the role of the developmental stage that emerging adulthood has on sexual health. Some of the major themes that emerged included maturation, sexual decision-making, respectability, a future orientation, and masculinity. Despite sexual initiation beginning prior to entering college, participants discussed how the college environment presented them with new information, experiences, and attitudes. This study provides useful information for the future investigation of emerging adult Black men who attend HBCUs. PMID:26146649

  17. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  18. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Twigge, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of “emerging adults” and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and control of fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Everett, William R; Grace, Sarah; Hodge, Andrew; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie; Davis, Kylie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral dose of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs was confirmed in five laboratory studies. The studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagles and/or mixed breed dogs. All animals were individually identified and housed, and were allocated randomly to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner (eight to 10 per group) based on pretreatment parasite counts. Three studies used cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) strains recently isolated from the field from the US, EU, or Australia; in the fourth study a laboratory strain (KS1) with documented tolerance to a number of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, and permethrin was used. In the fifth study, dogs were infested with dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis. Dogs were treated orally on Day 0 with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2mg/kg. Dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas prior to treatment and at weekly intervals post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at 24h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. Efficacy against C. felis and C. canis was 99.8-100% from treatment through Day 35. In all five studies, elimination of existing infestations was achieved within 24h after dosing, with only a single live C. felis found on one dog on Day 1. Similarly, control of flea challenges was achieved within 24h after infestation throughout the 35day study periods, with only single live C. felis found on two dogs on Day 28 in one study, and on a single dog on Day 35 in another study. There were no adverse reactions to treatment with sarolaner. These studies confirmed that a single oral dose of sarolaner at 2mg/kg provided highly effective treatment of existing C. felis infestations and persistent control of C. felis on dogs for 35days after treatment. Efficacy equivalent to that seen with C. felis was

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and control of fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Everett, William R; Grace, Sarah; Hodge, Andrew; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie; Davis, Kylie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral dose of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs was confirmed in five laboratory studies. The studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagles and/or mixed breed dogs. All animals were individually identified and housed, and were allocated randomly to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner (eight to 10 per group) based on pretreatment parasite counts. Three studies used cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) strains recently isolated from the field from the US, EU, or Australia; in the fourth study a laboratory strain (KS1) with documented tolerance to a number of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, and permethrin was used. In the fifth study, dogs were infested with dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis. Dogs were treated orally on Day 0 with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2mg/kg. Dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas prior to treatment and at weekly intervals post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at 24h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. Efficacy against C. felis and C. canis was 99.8-100% from treatment through Day 35. In all five studies, elimination of existing infestations was achieved within 24h after dosing, with only a single live C. felis found on one dog on Day 1. Similarly, control of flea challenges was achieved within 24h after infestation throughout the 35day study periods, with only single live C. felis found on two dogs on Day 28 in one study, and on a single dog on Day 35 in another study. There were no adverse reactions to treatment with sarolaner. These studies confirmed that a single oral dose of sarolaner at 2mg/kg provided highly effective treatment of existing C. felis infestations and persistent control of C. felis on dogs for 35days after treatment. Efficacy equivalent to that seen with C. felis was

  1. A molecular survey of Rickettsia felis in fleas from cats and dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites.

  2. Opossums and Cat Fleas: New Insights in the Ecology of Murine Typhus in Galveston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Lucas S; Idowu, Boluwatife M; Tatsch, Tyler N; Henderson, Joshua M; Bouyer, Donald H; Walker, David H

    2016-08-01

    Murine typhus is an acute undifferentiated febrile illness caused by Rickettsia typhi The classic reservoir (Rattus spp.) and flea vector (Xenopsylla cheopis) were once culprits of murine typhus in the United States. Vector and rodent control efforts have drastically decreased the prevalence of disease, except in a few endemic foci where opossums and cat fleas play a role in transmission. Since 2012, there has been a reemergence of murine typhus in Galveston, TX. We hypothesize that opossums and cat fleas are involved in the transmission of R. typhi in Galveston. To explore this, we sought to find the seroprevalence of typhus group antibodies from opossums. We also sought to find the prevalence of R. typhi in fleas parasitizing these animals. We collected blood from 12 opossums and found that eight (66.7%) had the presence of anti-R. typhi antibodies. All opossums were infested with fleas; a total of 250 Ctenocephalides felis fleas were collected from these animals. Seven opossums (53.8%) were infested with fleas that had molecular evidence of R. typhi infection, while six (46.2%) were infested with fleas that contained Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis, an organism closely related to R. felis The minimum flea infection rate for R. typhi was 7.0%. The minimum infection rate for Candidatus R. senegalensis was 6.1%. Our study demonstrates that fleas infected with R. typhi parasitize opossums in Galveston. It is therefore likely that opossums and their fleas play a role in the city's recent reemergence of murine typhus. PMID:27273642

  3. Afoxolaner against fleas: immediate efficacy and resultant mortality after short exposure on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; deVos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-01-01

    The speed of efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®) against Ctenocephalides felis fleas was evaluated in two studies. Study A assessed the efficacy against existing fleas whereas study B assessed the efficacy against new infesting fleas. In study A, 12 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 20 dogs to the treated group. All dogs were infested by 100 fleas each at Day −1, treated at Day 0 and flea combed at 2 h or at 6 h post treatment. In study B, 6 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 10 to the treated group. They were infested with 100 fleas each on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were removed and counted at 6 h post-infestation. Immediate and persistent efficacies were evaluated by counting fleas on the dogs. To evaluate induced mortality after exposure on dogs, fleas collected alive were placed in an insectarium for 24 h and assessed for viability. The immediate efficacy on dogs was significant at 6 h with 100%. The induced death of the fleas collected live from dogs 2 h after exposure was 99.7%. Concerning new infesting fleas, the observed efficacy at 6 h and the induced mortality were significantly different (p < 0.05) from the control at all time-points. At 6 h, the prophylactic efficacy was > 97% at Day 2 and Day 8 and > 90% at Day 14. The induced mortality after 6 h of exposure on dogs varied between 73.3% and 100% for the whole study. PMID:25148564

  4. A Molecular Survey of Rickettsia felis in Fleas from Cats and Dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites. PMID:25203839

  5. Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas collected on gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mourad W; Henn, Jennifer; Foley, Janet E; Brown, Richard N; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Patrick; Chomel, Bruno B

    2009-12-01

    Bartonella spp. are fastidious, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria and are usually vector-borne. However, the vector has not been definitively identified for many recently described species. In northern California, gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) are infected with two zoonotic Bartonella species, B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Fleas (range 1-8 fleas per fox) were collected from 22 (41.5%) of 54 gray foxes from urban and backcountry zones near Hoopa, California. The flea species were determined, and DNA was individually extracted to establish the Bartonella species harbored by these fleas. Of the 108 fleas collected, 99 (92%) were identified as Pulex simulans. Overall, 39% (42/108) of the fleas were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Bartonella, with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii identified in 34 (81%) and 8 (19%) of the PCR-positive fleas, respectively. There was no difference between the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in P. simulans for the urban and backcountry zones. Fourteen (64%) of the 22 foxes were Bartonella bacteremic at one or more of the capture dates. In 10 instances, both the foxes and the fleas collected from them at the same blood collection were Bartonella-positive. B. rochalimae was the predominant species identified in both foxes and fleas. The competency of Pulex fleas as a vector of B. rochalimae has not been confirmed and will need to be demonstrated experimentally. Pulex spp. fleas readily feed on humans and may represent a source of human exposure to zoonotic species of Bartonella. PMID:19125660

  6. Differentiating Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adults: Associations with Hostile Attribution Biases and Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Christopher A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the current literature on forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of participants' cognitions and beliefs about aggressive behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse group of emerging adults (N = 165; M = 19.05 years; SD = 1.55) and completed a battery of…

  7. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  8. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  9. Demystifying a Black Box: A Grounded Theory of How Travel Experiences Impact the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact on the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults of both the 10 day trips to Israel popularly known as Birthright trips and the service learning trips commonly known as Alternative Spring Breaks has been well-documented. However, the mechanics of how this positive impact occurs has not been well-understood. This…

  10. "It Felt Good but Weird at the Same Time": Emerging Adults' First Experiences of Six Different Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Maas, Megan K.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Although sexual behavior is multidimensional, little research has focused on the experience of nonintercourse behaviors for adolescents and emerging adults. This article uses open-ended coded data from a longitudinal study of college students (N = 346; M age = 18.5, 52% female, 27% Hispanic/Latino [HL], 25% non-HL European American, 23% non-HL…

  11. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  12. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  13. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  14. Marriage (In)equality: The Perspectives of Adolescents and Emerging Adults with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The debate over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into civil marriages continues in the United States. Forty-nine adolescents and emerging adults (ages 14-29) with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents were interviewed for the current exploratory study, which examined how individuals perceived themselves and their families as being…

  15. Prevention of Recurrence of Major Depression among Emerging Adults by a Group Cognitive-Behavioral/Interpersonal Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon; Brosse, Alisha L.; Hauser, Monika; Madsen, Joshua W.; Craighead, W. Edward

    2012-01-01

    Background Among the most serious sequelae to an initial episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) during adolescence is the significant increase in the probability of recurrence. This study reports on an integrated CBT/IPT program, provided in a group format, that was developed to decrease the rate of MDD recurrence in emerging adults. Methods Participants were 89 young adults who were not depressed at study entry but had experienced MDD during adolescence. Participants were assigned to a CBT/IPT prevention program or to an assessment only control condition and were followed through the first 2 years of college. Results Risk for MDD recurrence was reduced more than 50% for the prevention program participants compared to assessment only controls. The intervention also conferred beneficial effects on academic performance for those students who completed the majority of the group sessions. Limitations The study included a self-selected sample of emerging adults who were aware of their history of depression. Due to the small sample size, it will be important to evaluate similar interventions in adequately-powered trials to determine if this is a replicable finding. Conclusions With 51% of the assessment only participants experiencing a MDD recurrence during the first 2 years of college, these findings support the need for programs designed to prevent MDD recurrence in young adults. The current program, based on IPT and CBT principles, appears to reduce the rate of MDD recurrence among previously depressed emerging adults. PMID:23021821

  16. Ability of newly emerged adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to exit belowground stormwater treatment systems via lateral conveyance pipes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Marco E; Harbison, Justin E; Burns, Joseph E; Hu, Renjie

    2012-03-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes flourish in belowground stormwater systems in the southern United States. Recent evidence suggests that oviposition-site-seeking females may have difficulties locating, entering, and ovipositing inside permanent water chambers when surface entry through pickholes in manhole covers are sealed. It remains unknown, however, if newly emerged adults are able to detect cues necessary to exit these partly sealed systems via lateral conveyance pipes or if they perish belowground. Fourth instar Cx. quinquefasciatus were placed within proprietary belowground stormwater treatment systems to determine the percentage of newly emerged adults able to escape treatment chambers via a single lateral conveyance pipe. Overall, 56% of deployed mosquitoes were captured in adult exit traps with an 1:1 male:female ratio. The percentage of adults captured varied significantly among chambers, but was not associated with structural site characteristics such as the chamber depth or the length and course of conveyance pipe to the exit trap. Empirical observations suggested that longbodied cellar spiders, Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin), ubiquitous in these structures, may have reduced adult trap capture. Findings demonstrate that newly emerged Cx. quinquefasciatus can exit subterranean chambers under potentially difficult structural conditions but suggest that a portion may perish in the absence of surface exit points in manhole shafts.

  17. Flea-Associated Bacterial Communities across an Environmental Transect in a Plague-Endemic Region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan Thomas; Borchert, Jeff; Eisen, Rebecca; MacMillan, Katherine; Boegler, Karen; Gage, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of human plague cases currently occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary route of transmission of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is via flea bites. Non-pathogenic flea-associated bacteria may interact with Y. pestis within fleas and it is important to understand what factors govern flea-associated bacterial assemblages. Six species of fleas were collected from nine rodent species from ten Ugandan villages between October 2010 and March 2011. A total of 660,345 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences were used to characterize bacterial communities of 332 individual fleas. The DNA sequences were binned into 421 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) based on 97% sequence similarity. We used beta diversity metrics to assess the effects of flea species, flea sex, rodent host species, site (i.e. village), collection date, elevation, mean annual precipitation, average monthly precipitation, and average monthly temperature on bacterial community structure. Flea species had the greatest effect on bacterial community structure with each flea species harboring unique bacterial lineages. The site (i.e. village), rodent host, flea sex, elevation, precipitation, and temperature also significantly affected bacterial community composition. Some bacterial lineages were widespread among flea species (e.g. Bartonella spp. and Wolbachia spp.), but each flea species also harbored unique bacterial lineages. Some of these lineages are not closely related to known bacterial diversity and likely represent newly discovered lineages of insect symbionts. Our finding that flea species has the greatest effect on bacterial community composition may help future investigations between Yersinia pestis and non-pathogenic flea-associated bacteria. Characterizing bacterial communities of fleas during a plague epizootic event in the future would be helpful. PMID:26485147

  18. Flea-Associated Bacterial Communities across an Environmental Transect in a Plague-Endemic Region of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan Thomas; Borchert, Jeff; Eisen, Rebecca; MacMillan, Katherine; Boegler, Karen; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of human plague cases currently occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary route of transmission of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is via flea bites. Non-pathogenic flea-associated bacteria may interact with Y. pestis within fleas and it is important to understand what factors govern flea-associated bacterial assemblages. Six species of fleas were collected from nine rodent species from ten Ugandan villages between October 2010 and March 2011. A total of 660,345 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences were used to characterize bacterial communities of 332 individual fleas. The DNA sequences were binned into 421 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) based on 97% sequence similarity. We used beta diversity metrics to assess the effects of flea species, flea sex, rodent host species, site (i.e. village), collection date, elevation, mean annual precipitation, average monthly precipitation, and average monthly temperature on bacterial community structure. Flea species had the greatest effect on bacterial community structure with each flea species harboring unique bacterial lineages. The site (i.e. village), rodent host, flea sex, elevation, precipitation, and temperature also significantly affected bacterial community composition. Some bacterial lineages were widespread among flea species (e.g. Bartonella spp. and Wolbachia spp.), but each flea species also harbored unique bacterial lineages. Some of these lineages are not closely related to known bacterial diversity and likely represent newly discovered lineages of insect symbionts. Our finding that flea species has the greatest effect on bacterial community composition may help future investigations between Yersinia pestis and non-pathogenic flea-associated bacteria. Characterizing bacterial communities of fleas during a plague epizootic event in the future would be helpful. PMID:26485147

  19. Flea-Associated Bacterial Communities across an Environmental Transect in a Plague-Endemic Region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan Thomas; Borchert, Jeff; Eisen, Rebecca; MacMillan, Katherine; Boegler, Karen; Gage, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of human plague cases currently occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary route of transmission of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is via flea bites. Non-pathogenic flea-associated bacteria may interact with Y. pestis within fleas and it is important to understand what factors govern flea-associated bacterial assemblages. Six species of fleas were collected from nine rodent species from ten Ugandan villages between October 2010 and March 2011. A total of 660,345 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences were used to characterize bacterial communities of 332 individual fleas. The DNA sequences were binned into 421 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) based on 97% sequence similarity. We used beta diversity metrics to assess the effects of flea species, flea sex, rodent host species, site (i.e. village), collection date, elevation, mean annual precipitation, average monthly precipitation, and average monthly temperature on bacterial community structure. Flea species had the greatest effect on bacterial community structure with each flea species harboring unique bacterial lineages. The site (i.e. village), rodent host, flea sex, elevation, precipitation, and temperature also significantly affected bacterial community composition. Some bacterial lineages were widespread among flea species (e.g. Bartonella spp. and Wolbachia spp.), but each flea species also harbored unique bacterial lineages. Some of these lineages are not closely related to known bacterial diversity and likely represent newly discovered lineages of insect symbionts. Our finding that flea species has the greatest effect on bacterial community composition may help future investigations between Yersinia pestis and non-pathogenic flea-associated bacteria. Characterizing bacterial communities of fleas during a plague epizootic event in the future would be helpful.

  20. Emergency Department Discharge Diagnosis and Adverse Health Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, S. Nicole; Whitson, Heather E.; Purser, Jama L.; Sloane, Richard J.; Johnson, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the relationship between the reason for an emergency department (ED) visit and subsequent risk of adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Setting ED. Participants One thousand eight hundred fifty-one community-dwelling Medicare fee-for-service enrollees aged 65 and older discharged from the ED between January 2000 and September 2002. Measurements Independent variables were ED discharge diagnosis groups: injury or musculoskeletal (MSK) (e.g., fracture, open wound), chronic condition (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure), infection, non-MSK symptom (e.g., chest pain, abdominal pain), and unclassified. Adverse health outcomes were hospitalization or death within 30 days of the index ED visit. Results Injury or MSK was the largest ED diagnosis group (31.4%), followed by non-MSK symptom (22.2%), chronic condition (20.9%), and infection (7.8%); 338 (17.8%) had ED discharge diagnoses that were unclassified. In adjusted analyses, a discharge diagnosis of injury or MSK condition was associated with lower risk of subsequent adverse health outcomes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50–0.96) than for all other diagnosis groups. Patients seen in the ED for chronic conditions were at greater risk of adverse outcomes (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.37–2.52) than all others. There were no significant differences in risk between patients with infections, those with non-MSK symptoms, and the unclassified group. Conclusion Adverse health outcomes were common in older patients with an ED discharge diagnosis classified as a chronic condition. ED discharge diagnosis may improve risk assessment and inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. PMID:19694872

  1. A multifaceted intervention increases epinephrine use in adult emergency department anaphylaxis patients

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Veena; Hess, Erik P.; Bellamkonda, Venkatesh R.; Nestler, David M.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Hagan, John B.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Decker, Wyatt W.; Li, James T.C.; Scanlan-Hanson, Lori N.; Vukov, Samuel C.; Campbell, Ronna L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have documented inconsistent emergency anaphylaxis care and low compliance with published guidelines. Objective To evaluate anaphylaxis management before and after implementation of an emergency department (ED) anaphylaxis order set and introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and to measure the effect on anaphylaxis guideline adherence. Methods A cohort study was conducted from April 29, 2008-August 9, 2012. Adult ED patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis were included. ED management, disposition, self-injectable epinephrine prescriptions, allergy follow-up and incidence of biphasic reactions were evaluated. Results The study included 202 patients. Median age of patients was 45.3 years (IQR 31.3 – 56.4); 139 (69%) were female. Patients who presented after order set implementation were more likely to be treated with epinephrine (51% vs. 33%, OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.04- 4.04) and admitted to ED observation unit (EDOU) (65% vs. 44%, OR 2.38, 95%CI 1.23-4.60) and less likely to be dismissed home directly from ED (16% vs. 29%, OR: 0.47, 95%CI 0.22- 1.00). Eleven patients (5%) had a biphasic reaction. Of these, five (46%) had the biphasic reaction in EDOU; one patient was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Six patients (55%) had reactions within 6 hours of initial symptom resolution of whom two were admitted to ICU. Conclusion Significantly greater proportions of anaphylaxis patients received epinephrine and were admitted to EDOU after introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and order set implementation. Slightly over half of the biphasic reactions occurred within recommended observation time of 4-6 hours. These data suggest that the multifaceted approach to changing anaphylaxis management described here improved guideline adherence. PMID:24811020

  2. Szidat's rule re-tested: relationships between flea and host phylogenetic clade ranks in four biogeographic realms.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Kiefer, Daniel; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2016-05-01

    We tested Szidat's rule (the more primitive the host, the more primitive the parasites it harbours) by analysing the relationships between phylogenetic clade ranks of fleas and their small mammalian hosts in four biogeographic realms (Afrotropics, Neotropics, Nearctic and Palearctic). From the host perspective, we tested the association between host clade rank and the mean clade rank of all fleas collected from this host. From the flea perspective, we tested the relationships between flea clade rank and the mean clade rank of hosts on which this flea was recorded. First, we tested whether the analysis of the relationships between host and flea clade ranks should be controlled for phylogenetic dependence among either host or flea species. Then, we tested for the associations between host and flea clade ranks separately for each realm using either a phylogenetic general least-squares analysis or an ordinary least-squares analysis. In all realms, the mean clade rank of fleas parasitic on a given host increased with an increase of this host's clade rank, and the mean clade rank of hosts recorded on a given flea increased with an increase of this flea's clade rank, suggesting that Szidat's rule, at least to some extent, holds for fleas.

  3. Macquarie Island: the introduction of the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) as a possible vector for myxomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sobey, W. R.; Adams, K. M.; Johnston, G. C.; Gould, L. R.; Simpson, K. N. G.; Keith, K.

    1973-01-01

    The European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) was first released on Macquarie Island in December 1968. The flea has survived and bred on the island and about 30% of the rabbits sampled from the original release area in January 1972 were flea-infested. ImagesPlate 1Plate 1 PMID:4515880

  4. Drivers of Intensity and Prevalence of Flea Parasitism on Small Mammals in East African Savanna Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Young, Hillary S; Dirzo, Rodolfo; McCauley, Douglas J; Agwanda, Bernard; Cattaneo, Lia; Dittmar, Katharina; Eckerlin, Ralph P; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Lauren E; Hintz, Ashley; Montinieri, John; Zhao, Serena; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2015-06-01

    The relative importance of environmental factors and host factors in explaining variation in prevalence and intensity of flea parasitism in small mammal communities is poorly established. We examined these relationships in an East African savanna landscape, considering multiple host levels: across individuals within a local population, across populations within species, and across species within a landscape. We sampled fleas from 2,672 small mammals of 27 species. This included a total of 8,283 fleas, with 5 genera and 12 species identified. Across individual hosts within a site, both rodent body mass and season affected total intensity of flea infestation, although the explanatory power of these factors was generally modest (<10%). Across host populations in the landscape, we found consistently positive effects of host density and negative effects of vegetation cover on the intensity of flea infestation. Other factors explored (host diversity, annual rainfall, anthropogenic disturbance, and soil properties) tended to have lower and less consistent explanatory power. Across host species in the landscape, we found that host body mass was strongly positively correlated with both prevalence and intensity of flea parasitism, while average robustness of a host species to disturbance was not correlated with flea parasitism. Cumulatively, these results provide insight into the intricate roles of both host and environmental factors in explaining complex patterns of flea parasitism across landscape mosaics.

  5. Dermoscopy: Ex vivo visualization of fleas head and bag of eggs confirms the diagnosis of Tungiasis.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Rebecca; Asher, Ruth; Bowling, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    Tungiasis, caused by the impregnated female sand flea Tunga penetrans, is increasingly common in returned travellers from endemic areas. Clinical suspicion is raised by the clinicodermoscopic correlation, leading to rapid treatment which involves extraction of the intact flea. Ex vivo dermoscopy demonstrates the parasite's head and distended abdomen full of eggs, confirming the diagnosis. PMID:22571560

  6. Prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species in Spanish cats and their fleas.

    PubMed

    Gracia, María Jesús; Marcén, José Miguel; Pinal, Rocio; Calvete, Carlos; Rodes, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis, and Rickettsia typhi in fleas and companion cats (serum and claws) and to assess their presence as a function of host, host habitat, and level of parasitism. Eighty-nine serum and claw samples and 90 flea pools were collected. Cat sera were assayed by IFA for Bartonella henselae and Rickettssia species IgG antibodies. Conventional PCRs were performed on DNA extracted from nails and fleas collected from cats. A large portion (55.8%) of the feline population sampled was exposed to at least one of the three tested vector-borne pathogens. Seroreactivity to B. henselae was found in 50% of the feline studied population, and to R. felis in 16.3%. R. typhi antibodies were not found in any cat. No Bartonella sp. DNA was amplified from the claws. Flea samples from 41 cats (46%) showed molecular evidence for at least one pathogen; our study demonstrated a prevalence rate of 43.3 % of Rickettsia sp and 4.4% of Bartonella sp. in the studied flea population. None of the risk factors studied (cat's features, host habitat, and level of parasitation) was associated with either the serology or the PCR results for Bartonella sp. and Rickettsia sp.. Flea-associated infectious agents are common in cats and fleas and support the recommendation that stringent flea control should be maintained on cats. PMID:26611956

  7. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time.

  8. Prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species in Spanish cats and their fleas.

    PubMed

    Gracia, María Jesús; Marcén, José Miguel; Pinal, Rocio; Calvete, Carlos; Rodes, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis, and Rickettsia typhi in fleas and companion cats (serum and claws) and to assess their presence as a function of host, host habitat, and level of parasitism. Eighty-nine serum and claw samples and 90 flea pools were collected. Cat sera were assayed by IFA for Bartonella henselae and Rickettssia species IgG antibodies. Conventional PCRs were performed on DNA extracted from nails and fleas collected from cats. A large portion (55.8%) of the feline population sampled was exposed to at least one of the three tested vector-borne pathogens. Seroreactivity to B. henselae was found in 50% of the feline studied population, and to R. felis in 16.3%. R. typhi antibodies were not found in any cat. No Bartonella sp. DNA was amplified from the claws. Flea samples from 41 cats (46%) showed molecular evidence for at least one pathogen; our study demonstrated a prevalence rate of 43.3 % of Rickettsia sp and 4.4% of Bartonella sp. in the studied flea population. None of the risk factors studied (cat's features, host habitat, and level of parasitation) was associated with either the serology or the PCR results for Bartonella sp. and Rickettsia sp.. Flea-associated infectious agents are common in cats and fleas and support the recommendation that stringent flea control should be maintained on cats.

  9. Associations between online friendship and Internet addiction among adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Smahel, David; Brown, B Bradford; Blinka, Lukas

    2012-03-01

    The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from Griffiths (2000a), this study examined associations between online friendship and Internet addiction in a representative sample (n = 394) of Czech youths ages 12-26 years (M = 18.58). Three different approaches to friendship were identified: exclusively offline, face-to-face oriented, Internet oriented, on the basis of the relative percentages of online and offline associates in participants' friendship networks. The rate of Internet addiction did not differ by age or gender but was associated with communication styles, hours spent online, and friendship approaches. The study revealed that effects between Internet addiction and approaches to friendship may be reciprocal: Being oriented toward having more online friends, preferring online communication, and spending more time online were related to increased risk of Internet addiction; on the other hand, there is an alternative causal explanation that Internet addiction and preference for online communication conditions young people's tendency to seek friendship from people met online.

  10. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  11. The Temporal “Pulse” of Drinking: Tracking Five Years of Binge Drinking in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Richard R.; Cummings, Jenna R.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Moltisanti, Allison J.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the five “peak” years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day Timeline Follow back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend “pulse” of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire five year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve (LGC) modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with “maturing out” was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  12. How many versus how much: 52 weeks of alcohol consumption in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Mark S; Greenbaum, Paul E; Darkes, Jack; Brandon, Karen Obremski; Del Boca, Frances K

    2011-03-01

    In previous research using timeline follow-back methods to closely monitor drinking and related variables over the first year of college (9 months), we showed that drinking varied considerably over time in accord with academic requirements and holidays. In a new community sample (N = 576) of emerging adults (18- and 19-year-olds who reported having begun drinking prior to recruitment), we used similar methods to compare drinking patterns in college and noncollege individuals over a full calendar year (including summer). To reduce the extreme distortion in computations of average drinking over restricted time spans (i.e., 1 week) that arise because large numbers of even regular drinkers may not consume any alcohol, we analyzed data using recently developed two-part latent growth curve modeling. This modeling distinguished consumption levels from numbers of individuals drinking in a given period. Results showed that drinking levels and patterns generally did not differ between college and noncollege drinkers, and that both groups responded similarly to even those contexts that may have seemed unique to one (i.e., spring break). We also showed that computation of drinking amounts without accounting for "zero drinkers" could seriously distort estimates of mean drinking on some occasions; for example, mean consumption in the total sample appeared to increase on Thanksgiving, whereas actual average consumption for those who were drinking diminished.

  13. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development. PMID:26142190

  14. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  15. "Doesn't Everyone Want That? It's Just a Given": Swedish Emerging Adults' Expectations on Future Parenthood and Work/Family Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisén, Ann; Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Swedish emerging adults' expectations on future parenthood through interviews with 124 Swedish emerging adults who were not yet parents. Thematic analysis showed that most participants were sure they wanted to become parents, but not right now. First, they wanted a stable financial situation, a romantic relationship,…

  16. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report From an NHLBI/ACHA Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S; Daniels, Curt J; Fuller, Stephanie M P N; Honein, Margaret A; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Mahle, William T; Mann, Douglas L; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W; Pearson, Gail D; Starling, Randall C; Tringali, Glenn R; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C; Califf, Robert M

    2016-04-26

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary working group to identify high-impact research questions in adult CHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease, and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single-ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy.

  17. Detection of Rickettsia felis in a New World flea species, Anomiopsyllus nudata (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Heather L; Labruna, Marcelo B; Montenieri, John A; Kosoy, Michael Y; Gage, Kenneth L; Walker, David H

    2005-03-01

    The flea and rodent samples studied in this project were collected from field study sites in New Mexico from winter 1998 to spring 2001. During this period, 155 small rodents (14 different species) were live-trapped and combed for the presence of fleas. A total of 253 fleas were collected, comprising 21 species. Two of the 253 fleas collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for the Rickettsia 17-kDa protein gene. These two fleas were both Anomiopsyllus nudata Baker, each collected from an individual Neotoma albigula Hartley, on two occasions. Individual fleas positive for the Rickettsia 17-kDa protein gene were then tested with primers targeting the rickettsial genes for citrate synthase (gltA) and two major outer membrane proteins (ompA and ompB). The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products of these two fleas were identical to each other and were 100% (394/394), 100% (1150/1150), 99.8% (469/470), and 99.3% (818/824) similar to the corresponding sequences of the 17-kDa, gltA, ompA, and ompB genes of Rickettsia felis, respectively. Flea homogenates of individual PCR-positive fleas were inoculated into shell vials seeded with Vero cells, and the Gimenez stain technique was used to demonstrate the presence of Rickettsia-like organisms in detached cells found in aspirated medium 19 d after inoculation. These cells were harvested and tested by PCR, targeting portions of the 17-kDa and gltA genes, resulting in products 100% identical to R. felis. This work comprises the first report of R. felis detection in a flea species (A. nudata) endemic to the New World.

  18. Dermal neutrophil, macrophage and dendritic cell responses to Yersinia pestis transmitted by fleas.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Jeffrey G; Bosio, Christopher F; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is typically transmitted by the bite of an infected flea. Many aspects of mammalian innate immune response early after Y. pestis infection remain poorly understood. A previous study by our lab showed that neutrophils are the most prominent cell type recruited to the injection site after intradermal needle inoculation of Y. pestis, suggesting that neutrophil interactions with Y. pestis may be important in bubonic plague pathogenesis. In the present study, we developed new tools allowing for intravital microscopy of Y. pestis in the dermis of an infected mouse after transmission by its natural route of infection, the bite of an infected flea. We found that uninfected flea bites typically induced minimal neutrophil recruitment. The magnitude of neutrophil response to flea-transmitted Y. pestis varied considerably and appeared to correspond to the number of bacteria deposited at the bite site. Macrophages migrated towards flea bite sites and interacted with small numbers of flea-transmitted bacteria. Consistent with a previous study, we observed minimal interaction between Y. pestis and dendritic cells; however, dendritic cells did consistently migrate towards flea bite sites containing Y. pestis. Interestingly, we often recovered viable Y. pestis from the draining lymph node (dLN) 1 h after flea feeding, indicating that the migration of bacteria from the dermis to the dLN may be more rapid than previously reported. Overall, the innate cellular host responses to flea-transmitted Y. pestis differed from and were more variable than responses to needle-inoculated bacteria. This work highlights the importance of studying the interactions between fleas, Y. pestis and the mammalian host to gain a better understanding of the early events in plague pathogenesis.

  19. Molecular Survey of Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Rodent Fleas (Siphonaptera) From Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Adriana M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Rubio, André V; Graham, Christine B; Montenieri, John A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Acosta-Gutiérrez, Roxana; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Gage, Kenneth L; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Rodent fleas from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for the presence of Bartonella and Yersinia pestis. In total, 760 fleas belonging to 10 species were tested with multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the gltA (338-bp) and pla genes (478-bp) of Bartonella and Y. pestis, respectively. Although none was positive for Y. pestis, 307 fleas were infected with Bartonella spp., resulting in an overall prevalence of 40.4%. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of Bartonella is more likely to occur in some flea species. From a subset of Bartonella-positive fleas, phylogenetic analyses of gltA gene sequences revealed 13 genetic variants clustering in five phylogroups (I–V), two of which were matched with known pathogenic Bartonella species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis and Bartonella washoensis) and two that were not related with any previously described species or subspecies of Bartonella. Variants in phylogroup V, which were mainly obtained from Meringis spp. fleas, were identical to those reported recently in their specific rodent hosts (Dipodomys spp.) in the same region, suggesting that kangaroo rats and their fleas harbor other Bartonella species not reported previously. Considering the Bartonella prevalence and the flea genotypes associated with known pathogenic Bartonella species, we suggest that analysis of rodent and flea communities in the region should continue for their potential implications for human health. Given that nearby locations in the United States have reported Y. pestis in wild animals and their fleas, we suggest conducting larger-scale studies to increase our knowledge of this bacterium.

  20. Dermal Neutrophil, Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Responses to Yersinia pestis Transmitted by Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Jeffrey G.; Bosio, Christopher F.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is typically transmitted by the bite of an infected flea. Many aspects of mammalian innate immune response early after Y. pestis infection remain poorly understood. A previous study by our lab showed that neutrophils are the most prominent cell type recruited to the injection site after intradermal needle inoculation of Y. pestis, suggesting that neutrophil interactions with Y. pestis may be important in bubonic plague pathogenesis. In the present study, we developed new tools allowing for intravital microscopy of Y. pestis in the dermis of an infected mouse after transmission by its natural route of infection, the bite of an infected flea. We found that uninfected flea bites typically induced minimal neutrophil recruitment. The magnitude of neutrophil response to flea-transmitted Y. pestis varied considerably and appeared to correspond to the number of bacteria deposited at the bite site. Macrophages migrated towards flea bite sites and interacted with small numbers of flea-transmitted bacteria. Consistent with a previous study, we observed minimal interaction between Y. pestis and dendritic cells; however, dendritic cells did consistently migrate towards flea bite sites containing Y. pestis. Interestingly, we often recovered viable Y. pestis from the draining lymph node (dLN) 1 h after flea feeding, indicating that the migration of bacteria from the dermis to the dLN may be more rapid than previously reported. Overall, the innate cellular host responses to flea-transmitted Y. pestis differed from and were more variable than responses to needle-inoculated bacteria. This work highlights the importance of studying the interactions between fleas, Y. pestis and the mammalian host to gain a better understanding of the early events in plague pathogenesis. PMID:25781984

  1. Molecular Survey of Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Rodent Fleas (Siphonaptera) From Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Adriana M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Rubio, André V; Graham, Christine B; Montenieri, John A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Acosta-Gutiérrez, Roxana; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Gage, Kenneth L; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Rodent fleas from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for the presence of Bartonella and Yersinia pestis. In total, 760 fleas belonging to 10 species were tested with multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the gltA (338-bp) and pla genes (478-bp) of Bartonella and Y. pestis, respectively. Although none was positive for Y. pestis, 307 fleas were infected with Bartonella spp., resulting in an overall prevalence of 40.4%. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of Bartonella is more likely to occur in some flea species. From a subset of Bartonella-positive fleas, phylogenetic analyses of gltA gene sequences revealed 13 genetic variants clustering in five phylogroups (I–V), two of which were matched with known pathogenic Bartonella species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis and Bartonella washoensis) and two that were not related with any previously described species or subspecies of Bartonella. Variants in phylogroup V, which were mainly obtained from Meringis spp. fleas, were identical to those reported recently in their specific rodent hosts (Dipodomys spp.) in the same region, suggesting that kangaroo rats and their fleas harbor other Bartonella species not reported previously. Considering the Bartonella prevalence and the flea genotypes associated with known pathogenic Bartonella species, we suggest that analysis of rodent and flea communities in the region should continue for their potential implications for human health. Given that nearby locations in the United States have reported Y. pestis in wild animals and their fleas, we suggest conducting larger-scale studies to increase our knowledge of this bacterium. PMID:26576933

  2. The organizational culture of emergency departments and the effect on care of older adults: a modified scoping study.

    PubMed

    Skar, Pål; Bruce, Anne; Sheets, Debra

    2015-04-01

    How does the organizational micro culture in emergency departments (EDs) impact the care of older adults presenting with a complaint or condition perceived as non-acute? This scoping study reviews the literature and maps three levels of ED culture (artifacts, values and beliefs, and assumptions). Findings on the artifact level indicate that EDs are poorly designed for the needs of older adults. Findings on the ED value and belief level indicate that EDs are for urgent cases (not geriatric care), that older adults do not receive the care and respect they should be given, that older adults require too much time, and that the basic nursing needs of older adults are not a priority for ED nurses. Finally, finding on the assumptions level underpinning ED behaviors suggest that older adults do not belong in the ED, most older adults in the ED are not critically ill and therefore can wait, and staff need to be available for acute cases at all times. A systematic review on the effect of ED micro culture on the quality of geriatric care is warranted.

  3. Ethnic differences in prevalence and correlates of self-harm behaviors in a treatment-seeking sample of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Tsypes, Aliona; Soffer, Ariella; Miranda, Regina

    2014-12-30

    The present study examined differences between White and ethnic minority emerging adults in the prevalence of self-harm behaviors – i.e., non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) – and in well-documented risk (i.e., depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation (SI), substance use, abuse history) and protective factors (i.e., religiosity/spirituality, family support, friend support) associated with NSSI and SAs. Emerging adults (N=1156; 56% ethnic minority), ages 17–29 (M=22.3, S.D.=3.0), who were presented at a counseling center at a public university in the Northeastern U.S., completed a clinical interview and self-report symptom measures. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between risk and protective factors in predicting history of NSSI-only, any SA, and no self-harm separately among White and ethnic minority individuals. Ethnic differences emerged in the prevalence and correlates of NSSI and SAs. Social anxiety was associated with SAs among White individuals but with NSSI among ethnic minority individuals. Substance use was a more relevant risk factor for White individuals, and friend support was a more relevant protective factor for ethnic minority individuals. These findings suggest differing vulnerabilities to NSSI and SAs between White and ethnic minority emerging adults.

  4. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  5. [Ectoparasites. Part 1: lice and fleas].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Herrmann, J; Schmoranzer, B; Paasch, U

    2009-08-01

    Ectoparasites and epidermal parasitic skin diseases are a heterogeneous group of infections of the external layer of the skin. The most common forms world-wide are scabies, lice (Pediculosis capitis, corporis, vestimentorum and pubis), tungiasis and the hookworm-associated Larva migrans cutanea. The head louse is the most widespread parasite in children in Germany. The symptoms, apart from pruritus, eczematous skin eruptions and ictus reactions of the skin, are often unspecific and many differential diagnoses must be considered. Treatment of ectoparasites includes manual procedures, such as repeated cleansing and combing out of lice-infected hair and also local antiparasitic treatment with permethrin, pyrethrum extract, allethrin and dimeticon. Lindan which has been used for decades can no longer be used in medications after 2008 after a decision of the EU Commission. Failure of treatment of head lice can be a result of errors in the treatment which favor survival of the eggs, larvae or adults. This can be a result of too short reaction times and too economical use or unequal distribution of medications, excessive dilution due to wet hair or omitting repeated treatment stages. Additionally resistance of head lice to pyrethrum is a known phenomenon and has been reported in several countries. PMID:19633823

  6. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  7. Comparative Adult Education 1998. The Contribution of ISCAE to an Emerging Field of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reischmann, Jost, Ed.; Bron, Michal, Jr., Ed.; Jelenc, Zoran, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers from the 1995 and 1998 International Society for Comparative Adult Education (ISCAE) conferences. The following papers are included: "International and Comparative Adult Education" (Jost Reischmann); "Development and Fundamental Principles of International and Comparative Adult Education" (Joachim H. Knoll);…

  8. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use among Hispanic Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group-oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed.

  9. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use Among Hispanic Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated, and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed. PMID:25715073

  10. Effects of Marijuana Use on Prefrontal and Parietal Volumes and Cognition in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; McQueeny, Tim; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Browning, Erin L.; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chronic marijuana (MJ) use among adolescents has been associated with structural and functional abnormalities, particularly in developing regions responsible for higher order cognition. Objectives This study investigated prefrontal (PFC) and parietal volumes and executive function in emerging adult MJ users and explored potential gender differences. Methods Participants (ages 18–25) were 27 MJ users and 32 controls without neurologic or psychiatric disorders or heavy other drug use. A series of multiple regressions examined whether group status, past year MJ use, and their interactions with gender predicted ROI volumes. Post-hoc analyses consisted of brain-behavior correlations between volumes and cognitive variables and Fisher’s z tests to assess group differences. Results MJ users demonstrated significantly smaller medial orbitofrontal (mOFC; p=.004, FDR p=.024) and inferior parietal volumes (p=.04, FDR p=.12); follow-up regressions found that increased past year MJ use did not significantly dose-dependently predict smaller mOFC volume in a sub-sample of individuals with at least one past year MJ use. There were no significant gender interactions. There was a significant brain-behavior difference by group, such that smaller mOFC volumes were associated with poorer complex attention for MJ users (p<.05). Conclusions Smaller mOFC volumes among MJ users suggest disruption of typical neurodevelopmental processes associated with regular MJ use for both genders. These results highlight the need for longitudinal, multi-modal imaging studies providing clearer information on timing of neurodevelopmental processes and neurocognitive impacts of youth MJ initiation. PMID:25921032

  11. Malnutrition among Cognitively Intact, non-Critically Ill Older Adults in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Greg F.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Weaver, Mark A.; Holland, Wesley C.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among older patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) in the southeastern United States and identify subgroups at increased risk. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with random time block sampling of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older. Nutrition was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (0–14 scale) with malnutrition defined as a score of 7 or less and at-risk for malnutrition defined as a score of 8–11. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression-10 score of 4 or more (0–10 scale). Results Among 138 older adults, 16% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 10%–22%) were malnourished and 60% (95% CI, 52%–69%) were either malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition. Seventeen of the 22 malnourished patients (77%) denied previously being diagnosed with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was not appreciably different between males and females, across levels of patient education, or between those living in urban and rural areas. However, the prevalence of malnutrition was higher among patients with depressive symptoms 52%, those residing in assisted living 50%, those with difficulty eating 38%, and those reporting difficulty buying groceries 33%. Conclusion Among a random sample of cognitively intact older ED patients, more than half were malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition, and the majority of malnourished patients had not previously been diagnosed. Higher rates of malnutrition among those with depression, difficulty eating, and difficulty buying groceries suggest the need to explore multifaceted interventions. PMID:25129819

  12. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

  13. Emerging Adults with Type 1 Diabetes during the First Year Post-High School: Perceptions of Parental Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Kathleen M.; Weaver, Michael T.; Stump, Timothy E.; Guthrie, Diana; Oruche, Ukamaka M.

    2014-01-01

    Among 182 emerging adults with type 1 diabetes (93% White and 57% female), changes during the year post-high school were examined in perceptions of diabetes-specific conflict with parents, parent-youth shared responsibility, parental tangible aid, and parental autonomy support, as well as the moderating effects of living situation, gender, years with diabetes, and glycemic control. A linear mixed effects model, controlling for baseline values, tested the changes in and relationships among these variables over time. Changes over time in parent-youth conflict were moderated by living independently of parents; autonomy support and shared responsibility were moderated by years with diabetes; and tangible aid was moderated by glycemic control. Future longitudinal research needs to examine whether changes in parental behaviors lead to positive or negative diabetes outcomes among these emerging adults with diabetes. PMID:25019036

  14. Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Maja; Komidar, Luka; Levpušček, Melita Puklek

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated associations of Slovene emerging adults' age, gender, living situation, romantic relationship, and employment status with aspects of individuation in relation to mother and father. Controlling for demographic variables and transitional markers of adulthood, we further explored the contribution of individuation measures to individuals' perceptions of achieved criteria for adulthood and life satisfaction. The participants provided self-reports on the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the list of Achieved Criteria for Adulthood. Age and living out of parental home were positively associated with self-reliance in relation to both parents, whereas female gender was related to higher levels of connectedness and seeking parental support. Along with age and involvement in a romantic relationship, connectedness and self-reliance predicted adulthood criteria attainment and life satisfaction. The results support the models of individuation that emphasize growing autonomy and retaining connectedness to parents as pathways towards personal adjustments.

  15. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  16. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P

    2010-11-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the "high." Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  17. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-01-01

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance. PMID:27394731

  18. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-04-13

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance.

  19. Isolation of Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis from Ctenocephalides Fleas.

    PubMed

    Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Maina, Alice N; Otiang, Elkanah; Ade, Fredrick; Omulo, Sylvia; Ogola, Eric; Ochieng, Linus; Njenga, M Kariuki; Richards, Allen L

    2015-04-01

    Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified molecularly in fleas collected in 2009 from Asembo, Kenya. Multilocus sequence typing using the 17-kD antigen gene, rrs, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4 demonstrated that Candidatus R. asemboensis is closely related to Rickettsia felis but distinct enough to be considered for separate species classification. Following this molecular characterization of Candidatus R. asemboensis, the in vitro cultivation of this bacterium was then performed. We used Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides felis fleas removed from dogs in Kenya to initiate the in vitro isolation of Candidatus R. asemboensis. Successful cultures were obtained using Drosophila melanogaster S2 and Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell lines. Cytological staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays were used to visualize/confirm the culture of the bacteria in both cell lines. Sequencing of fragments of the 17-kD antigen gene, gltA, and ompB genes confirmed the identity of our Candidatus R. asemboensis isolates. To date, we have passaged Candidatus R. asemboensis 12 times through S2 and C6/36 cells, and active and frozen cultures are currently being maintained. This is the first time that a R. felis-like organism has been grown and maintained in culture and is therefore the first time that one of them, Candidatus R. asemboensis, has been characterized beyond molecular typing.

  20. Amitraz: a tick and flea repellent and tick detachment drug.

    PubMed

    Folz, S D; Ash, K A; Conder, G A; Rector, D L

    1986-06-01

    A topical formulation of amitraz (Mitaban Liquid Concentrate, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan, U.S.A.) was evaluated as a tick repellent and detachment agent, and flea repellent. The diluted liquid concentrate (250 p.p.m. active drug) was topically applied as a single treatment to dogs; the concentration was identical to the rate recommended for treatment of demodicosis and scabies. Brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) populations were eliminated and repelled. Repellent activity (92-95%) was observed against R. sanguineus for 2 weeks post-treatment; the treatment was moderately active (63%) during the third week, and at 4 weeks post-treatment the drug was inactive. Established R. sanguineus populations were also treated, and the diluted liquid concentrate had 100% tick-detachment efficacy. Repellent activity (99%) was also detected against D. variabilis; the activity was monitored for only 7 days. The ectoparasiticide had low to moderate flea (Ctenocephalides felis) repellent activity (42%) for 4 days post-treatment; thereafter the treatment was ineffective. Side-effects were not observed in any of the dogs treated with amitraz, or the placebo.

  1. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Chahota, R; Thakur, S D; Sharma, M; Mittra, S

    2015-01-01

    Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus) samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas.

  2. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Chahota, R; Thakur, S D; Sharma, M; Mittra, S

    2015-01-01

    Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus) samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas. PMID:26068348

  3. A self-regulation resource model of self-compassion and health behavior intentions in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Fuschia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested a self-regulation resource model (SRRM) of self-compassion and health-promoting behavior intentions in emerging adults. The SRRM posits that positive and negative affect in conjunction with health self-efficacy serve as valuable self-regulation resources to promote health behaviors. Methods An online survey was completed by 403 emerging adults recruited from the community and a Canadian University in late 2008. Multiple meditation analyses with bootstrapping controlling for demographics and current health behaviors tested the proposed explanatory role of the self-regulation resource variables (affect and self-efficacy) in linking self-compassion to health behavior intentions. Results Self-compassion was positively associated with intentions to engage in health-promoting behaviors. The multiple mediation model explained 23% of the variance in health behavior intentions, with significant indirect effects through health self-efficacy and low negative affect. Conclusion Interventions aimed at increasing self-compassion in emerging adults may help promote positive health behaviors, perhaps through increasing self-regulation resources. PMID:26844074

  4. Change You Can Believe In: Changes in Goal Setting During Emerging and Young Adulthood Predict Later Adult Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Roberts, Brent W.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Brandenberger, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    A widely held assumption is that changes in one’s goals and motives for life during emerging and young adulthood have lasting influences on well-being into adulthood. However, this claim has yet to receive rigorous empirical testing. The current study examined the effects of prosocial and occupational goal change during college on adult well-being in a 17-year study of goal setting (N = 416). Using a latent growth model across three time points, both level and growth in goal setting predicted later well-being. Moreover, goal changes both during college and in young adulthood uniquely predicted adult well-being, controlling for goal levels entering college. These findings suggest that what matters for attaining adult well-being is both how you enter adulthood and how you change in response to it. PMID:23493639

  5. Influence of soil texture, moisture, and surface cracks on the performance of a root-feeding flea beetle, Longitarsus bethae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for Lantana camara (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Simelane, David O

    2007-06-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of soil texture, moisture and surface cracks on adult preference and survival of the root-feeding flea beetle, Longitarsus bethae Savini and Escalona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a natural enemy of the weed, Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Adult feeding, oviposition preference, and survival of the immature stages of L. bethae were examined at four soil textures (clayey, silty loam, sandy loam, and sandy soil), three soil moisture levels (low, moderate, and high), and two soil surface conditions (with or without surface cracks). Both soil texture and moisture had no influence on leaf feeding and colonization by adult L. bethae. Soil texture had a significant influence on oviposition, with adults preferring to lay on clayey and sandy soils to silty or sandy loam soils. However, survival to adulthood was significantly higher in clayey soils than in other soil textures. There was a tendency for females to deposit more eggs at greater depth in both clayey and sandy soils than in other soil textures. Although oviposition preference and depth of oviposition were not influenced by soil moisture, survival in moderately moist soils was significantly higher than in other moisture levels. Development of immature stages in high soil moisture levels was significantly slower than in other soil moisture levels. There were no variations in the body size of beetles that emerged from different soil textures and moisture levels. Females laid almost three times more eggs on cracked than on noncracked soils. It is predicted that clayey and moderately moist soils will favor the survival of L. bethae, and under these conditions, damage to the roots is likely to be high. This information will aid in the selection of suitable release sites where L. bethae would be most likely to become established.

  6. Emerging restorative treatments for Parkinson's disease: manipulation and inducement of dopaminergic neurons from adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junpeng; Xu, Qunyuan

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by a selective loss of midbrain Dopaminergic (DA) neurons. To address this problem, various types of stem cells that have potential to differentiate into DA neurons are being investigated as cellular therapies for PD, including cells derived from embryonic or adult donor tissue, and embryonic stem cells. These cell sources, however, have raised certain questions with regard to ethical and rejection issues. Recent progress in adult stems has further proved that the cells derived from adult tissue could be expanded and differentiated into DA precursor cells in vitro, and cell therapy with adult stem cells could produce a clear improvement for PD models. Using adult stem cells for clinic application may not only overcome the ethical problem inherent in using human fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, but also open the possibility for autologous transplantation. The patient-specific adult stem cell is therefore a potential and prospective candidate for PD treatment.

  7. Advances in the control of Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) on cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K

    2005-05-01

    Cat fleas are the most important ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide. During the past ten years, topical and oral applications of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, lufenuron and, most recently, selamectin have revolutionized cat-flea control. Recent studies show that these therapies eliminate the need to treat indoor and outdoor environments, and their use markedly reduces the severity and prevalence of flea allergic dermatitis. Surveys have yet to reveal the development of insecticide resistance to these chemical compounds. Extending the longevity of these effective host-targeted therapies should be a major goal of the veterinary community. PMID:15837612

  8. Emerging Adult Educators' Experiences in an International On-Line Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Lorilee R.; Reischmann, Jost; Kim, Young Sek

    2007-01-01

    It is hoped that the opportunity to engage in dialogue with fellow adult learners from different countries will enable adult learners and educators to become more globalised in their perspectives and to actively take their place in a global society. This article describes a study that explores how an asynchronous internet-based forum encourages…

  9. Facing Adulthood: Comparing the Criteria That Chinese Emerging Adults and Their Parents Have for Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Duan, Xin xing; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Luster, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Past work in China has revealed that approximately 60% of young people in China consider themselves to be adults. However, no work, prior to this study, has been done examining either the views of Chinese parents regarding their children's adult status or the criteria that Chinese parents use in determining whether or not their children have…

  10. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners. PMID:22224965

  11. Biology of Blepharida-group flea beetles with first notes on natural history of Podontia congregata Baly, 1865 an endemic flea beetle from southern India (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)*

    PubMed Central

    Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The biology, host plants, and pest status of Podontia Dalman, 1824 species are reviewed. Natural history of Podontia congregata Baly, 1865 a flea beetle endemic to southern India, is reported for the first time. It is distributed from the Western Ghats Mountains westward to the plains. Clusiaceae is reported as a new host plant family for Blepharida-group species, with Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) N. Robson (Clusiaceae) as the host plant for Podontia congregata. Pentatomid bugs attack the larvae but not eggs, pupae, or adults. A new egg parasitoid species, Ooencyrtus keralensis Hayat and Prathapan, 2010 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), was discovered. Aspects of Podontia congregata host selection, life cycle, and larval fecal defenses are consistent with its inclusion in the Blepharida-genus group. PMID:22303106

  12. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.; Larson, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle-leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  13. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Grace, James B.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle–leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  14. Astronomy (communication arising): black holes, fleas and microlithography.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Gerry; Gorenstein, Paul

    2003-11-20

    Fresnel lenses allow almost perfect imaging in widely different circumstances, but their focus is perfect only for a single wavelength. Wang et al. have shown how the effective bandpass may be widened for X-ray microscopy by using a compound diffractive/refractive lens near to an absorption edge. A compound lens has also been proposed for high-energy astronomy, working well above all absorption edges. Although the scale is very different, we point out here that the principle is the same. Ever since Galileo constructed an astronomical telescope that he was able to reconfigure to study fleas and gnats, astronomy and microscopy have relied on optics that are closely related, but different in detail.

  15. Rapid evolution of thermal tolerance in the water flea Daphnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerts, A. N.; Vanoverbeke, J.; Vanschoenwinkel, B.; van Doorslaer, W.; Feuchtmayr, H.; Atkinson, D.; Moss, B.; Davidson, T. A.; Sayer, C. D.; De Meester, L.

    2015-07-01

    Global climate is changing rapidly, and the degree to which natural populations respond genetically to these changes is key to predicting ecological responses. So far, no study has documented evolutionary changes in the thermal tolerance of natural populations as a response to recent temperature increase. Here, we demonstrate genetic change in the capacity of the water flea Daphnia to tolerate higher temperatures using both a selection experiment and the reconstruction of evolution over a period of forty years derived from a layered dormant egg bank. We observed a genetic increase in thermal tolerance in response to a two-year ambient +4 °C selection treatment and in the genotypes of natural populations from the 1960s and 2000s hatched from lake sediments. This demonstrates that natural populations have evolved increased tolerance to higher temperatures, probably associated with the increased frequency of heat waves over the past decades, and possess the capacity to evolve increased tolerance to future warming.

  16. Identification of Rickettsia felis in the Salivary Glands of Cat Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Pornwiroon, Walairat; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Foil, Lane D.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Rickettsia felis, a flea-associated rickettsial pathogen, has been identified in many tissues, including the digestive and reproductive tissues, within the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. We utilized transmission electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to identify R. felis in the salivary glands of fed fleas and further define the distribution of R. felis within the arthropod host. We identified Rickettsia-like organisms in salivary glands using electron microscopy. Sequence analysis of portions of the Rickettsia genus-specific 17-kDa antigen gene and R. felis plasmid confirmed the morphological identification of R. felis in cat flea salivary glands. This is the first report of R. felis in tissues critical for horizontal transmission of rickettsiae. Key Words: Cat flea—Ctenocephalides felis—Rickettsia felis. PMID:18399779

  17. [MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF FLEAS' STRUCTURES (SIPHONAPTERA) PART 3: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FEATURES OF THORACIC SETATION].

    PubMed

    Medvedev, S G

    2015-01-01

    The paper continues a series of publications (Medvedev, 2015a, b) devoted to the analysis of flea structural features. In the present publication, structural features of flea thoracic setation are analyzed for the first time. Six characters with 53 states in the structure of the chaetom of the pronotum, meso-, and metathoracic. segments are distinguished. The author analyzes the cases of the formation of similar states stipulated by processes of reduction or, by contrast, by strengthening of the chaetom in fleas of separate genera belonging to different superfamilies in relation to the type or peculiarities of parasitism in different flea species. In spite of the presence of strong variability in arrangement and number of thoracic setae, some examples of marking of groups in the range families and superfamilies by certain states of the chaetotaxy of the pronotum and metepimera are revealed.

  18. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  19. Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Bartonella in ticks and fleas from dogs and cats in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Foongladda, Suporn; Inthawong, Dutsadee; Kositanont, Uraiwan; Gaywee, Jariyanart

    2011-10-01

    Flea and tick specimens (5-10 fleas or ticks) on dogs and cats from various sites in Bangkok were tested by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to detect DNA of bacteria Rickettsia (gltA and 17 kDa genes), Anaplasmataceae (16S rRNA gene), and Bartonella (pap31 and its genes). We confirmed that Rickettsia sp. related to Rickettsia felis was detected in 66 of 98 (67.4%) flea specimens from dogs, whereas 8 Bartonella henselae and 2 Bartonella clarridgeiae were detected in 10 of 54 (18.5%) flea specimens from cats. Further, this work provides the first evidence of 10 Ehrlichia canis (3.3%), 7 Anaplasma platys (2.3%), and 2 Wolbachia spp. (0.66%) in 304 Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick specimens in Thailand.

  20. Bartonella and Rickettsia in fleas and lice from mammals in South Carolina, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Nelder, Mark P; Korecki, James A

    2005-12-01

    Species in the genera Bartonella and Rickettsia are vector-borne pathogens of humans and domestic animals. The natural reservoirs and enzootic transmission cycles of these bacteria are poorly known in South Carolina. Thirteen species of lice and fleas were collected from urban animals and screened for the presence of Bartonella and Rickettsia by PCR amplification using genus-specific primers. Bartonella henselae was present in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and a novel genotype of Bartonella was detected in Orchopeas howardi from an eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). We detected R. typhi and three novel genotypes Rickettsia in other species of fleas and lice. Rickettsia typhi, the causative agent of murine typhus, was detected in two pools of lice (Enderleinellus marmotae) from the woodchuck (Marmota monax). Cat fleas harbored one of two novel genotypes of Rickettsia. A third novel Rickettsia was detected in Orchopeas howardi from an eastern gray squirrel.

  1. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly. PMID:27394218

  2. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-02-18

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly.

  3. Serum procalcitonin measurement as diagnostic and prognostic marker in febrile adult patients presenting to the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Juillien, Gaëlle; Madonna-Py, Beatrice; Haroche, Julien; Bernard, Maguy; Riou, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Identification of bacterial infections is crucial if treatment is to be initiated early and antibiotics used rationally. The primary objective of this study was to test the efficiency of procalcitonin (PCT) in identifying bacterial/parasitic episodes among febrile adult patients presenting to an emergency department. Secondary objectives were to identify clinical or biological variables associated with either bacterial/parasitic infection or critical illness. Methods This was a prospective, single centre, non-interventional study, conducted in the adult emergency department of an academic tertiary care hospital. We included patients with body temperature of 38.5°C or greater. A serum sample for measurement of PCT was collected in the emergency room. Patients were followed up until day 30. After reviewing the medical files, two independent experts, who were blind to the PCT results, classified each of the patients as having a bacterial/parasitic infection, viral infection, or another diagnosis. Results Among 243 patients included in the study, 167 had bacterial/parasitic infections, 35 had viral infections and 41 had other diagnoses. The PCT assay, with a 0.2 μg/l cutoff value, had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.59 in diagnosing bacterial/parasitic infection. Of the patients with PCT 5 μg/l or greater, 51% had critical illness (death or intensive care unit admission) as compared with 13% of patients with lower PCT values. Conclusion Bearing in mind the limitations of an observational study design, the judgements of the emergency department physicians were reasonably accurate in determining the pretest probability of bacterial/parasitic infection. PCT may provide additional, valuable information on the aetiology and prognosis of infection in the emergency department. PMID:17521430

  4. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population.

  5. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468

  6. Reducing the use of seclusion and restraint in psychiatric emergency and adult inpatient services- improving patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Wale, Joyce B; Belkin, Gary S; Moon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of seclusion and restraint (S/R) use has been given national priority by the US government, The Joint Commission, and patient advocacy groups. It is associated with high rates of patient and staff injuries and is a coercive and potentially traumatizing intervention. The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) is the largest municipal health care system in the country, with 11 HHC facilities operating psychiatric emergency services and inpatient psychiatric services. HHC operates 1117 adult inpatient psychiatric beds with an average length of stay of 22.2 days that generated over 19,000 discharges in 2009. In 2009, there were over 36,000 psychiatric emergency services visits. HHC's Office of Behavioral Health provides strategic leadership, planning, and support for the operations and quality objectives of these services. In January 2007, the corporate office initiated the Seclusion and Restraint Reduction Initiative, with a sequenced, intensive series of interventions and strategies to help focus the behavioral health leadership and staff on the need for continued culture change toward a more patient-centered and safe system of psychiatric emergency and adult inpatient care. From 2007 to 2009, there was a substantial decline in HHC's overall rate of S/R incidents in inpatient units. The more substantial impact was in the reduced overall time spent in S/R; the reduced frequency of use of S/R; and the reduced likelihood of patient injury from S/R use. PMID:21841927

  7. Bartonella clarridgeiae, B. henselae and Rickettsia felis in fleas from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    BOUDEBOUCH, N; SARIH, M; BEAUCOURNU, J-C; AMAROUCH, H; HASSAR, M; RAOULT, D; PAROLA, P

    2011-01-01

    A total of 554 fleas were collected in the Moroccan Casablanca and Tiznit regions from domesticated animals and ruminants between August 2007 and October 2008 and were tested for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. using molecular methods. For the first time in Morocco, we found Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever in Ctenocephalides felis; B. henselae, an agent of cat scratch disease; and Bartonella clarridgeiae, a cat pathogen and potentially a human pathogen. PMID:22185943

  8. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis

    PubMed Central

    Bland, David M.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea’s competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3–4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected. Conclusions The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict

  9. Sex-biased parasitism is not universal: evidence from rodent-flea associations from three biomes.

    PubMed

    Kiffner, Christian; Stanko, Michal; Morand, Serge; Khokhlova, Irina S; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Hawlena, Hadas; Krasnov, Boris R

    2013-11-01

    The distribution of parasites among individual hosts is characterised by high variability that is believed to be a result of variations in host traits. To find general patterns of host traits affecting parasite abundance, we studied flea infestation of nine rodent species from three different biomes (temperate zone of central Europe, desert of Middle East and tropics of East Africa). We tested for independent and interactive effects of host sex and body mass on the number of fleas harboured by an individual host while accounting for spatial clustering of host and parasite sampling and temporal variation. We found no consistent patterns of the effect of host sex and body mass on flea abundance either among species within a biome or among biomes. We found evidence for sex-biased flea infestation in just five host species (Apodemus agrarius, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Gerbillus andersoni, Mastomys natalensis). In six rodent species, we found an effect of body mass on flea abundance (all species mentioned above and Meriones crassus). This effect was positive in five species and negative in one species (Microtus arvalis). In M. glareolus, G. andersoni, M. natalensis, and M. arvalis, the relationship between body mass and flea abundance was mediated by host sex. This was manifested in steeper change in flea abundance with increasing body mass in male than female individuals (M. glareolus, G. andersoni, M. natalensis), whereas the opposite pattern was found in M. arvalis. Our findings suggest that sex and body mass are common determinants of parasite infestation in mammalian hosts, but neither of them follows universal rules. This implies that the effect of host individual characteristics on mechanisms responsible for flea acquisition may be manifested differently in different host species.

  10. Modeling susceptible infective recovered dynamics and plague persistence in California rodent-flea communities.

    PubMed

    Foley, Patrick; Foley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Plague persists as an enzootic in several very different rodent-flea communities around the world. In California, a diversity of rodent-flea communities maintains the disease, and a single-host reservoir seems unlikely. Logistic regression of plague presence on climate and topographic variables predicts plague in many localities where it is absent. Thus, a dynamic community-based analysis was needed. Deterministic Susceptible Infective Recovered (SIR) models were adapted for plague and analyzed with an eye for insights concerning disease persistence. An R simulation program, Plaguesirs, was developed incorporating multihost and multivector SIR dynamics, demographic and environmental stochasticity, density dependence, and seasonal variation in birth and death. Flea-rodent utilization matrices allowed us to get transmission rates as well as flea carrying capacities. Rodent densities allowed us to estimate host carrying capacities, while maximum birth rates were mainly approximated through an examination of litter phenology and demography. We ran a set of simulations to assess the role of community structure in maintaining plague in a simulated version of Chuchupate campground in Ventura County. Although the actual campground comprises 10 rodent and 19 flea species, we focused on a subset suspected to act as a reservoir community. This included the vole Microtus californicus, the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, the Ceratophyllid fleas Aetheca wagneri and Malareus telchinum, and the Leptopsyllid flea Peromyscopsylla hesperomys. The dynamics of 21 subsets of this community were simulated for 20 years. Single-rodent communities showed much lower disease persistence than two-rodent communities. However, so long as Malareus was present, endemicity was enhanced; removal of the other two fleas slightly increased disease persistence. Two critical features improved disease persistence: (1) host breeding season heterogeneity and (2) host population augmentation (due to two

  11. [Pre-hospital management of adults with life-threatening emergencies].

    PubMed

    Wattel, Francis; Dubois, François

    2012-01-01

    In France, acute life-threatening situations are handled by the French Secours a Personne (assistance to persons) and emergency medical facilities. An unequivocal success, this early management of life-threatening emergency situations relies upon centralized call reception, medical dispatching, and immediate on-site emergency medical care. We describe the different emergency care providers and steps involved in the response to emergency situations. Each call centre (Samu, phone number 15; Sapeurs-Pompiers, 18) provides a response tailored to the nature of incoming calls for assistance. A check-list of grounds for an "automatic response" by the SDIS (Service Départemental d'Incendie et de Secours--the French fire brigade) is in use, ensuring that firefighters are often the first on the spot, while the knowledge and skills of the dispatching physician are essential to ascertain the patient's needs, to preserve life and vital functions, and to ensure the patient is sent to the appropriate emergency healthcare facility. In life-threatening emergency situations, patients must be brought straight to the appropriate reference emergency healthcare facility, as quickly as possible, without prior admittance to an emergency department. This is the procedure for extremely acute emergency situations in the following areas: trauma (multiple trauma and/or uncontrolled bleeding, spinal cord trauma), delivery bleeding, other life-threatening situations such as ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest (sudden death), cerebrovascular stroke and ensuing brain damage, some acute respiratory situations such as anaphylactic shock, foreign-body inhalation, electrocution, drowning, drug overdose, certain forms of poisoning, and conditions requiring initial hyperbaric oxygen (diving accidents, acute carbon monoxide and smoke poisoning). The reasons for suboptimal emergency care in life-threatening situations are currently a major issue, with medical facilities being reduced in some areas

  12. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients, and sex has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology, pathophysiology, sequelae, and treatment of substance use disorders. However, additional information is needed about the epidemiology of substance use as it relates to sex among ED patients. Objectives This study examined sex differences in the prevalence and severity of self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among adult ED patients. Methods A random sample of English- or Spanish-speaking, non–critically ill or injured, 18- to 64-year-old patients was approached at two urban EDs and asked to self-report their lifetime and past 3-month tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Participants completed the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were categorized by their substance severity (ASSIST score) and need for a brief or more intensive intervention per World Health Organization recommendations. Substance misuse prevalence, frequency, severity, and need for interventions were compared between sexes by substance category. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sexes and the need for intervention after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Of the 6,432 participants in the study, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range = 26 to 48 years), and 56.6% were female. Overall, lifetime, and past 3-month use was higher for men across all substances (tobacco, alcohol, and drugs). Among those reporting past 3-month use, the frequency of use was similar between sexes for tobacco and all drugs, but men reported more frequent alcohol use. Men had higher mean ASSIST scores compared to women, 30.3 (standard error [SE] ± 0.8) vs. 21.1 (SE ± 0.5); mean difference 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.4 to 10.9). The need for any intervention (brief or intensive) was similar

  13. Rickettsia felis as Emergent Global Threat for Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Osorio, Carlos E.; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E.; León, Juan José Arias

    2008-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen belonging to transitional group rickettsiae. First described in 1990, R. felis infections have been reported to occur worldwide in fleas, mammals, and humans. Because clinical signs of the illness are similar to those of murine typhus and other febrile illnesses such as dengue, the infection in humans is likely underestimated. R. felis has been found throughout the world in several types of ectoparasites; cat fleas appear to be the most common vectors. R. felis infection should be considered an emergent threat to human health. PMID:18598619

  14. Fatal anemia and dermatitis in captive agoutis (Dasyprocta mexicana) infested with Echidnophaga fleas.

    PubMed

    Cucchi-Stefanoni, Karina; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Parás, Alberto; Garner, Michael M

    2008-08-17

    Two captive agoutis (Dasyprocta mexicana) died of anemia with centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis (2/2), severe flea ectoparasitism (2/2), and cardiomegaly attributed to anemia (1/2). Other agoutis were similarly parasitized and one had anemia. Fleas were manually removed and all agoutis treated topically with propoxur and selamectin and moved to another enclosure. No additional cases of fatal anemia were seen. Cutaneous lesions suggestive of hypersensitivity were observed in three additional agoutis with dorsal alopecia (3/3), a penetrating wound associated with pruritus and self-mutilation in the flank (2/3), flea ectoparasitism at the time of morphologic diagnosis (1/3), and hyperplastic perivascular dermatitis (3/3). One of these died of bacterial infection of the wound. Similar but milder skin disease was seen in 3 out of over 30 maras (Dolichotis patagonum) housed in the same exhibit. Fleas collected from all the fatal agouti cases and maras were classified in the genus Echidnophaga based on the angular front margin of head, contracted thorax, absence of genal and pronotal combs, and the fact that fleas did not jump. These findings suggest that flea ectoparasitism may be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in captive rodents. PMID:18556127

  15. High-frequency conjugative transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to Yersinia pestis in the flea midgut.

    PubMed

    Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Rosso, Marie-Laure; Schwan, Tom G; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2002-10-01

    The acquisition of foreign DNA by horizontal transfer from unrelated organisms is a major source of variation leading to new strains of bacterial pathogens. The extent to which this occurs varies widely, due in part to lifestyle factors that determine exposure to potential donors. Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus, infects normally sterile sites in its mammalian host, but forms dense aggregates in the non-sterile digestive tract of its flea vector to produce a transmissible infection. Here we show that unrelated co-infecting bacteria in the flea midgut are readily incorporated into these aggregates, and that this close physical contact leads to high-frequency conjugative genetic exchange. Transfer of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from an Escherichia coli donor to Y. pestis occurred in the flea midgut at a frequency of 10-3 after only 3 days of co-infection, and after 4 weeks 95% of co-infected fleas contained an average of 103 antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis transconjugants. Thus, transit in its arthropod vector exposes Y. pestis to favourable conditions for efficient genetic exchange with microbial flora of the flea gut. Horizontal gene transfer in the flea may be the source of antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains recently isolated from plague patients in Madagascar. PMID:12406213

  16. Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. in fleas from cats in Albania.

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Knaus, Martin; Rapti, Dhimiter; Shukullari, Enstela; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Fleas can serve as vectors for bacterial pathogens like Bartonella and Rickettsia species, which have been isolated worldwide. However, the knowledge of the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in general and thus on flea-borne diseases in Albania is limited. Therefore, from 78 free-roaming cats in Tirana, Albania, fleas (371 Ctenocephalides felis and 5 Ctenocephalides canis) were collected to examine them for the presence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species. Ten of the 371 C. felis (2.7%) were positive for Rickettsia felis, and 24 (6.5%) for Bartonella spp. (B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). In total, fleas from 15 cats (19.2%) were positive for either one or the other of the pathogens. The results of this study provided evidence for the presence of R. felis (causing flea-borne spotted fever) and Bartonella spp. (causing cat scratch disease) in Albania. Thus, these infectious diseases should be considered as differential diagnoses when febrile symptoms are presented, especially after contact with cats or their fleas.

  17. Distinct Genetic Networks Orchestrate the Emergence of Specific Waves of Fetal and Adult B-1 and B-2 Development.

    PubMed

    Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Fice, Michael; Casero, David; Berent-Maoz, Beata; Barber, Chad L; Dorshkind, Kenneth

    2016-09-20

    B cell development is often depicted as a linear process initiating in the fetus and continuing postnatally. Using a PU.1 hypomorphic mouse model, we found that B-1 and B-2 lymphopoiesis occurred in distinct fetal and adult waves differentially dependent on the Sfpi1 14 kB upstream regulatory element. The initial wave of fetal B-1 development was absent in PU.1 hypomorphic mice, while subsequent fetal and adult waves emerged. In contrast, B-2 lymphopoiesis occurred in distinct fetal and adult waves. Whole-transcriptome profiling of fetal and adult B cell progenitors supported the existence of three waves of B-1 and two waves of B-2 development and revealed that the network of transcription factors governing B lineage specification and commitment was highly divergent between B-1 and B-2 progenitors. These findings support the view that the B-1 and B-2 lineages are distinct and provide a genetic basis for layering of immune system development.

  18. Enhancing Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Research Within the National Clinical Trials Network: Rationale, Progress, and Emerging Strategies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aaron R; Nichols, Craig R; Freyer, David R

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology (AYAO, including patients 15-39 years of age) is an emerging discipline in the field of cancer treatment and research. Poorer survival outcomes for this population and characteristic age-related challenges in care have called attention to the need for increased AYAO research. This chapter outlines pressing questions and reviews recent progress in AYAO research within the current organizational structure of the federal clinical trials enterprise, emphasizing how the United States National Cancer Institute's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) has created novel opportunities for collaborative AYAO research among the pediatric and adult NCTN groups. Potential strategies for expanding AYAO research, both within the NCTN and with other partners in the federal and advocacy domains are identified. PMID:26433555

  19. The Effect of an Extended Wilderness Education Experience on Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Skill Development in Emerging Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rachel H.

    2014-01-01

    In a society that is becoming more dynamic, complex, and diverse, the ability to solve ill-structured problems has become an increasingly critical skill. Emerging adults are at a critical life stage that is an ideal time to develop the skills needed to solve ill-structured problems (ISPs) as they are transitioning to adult roles and starting to…

  20. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  1. Early Adolescent Relationship Predictors of Emerging Adult Outcomes: Youth with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging adulthood is a high-risk period for mental health problems and risk behaviors for youth generally and for physical health problems among those with type 1 diabetes. Purpose To examine whether adolescents’ relationships with parents and friends predict health and risk behaviors during emerging adulthood. Method Youth with and without diabetes were enrolled at average age 12 and followed for 7 years. Parent and friend relationship variables, measured during adolescence, were used to predict emerging adulthood outcomes: depression, risk behavior, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. Results Parent relationship quality predicted decreased depressive symptoms and, for those with diabetes, decreased alcohol use. Parent control predicted increased smoking, reduced college attendance, and, for control participants, increased depressive symptoms. For those with diabetes, parent control predicted decreased depressive symptoms and better self-care. Friend relationship variables predicted few outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent parent relationships remain an important influence on emerging adults’ lives. PMID:24178509

  2. Dietary Interventions for Heart Failure in Older Adults: Re-emergence of the Hedonic Shift

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Jeffrey D.; Hummel, Scott L.; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The ‘hedonic shift’ occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual’s salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity due to age-related changes. Older HF patients may have additional loss of salt taste and elevated salt appetite due to comorbid conditions, medication use, and micronutrient or electrolyte abnormalities, creating a significant barrier to dietary adherence. Induction of the hedonic shift has the potential to improve long-term dietary sodium restriction and significantly impact HF outcomes in older adults. PMID:25216615

  3. Dietary interventions for heart failure in older adults: re-emergence of the hedonic shift.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Jeffrey D; Hummel, Scott L; Maurer, Mathew S

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The 'hedonic shift' occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual's salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity due to age-related changes. Older HF patients may have additional loss of salt taste and elevated salt appetite due to comorbid conditions, medication use, and micronutrient or electrolyte abnormalities, creating a significant barrier to dietary adherence. Induction of the hedonic shift has the potential to improve long-term dietary sodium restriction and significantly impact HF outcomes in older adults.

  4. Emerging adults' expectations for pornography use in the context of future committed romantic relationships: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Negash, Sesen; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    Using qualitative content analysis from the written comments of 404 primarily heterosexual college students, we examined (1) their expectations for pornography use while married or in a committed long-term relationship and (2) variations by gender. Four prominent groups emerged. A majority of men (70.8 %) and almost half of women (45.5 %) reported circumstances (alone or with their partners) wherein pornography use was acceptable in a relationship and several conditions for, and consequences associated with, such use also emerged. Another group (22.3 % men; 26.2 % women) viewed pornography use as unacceptable because of being in a committed relationship whereas a third group (5.4 % men; 12.9 % women) reported that pornography use was unacceptable in any context or circumstance. A final group emerged of a few women (10.4 %) who stated that a partner's use of pornography was acceptable, but they did not expect to use it personally. Implications for relationship education among emerging adults and future research on pornography use within the context of romantic relationships are discussed.

  5. Genetic characterization of flea-derived Bartonella species from native animals in Australia suggests host-parasite co-evolution.

    PubMed

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; McInnes, Linda M; Burmej, Halina; Bennett, Mark D; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-12-01

    Fleas are important arthropod vectors for a variety of diseases in veterinary and human medicine, and bacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella are among the organisms most commonly transmitted by these ectoparasites. Recently, a number of novel Bartonella species and novel species candidates have been reported in marsupial fleas in Australia. In the present study the genetic diversity of marsupial fleas was investigated; 10 species of fleas were collected from seven different marsupial and placental mammal hosts in Western Australia including woylies (Bettongia penicillata), western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville), mardos (Antechinus flavipes), bush rats (Rattus fuscipes), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), feral cats (Felis catus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PCR and sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the 18S rRNA genes from these fleas was performed. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis of the COI and 18S rRNA genes revealed a close genetic relationship between marsupial fleas, with Pygiopsylla hilli from woylies, Pygiopsylla tunneyi from western barred bandicoots and Acanthopsylla jordani from mardos, forming a separate cluster from fleas collected from the placental mammals in the same geographical area. The clustering of Bartonella species with their marsupial flea hosts suggests co-evolution of marsupial hosts, marsupial fleas and Bartonella species in Australia. PMID:21856444

  6. Relationship between the Presence of Bartonella Species and Bacterial Loads in Cats and Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) under Natural Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-08-15

    Cats are considered the main reservoir of three zoonotic Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been experimentally demonstrated to be a competent vector of B. henselae and have been proposed as the potential vector of the two other Bartonella species. Previous studies have reported a lack of association between the Bartonella species infection status (infected or uninfected) and/or bacteremia levels of cats and the infection status of the fleas they host. Nevertheless, to date, no study has compared the quantitative distributions of these bacteria in both cats and their fleas under natural conditions. Thus, the present study explored these relationships by identifying and quantifying the different Bartonella species in both cats and their fleas. Therefore, EDTA-blood samples and fleas collected from stray cats were screened for Bartonella bacteria. Bacterial loads were quantified by high-resolution melt real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the Bartonella bacterial loads in the cats and their fleas when both were infected with the same Bartonella species. Moreover, a positive effect of the host infection status on the Bartonella bacterial loads of the fleas was observed. Conversely, the cat bacterial loads were not affected by the infection status of their fleas. Our results suggest that the Bartonella bacterial loads of fleas are positively affected by the presence of the bacteria in their feline host, probably by multiple acquisitions/accumulation and/or multiplication events.

  7. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The collars eliminated

  8. Perceptions of the Transition to Adulthood among Chinese and American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Sarah; Nelson, Larry J.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2006-01-01

    This study explored cultural differences in the criteria young people have for becoming an adult. Specifically, the study sought (a) to compare Chinese and American responses concerning whether they believe they have reached adulthood; (b) to examine whether adulthood criteria could fit a common statistical model for both cultures; and (c) after…

  9. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  10. High Hopes in a Grim World. Emerging Adults' Views of Their Futures and "Generation X."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2000-01-01

    Explores views of the future among young adults age 21-28 years, focusing on quality of life, financial well-being, career achievements, and personal relationships. Data from interviews and questionnaires show a sharp distinction between how respondents view their personal futures (with high hopes) and how they view their generation's perspective…

  11. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  12. Lessons from Adult Education: Identifying and Exploring Emerging Ethical Issues in Technologically Enhanced Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…

  13. Emerging New Service Roles for Older Adults on College and University Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, David C.; Tomb, Karyl

    1981-01-01

    Explored number of programs initiated to involve older adults in meaningful volunteer tasks, responsibilities, and roles on university campuses. Data demonstrate the feasibility of these programs and positive outcomes include improvement of intergenerational communication, reduction of ageism, provision of services to educational institutions, and…

  14. Emerging Adulthood and Gender Differences in Adult Bachelor Degree Completion: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Riley, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Adult undergraduate students constitute 40% of the total undergraduates studying in the United States. However, male undergraduates and male undergraduates over the age of 25 are less likely to enroll in and complete a bachelor's degree than their female counterparts. Given the detrimental employment impacts of not earning a bachelor's…

  15. Mental health outcomes in emerging adults exposed to childhood maltreatment: the moderating role of stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Melissa J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Mistler, Amy Kraft; Luecken, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is an established risk factor for varying configurations of psychological problems in emerging adulthood. The current study tested associations between childhood maltreatment, cortisol reactivity, and current mental health symptoms in emerging adulthood. Eighty-eight participants (aged 18-22) completed measures of childhood maltreatment and current internalizing and externalizing symptoms and participated in a 10-min conflict role-play task. Salivary cortisol was sampled throughout the task, and a residualized change score between baseline and peak time points was computed to capture reactivity. Results from robust regression analyses indicated that cortisol reactivity moderated the association between childhood maltreatment and mental health symptoms as hypothesized. Childhood maltreatment was related to greater internalizing problems among participants with higher cortisol reactivity, whereas maltreatment was associated with greater externalizing problems among participants who exhibited lower cortisol reactivity. Results suggest that patterns of cortisol reactivity in emerging adulthood may help elucidate mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment. PMID:24920249

  16. Months of asynchrony in offspring production but synchronous adult emergence: the role of diapause in an ectoparasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja

    2013-12-01

    Off-host stages of temperate zone ectoparasites must overcome two challenges: coping with unfavorable seasons and synchronizing their life cycles with host availability. In general, little is known about the seasonal cycles of insect ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. The current study investigates the unusual phenology of a viviparous hippoboscid fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), that parasitizes boreal cervids. Despite months of asynchrony in offspring production, the adults emerge synchronously in mid-August across the northern boreal zone. We examined the role of diapause variation in the synchronization of life cycles by testing adult emergence success and time in relation to offspring birth month (October to April) and with respect to chilling time and photoperiod. Unexpectedly, we found that photoperiod had no role in regulating the life cycle, but diapause was maintained as long as pupae were exposed to cold. Pupae born before February needed a slightly longer exposure to high temperatures to terminate diapause if the cold period was short. Despite the apparent importance of a long period of chilling for life cycle synchrony, it was not required to terminate diapause. This finding of cold mainly preventing, rather than promoting, diapause termination is not novel among temperate insects, but it is rare. Slow diapause termination as a response to exceptionally long exposure to high, not low, temperatures seems to be a cornerstone for synchronizing the life cycle in the deer ked. PMID:24216221

  17. Does perceived racial discrimination predict changes in psychological distress and substance use over time? An examination among Black emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Varner, Fatima A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-07-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for 4 years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women.

  18. Months of asynchrony in offspring production but synchronous adult emergence: the role of diapause in an ectoparasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja

    2013-12-01

    Off-host stages of temperate zone ectoparasites must overcome two challenges: coping with unfavorable seasons and synchronizing their life cycles with host availability. In general, little is known about the seasonal cycles of insect ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. The current study investigates the unusual phenology of a viviparous hippoboscid fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), that parasitizes boreal cervids. Despite months of asynchrony in offspring production, the adults emerge synchronously in mid-August across the northern boreal zone. We examined the role of diapause variation in the synchronization of life cycles by testing adult emergence success and time in relation to offspring birth month (October to April) and with respect to chilling time and photoperiod. Unexpectedly, we found that photoperiod had no role in regulating the life cycle, but diapause was maintained as long as pupae were exposed to cold. Pupae born before February needed a slightly longer exposure to high temperatures to terminate diapause if the cold period was short. Despite the apparent importance of a long period of chilling for life cycle synchrony, it was not required to terminate diapause. This finding of cold mainly preventing, rather than promoting, diapause termination is not novel among temperate insects, but it is rare. Slow diapause termination as a response to exceptionally long exposure to high, not low, temperatures seems to be a cornerstone for synchronizing the life cycle in the deer ked.

  19. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use Over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for four years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women. PMID:24730378

  20. Clock accuracy and precision evolve as a consequence of selection for adult emergence in a narrow window of time in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Nisha N; Vaze, Koustubh M; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-15

    Although circadian clocks are believed to have evolved under the action of periodic selection pressures (selection on phasing) present in the geophysical environment, there is very little rigorous and systematic empirical evidence to support this. In the present study, we examined the effect of selection for adult emergence in a narrow window of time on the circadian rhythms of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. Selection was imposed in every generation by choosing flies that emerged during a 1 h window of time close to the emergence peak of baseline/control flies under 12 h:12 h light:dark cycles. To study the effect of selection on circadian clocks we estimated several quantifiable features that reflect inter- and intra-individual variance in adult emergence and locomotor activity rhythms. The results showed that with increasing generations, incidence of adult emergence and activity of adult flies during the 1 h selection window increased gradually in the selected populations. Flies from the selected populations were more homogenous in their clock period, were more coherent in their phase of entrainment, and displayed enhanced accuracy and precision in their emergence and activity rhythms compared with controls. These results thus suggest that circadian clocks in D. melanogaster evolve enhanced accuracy and precision when subjected to selection for emergence in a narrow window of time.

  1. Emerging Adulthood in Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder: Parent and Young Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Edwards, L.; Sugden, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research widely acknowledges that developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a pervasive and enduring disorder, which persists into adolescence and adulthood ([Cousins and Smyth, 2003] and [Kirby et al., 2008]). However, few studies have given detailed consideration to the range and level of functioning difficulties in emerging adults…

  2. Buds of Parenting in Emerging Adult Males: What We Learned from Our Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the precursors of parenting buds (representations regarding parenting before actual parenting) by following 60 men from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Quality of relationships with parents, and attachment representations (state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment styles) assessed in adolescence, contribute to…

  3. Electronic and Printed Books with and without Adult Support as Sustaining Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Segal-Drori, Ora; Klien, Pnina

    2009-01-01

    Emergent literacy (EL) enhancement has been the goal of numerous educational programs for years, especially for children from low socioeconomic statuses (LSES) (Snow, 1994; Whitehurst, Zevebergen, Crone, Schultz, Velting, & Fischel, 1999). During the past decade, technology software, including electronic books (e-books), have become incorporated…

  4. The Relative Influence of Sensation Seeking and Normal Narcissism on Academic Cheating in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanek, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous research studies reveal that cheating is a significant problem on the campuses of American colleges and universities. Traditional college-aged students (aged 18-25) fall within a time-frame of the life-span that has been labeled emerging adulthood, a time in which risk-taking behavior is common. The present study conceptualized academic…

  5. Temporal reward discounting in children, adolescents, and emerging adults during an experiential task

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Anouk; Tontsch, Chandra; Thoeny, Allison L.; Sumiya, Motofumi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine age effects on the ability/willingness to wait for large rewards in a real temporal reward discounting task from childhood to adulthood. Therefore, a real temporal discounting (TD) task was administered to children aged 6–12 (n = 39), adolescents aged 13–17 (n = 28), and young adults aged 18–19 (n = 55). Findings indicated that the cross-sectional development of TD followed a quadratic pattern across age groups, with adolescents choosing more often than children and adults to wait for the large delayed reward, resulting in reward-maximization. Various interpretations of this finding were offered, including a focus on reward maximization despite an immature ability to exert self-control, and flexible self-control which was high during this task as a result of strong motivation to maximize financial gains. PMID:25071675

  6. Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae), a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Hastriter, Michael W.; Bush, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas) from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter and Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males), the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn) from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae) were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed. PMID:24899840

  7. Falciparum malaria as an emerging cause of fever in adults living in Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K; Offouga, Christelle L; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise P; Essola, Laurence; Madoungou, Blondel; Kombila, Maryvonne

    2014-01-01

    Following the observed increase of malaria prevalence among older children in Gabon, a descriptive observational study was carried out in 2012 to determine the prevalence of malaria in adults presenting with fever in two health centres of Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Thick- and thin-blood smears for malaria diagnosis were performed in febrile individuals aged more than 15 years old. Age, use of bed nets, previous antimalarial drug treatment, clinical symptoms, chest radiography results, and available haemoglobin data were also recorded. Among the 304 patients screened, the global malaria frequency was of 42.1% (n = 128/34). Plasmodium (P). falciparum was the only species identified. The proportion of patients with a clinical malaria requiring parenteral treatment was 38.5%, whereas 47.5% of outpatients had uncomplicated malaria. According to WHO classification, 14 (19.7%) infected patients had severe malaria; neurological and respiratory symptoms tended to be more frequent in case of P. falciparum infection. Anaemia was found in 51.5% adults and none had severe anaemia. Almost half of adults consulting for fever in two health centres of the urban city of Libreville have malaria. The use of insecticide-treated bed nets, the screening, and the treatment of individuals with P. falciparum microscopic and submicroscopic asymptomatic infection or clinical malaria should be emphasized to reduce the transmission.

  8. Earthquakes and emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

  9. Initial Emergency Department Diagnosis and Management of Adult Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a medical emergency affecting up to 18 million individuals world wide, with an annual incidence of 750,000 in North America alone. Mortality ranges between 28-50% of those individuals stricken by severe sepsis. Sepsis is a time critical illness, requiring early identification and prompt intervention in order to improve outcomes. This observation has led to increased awareness and education in the field of Emergency Medicine; it has also led to the implementation of critical interventions early in the course of patient management, specifically Early-Goal Directed Therapy, and rapid administration of appropriate antimicrobials. This review begins with a brief summary of the pathophysiology of sepsis, and then addresses the fundamental clinical aspects of ED identification and resuscitation of the septic patient. PMID:22737991

  10. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstract. Methods Preventive efficacy was evaluated by infesting groups of cats (n = 8-10) with C. felis felis and/or I. ricinus, A. americanum or R. turanicus at monthly intervals at least, for a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after infestation, and against ticks at 6 h (repellent) or 48 h (acaricidal) after infestation. Efficacy against flea larvae was evaluated over a period of 8 months by incubating viable flea eggs on blanket samples after cat contact. In all cases efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95% until study termination. In vitro efficacy against flea larvae exceeded 92% until Day 90 and then declined to 67% at the conclusion of the study on Day 230. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy over a period of eight months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus from Day 2 after treatment, 100% against A. americanum, except for 98.5% and 97.7% at two time-points, and between 94% and 100% against R. turanicus. From Day 2 until 8 months after treatment the repellent (6 h), efficacy was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and between 54.8% and 85.4% against R. turanicus. Conclusion The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly- acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been clearly demonstrated

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis of Entomoparasitic Nematodes, Potential Control Agents of Flea Populations in Natural Foci of Plague

    PubMed Central

    Koshel, E. I.; Aleshin, V. V.; Eroshenko, G. A.; Kutyrev, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. We examined the flea samples from the Volga-Ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. Among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (Citellus pygmaeus, Microtus socialis, and Allactaga major), the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. The propagation rate of parasitic nematodes in the haemocoel of infected fleas was very high; in some cases, we observed up to 1,000 juveniles per flea specimen. Our study of morphology, life cycle, and rDNA sequences of these parasites revealed that they belong to three distinct species differing in the host specificity. On SSU and LSU rRNA phylogenies, these species representing three genera (Rubzovinema, Psyllotylenchus, and Spilotylenchus), constitute a monophyletic group close to Allantonema and Parasitylenchus, the type genera of the families Allantonematidae and Parasitylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). We discuss the SSU-ITS1-5.8S-LSU rDNA phylogeny of the Tylenchida with a special emphasis on the suborder Hexatylina. PMID:24804197

  12. Susceptibility of brassicaceous plants to feeding by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry

    2013-12-01

    Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference.

  13. Fleas (Siphonaptera) of the Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) in West Virginia with comments on host specificity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castleberry, S.B.; Castleberry, N.L.; Wood, P.B.; Ford, W.M.; Mengak, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has indicated fewer host-specific ectoparasites on woodrats of the eastern United States as compared to western woodrat species. The Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) is a species of conservation concern that is associated with rocky habitats in the Appalachian and Interior Highland regions in the eastern United States. We examined Allegheny woodrat flea parasites in the core of the distribution to further elucidate patterns of ectoparasite host specificity in woodrats of the eastern United States. Of 346 fleas collected from 62 Allegheny woodrats, all but 1 were identified as Orchopeas pennsylvanicus. The single exception was a male Epitedia cavernicola, which represents only the second collection of this species from West Virginia. Unlike the eastern woodrat (Neotoma floridana), which hosts a variety of generalist flea parasites, Allegheny woodrats in our study were host to only 2 flea species, both of which are host specific to woodrats. We suggest that flea host specificity may be related to the specific habitat requirements of this species.

  14. Challenges of emerging adulthood-transition from paediatric to adult diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Gurmit; Nayak, Ananth U; Wilkins, Julie; Hankey, Jo; Raffeeq, Parakkal; Varughese, George I; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex condition with far reaching physical, psychological and psychosocial effects. These outcomes can be significant when considering the care of a youth transferring from paediatric through to adult diabetes services. The art of mastering a smooth care transfer is crucial if not pivotal to optimising overall diabetic control. Quite often the nature of consultation varies between the two service providers and the objectives and outcomes will mirror this. The purpose of this review is to analyse the particular challenges and barriers one might expect to encounter when transferring these services over to an adult care provider. Particular emphasis is paid towards the psychological aspects of this delicate period, which needs to be recognised and appreciated appropriately in order to understand the particular plights a young diabetic child will be challenged with. We explore the approaches that can be positively adopted in order to improve the experience for child, parents and also the multi- disciplinary team concerned with the overall delivery of this care. Finally we will close with reflection on the potential areas for future development that will ultimately aim to improve long-term outcomes and experiences of the young adolescent confronted with diabetes as well as the burden of disease and burden of cost of disease. PMID:25317240

  15. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence. PMID:23063841

  16. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  17. Droughts may increase susceptibility of prairie dogs to fleas: Incongruity with hypothesized mechanisms of plague cycles in rodents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David; Biggins, Dean E.; Long, Dustin H.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a reemerging, rodent-associated zoonosis caused by the flea-borne bacterium Yersinia pestis. As a vector-borne disease, rates of plague transmission may increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas are highly susceptible to desiccation under hot-dry conditions; we posited that their densities decline during droughts. We evaluated this hypothesis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, June–August 2010–2012. Precipitation was relatively plentiful during 2010 and 2012 but scarce during 2011, the driest spring–summer on record for the northeastern grasslands of New Mexico. Unexpectedly, fleas were 200% more abundant in 2011 than in 2010 and 2012. Prairie dogs were in 27% better condition during 2010 and 2012, and they devoted 287% more time to grooming in 2012 than in 2011. During 2012, prairie dogs provided with supplemental food and water were in 23% better condition and carried 40% fewer fleas. Collectively, these results suggest that during dry years, prairie dogs are limited by food and water, and they exhibit weakened defenses against fleas. Long-term data are needed to evaluate the generality of whether droughts increase flea densities and how changes in flea abundance during sequences of dry and wet years might affect plague cycles in mammalian hosts.

  18. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial. PMID:25470657

  19. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial.

  20. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  1. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates.

  2. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.

  3. Social network and census tract-level influences on substance use among emerging adult males: An activity spaces approach

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Crystal; Perley, Lauren; Bailey, Jonathan; Barbour, Russell; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Social network and area level characteristics have been linked to substance use. We used snowball sampling to recruit 90 predominantly African American emerging adult men who provided typical locations visited (n=510). We used generalized estimating equations to examine social network and area level predictors of substance use. Lower social network quality was associated with days of marijuana use (B=-0.0037, p<0.0001) and problem alcohol use (B=-0.0050, p=0.0181). The influence of area characteristics on substance use differed between risky and non-risky spaces. Peer and area influences are important for substance use among men, and may differ for high and low risk places. PMID:26176810

  4. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed. PMID:23098273

  5. Case report: An adult-onset type II citrin deficiency patient in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    TANG, LUJIA; CHEN, LIANG; WANG, HAIRONG; DAI, LIHUA; PAN, SHUMING

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25A13) gene may result in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency and/or adult-onset type II citrullinemia. These conditions are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The current case report describes a 43-year-old man who presented with sudden delirium and upper limb weakness. Upon admission, the patient was fully conscious and alert but later lost consciousness subsequent to a sudden convulsive seizure. Hyperammonemia was detected and analysis of the SLC25A13 gene identified an 851del4 mutation. Thus, the possibility of genetic disease should be considered as a potential cause of the symptoms of patients with altered states of consciousness, such as delirium and loss of consciousness, in cases where the cause of the disturbance is unknown. PMID:27347070

  6. YfbA, a Yersinia pestis Regulator Required for Colonization and Biofilm Formation in the Gut of Cat Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Christina; Demke, Owen; Hermanas, Timothy; Mitchell, Anthony; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.

    2014-01-01

    For transmission to new hosts, Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, replicates as biofilm in the foregut of fleas that feed on plague-infected animals or humans. Y. pestis biofilm formation has been studied in the rat flea; however, little is known about the cat flea, a species that may bridge zoonotic and anthroponotic plague cycles. Here, we show that Y. pestis infects and replicates as a biofilm in the foregut of cat fleas in a manner requiring hmsFR, two determinants for extracellular biofilm matrix. Examining a library of transposon insertion mutants, we identified the LysR-type transcriptional regulator YfbA, which is essential for Y. pestis colonization and biofilm formation in cat fleas. PMID:24391055

  7. Effects of weather and plague-induced die-offs of prairie dogs on the fleas of northern grasshopper mice.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Other mammal hosts living on prairie dog colonies may be important in the transmission and maintenance of plague. We examined the flea populations of northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster Wied) before, during, and after plague epizootics in northern Colorado and studied the influence of host and environmental factors on flea abundance patterns. Grasshopper mice were frequently infested with high numbers of fleas, most commonly Pleochaetis exilis Jordan and Thrassis fotus Jordan. Flea loads changed in response to both environmental temperature and rainfall. After plague-induced prairie dog die-offs, flea loads and likelihood of infestation were unchanged for P. exilis, but T. fotus loads declined. PMID:19496431

  8. Ticks and fleas of shrews in Appalachian Georgia and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    McCay, T S; Durden, L A

    1996-08-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) were recovered from 8 smoky shrews, Sorex fumeus Miller, and 9 northern short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda (Say), trapped at elevations of 720-1,310 m in Macon and Jackson counties in western North Carolina and Union County in northern Georgia from April 1994 to August 1995. The ticks Ixodes angustus Neumann and Ixodes woodi Bishopp, and the flea Corrodopsylla curvata (Rothschild), were recovered from smoky shrews. The same 2 tick species, in addition to the fleas, Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker and Doratopsylla blarinae Fox, were recovered from northern short-tailed shrews. New state records for I. angustus from Georgia and I. woodi from North Carolina are established. PMID:8691385

  9. Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. We introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. Our purpose is to provide the veterinary practitioner with information needed to investigate suspected lack of efficacy, respond to lack of efficacy complaints from their clients, and evaluate the relative importance of resistance as they strive to relieve their patients and satisfy their clients when faced with flea and tick infestations that are difficult to resolve. We conclude that causality of suspected lack of insecticide/acaricide efficacy is most likely treatment deficiency, not resistance. PMID:24393426

  10. Youth, Caregiver, and Staff Perspectives on an Initiative to Promote Success of Emerging Adults with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stein, Kathleen F; Connors, Elizabeth H; Chambers, Kerri L; Thomas, Charmaine L; Stephan, Sharon H

    2014-07-01

    Transitioning to adulthood is more challenging for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) as compared to youth with other disability types and typically-developing peers. Outcomes for emerging adults with EBD as a group are particularly concerning in the domains of unemployment, educational dropout rates, and interactions with the judicial system including incarceration, early parenting, homelessness, substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide. The current study presents qualitative program evaluation data for one of seven grantee states awarded 5-year cooperative agreements by the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to build developmentally-appropriate and effective youth-guided local systems of care for transition age youth, ages 16-25 years, to promote positive transition outcomes. Findings, obtained from focus groups of 25 participating transition age youth, caregivers, staff, and supervisors, include strategies for maintaining and expanding on the strengths of program, as well as for improving specific program areas. Also, consistent with the goals of the program, this process provided an opportunity for the youth and caregivers to voice their opinions and perspectives regarding their services. Implications for research and practice on effectively serving the unique needs of young adults experiencing EBD and their families in areas such as navigating special education, providing emotional and behavioral supports, and leveraging interagency collaboration are discussed. PMID:25005428

  11. Bivariate Trajectories of Substance Use and Antisocial Behavior: Associations with Emerging Adult Outcomes in a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Trim, Ryan S.; Worley, Matthew J.; Wall, Tamara L.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Hewitt, John K.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and antisocial behavior are complex, interrelated behaviors. The current study identified model trajectory classes defined by concurrent substance use and antisocial behavior and examined trajectory associations with emerging adult outcomes. Participants from a high-risk sample of youth (n=536; 73% male) completed interviews at baseline (mean age= 16.1 years) and followup (mean age= 22.6 years). Latent class growth analyses identified five trajectory classes based on alcohol/drug use (AOD) and antisocial behavior (ASB): Dual Chronic, Increasing AOD/Persistent ASB, Persistent AOD/Adolescent ASB, Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB, and Resolved. Many individuals (56%) exhibited elevated/increasing AOD, and most (91%) reported ASB decreases. Those associated with the Dual Chronic class had the highest rates of substance dependence, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and negative psychosocial outcomes. There were no differences in adult role attainment across classes. Conjoint examination of these behaviors provides greater detail regarding clinical course and can inform secondary prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26889401

  12. Lifecourse Priorities Among Appalachian Emerging Adults: Revisiting Wallace's Organization of Diversity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan A; Rehkopf, David H; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Worthman, Carol M

    2009-06-01

    We examine how social demographics (gender, age, or race-ethnicity), census tract characteristics, and family environment during childhood relate to variability in the lifecourse priorities of 344 Cherokee and white youth during emerging adulthood (age 19-24). Analyses were performed using recursive partitioning and random forest methods to examine determinants of prioritizing education, family formation, economic establishment, self characteristics and close relationships, youth independence, conspicuous consumption, and community reliance. Overall, characteristics of census tracts were the most common and influential predictors of lifecourse priorities. Childhood family poverty, parental relationship problems, parental crime, and stressful life events were also important predictors. Race-ethnicity or cultural group (Cherokee vs. white), age, and gender were relatively unimportant. At this developmental stage and in this population, community characteristics and childhood family experiences may be better proxies for developmental settings (and resulting enculturated values and preferences) than social demographic variables (e.g., ethnicity or gender). PMID:24403647

  13. Lifecourse Priorities Among Appalachian Emerging Adults: Revisiting Wallace’s Organization of Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan A.; Rehkopf, David H.; Copeland, William E; Costello, E. Jane; Worthman, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    We examine how social demographics (gender, age, or race–ethnicity), census tract characteristics, and family environment during childhood relate to variability in the lifecourse priorities of 344 Cherokee and white youth during emerging adulthood (age 19–24). Analyses were performed using recursive partitioning and random forest methods to examine determinants of prioritizing education, family formation, economic establishment, self characteristics and close relationships, youth independence, conspicuous consumption, and community reliance. Overall, characteristics of census tracts were the most common and influential predictors of lifecourse priorities. Childhood family poverty, parental relationship problems, parental crime, and stressful life events were also important predictors. Race–ethnicity or cultural group (Cherokee vs. white), age, and gender were relatively unimportant. At this developmental stage and in this population, community characteristics and childhood family experiences may be better proxies for developmental settings (and resulting enculturated values and preferences) than social demographic variables (e.g., ethnicity or gender). PMID:24403647

  14. Emerging trends and persistent challenges in the management of adult syphilis.

    PubMed

    Tuddenham, Susan; Ghanem, Khalil G

    2015-08-19

    There are an estimated 10.6 million incident cases of syphilis worldwide each year. We highlight some persistent challenges and emerging trends in the clinical management of syphilis with a particular focus on therapy, serology, diagnostics, and prevention. Decades after the introduction of penicillin, the optimal management of early syphilis continues to be a controversial topic, particularly in the setting of HIV co-infection. Similarly, the need for routine lumbar puncture in HIV co-infected asymptomatic persons is an unanswered question. Despite advances in both automation and point-of-care diagnostics, we continue to rely on indirect measures of disease activity to manage this infection. As syphilis rates in some populations continue to rise, novel and effective prevention strategies are needed.

  15. Clinical profile of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain presenting to an adult emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Lakshay; Jegaraj, Moses A. K.; Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Yadav, Bijesh; Abilash, Kundavaram

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for presenting to the emergency depatment (ED) and the etiology is varied. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a large ED of a tertiary care center in India. All patients older than 15 years and presenting with non-traumatic abdominal pain to the ED from May 2012 to October 2012 were recruited and the demographic characteristics, diagnosis and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 264 patients over a 6 month period. More than half (55.6%) were aged between 15 and 40 years. There was a male predominance (56.8%). Majority of the patients (76.9%) presented with abdominal pain of less than 72 hour duration. The pain was sudden in onset in 54.9% of patients. Dull type was the most common character of pain (36%) followed by colicky type (22.3%). The most common site of pain was the lower abdomen (45.8%). Upper abdominal pain was seen in 26.9% and the pain was generalized in 27.3% of patients. The common causes were uretericcolic (16.3%), urinary tract infection (12.5%), acute pancreatitis (11%), acute appendicitis (10.6%) and acute gastritis (8%). More than half (51.9%) discharged from ED and 37% of cases were managed by the emergency physicians. Surgical intervention was required in 25.8% of patients. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Conclusions: Abdominal pain is a common ED symptom and clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those that require immediate intervention to limit morbidity and mortality. PMID:26288785

  16. Bartonella species in fleas from Palestinian territories: prevalence and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, A; Risheq, A; Harrus, S; Azmi, K; Ereqat, S; Baneth, G; Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Abdeen, Z

    2014-12-01

    Bartonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease. The prevalence and genetic characteristics of Bartonella spp. in fleas of wild and domestic animals from Palestinian territories are described. Flea samples (n=289) were collected from 121 cats, 135 dogs, 26 hyraxes and seven rats from northern (n=165), central (n=113), and southern Palestinian territories (n=11). The prevalent flea species were: Ctenocephalides felis (n=119/289; 41.2%), Ctenocephalides canis (n=159/289; 55%), and Xenopsylla sp. (n=7/289; 2.4%). Targeting the Intergenic Transcribed Spacer (ITS) locus, DNA of Bartonella was detected in 22% (64/289) of all fleas. Fifty percent of the C. felis and 57% of the Xenopsylla sp. contained Bartonella DNA. DNA sequencing showed the presence of Bartonella clarridgeiae (50%), Bartonella henselae (27%), and Bartonella koehlerae (3%) in C. felis. Xenopsylla sp. collected from Rattus rattus rats were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella elizabethae, and Bartonella rochalimae. Phylogenetic sequence analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene obtained four genetic clusters, B. henselae and B. koehlerae as subcluster 1, B. clarridgeiae as cluster 2, while the rat Bartonella species (B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae) were an outgroup cluster. These findings showed the important role of cat and rat fleas as vectors of zoonotic Bartonella species in Palestinian territories. It is hoped that this publication will raise awareness among physicians, veterinarians, and other health workers of the high prevalence of Bartonella spp. in fleas in Palestinian territories and the potential risk of these pathogens to humans and animals in this region.

  17. Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): spatial relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Richard T; Chini, Shahpar R; McGovern, Jeffrey E

    2005-04-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was selected as a representative stored-product moth to test the validity of contour mapping of trap catch for pest monitoring in warehouses and retail stores. Three experiments, each replicated five times, were conducted in a 3.2 by 9.0-m aluminum shed. Each experiment involved placing pupae at a single release point (source) and recording the numbers of emerging adult males captured after 24, 48, and 72 h in each of four pheromone-baited sticky traps. The experiments differed only with respect to the point of release. Distribution of trap catch reflected the general distribution of moths in the shed; and consecutive contour maps tracked their dispersal from the source. As emergence and dispersal progressed, cumulative trap catch increased throughout the shed, but it remained highest near the source. The observed spatial patterns of trap catch relative to sources of infestation and the inverse relationship of trap catch to distance from a source support the validity of contour mapping as a means of monitoring stored-product moths and locating foci of infestation. The relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of infestation was well described by two-parameter exponential decay, both in P. interpunctella and in the previously studied Lasioderma serricorne (F.). Analysis of data from retail pet stores also showed exponential decline in trap catch of P. interpunctella with distance from centers of infestation.

  18. Value transmissions between fathers, mothers, and adolescent and emerging adult children: the role of the family climate.

    PubMed

    Roest, Annette M C; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M

    2009-04-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study investigates father-child, mother-child, and father-mother transmissions on "work-as-duty" and "hedonism" across a 5-year period when children traverse late adolescence and emerging adulthood (N = 402 families). We found bidirectional father-child and child-to-mother transmissions on work-as-duty and child-to-father and bidirectional father-mother transmissions on hedonism. In addition, we examined whether family adaptability and cohesion influence these value transmissions. Father-to-child transmission on work-as-duty occurred regardless of family system levels, whereas child-to-parent transmissions on work-as-duty occurred only within more structured families. Furthermore, a more connected family climate tended to facilitate inter- and intragenerational value transmissions, but multiple-group analyses did not reveal strong evidence. All in all, this study showed that value socialization in the family is not a one-way-traffic process with parents solely influencing their children. Late adolescents and emerging adults also serve to socialize their parents and parents socialize each other.

  19. Identifying Two Potential Mechanisms for Changes in Alcohol Use Among College-attending and Non-attending Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Fleming, Charles B.; Kim, Min Jung; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests whether pro-alcohol peer influences and prosocial involvement account for increases in drinking during the transition into emerging adulthood and whether these mechanisms differ depending on college attendance and/or moving away from home. We use structural equation modeling of prospective data from 825 young men and women. For four groups defined by college and residential status, more drinking in the spring of 12th grade predicts more pro-alcohol peer influences the following fall, and more pro-alcohol peer influences in the fall predict increases in drinking the following spring. Going to college while living at home is a protective factor for increases in drinking and selection of pro-alcohol peer involvements. Prosocial involvement (measured by involvement in religious activities and volunteer work) is not significantly related to post-high school drinking except among college students living away from home. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing opportunities for heavy drinking for college and noncollege emerging adults as they leave home and increasing prosocial involvement among college students not living at home. PMID:18999326

  20. Oral magnetite nanoparticles disturb the development of Drosophila melanogaster from oogenesis to adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Du, Wei; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Bi, Xiaolin

    2015-05-01

    The potential impacts of nanomaterials (NMs) on fetal development have attracted great concerns because of the increased potential exposure to NMs during pregnancy. Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis and developmental transitions may provide an attractive system to study the biological and environmental effects of NMs on the embryonic development. In this study, the effects of three types of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs): UN-MNPs (pristine), CA-MNPs (citric acid modified) and APTS-MNPs (3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane coated) on the development of Drosophila at 300 and 600 μg/g dosage were studied. The uptake of MNPs by female and male flies caused obvious reduction in the female fecundity, and the developmental delay at the egg-pupae and pupae-adult transitions, especially in those treated by the positive APTS-MNPs. Further investigation demonstrates that the parental uptake of MNPs disturbs the oogenesis period, induces ovarian defect, reduces the length of eggs, decreases the number of nurse cells and delays egg chamber development, which may contribute to the decrease of fecundity of female Drosophila and the development delay of their offspring. Using the synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF), the dyshomeostasis of trace elements such as Fe, Ca and Cu along the anterior-posterior axis of the fertilized eggs was found, which may be an important reason for the development delay of Drosophila.

  1. The Nature and Impact of Gendered Patterns of Peer Sexual Communications Among Heterosexual Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Sarah L; Ward, L Monique

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research demonstrates that peers serve as top sexual informants and advisers, little is known about how peer sexual communications may be a gendered phenomenon. Do communications about sex and romantic relationships vary according to who is speaking to whom? The current study examined 517 college students' reports of male and female peers' communications of four sexual scripts and the associations between reports of such communications and participants' sexual attitudes and levels of sexual and dating experience. Results suggest that peer messages about sex and relationships vary by the gender of the recipient and the gender of the communicator. Women reported more frequent communications of all sexual scripts from female peers than did men. In terms of male peers' sexual communications, only one gender difference emerged: men reported receiving significantly fewer messages about the relational script than women. Compared to same-sex peer communications, there were more associations between other-sex peer communications and undergraduates' sexual attitudes and levels of sexual and dating experience. Implications for the role of same- and other-sex peers in sexual socialization are discussed.

  2. Does Playing Sports Video Games Predict Increased Involvement in Real-Life Sports Over Several Years Among Older Adolescents and Emerging Adults?

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-02-01

    Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among youth. Yet, this association has not been examined in the long-term among older adolescents and emerging adults, and thus represents an exciting new area for discovery. The primary goal of the current study, therefore, was to examine the long-term association between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports clubs among older adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, we examined whether self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this longitudinal association. We surveyed older adolescents and emerging adults (N = 1132; 70.6 % female; M age = 19.06 years, range of 17-25 years at the first assessment) annually over 3 years about their video game play, self-esteem, and involvement in real-life sports. We found a long-term predictive effect of sports video game play on increased involvement in real-life sports over the 3 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated that self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this long-term association. Our findings make an important contribution to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game play, as they suggest that sports video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults.

  3. The Effects of Literacy Enriched Classroom Environment Partnered with Quality Adult/Child Interaction on the Development of Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haustein, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of literacy enriched preschool classroom environments and the quality of adult/child interaction in the classroom on the emergent literacy growth and development of preschool children. Data was collected within the 2009-2010 school year and analyzed to determine if providing a literacy enriched preschool environment…

  4. Pushing and Pulling Emerging Adults through College: College Generational Status and the Influence of Parents and Others in the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Laura; Islas, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Interview, survey, and academic transcript data with a diverse sample of first-generation college (FGC) and continuing generation college (CGC) premedical intended emerging adults are analyzed to study academic outcomes and any differences in the availability and use of social capital the first year of college. CGC students know many people with…

  5. FleA Expression in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Recognized by Fucosylated Structures on Mucins and Macrophages to Prevent Lung Infection.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Sheena C; Fischer, Gregory J; Sinha, Meenal; McCabe, Orla; Palmer, Jonathan M; Choera, Tsokyi; Lim, Fang Yun; Wimmerova, Michaela; Carrington, Stephen D; Yuan, Shaopeng; Lowell, Clifford A; Oscarson, Stefan; Keller, Nancy P; Fahy, John V

    2016-04-01

    The immune mechanisms that recognize inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to promote their elimination from the lungs are incompletely understood. FleA is a lectin expressed by Aspergillus fumigatus that has twelve binding sites for fucosylated structures that are abundant in the glycan coats of multiple plant and animal proteins. The role of FleA is unknown: it could bind fucose in decomposed plant matter to allow Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive in soil, or it may be a virulence factor that binds fucose in lung glycoproteins to cause Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Our studies show that FleA protein and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia bind avidly to purified lung mucin glycoproteins in a fucose-dependent manner. In addition, FleA binds strongly to macrophage cell surface proteins, and macrophages bind and phagocytose fleA-deficient (∆fleA) conidia much less efficiently than wild type (WT) conidia. Furthermore, a potent fucopyranoside glycomimetic inhibitor of FleA inhibits binding and phagocytosis of WT conidia by macrophages, confirming the specific role of fucose binding in macrophage recognition of WT conidia. Finally, mice infected with ΔfleA conidia had more severe pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis than mice infected with WT conidia. These findings demonstrate that FleA is not a virulence factor for Aspergillus fumigatus. Instead, host recognition of FleA is a critical step in mechanisms of mucin binding, mucociliary clearance, and macrophage killing that prevent Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. PMID:27058347

  6. Fleas of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) on Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, K.A.; Egoscue, H.J.

    1992-09-01

    A total of 3,241 fleas, representing seven species, were identified from 398 samples collected from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes velox macrotis), California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. Of 3,109 fleas collected from kit foxes 95.7% were Echidnophaga gallinacea, 4.0% Pulex irritans, 0.2% Hoplopsyllus anomolus, and 0.1% Odontopsyllus dentatus. One male Ctenocephalides fells was also collected from a kit fox. The 118 fleas collected from California ground squirrels consisted of Hoplopsyllus anomolus (55.9%), Echidnophaga gallinacea (37.3%), and Oropsylla montanus (6.8%). The 14 fleas collected from deer mice were Aetheca wagneri. Based on the distribution and abundance of flea species collected, and the vector efficiency of these fleas, it appears that kit foxes could play a role in the transfer of natural vectors of sylvatic plague between rodent populations, if the bacterium responsible for plague (Yersinia pestis) were present at Camp Roberts. Little information regarding kit fox food habits was evidenced by the distribution and abundance of small mammal flea species collected from kit foxes.

  7. FleA Expression in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Recognized by Fucosylated Structures on Mucins and Macrophages to Prevent Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Meenal; McCabe, Orla; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Choera, Tsokyi; Yun Lim, Fang; Wimmerova, Michaela; Carrington, Stephen D.; Yuan, Shaopeng; Lowell, Clifford A.; Oscarson, Stefan; Keller, Nancy P.; Fahy, John V.

    2016-01-01

    The immune mechanisms that recognize inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to promote their elimination from the lungs are incompletely understood. FleA is a lectin expressed by Aspergillus fumigatus that has twelve binding sites for fucosylated structures that are abundant in the glycan coats of multiple plant and animal proteins. The role of FleA is unknown: it could bind fucose in decomposed plant matter to allow Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive in soil, or it may be a virulence factor that binds fucose in lung glycoproteins to cause Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Our studies show that FleA protein and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia bind avidly to purified lung mucin glycoproteins in a fucose-dependent manner. In addition, FleA binds strongly to macrophage cell surface proteins, and macrophages bind and phagocytose fleA-deficient (∆fleA) conidia much less efficiently than wild type (WT) conidia. Furthermore, a potent fucopyranoside glycomimetic inhibitor of FleA inhibits binding and phagocytosis of WT conidia by macrophages, confirming the specific role of fucose binding in macrophage recognition of WT conidia. Finally, mice infected with ΔfleA conidia had more severe pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis than mice infected with WT conidia. These findings demonstrate that FleA is not a virulence factor for Aspergillus fumigatus. Instead, host recognition of FleA is a critical step in mechanisms of mucin binding, mucociliary clearance, and macrophage killing that prevent Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. PMID:27058347

  8. FleA Expression in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Recognized by Fucosylated Structures on Mucins and Macrophages to Prevent Lung Infection.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Sheena C; Fischer, Gregory J; Sinha, Meenal; McCabe, Orla; Palmer, Jonathan M; Choera, Tsokyi; Lim, Fang Yun; Wimmerova, Michaela; Carrington, Stephen D; Yuan, Shaopeng; Lowell, Clifford A; Oscarson, Stefan; Keller, Nancy P; Fahy, John V

    2016-04-01

    The immune mechanisms that recognize inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to promote their elimination from the lungs are incompletely understood. FleA is a lectin expressed by Aspergillus fumigatus that has twelve binding sites for fucosylated structures that are abundant in the glycan coats of multiple plant and animal proteins. The role of FleA is unknown: it could bind fucose in decomposed plant matter to allow Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive in soil, or it may be a virulence factor that binds fucose in lung glycoproteins to cause Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Our studies show that FleA protein and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia bind avidly to purified lung mucin glycoproteins in a fucose-dependent manner. In addition, FleA binds strongly to macrophage cell surface proteins, and macrophages bind and phagocytose fleA-deficient (∆fleA) conidia much less efficiently than wild type (WT) conidia. Furthermore, a potent fucopyranoside glycomimetic inhibitor of FleA inhibits binding and phagocytosis of WT conidia by macrophages, confirming the specific role of fucose binding in macrophage recognition of WT conidia. Finally, mice infected with ΔfleA conidia had more severe pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis than mice infected with WT conidia. These findings demonstrate that FleA is not a virulence factor for Aspergillus fumigatus. Instead, host recognition of FleA is a critical step in mechanisms of mucin binding, mucociliary clearance, and macrophage killing that prevent Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia.

  9. Non-Traumatic Dental Condition-Related Emergency Department Visits and Associated Costs for Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Sy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Masterson, Erin E.; Chi, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 2010 U.S. National Emergency Department Sample data and ran regression models to test the hypotheses that individuals with ASD are more likely to have non-traumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related emergency department (ED) visits and to incur greater costs for these visits than those without ASD. There were nearly 2.3 million NTDC-related ED visits in 2010. Less than 1.0% (children) and 2.1% (adults) of all ED visits were for NTDC. There was no significant difference in NTDC-related ED visits or costs for children by ASD status. Adults with ASD had significantly lower odds of NTDC-related ED visits (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.52; P<0.001) but incurred significantly greater mean costs for NTDC-related ED visits (P<0.006) than did adults without ASD. PMID:25374135

  10. Genetic diversity of Aphthona flea beetles introduced into North America for biological control of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Aphthona flea beetles from Europe (Aphthona flava, Aphthona cyparissiae, Aphthona nigriscutis, Aphthona czwalinae, and Aphthona lacertosa) have been introduced and become established in North America for the purpose of controlling the noxious weed, leafy spurge. Within species gene...

  11. Coexistence of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae in populations of cats and their fleas in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Rizzo, Maria Fernanda; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Peruski, Leonard F; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Cats and their fleas collected in Guatemala were investigated for the presence of Bartonella infections. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 8.2% (13/159) of cats, and all cultures were identified as B. henselae. Molecular analysis allowed detection of Bartonella DNA in 33.8% (48/142) of cats and in 22.4% (34/152) of cat fleas using gltA, nuoG, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer targets. Two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, were identified in cats and cat fleas by molecular analysis, with B. henselae being more common than B. clarridgeiae in the cats (68.1%; 32/47 vs 31.9%; 15/47). The nuoG was found to be less sensitive for detecting B. clarridgeiae compared with other molecular targets and could detect only two of the 15 B. clarridgeiae-infected cats. No significant differences were observed for prevalence between male and female cats and between different age groups. No evident association was observed between the presence of Bartonella species in cats and in their fleas.

  12. Prostatitis, Steatitis, and Diarrhea in a Dog following Presumptive Flea-Borne Transmission of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. PMID:24920774

  13. Volatiles emissions from the flea beetle Altica litigata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) associated with invasive Ludwigia hexapetala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water primrose flea beetle Altica litigata (family Chrysomelidae) is a known insect pest to several nursery plants due to its aggressive feeding behavior – typically carried out in significant numbers. This aggregate feeding usually results in severe defoliation of their host plant. However, bec...

  14. Characterization of a Pantoea stewartii TTSS gene required for persistence in its flea beetle vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stewart's bacterial wilt of maize is caused by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), a bacterium that is transmitted by the flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria. Few studies have focused on the molecular basis of the interactions of Pnss with its vector. Genome analyses indicated that Pnss carri...

  15. A new flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus (Siphonaptera, Pygiopsyllidae) from Salta Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    López-Berrizbeitia, M Fernanda; Hastriter, Michael W; Barquez, Rubén M; Díaz, M Mónica

    2015-01-01

    A new species of flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus Jordan, 1931 (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae) is described from Phyllotisosilae J. A. Allen, 1901, from Salta Province, Argentina. This is the first time that Ctenidiosomus has been recorded in Argentina. A key to species of males of Ctenidiosomus is presented.

  16. A new flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus (Siphonaptera, Pygiopsyllidae) from Salta Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    López-Berrizbeitia, M. Fernanda; Hastriter, Michael W.; Barquez, Rubén M.; Díaz, M. Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus Jordan, 1931 (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae) is described from Phyllotis osilae J. A. Allen, 1901, from Salta Province, Argentina. This is the first time that Ctenidiosomus has been recorded in Argentina. A key to species of males of Ctenidiosomus is presented. PMID:26257563

  17. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: an example with fleas on prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions.

  18. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs☆

    PubMed Central

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

  19. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Doherty, Paul F; Gage, Kenneth L; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Long, Dustin H; Antolin, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

  20. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Anthony R; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J; Holder, Michael E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2015-05-19

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  1. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Anthony R.; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J.; Holder, Michael E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J.; Shelburne, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  2. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia Asemboensis in Fleas from Human Habitats, Asembo, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice N.; Knobel, Darryn L.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Laudisoit, Anne; Wamburu, Kabura; Ogola, Eric; Parola, Philippe; Breiman, Robert F.; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) (Rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. Murine typhus has been known to be endemic to Kenya since the 1950s, but FBSF was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) Kenya. To characterize the potential exposure of humans in Kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea) were collected from domestic and peridomestic animals and from human dwellings within Asembo, western Kenya. DNA was extracted from the 134 pooled flea samples and 89 (66.4%) pools tested positively for rickettsial DNA by 2 genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays based upon the citrate synthase (gltA) and 17-kD antigen genes and the Rfelis qPCR assay. Sequences from the 17-kD antigen gene, the outer membrane protein (omp)B, and 2 R. felis plasmid genes (pRF and pRFd) of 12 selected rickettsia-positive samples revealed a unique Rickettsia sp. (n=11) and R. felis (n=1). Depiction of the new rickettsia by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) targeting the 16S rRNA (rrs), 17-kD antigen gene, gltA, ompA, ompB, and surface cell antigen 4 (sca4), shows that it is most closely related to R. felis but genetically dissimilar enough to be considered a separate species provisionally named Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis. Subsequently, 81 of the 134 (60.4%) flea pools tested positively for Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis by a newly developed agent-specific qPCR assay, Rasemb. R. felis was identified in 9 of the 134 (6.7%) flea pools, and R. typhi the causative agent of murine typhus was not detected in any of 78 rickettsia-positive pools assessed using a species-specific qPCR assay, Rtyph. Two pools were found to contain both R. felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis DNA and 1

  3. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Methodology/Principal findings Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Conclusion Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high. PMID:25299702

  4. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, Asembo, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice N; Knobel, Darryn L; Cleaveland, Sarah; Laudisoit, Anne; Wamburu, Kabura; Ogola, Eric; Parola, Philippe; Breiman, Robert F; Njenga, M Kariuki; Richards, Allen L

    2013-08-01

    The flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) (Rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. Murine typhus has been known to be endemic to Kenya since the 1950s, but FBSF was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) Kenya. To characterize the potential exposure of humans in Kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea) were collected from domestic and peridomestic animals and from human dwellings within Asembo, western Kenya. DNA was extracted from the 134 pooled flea samples and 89 (66.4%) pools tested positively for rickettsial DNA by 2 genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays based upon the citrate synthase (gltA) and 17-kD antigen genes and the Rfelis qPCR assay. Sequences from the 17-kD antigen gene, the outer membrane protein (omp)B, and 2 R. felis plasmid genes (pRF and pRFd) of 12 selected rickettsia-positive samples revealed a unique Rickettsia sp. (n=11) and R. felis (n=1). Depiction of the new rickettsia by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) targeting the 16S rRNA (rrs), 17-kD antigen gene, gltA, ompA, ompB, and surface cell antigen 4 (sca4), shows that it is most closely related to R. felis but genetically dissimilar enough to be considered a separate species provisionally named Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis. Subsequently, 81 of the 134 (60.4%) flea pools tested positively for Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis by a newly developed agent-specific qPCR assay, Rasemb. R. felis was identified in 9 of the 134 (6.7%) flea pools, and R. typhi the causative agent of murine typhus was not detected in any of 78 rickettsia-positive pools assessed using a species-specific qPCR assay, Rtyph. Two pools were found to contain both R. felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis DNA and 1 pool

  5. Evaluation of the Murine Immune Response to Xenopsylla cheopis Flea Saliva and Its Effect on Transmission of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Bosio, Christopher F.; Viall, Austin K.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Gardner, Donald; Rood, Michael P.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Arthropod-borne pathogens are transmitted into a unique intradermal microenvironment that includes the saliva of their vectors. Immunomodulatory factors in the saliva can enhance infectivity; however, in some cases the immune response that develops to saliva from prior uninfected bites can inhibit infectivity. Most rodent reservoirs of Yersinia pestis experience fleabites regularly, but the effect this has on the dynamics of flea-borne transmission of plague has never been investigated. We examined the innate and acquired immune response of mice to bites of Xenopsylla cheopis and its effects on Y. pestis transmission and disease progression in both naïve mice and mice chronically exposed to flea bites. Methods/Principal Findings The immune response of C57BL/6 mice to uninfected flea bites was characterized by flow cytometry, histology, and antibody detection methods. In naïve mice, flea bites induced mild inflammation with limited recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the bite site. Infectivity and host response in naïve mice exposed to flea bites followed immediately by intradermal injection of Y. pestis did not differ from that of mice infected with Y. pestis without prior flea feeding. With prolonged exposure, an IgG1 antibody response primarily directed to the predominant component of flea saliva, a family of 36–45 kDa phosphatase-like proteins, occurred in both laboratory mice and wild rats naturally exposed to X. cheopis, but a hypersensitivity response never developed. The incidence and progression of terminal plague following challenge by infective blocked fleas were equivalent in naïve mice and mice sensitized to flea saliva by repeated exposure to flea bites over a 10-week period. Conclusions Unlike what is observed with many other blood-feeding arthropods, the murine immune response to X. cheopis saliva is mild and continued exposure to flea bites leads more to tolerance than to hypersensitivity. The immune response to flea

  6. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and Ctenocephalides felis fleas from southeastern Tunisia by reverse line blot assay.

    PubMed

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Bouattour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia.

  7. Classic flea-borne transmission does not drive plague epizootics in prairie dogs

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Colleen T.; Brooks, Christopher P.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    We lack a clear understanding of the enzootic maintenance of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague and the sporadic epizootics that occur in its natural rodent hosts. A key to elucidating these epidemiological dynamics is determining the dominant transmission routes of plague. Plague can be acquired from the bites of infectious fleas (which is generally considered to occur via a blocked flea vector), inhalation of infectious respiratory droplets, or contact with a short-term infectious reservoir. We present results from a plague modeling approach that includes transmission from all three sources of infection simultaneously and uses sensitivity analysis to determine their relative importance. Our model is completely parameterized by using data from the literature and our own field studies of plague in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). Results of the model are qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with independent data from our field sites. Although infectious fleas might be an important source of infection and transmission via blocked fleas is a dominant paradigm in the literature, our model clearly predicts that this form of transmission cannot drive epizootics in prairie dogs. Rather, a short-term reservoir is required for epizootic dynamics. Several short-term reservoirs have the potential to affect the prairie dog system. Our model predictions of the residence time of the short-term reservoir suggest that other small mammals, infectious prairie dog carcasses, fleas that transmit plague without blockage of the digestive tract, or some combination of these three are the most likely of the candidate infectious reservoirs. PMID:16603630

  8. Prevalence of Fleas and Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Roaming Cats in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P<0.01), between season and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

  9. Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Germinal J; Guerrero, Roberto I; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P<0.01), between season and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094).

  10. Factors Associated With Emergency Department Visits: A Multistate Analysis of Adult Fee-for-Service Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Parul; Bias, Thomas K.; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Nethra; Frisbee, Stephanie; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association of patient- and county-level factors with the emergency department (ED) visits among adult fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid beneficiaries residing in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. Methods A cross-sectional design using retrospective observational data was implemented. Patient-level data were obtained from 2010 Medicaid Analytic eXtract files. Information on county-level health-care resources was obtained from the Area Health Resource file and County Health Rankings file. Results In adjusted analyses, the following patient-level factors were associated with higher number of ED visits: African Americans (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 1.47), Hispanics (IRR = 1.63), polypharmacy (IRR = 1.89), and tobacco use (IRR = 2.23). Patients with complex chronic illness had a higher number of ED visits (IRR = 3.33). The county-level factors associated with ED visits were unemployment rate (IRR = 0.94) and number of urgent care clinics (IRR = 0.96). Conclusion Patients with complex healthcare needs had a higher number of ED visits as compared to those without complex healthcare needs. The study results provide important baseline context for future policy analysis studies around Medicaid expansion options.

  11. Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Fesmire, Francis M; Brown, Michael D; Espinosa, James A; Shih, Richard D; Silvers, Scott M; Wolf, Stephen J; Decker, Wyatt W

    2011-06-01

    This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians is the revision of a 2003 clinical policy on the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE).(1) A writing subcommittee reviewed the literature to derive evidence-based recommendations to help clinicians answer the following critical questions: (1) Do objective criteria provide improved risk stratification over gestalt clinical assessment in the evaluation of patients with possible PE? (2) What is the utility of the Pulmonary Embolism Rule-out Criteria (PERC) in the evaluation of patients with suspected PE? (3)What is the role of quantitative D-dimer testing in the exclusion of PE? (4) What is the role of computed tomography pulmonary angiogram of the chest as the sole diagnostic test in the exclusion of PE? (5) What is the role of venous imaging in the evaluation of patients with suspected PE? (6) What are the indications for thrombolytic therapy in patients with PE? Evidence was graded and recommendations were given based on the strength of the available data in the medical literature. PMID:21621092

  12. Factors Associated With Emergency Department Visits: A Multistate Analysis of Adult Fee-for-Service Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Parul; Bias, Thomas K.; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Nethra; Frisbee, Stephanie; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association of patient- and county-level factors with the emergency department (ED) visits among adult fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid beneficiaries residing in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. Methods A cross-sectional design using retrospective observational data was implemented. Patient-level data were obtained from 2010 Medicaid Analytic eXtract files. Information on county-level health-care resources was obtained from the Area Health Resource file and County Health Rankings file. Results In adjusted analyses, the following patient-level factors were associated with higher number of ED visits: African Americans (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 1.47), Hispanics (IRR = 1.63), polypharmacy (IRR = 1.89), and tobacco use (IRR = 2.23). Patients with complex chronic illness had a higher number of ED visits (IRR = 3.33). The county-level factors associated with ED visits were unemployment rate (IRR = 0.94) and number of urgent care clinics (IRR = 0.96). Conclusion Patients with complex healthcare needs had a higher number of ED visits as compared to those without complex healthcare needs. The study results provide important baseline context for future policy analysis studies around Medicaid expansion options. PMID:27512721

  13. Acute post-disaster medical needs of patients with diabetes: emergency department use in New York City by diabetic adults after Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David C; Gupta, Vibha K; Carr, Brendan G; Malik, Sidrah; Ferguson, Brandy; Wall, Stephen P; Smith, Silas W; Goldfrank, Lewis R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acute impact of disasters on diabetic patients, we performed a geospatial analysis of emergency department (ED) use by New York City diabetic adults in the week after Hurricane Sandy. Research design and methods Using an all-payer claims database, we retrospectively analyzed the demographics, insurance status, and medical comorbidities of post-disaster ED patients with diabetes who lived in the most geographically vulnerable areas. We compared the patterns of ED use among diabetic adults in the first week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall to utilization before the disaster in 2012. Results In the highest level evacuation zone in New York City, postdisaster increases in ED visits for a primary or secondary diagnosis of diabetes were attributable to a significantly higher proportion of Medicare patients. Emergency visits for a primary diagnosis of diabetes had an increased frequency of certain comorbidities, including hypertension, recent procedure, and chronic skin ulcers. Patients with a history of diabetes visited EDs in increased numbers after Hurricane Sandy for a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction, prescription refills, drug dependence, dialysis, among other conditions. Conclusions We found that diabetic adults aged 65 years and older are especially at risk for requiring postdisaster emergency care compared to other vulnerable populations. Our findings also suggest that there is a need to support diabetic adults particularly in the week after a disaster by ensuring access to medications, aftercare for patients who had a recent procedure, and optimize their cardiovascular health to reduce the risk of heart attacks. PMID:27547418

  14. Emergence of Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus Adult Invasive Disease in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada, Is Driven by Clonal Sequence Type 459 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; Athey, Taryn B. T.; Van Caeseele, Paul; Horsman, Greg; Alexander, David C.; Melano, Roberto G.; Li, Aimin; Flores, Anthony R.; Shelburne, Samuel A.; McGeer, Allison; Demczuk, Walter; Martin, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Serotype IV group B Streptococcus (GBS) is emerging in Canada and the United States with rates as high as 5% of the total burden of adult invasive GBS disease. To understand this emergence, we studied the population structure and assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of serotype IV isolates causing adult invasive infection in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2010 and 2014. Whole-genome sequencing was used to determine multilocus sequence typing information and identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistance in 85 invasive serotype IV GBS strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standard methods. Strain divergence was assessed using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Serotype IV strains were responsible for 16.9% of adult invasive GBS infections in Manitoba and Saskatchewan during the period. The majority of serotype IV isolates (89%) were clonally related, tetracycline-, erythromycin-, and clindamycin-resistant sequence type 459 (ST459) strains that possessed genes tetM and ermTR. Genome comparisons between ST459 and serotype V ST1 GBS identified several areas of recombination in an overall similar genomic background. Serotype IV ST459 GBS strains are expanding and causing a substantial percentage of adult invasive GBS disease. This emergence may be linked to the acquisition of resistance to tetracycline, macrolides, and lincosamides. PMID:26135871

  15. The fate of the embedded virgin sand flea Tunga penetrans: hypothesis, self-experimentation and photographic sequence.

    PubMed

    Thielecke, Marlene; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    We describe the morphological development of a single penetrated female sand flea (Tunga penetrans) in a medical expatriate working in Madagascar. The embedded parasite developed abnormally in two aspects. First, it lived twice as long as usually. Second, it did not expel a single egg during a period of two months. We explain these abnormalities by the fact that the female sand flea remained virgin after the penetration into the skin and, therefore, mature eggs did not develop. Our observations are seminal findings in a long dispute between entomologists and suggest that normally the fertilization of a female sand flea takes place on-host when it is already embedded in the epidermis. We conclude that a single sand flea lesion in a traveller may develop in a different way as compared to parasites penetrating into the skin of inhabitants living in endemic areas. PMID:24225219

  16. Identification of Rickettsia africae and Wolbachia sp. in Ceratophyllus garei Fleas from Passerine Birds Migrated from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sekeyová, Zuzana; Mediannikov, Oleg; Roux, Véronique; Subramanian, Geetha; Špitalská, Eva; Kristofík, Jano; Darolová, Alžbeta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to reveal new aspects of the role of flea vector taken from migratory birds by screening of specimens with molecular biological methods. A field study was done in fishponds in Slovakia. Actually, 47 fleas were collected from reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) and their nests. DNA was extracted and analyzed for representatives of the orders Rickettsiales. A rickettsia that shares 99.7% of identity by gltA gene with Rickettsia africae was identified in Ceratophyllus garei collected from A. scirpaceus. Moreover, two Wolbachia sp. were also detected in fleas. This is the first record of R. africae and Wolbachia sp. identified so far in Central Europe in fleas collected from migratory bird returning from Africa. This molecular study extends the geographic range and vector spectrum of arthropod-borne agents. PMID:22448745

  17. Role of the Yersinia pestis yersiniabactin iron acquisition system in the incidence of flea-borne plague.

    PubMed

    Sebbane, Florent; Jarrett, Clayton; Gardner, Donald; Long, Daniel; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2010-12-17

    Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mutants lacking the yersiniabactin (Ybt) siderophore-based iron transport system are avirulent when inoculated intradermally but fully virulent when inoculated intravenously in mice. Presumably, Ybt is required to provide sufficient iron at the peripheral injection site, suggesting that Ybt would be an essential virulence factor for flea-borne plague. Here, using a flea-to-mouse transmission model, we show that a Y. pestis strain lacking the Ybt system causes fatal plague at low incidence when transmitted by fleas. Bacteriology and histology analyses revealed that a Ybt-negative strain caused only primary septicemic plague and atypical bubonic plague instead of the typical bubonic form of disease. The results provide new evidence that primary septicemic plague is a distinct clinical entity and suggest that unusual forms of plague may be caused by atypical Y. pestis strains.

  18. Reference gene selection and RNA preservation protocol in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, for gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Catriona H; Baird, John; Zinser, Erich; Woods, Debra J; Campbell, Ewan M; Bowman, Alan S

    2016-10-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is a major pest species on companion animals thus of significant importance to the animal health industry. The aim of this study was to develop sampling and storage protocols and identify stable reference genes for gene expression studies to fully utilize the growing body of molecular knowledge of C. felis. RNA integrity was assessed in adult and larvae samples, which were either pierced or not pierced and stored in RNAlater at ambient temperature. RNA quality was maintained best in pierced samples, with negligible degradation evident after 10 days. RNA quality from non-pierced samples was poor within 3 days. Ten candidate reference genes were evaluated for their stability across four group comparisons (developmental stages, genders, feeding statuses and insecticide-treatment statuses). Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 60S ribosomal protein L19 (RPL19) and elongation factor-1α (Ef) were ranked highly in all stability comparisons, thus are recommended as reference genes under similar conditions. Employing just two of these three stable reference genes was sufficient for accurate normalization. Our results make a significant contribution to the future of gene expression studies in C. felis, describing validated sample preparation procedures and reference genes for use in this common pest.

  19. Phyllotreta striolata flea beetles use host plant defense compounds to create their own glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Pauchet, Yannick; Kunert, Grit; Reichelt, Michael; Wielsch, Natalie; Vogel, Heiko; Reinecke, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Mewis, Inga; Schmid, Daniela; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Ulrichs, Christian; Hansson, Bill S; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G

    2014-05-20

    The ability of a specialized herbivore to overcome the chemical defense of a particular plant taxon not only makes it accessible as a food source but may also provide metabolites to be exploited for communication or chemical defense. Phyllotreta flea beetles are adapted to crucifer plants (Brassicales) that are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, the so-called "mustard-oil bomb." Tissue damage caused by insect feeding brings glucosinolates into contact with the plant enzyme myrosinase, which hydrolyzes them to form toxic compounds, such as isothiocyanates. However, we previously observed that Phyllotreta striolata beetles themselves produce volatile glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Here, we show that P. striolata adults selectively accumulate glucosinolates from their food plants to up to 1.75% of their body weight and express their own myrosinase. By combining proteomics and transcriptomics, a gene responsible for myrosinase activity in P. striolata was identified. The major substrates of the heterologously expressed myrosinase were aliphatic glucosinolates, which were hydrolyzed with at least fourfold higher efficiency than aromatic and indolic glucosinolates, and β-O-glucosides. The identified beetle myrosinase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and has up to 76% sequence similarity to other β-glucosidases. Phylogenetic analyses suggest species-specific diversification of this gene family in insects and an independent evolution of the beetle myrosinase from other insect β-glucosidases. PMID:24799680

  20. Deltamethrin flea-control preserves genetic variability of black-tailed prairie dogs during a plague outbreak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, P.H.; Biggins, D.E.; Eads, D.A.; Eads, S.L.; Britten, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability and structure of nine black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies were estimated with 15 unlinked microsatellite markers. A plague epizootic occurred between the first and second years of sampling and our study colonies were nearly extirpated with the exception of three colonies in which prairie dog burrows were previously dusted with an insecticide, deltamethrin, used to control fleas (vectors of the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis). This situation provided context to compare genetic variability and structure among dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic, and among the three dusted colonies pre- and post-epizootic. We found no statistical difference in population genetic structures between dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic. On dusted colonies, gene flow and recent migration rates increased from the first (pre-epizootic) year to the second (post-epizootic) year which suggested dusted colonies were acting as refugia for prairie dogs from surrounding colonies impacted by plague. Indeed, in the dusted colonies, estimated densities of adult prairie dogs (including dispersers), but not juveniles (non-dispersers), increased from the first year to the second year. In addition to preserving BTPDs and many species that depend on them, protecting colonies with deltamethrin or a plague vaccine could be an effective method to preserve genetic variability of prairie dogs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.