Science.gov

Sample records for adult fly heads

  1. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  2. Sex-Biased Gene Expression during Head Development in a Sexually Dimorphic Stalk-Eyed Fly

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Johns, Philip M.; Metheny, Jackie D.; Baker, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae) are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and related sexually

  3. Modeling heading in adult soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ernesto; Ponce, Daniel; Andresen, Max

    2014-01-01

    Heading soccer balls can generate mild brain injuries and in the long run can lead to difficulty in solving problems, memory deficits, and language difficulties. Researchers evaluated the effects on the head for both correct and incorrect heading techniques. They based the head's geometry on medical images. They determined the injury's magnitude by comparing the neurological tissue's resistance with predictions of the generated stresses. The evaluation examined fast playing conditions in adult soccer, taking into account the ball's speed and the type of impact. Mathematical simulations using the finite element method indicated that correctly heading balls arriving at moderate speed presents a low risk of brain injury. However, damage can happen around the third cervical vertebra. These results coincide with medical studies. Incorrect heading greatly increases the brain injury risk and can alter the parietal area. PMID:25248195

  4. Observations on Hilltopping in Thick-Headed Flies (Diptera: Conopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Maurizio; Gibson, Joel F.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observations of hilltopping behaviour in the thick-headed flies (Diptera: Conopidae) have only been mentioned once in the literature. Hilltop collecting, however, may be an effective way to survey these endparasitoids. The first evidence of hilltopping in species belonging to the subfamilies Myopinae and Dalmanniinae is presented and discussed. Field observations were conducted on Colle Vescovo, Italy and Mount Rigaud, Canada, and museum specimens were examined. Observations and records indicate that four species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, and Zodion are hilltoppers on Colle Vescovo, while three species in the genera Myopa and Physocephala are hilltoppers on three hilltops near Ottawa, Canada. Fifteen additional species of conopids have been collected on hilltops and could possibly utilize hilltops in some years as a part of their mating strategy. Detailed phenologies and observations of mating and perching behaviours are given for species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, Physocephala, and Zodion. The importance of hilltop habitat preservation is stressed. PMID:20578949

  5. Saccadic head rotations during walking in the stalk-eyed fly (Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni).

    PubMed

    Ribak, Gal; Egge, Alison R; Swallow, John G

    2009-05-01

    In stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae), the eyes are positioned at the end of rigid peduncles protruding laterally from the head. Sexual selection for eye span in male Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni results in eye span that exceeds body length and exceeds the eye span of females. We studied whether the twofold higher moment of inertia (MOI) of the male head results in a reduced head rotation velocity during turning. We analysed films of flies performing walking turns and compared the head kinematics between the sexes. The significance of head rotation to turning was evaluated from the turning kinematics of flies with immobilized (glued) heads. Male and female C. dalmanni rotated their heads relative to the surrounding environment 1.55-fold (male) and 1.65-fold (female) faster than the angular velocity of the body by performing rapid head saccades. During the larger turns, flies with immobilized heads were unable to reorient gaze as fast as the control flies. Despite the larger MOI of the head, male C. dalmanni match the head saccade of females suggesting that eye span elongation is coupled by an adaptation of the neck apparatus to rotate the wider head. PMID:19203925

  6. The Role of Eye and Head Movements in Detecting Information about Fly Balls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bongers, Raoul M.; Michaels, Claire F.

    2008-01-01

    The authors attempted to identify perceptual mechanisms that pick up information for initiating a run to catch fly balls and for judging their landing locations. Fly balls have been shown to be tracked with the eyes and head (R. R. D. Oudejans, C. F. Michaels, F. C. Bakker, & K. Davids, 1999). This raised the question of whether constraining eye…

  7. How Bar-Headed Geese Fly Over the Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Lucy A.; Frappell, Peter B.; Butler, Patrick J.; Bishop, Charles M.; Milsom, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Bar-headed geese cross the Himalayas on one of the most iconic high-altitude migrations in the world. Heart rates and metabolic costs of flight increase with elevation and can be near maximal during steep climbs. Their ability to sustain the high oxygen demands of flight in air that is exceedingly oxygen-thin depends on the unique cardiorespiratory physiology of birds in general along with several evolved specializations across the O2 transport cascade. PMID:25729056

  8. The steady flying of a plasmonic flying head over a photoresist-coated surface in a near-field photolithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jiaxin; Hu, Yueqiang; Meng, Yonggang; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Li, Shayu; Yang, Guoqiang

    2016-05-01

    The near-field photolithography technique (NFPT) offers a new approach of nanolithography for a dramatic increase in the resolution with high throughput and low cost. The NFPT utilizes the same flight principle as that of the magnetic head of hard-disk drives but replacing the magnetic head with a plasmonic flying head. The plasmonic flying head, which can focus the incident laser beam to a spot size of sub-20 nm with an enhanced field intensity by exciting surface plasmon polaritons, takes off and then flies steadily above the revolving disk coated by a photoresist film to be patterned with a narrow gap of tens of nanometers. As a key foundation of the NFPT, the take off and flight stability of the plasmonic flying head affects the pattern density and the fabrication efficiency. This work proposed and investigated a molecular glass photoresist, named FPT-8Boc, for the large-scale consistent fabrication with the NFPT. To overcome the take-off problem of the head over the soft photoresist film, a transition zone is intentionally formed by washing off the coated photoresist in the outer area of the disk using a solvent. The simulation results by COMSOL Multiphysics software and quasi-Newton iteration method review that the matched transition zone height with spreading length can guarantee the flight stability of the plasmonic flying head on the soft photoresist. Using this method, a preliminary photolithography result with a 31 nm line width has been achieved.

  9. The steady flying of a plasmonic flying head over a photoresist-coated surface in a near-field photolithography system.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jiaxin; Hu, Yueqiang; Meng, Yonggang; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Li, Shayu; Yang, Guoqiang

    2016-05-01

    The near-field photolithography technique (NFPT) offers a new approach of nanolithography for a dramatic increase in the resolution with high throughput and low cost. The NFPT utilizes the same flight principle as that of the magnetic head of hard-disk drives but replacing the magnetic head with a plasmonic flying head. The plasmonic flying head, which can focus the incident laser beam to a spot size of sub-20 nm with an enhanced field intensity by exciting surface plasmon polaritons, takes off and then flies steadily above the revolving disk coated by a photoresist film to be patterned with a narrow gap of tens of nanometers. As a key foundation of the NFPT, the take off and flight stability of the plasmonic flying head affects the pattern density and the fabrication efficiency. This work proposed and investigated a molecular glass photoresist, named FPT-8Boc, for the large-scale consistent fabrication with the NFPT. To overcome the take-off problem of the head over the soft photoresist film, a transition zone is intentionally formed by washing off the coated photoresist in the outer area of the disk using a solvent. The simulation results by COMSOL Multiphysics software and quasi-Newton iteration method review that the matched transition zone height with spreading length can guarantee the flight stability of the plasmonic flying head on the soft photoresist. Using this method, a preliminary photolithography result with a 31 nm line width has been achieved. PMID:27010406

  10. Proprioceptive encoding of head position in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Paulk, Angelique; Gilbert, Cole

    2006-10-01

    Because the eyes of insects cannot be moved independently of the head, information about head posture is essential for stabilizing the visual world or providing information about the direction of gaze. We examined the external anatomy and physiological capabilities of a head posture proprioceptor, the prosternal organ (PO), located at the base of the neck in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Family: Stratiomyidae). The PO is sexually isomorphic and is composed of two fused plates of about 130 mechanosensory hairs set in asymmetrical sockets whose orientation varies across the organ. A multi-joint mechanical coupling between the head, neck membrane, and contact sclerites deflects the hairs more or less to increase or decrease their level of excitation. The PO sensory afferents project to the central nervous system (CNS) via a pair of bilateral prosternal nerves (PN) to the fused thoracic ganglia. Simultaneous recording of spiking activity in the PN and videotaping of wind-induced and voluntary head movements around all three axes of head rotation reveal that a few PN afferents are active at rest, but activity increases tonically in response to head deflections. Activity is significantly modulated by change in head angles around the pitch (+/-40 degrees ), yaw (+/-30 degrees ) and roll (more than +/-90 degrees ) axes, although the dynamic range of spiking activity differs for each axis of rotation. Prosternal nerve afferents are bilaterally excited (inhibited) by pitch down (up); excited (inhibited) by head yaw toward the ipsilateral (contralateral) side; excited by roll down toward the ipsilateral side, but little inhibited by roll toward the opposite side. Although bilateral comparison of activity in PN afferents reliably encodes head posture around a given rotational axis, from the point of view of the CNS, the problem of encoding head posture is ill-posed with three axes of rotation and only two streams of afferent information. Furthermore, when the

  11. Evaluation of yeast products in fruit fly adult diet and liquid larval diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several yeasts and yeast products were tested as components of adult diet for Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae and larval liquid diet for Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis in mass rearing process. Three hydrolyzed yeasts ...

  12. Dietary wheat germ oil and age influences fatty acid compositions in adult oriental fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterile Insect Technique programs have been developed for management of several tephritid fruit fly pests. These programs are based on continous production of adult fruit flies. The high expense of mass-rearing oriental fruit flies drive research to improve the cost effectiveness of rearing programs...

  13. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure. PMID:12076006

  14. The search for sand fly adults in a village in southern Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are several good papers in the literature describing methods for collecting adult phlebotomine sand flies from habitats putatively used for resting sites. The published data from such searches demonstrate that finding adult sand flies can be quite difficult even when using established methods....

  15. Prefractionation methods for individual adult fruit fly hemolymph proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qi; Avilov, Vitaly; Shippy, Scott A

    2016-03-15

    The analysis of blood provides in depth chemical information of physiological states of organisms. Hemolymph (blood) is the fluid in the open circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster that is the medium for molecules regulating a wide variety of physiological activities and signaling between tissues. Adult Drosophila is typically less than 3mm in length and, as a consequence, the available volume of hemolymph is usually less than 50nL from individual flies. Proteomic analysis of volume-limited hemolymph is a great challenge for both sample handling and subsequent mass spectrometry characterization of this chemically diverse biological fluid with a wide dynamic range of proteins in concentrations. Less abundant proteins, in particular, could be easily lost during sample preparation or missed by current mass spectrometry methods. This article describes simple and customized RPLC column and IEX columns to prefractionate volume-limited hemolymph without excessive dilution. Step-gradient elution methods were developed and optimized to enhance the identification of novel proteins from an individual fruit fly hemolymph sample. Fractions from each step gradient was analyzed by an Agilent nano-RPLC chip column and then characterized by high mass resolution and high mass accuracy orbitrap mass spectrometry. As a result, both RPLC (11 proteins) and IEX fractionation approaches (9 proteins) identified more proteins than an unfractionated control approach with higher protein scores, emPAI values and coverage. Furthermore, a significant number of novel proteins were revealed by both RPLC and IEX fractionation methods, which were missed by unfractionated controls. The demonstration of this method establishes a means to deepen proteomic analysis to this commonly used, important biological model system. PMID:26901848

  16. Molecular phylogenetic profiling of gut-associated bacteria in larvae and adults of flesh flies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Rastogi, G; Nayduch, D; Sawant, S S; Bhonde, R R; Shouche, Y S

    2014-12-01

    Flesh flies of the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are carrion-breeding, necrophagous insects important in medical and veterinary entomology as potential transmitters of pathogens to humans and animals. Our aim was to analyse the diversity of gut-associated bacteria in wild-caught larvae and adult flesh flies using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from cultured isolates and clone libraries revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the guts of larval and adult flesh flies. Bacteria cultured from larval and adult flesh fly guts belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Budvicia, Citrobacter, Dermacoccus, Enterococcus, Ignatzschineria, Lysinibacillus, Myroides, Pasteurella, Proteus, Providencia and Staphylococcus. Phylogenetic analysis showed clone sequences of the genera Aeromonas, Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Citrobacter, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Ignatzschineria, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Propionibacterium, Proteus, Providencia, Serratia, Sporosarcina, Weissella and Wohlfahrtiimonas. Species of clinically significant genera such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtiimonas spp. were detected in both larvae and adult flesh flies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries supported culture-based results and revealed the presence of additional bacterial taxa. This study determined the diversity of gut microbiota in flesh flies, which will bolster the ability to assess microbiological risk associated with the presence of these flies. The present data thereby establish a platform for a much larger study. PMID:24805263

  17. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-E. coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult house flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas where humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. We investigated ...

  18. FLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flies constitute a major group of nuisance species world wide in rural and urban situations. The public and health care officials can become more aware of the potential risks from flies and other urban pests by compiling the available information into an easily readable book form. Scientists from ...

  19. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  20. Evaluation of yeasts and yeast products in larval and adult diets for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and adult diets for the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, and the melon fly, Bactrocera curcurbitae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several yeasts and yeast products were tested as components of adult diet for Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae and larval liquid diet for Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis in mass rearing process. Three hydrolyzed yeasts...

  1. A revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchet, L.G.; Bolch, W.E.; Weber, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    During the last decade, new radiopharmaceutical have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more anthropomorphic model of the human brain and head. Brain and head models developed in the past have been only simplistic representations of this anatomic region. For example, the brain within the phantom of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised is modeled simply as a single ellipsoid of tissue With no differentiation of its internal structures. To address this need, the MIRD Committee established a Task Group in 1992 to construct a more detailed brain model to include the cerebral cortex, the white matter, the cerebellum, the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the lentiform nucleus, the cerebral spinal fluid, the lateral ventricles, and the third ventricle. This brain model has been included within a slightly modified version of the head model developed by Poston et al. in 1984. This model has been incorporated into the radiation transport code EGS4 so as to calculate photon and electron absorbed fractions in the energy range 10 keV to 4 MeV for each of thirteen sources in the brain. Furthermore, explicit positron transport have been considered, separating the contribution by the positron itself and its associated annihilations photons. No differences are found between the electron and positron absorbed fractions; however, for initial energies of positrons greater than {approximately}0.5 MeV, significant differences are found between absorbed fractions from explicit transport of annihilation photons and those from an assumed uniform distribution of 0.511-MeV photons. Subsequently, S values were calculated for a variety of beta-particle and positron emitters brain imaging agents. Moreover, pediatric head and brain dosimetric models are currently being developed based on this adult head model.

  2. The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, J; Zandveld, J; Mulder, M; Brakefield, P M; Kirkwood, T B L; Shanley, D P; Zwaan, B J

    2014-01-01

    Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both experiments, we kept adults on constant high or low food and compared these to flies that experienced fluctuations of food either once or twice a week. For these ‘yoyo’ groups, the initial food level and the duration of the dietary variation differed during adulthood, creating four ‘yoyo’ fly groups. In groups of flies, survival and weight were affected by adult food. However, for individuals, survival and reproduction, but not weight, were affected by adult food, indicating that single and group housing of female flies affects life-history trajectories. Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion. We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences. This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments. PMID:25417737

  3. Effect of methoprene application, adult food and feeding duration on male melon fly starvation survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and access to protein in adult diet has been shown to enhance mating success in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their incorporation into operational area-wide programmes integrating the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). T...

  4. Adult Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Treatment and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rabindra P.; Grimer, Robert J.; Bhujel, Nabina; Carter, Simon R.; Tillman, Roger M.; Abudu, Adesegun

    2008-01-01

    We have retrospectively analysed the experience of a musculoskeletal oncological unit in the management of adult head and neck soft tissue sarcomas from 1990 to 2005. Thirty-six patients were seen, of whom 24 were treated at this unit, the remainder only receiving advice. The median age of the patients was 46 years. Most of the sarcomas were deep and of high or intermediate grade with a median size of 5.5 cm. Eleven different histological subtypes were identified. Wide excision was possible only in 21% of the cases. 42% of the patients developed local recurrence and 42% developed metastatic disease usually in the lungs. Overall survival was 49% at 5 years. Tumour size was the most important prognostic factor. Adult head and neck soft tissue sarcomas have a high mortality rate with a high risk of local recurrence and metastatic disease. The rarity of the disease would suggest that centralisation of care could lead to increased expertise and better outcomes. PMID:18382622

  5. Biomechanics and neuropathology of adult and paediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Ommaya, A K; Goldsmith, W; Thibault, L

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the biomechanics in age-related primary traumatic brain injuries (TBI) causing initial severity and secondary progressive damage and to develop strategy reducing TBI outcome variability using biomechanical reconstruction to identify types of causal mechanisms prior to clinical trials of neuro-protective treatment. The methods included the explanation of TBI biomechanics and physiopathological mechanisms from dual perspectives of neurosurgery and biomechanical engineering. Scaling of tolerances for skull failure and brain injuries in infants, children and adults are developed. Diagnostic assumptions without biomechanical considerations are critiqued. Methods for retrospective TBI reconstruction for prevention are summarized. Mechanisms of TBI are based on the differences between the mechanical properties of the head and neck related to age. Skull fracture levels correlate with increasing cranial bone thickness and in the development of the cranial sutures in infants and in adults. Head injury tolerance levels at three age categories for cerebral concussion, skull fracture and three grades of diffuse axonal injuries (DAI) are presented. Brain mass correlates inversely for TBI caused by angular head motions and locations of injurious stresses are predictable by centripetal theory. Improved quantitative diagnosis of TBI type and severity levels depend primarily on age and biomechanical mechanisms. Reconstruction of the biomechanics is feasible and enables quantitative stratification of TBI severity. Experimental treatment has succeeded in preventing progressive damage in animal TBI models. In humans this has failed, because the animal model received biomechanically controlled TBI and humans did not. Clinical similarities of human TBI patients do not necessarily predict equivalent biomechanics because such trauma can be produced in various ways. We recommend 'reverse engineering' for in-depth reconstruction of the TBI injury

  6. Molecular phylogenetic profiling of gut-associated bacteria in larvae and adults of flesh flies (Sarcophaga spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flesh flies are carrion-breeding, necrophagous insects important in medical and veterinary entomology as potential transmitters of pathogens to humans and animals. Our aim was to analyze the diversity of gut associated bacteria in wild-caught larva and adult flesh flies using culture-dependent and c...

  7. Pupal x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We did protein analysis using 1-12-d-old adults from irradiated and non-irradiated oriental fruit fly pupae. We found that exposing pupae to x-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 30 proteins in adult males. There were 7 proteins (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd...

  8. Neofunctionalization of embryonic head patterning genes facilitates the positioning of novel traits on the dorsal head of adult beetles.

    PubMed

    Zattara, Eduardo E; Busey, Hannah A; Linz, David M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-13

    The origin and integration of novel traits are fundamental processes during the developmental evolution of complex organisms. Yet how novel traits integrate into pre-existing contexts remains poorly understood. Beetle horns represent a spectacular evolutionary novelty integrated within the context of the adult dorsal head, a highly conserved trait complex present since the origin of insects. We investigated whether otd1/2 and six3, members of a highly conserved gene network that instructs the formation of the anterior end of most bilaterians, also play roles in patterning more recently evolved traits. Using ablation-based fate-mapping, comparative larval RNA interference (RNAi) and transcript sequencing, we found that otd1/2, but not six3, play a fundamental role in the post-embryonic formation of the adult dorsal head and head horns of Onthophagus beetles. By contrast, neither gene appears to pattern the adult head of Tribolium flour beetles even though all are expressed in the dorsal head epidermis of both Onthophagus and Tribolium We propose that, at least in beetles, the roles of otd genes during post-embryonic development are decoupled from their embryonic functions, and that potentially non-functional post-embryonic expression in the dorsal head facilitated their co-option into a novel horn-patterning network during Onthophagus evolution. PMID:27412276

  9. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  10. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies.

    PubMed

    Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  11. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-10-01

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight were studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observation on smooth laboratory surfaces. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that escaped soil, fabric, and paper mulches over a soil or sand substrate ranged from 63 to 83, and 40-53%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that walked through the open interior of 1.52-6.10-m horizontal pipes of 1.5-2.0-cm inner diameter ranged from 57 to 81, and 27-61%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae that escaped through sand depths of 2.5-10.2, and 12.7-20.3 cm, ranged from 68 to 87, and 12-88%; and percentage adult females that escaped ranged from 46 to 58, and 38-70%, respectively. In 15.4-cm-inner-diameter pipes filled with different heights of sand, the highest percentage of the total number of adults that emerged in the control were found from 0 to 20.3 cm, and ranged from 37 to 71%. Ten to 47% of adults were found from 20.3 cm to below the surface, and 6-21% escaped to the top of 20.3-50.8 cm high sand columns. In column heights of 55.9 and 61 cm, pressures at the bottom caused by the weight of the sand above were 91.4 and 99.7 g/cm(2), respectively, and a mean of <1 adult escaped to the top. Before pupation, the late third instars were found to travel continuously for 6.9 h over 23.9 m at a speed of 6.0 cm per min, when placed on a smooth surface, at 22.2°C. Teneral females and males that could not fly, made ≍7 stops totaling 11-13 min, walked at a speed of 57-62 cm per min, and began a rest period of 83-84 min duration, at 85-89 min before flight. Males walked a distance of 13.1 m in 22 min, which was greater than females that walked for 9.6 m in 17 min, at 20-22°C and 35% RH. The

  12. Anthropogenic Factors Are the Major Cause of Hospital Admission of a Threatened Species, the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Scheelings, Titus Franciscus; Frith, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcomes of hospitalised grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Victoria, Australia, a retrospective analysis was performed on 532 records from two wildlife hospitals. Cases were categorised based on presenting signs and outcomes determined. Anthropogenic factors (63.7%) were a major cause of flying fox admissions with entanglement in fruit netting the most significant risk for bats (36.8%). Overall the mortality rate for flying fox admissions was 59.3%. This study highlights the effects of urbanisation on wild animal populations and a need for continued public education in order to reduce morbidity and mortality of wildlife, especially threatened species. PMID:26207984

  13. Anthropogenic Factors Are the Major Cause of Hospital Admission of a Threatened Species, the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Scheelings, Titus Franciscus; Frith, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcomes of hospitalised grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Victoria, Australia, a retrospective analysis was performed on 532 records from two wildlife hospitals. Cases were categorised based on presenting signs and outcomes determined. Anthropogenic factors (63.7%) were a major cause of flying fox admissions with entanglement in fruit netting the most significant risk for bats (36.8%). Overall the mortality rate for flying fox admissions was 59.3%. This study highlights the effects of urbanisation on wild animal populations and a need for continued public education in order to reduce morbidity and mortality of wildlife, especially threatened species. PMID:26207984

  14. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N H V; Nayduch, D

    2016-06-01

    The adult house fly Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) can disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas in which humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. This study investigated the dose-dependent survival of bacteria in house flies. Flies were fed four different 'doses' of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli (GFP E. coli) (very low, low, medium, high) and survival was determined at 1, 4, 10 and 22 h post-ingestion by culture and epifluorescent microscopy. Over 22 h, the decline in GFP E. coli was significant in all treatments (P < 0.04) except the very low dose treatment (P = 0.235). Change in survival (ΔS) did not differ between flies fed low and very low doses of bacteria across all time-points, although ΔS in both treatments differed from that in flies fed high and medium doses of bacteria at several time-points. At 4, 10 and 22 h, GFP E. coli ΔS significantly differed between medium and high dose-fed flies. A threshold dose, above which bacteria are detected and destroyed by house flies, may exist and is likely to be immune-mediated. Understanding dose-dependent bacterial survival in flies can help in predicting bacteria transmission potential. PMID:26843509

  15. Fire ant microsporidia acquired by parasitoid flies of fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microsporidium Kneallhazia (formerly Thelohania) solenopsae and parasitoid flies in the genus Pseudacteon are natural enemies of the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Pseudacteon flies oviposit into adult fire ants, where maggots that eclose from eggs migrate to the ants’ head, pupate, and...

  16. Enriching early adult environment affects the copulation behaviour of a tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Aluja, Martín

    2009-07-01

    Early adult experiences in enriched environments favours animal brain and behavioural development ultimately resulting in an increased fitness. However, measuring the effect of environmental enrichment in animal behaviour in nature is often a complicated task, considering the complexity of the natural environment. We expanded previous studies to evaluate how early experience in an enriched environment affects copulation behaviour when animals are confronted with a complex semi-natural environment. Anastrepha ludens flies are an ideal model system for studying these effects because their natural habitats differ significantly from the cage environments in which these flies are reared for biological control purposes. For example, in the field, males form leks of up to six individuals. Each male defends a territory represented by a tree leaf whereas in rearing cages, territories are completely reduced because of the high population density. In a series of three experiments, we observed that male density represented the most influential stimulus for A. ludens male copulation success. Males that experienced lower densities in early adulthood obtained the highest proportion of copulations. By contrast, female copulation behaviour was not altered by female density. However, exposure to natural or artificial leaves in cages in which flies were kept until tested influenced female copulation behaviour. Females that were exposed to enriched environments exhibited a shorter latency to mate and shorter copulation durations with males than females reared in poor environments. We discuss the influence of early experience on male copulation success and female-mating choosiness. PMID:19525439

  17. Changes in Head Stability Control in Response to a Lateral Perturbation while Walking in Older Adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    Falling is a main contributor of injury in older adults. The decline in sensory systems associated with aging limits information needed to successfully compensate for unexpected perturbations. Therefore, sensory changes result in older adults having problems maintaining balance stability when experiencing an unexpected lateral perturbation (e.g. slip) in the environment. The goal of this study was to determine head stability movement strategies used by older adults when experiencing an unexpected lateral perturbation during walking. A total of 16 healthy adults, aged 66-81 years, walked across a foam pathway 6 times. One piece of the foam pathway covered a movable platform that translated to the left when the subject stepped on the foam. Three trials were randomized in which the platform shifted. Angular rate sensors were placed on the center of mass for the head and trunk segments to collect head and trunk movement in all three planes of motion. The predominant movement strategies for maintaining head stability were determined from the results of the cross-correlation analyses between the head and trunk segments. The Chi square test of independence was used to evaluate the movement pattern distributions of head-trunk coordination during perturbed and non-perturbed walking. When perturbed, head stabilization was significantly challenged in the yaw and roll planes of motion. Subjects demonstrated a movement pattern of the head leading the trunk in an effort to stabilize the head. The older adult subjects used this head stabilization movement pattern to compensate for sensory changes when experiencing the unexpected lateral perturbation.

  18. Analysis of RF exposure in the head tissues of children and adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiart, J.; Hadjem, A.; Wong, M. F.; Bloch, I.

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes the radio frequencies (RF) exposure in the head tissues of children using a cellular handset or RF sources (a dipole and a generic handset) at 900, 1800, 2100 and 2400 MHz. Based on magnetic resonance imaging, child head models have been developed. The maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) over 10 g in the head has been analyzed in seven child and six adult heterogeneous head models. The influence of the variability in the same age class is carried out using models based on a morphing technique. The SAR over 1 g in specific tissues has also been assessed in the different types of child and adult head models. Comparisons are performed but nevertheless need to be confirmed since they have been derived from data sets of limited size. The simulations that have been performed show that the differences between the maximum SAR over 10 g estimated in the head models of the adults and the ones of the children are small compared to the standard deviations. But they indicate that the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues of the child models aged between 5 and 8 years is about two times higher than in adult models. This difference is not observed for the child models of children above 8 years old: the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues is about the same as the one in adult models. Such differences can be explained by the lower thicknesses of pinna, skin and skull of the younger child models.

  19. Effects of Elicitation Procedures on the Narratives of Normal and Closed Head-Injured Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Betty Z.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-three normal adults and four closed head-injured (CHI) adults with a high level of language recovery retold and generated stories. The two tasks differentially influenced the performance of both groups. The two groups differed in measures of cohesiveness and story grammar only in the story generation task. (Author/JDD)

  20. Aromatized to Find Mates: α-Pinene Aroma Boosts the Mating Success of Adult Olive Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of α-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. Methodology Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to α-pinene affects their sexual performance. Results Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of α-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to α-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. Conclusions This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications. PMID:24260571

  1. A revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchet, L.G.; Bolch, W.E.; Weber, D.A.; Atkins, H.L.; Poston, J.W. ||

    1996-07-01

    During the last decade, several new radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificicity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more antihropomorphic model of the human brain and head. Brain and head models developed in the past have comprised only simplistic representations of this anatomic region. A new brain model has been developed which includes eight subregions: the caudate nucleus, the cerebellium, the cerebral cortex, the lateral ventricles, the lentiform nucleus, the thalamus, the third ventricle and the white matter. This brain model has been included within a slightly modified version of the head model developed by Poston et al. in 1984. The head model, which includes both the thyroid and eyes, was modified in this work to include the cerebrospinal fluid within the cranial and spinal regions. Absorbed fractions of energy for photon and electron sources located in thirteen source regions within the new head model were calculated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code for radiations in the energy range 10 keV to 4 MeV. S-values were calculated for five radionuclides used in brain imaging ({sup 11}C, {sup 15}O, {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I) and for three radionuclides showing selective uptake in the thyroid ({sup 99m}Tc, {sup 123}I, and {sup 131}I). S-values were calculated using 100 discrete energy points in the beta-emission spectrum of the different radionuclides. 17 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The onion fly modulates the adult eclosion time in response to amplitude of temperature cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Watari, Yasuhiko

    2011-08-01

    To confirm whether the amplitude of diel temperature cycles causes a phase shift of adult eclosion rhythm of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, the peak time ( Ø E) of adult eclosion was determined under various thermoperiods with a fixed temperature either in the warm or cool phase and temperature differences ranging from 1°C to 4°C between the two phases. Irrespective of the temperature level during the warm or cool phase, Ø E occurred earlier with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. The results strongly support the previous conclusion of Tanaka and Watari (Naturwissenschaften 90:76-79, 2003) that D. antiqua responds to the amplitude of temperature cycle as a cue for the circadian adult eclosion timing. The phase advance was larger in thermoperiods with a fixed warm-phase temperature than in those with a fixed cool-phase temperature. This might be ascribed to the interaction between the amplitude and level of temperature in the thermoperiodic regimes.

  3. A novel method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with insect pathogenic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Julio Cesar; Shokal, Upasana; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila has been established as an excellent genetic and genomic model to investigate host-pathogen interactions and innate immune defense mechanisms. To date, most information on the Drosophila immune response derives from studies that involve bacterial, fungal or viral pathogens. However, immune reactions to insect parasitic nematodes are still not well characterized. The nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora live in symbiosis with the entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens, and they are able to invade and kill insects. Interestingly, Heterorhabditis nematodes are viable in the absence of Photorhabdus. Techniques for infecting Drosophila larvae with these nematodes have been previously reported. Here, we have developed a method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with Heterorhabditis nematodes carrying (symbiotic worms) or lacking (axenic worms) their associated bacteria. The protocol we present can be readily adapted for studying parasitic strategies of other insect nematodes using Drosophila as the host infection model. PMID:22546901

  4. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Michael W.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis. PMID:25116571

  5. Diagnosis of occult radial head and neck fracture in adults.

    PubMed

    Pavić, Roman; Margetić, Petra; Hnatešen, Dijana

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare imaging modalities in the diagnosis of occult radial head and neck fractures and to assess the diagnostic value of ultrasound in diagnosing occult fractures of the radial head and neck. The study included 193 patients (101 male, 92 female) who were referred by trauma surgeons from January 2011 to July 2014 and presented with history of acute elbow trauma. The mean age of the patients was 37 years (range 15-82 years); 95 right and 98 left elbows were included in the study. Clinical examinations and standard radiograms were conducted. The anteroposterior radiographic view revealed no visible signs of fracture. The lateral radiographic view showed displacement of the anterior and posterior fat pads (fat pad sign) due to joint effusion, which is an indirect sign of fracture. In all 193 cases, ultrasound examination showed intraarticular effusion. In 176 cases (91%), there was effusion in both the olecranon bursa and the elbow joint. In 10 patients (5%), there was effusion only inside the elbow joint and in seven cases (4%) there was effusion only in the olecranon bursa. Cortical discontinuity (a direct sign of fracture) was clearly visualised in 157 cases (82%), in the radial neck in 108 cases and in the radial head in 49 cases. Ultrasound findings of fracture were questionable in 36 cases (18%). Step-off deformities, tiny avulsed bone fragments, double-line appearance of cortical margins, and diffuse irregularity of the bone surfaces were identified as auxiliary ultrasound findings (indirect signs of fracture). Standard radiograms were repeated after 7-10 days. In 184 cases (95%), there was a clearly visible fracture: a fracture of the radial neck in 111 cases (58%) and a fracture of non-displaced radial head in 73 cases (37%). In nine cases (5%), radial fracture was not confirmed on radiogram and MRI was performed in these patients. In conclusion, ultrasound imaging proved to be an effective method for diagnosing occult

  6. Testosterone is associated with harem maintenance ability in free-ranging grey-headed flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Klose, Stefan M.; Welbergen, Justin A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2009-01-01

    Males of many vertebrate species aggressively defend their reproductive interests by monopolizing females, and the ‘challenge hypothesis’ predicts that testosterone levels in reproductive contexts rise to facilitate males' competitive behaviours necessary for meeting social challenges. The hypothesis is successful in explaining patterns of testosterone secretion in many avian species, but remains comparatively unexplored in mammals. ‘Circulating plasma testosterone levels (T)’ were studied in relation to harem maintenance in grey-headed flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus. In this species, harems provide mating opportunities and so a male's ability to maintain a harem is likely to correlate with his fitness. We hypothesized that if T reflect a male's ability to withstand challenges from competitors, then T should be linked to successful harem maintenance. To test this, we temporarily removed males from their territories prior to and during the short mating period, recording their harem sizes both before removal and after reintroduction. Most males successfully reclaimed their territory and a harem, but during the mating period, males with higher T had harems closer to their original size, and males with lower T suffered reduction in harem size. Our findings highlight the role of T in harem maintenance in a major mammalian taxon with complex forms of social organization. PMID:19689980

  7. Visually Guided Navigation: Head-Mounted Eye-Tracking of Natural Locomotion in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Franchak, John M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    The current study showed that visual fixation of obstacles is not required for rapid and adaptive navigation of obstacles. Children and adults wore a wireless, head-mounted eye-tracker during a visual search task in a room cluttered with obstacles. They spontaneously walked, jumped, and ran through the room, stepping up, down, and over obstacles. Both children and adults navigated adaptively without fixating obstacles, however, adults fixated less often than children. We discuss several possibilities for why obstacle navigation may shift from foveal to peripheral control over development. PMID:20932993

  8. Pupal mortality and adult emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to the fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae).

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Lacey, Lawrence A; Bishop, Belinda J B

    2009-12-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides alone for fly control could be fumigation of the fly's overwintering habitat using the fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & Hess (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) in conjunction with reduced insecticide use. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are biocidal for a variety of organisms. In this study, the main objectives were to determine the effects of M. albus VOCs on mortality of R. indifferens pupae and on adult emergence under laboratory conditions. In fumigation chamber experiments, a 14-d exposure of pupae in soil to VOCs resulted in 61.9% control, and exposure to VOCs for 7, 10, and 14 d reduced fly emergence by 44.2, 70.0, and 86.3%, respectively, relative to controls. In an experiment using plastic covers to retain VOCs in treated soil, a concentration of 1% M. albus formulation (fungus + rye grain) did not affect pupal mortality and fly emergence, but a concentration of 5% M. albus formulation resulted in 27.4% control and reduced fly emergence by 30.1% relative to the control. Larvae of R. indifferens that were dropped onto soil with 1% M. albus formulation were not affected by the fungus. Results indicate that prolonged exposure and high concentrations of M. albus VOCs can cause significant mortality of R. indifferens pupae in soil and delay adult emergence. PMID:20069829

  9. Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selb, Juliette; Ogden, Tyler M.; Dubb, Jay; Fang, Qianqian; Boas, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) estimations of the adult brain baseline optical properties based on a homogeneous model of the head are known to introduce significant contamination from extracerebral layers. More complex models have been proposed and occasionally applied to in vivo data, but their performances have never been characterized on realistic head structures. Here we implement a flexible fitting routine of time-domain NIRS data using graphics processing unit based Monte Carlo simulations. We compare the results for two different geometries: a two-layer slab with variable thickness of the first layer and a template atlas head registered to the subject's head surface. We characterize the performance of the Monte Carlo approaches for fitting the optical properties from simulated time-resolved data of the adult head. We show that both geometries provide better results than the commonly used homogeneous model, and we quantify the improvement in terms of accuracy, linearity, and cross-talk from extracerebral layers.

  10. Purification and characterization of an endo-exonuclease from adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, K; Das Gupta, C K; Hawley, R S; Chase, J W; Stone, K L; Williams, K R

    1992-01-01

    An endo-exonuclease (designated nuclease III) has been purified to near homogeneity from adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster. The enzyme degrades single- and double-stranded DNA and RNA. It has a sedimentation co-efficient of 3.1S and a strokes radius of 27A The native form of the purified enzyme appears to be a monomer of 33,600 dalton. It has a pH optimum of 7-8.5 and requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ but not Ca2+ or Co2+ for its activity. The enzyme activity on double-stranded DNA was inhibited 50% by 30 mM NaCl, while its activity on single-stranded DNA required 100 mM NaCl for 50% inhibition. Under the latter conditions, its activity on double-stranded DNA was inhibited approximately 98%. The enzyme degrades DNA to complete acid soluble products which are a mixture of mono- and oligonucleotides with 5'-P and 3'-OH termini. Supercoiled DNA was converted by the enzyme to nicked and subsequently to linear forms in a stepwise fashion under the condition in which the enzyme works optimally on single-stranded DNA. The amino acid composition and amino acid sequencing of tryptic peptides from purified nuclease III is also reported. Images PMID:1313969

  11. Radiation dose evaluation of dental cone beam computed tomography using an anthropomorphic adult head phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jay; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Ho, Chang-hung; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Min Chao, Max; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2014-11-01

    Dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides high-resolution tomographic images and has been gradually used in clinical practice. Thus, it is important to examine the amount of radiation dose resulting from dental CBCT examinations. In this study, we developed an in-house anthropomorphic adult head phantom to evaluate the level of effective dose. The anthropomorphic phantom was made of acrylic and filled with plaster to replace the bony tissue. The contour of the head was extracted from a set of adult computed tomography (CT) images. Different combinations of the scanning parameters of CBCT were applied. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the absorbed doses at 19 locations in the head and neck regions. The effective doses measured using the proposed phantom at 65, 75, and 85 kVp in the D-mode were 72.23, 100.31, and 134.29 μSv, respectively. In the I-mode, the effective doses were 108.24, 190.99, and 246.48 μSv, respectively. The maximum percent error between the doses measured by the proposed phantom and the Rando phantom was l4.90%. Therefore, the proposed anthropomorphic adult head phantom is applicable for assessing the radiation dose resulting from clinical dental CBCT.

  12. Characterization of the Head Stabilization Response to a Lateral Perturbation During Walking in Older Adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2009-01-01

    A main contributor of fractures in older adults is from a lateral fall. The decline in sensory systems results in difficulty maintaining balance stability. Head stabilization contributes to postural control by serving as a stable platform for the sensory systems. The purpose of this study was to characterize the head stabilization response to a lateral perturbation while walking. A total of 16 healthy older adults, aged 66-81 years, walked across a foam pathway 6 times. One piece of the foam pathway covered a movable platform that translated to the left when the subject stepped on the foam. Three trials were randomized in which the platform shifted. Angular rate sensors placed on the center of mass of the head and trunk collected head and trunk movement in all three planes of motion. The roll plane was analyzed to examine motion in the plane of the perturbation. Subjects stepped onto the platform with the right foot. Recovery step time and distance were recorded. The first trial was analyzed to capture the novelty of the perturbation. Results indicate a significant difference in footfall distance t=0.004, p<0.05, as well as the speed of foot recovery t=0.001, p<0.05, between natural and perturbed walking. Results indicate that the head t=0.005, p<0.05, and trunk t=0.0001, p<0.05, velocities increase during perturbed compared to natural walking. Older adults place their recovery foot down faster when perturbed to re-establish their base of support. Head and trunk segments are less stable and move with greater velocities to reestablish stability when perturbed.

  13. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true How many hours per week must an adult or minor head... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  14. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true How many hours per week must an adult or minor head... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  15. Behavioural responses of dairy cattle to the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in an open field environment.

    PubMed

    Mullens, B A; Lii, K-S; Mao, Y; Meyer, J A; Peterson, N G; Szijj, C E

    2006-03-01

    Individual cows (25 in each of four herds) were monitored 8-10 times weekly for 12 weeks (stable fly season) on a southern California dairy, with 100 observations per cow. The numbers of biting stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) on the front legs and the frequencies of four fly-repelling behaviours per 2-min observation period [head throws, front leg stamps, skin twitches (panniculus reflex) and tail flicks] were recorded. Fly numbers varied, peaking at 3.0-3.5 flies per leg in week 9 (late May). Weekly herd mean frequencies of fly-repelling behaviours were highly dependent on fly numbers, with a linear regression r(2) > 0.8. Head throws and stamps were less frequent than skin twitches and tail flicks. Individual cows differed in numbers of stable flies and behaviours. Behaviours were correlated with flies for individual cows, but at a lower level than were herd means (r = 0.3-0.7). Cows that stamped more within a herd tended to have lower fly counts; other fly-repelling behaviours were less effective. Cows maintained ranks within a herd with regard to fly numbers (r = 0.47), head throws (0.48), leg stamps (0.64), skin twitches (0.69) and tail flicks (0.64). Older cows tended to harbour higher fly numbers and to stamp less relative to younger adult cows. Ratios of leg stamps and head throws to fly numbers dropped significantly through time, suggesting habituation to pain associated with fly biting. Tail flicks were not effective for repelling Stomoxys, but were easiest to quantify and may help in monitoring pest intensity. At this low-moderate fly pressure, no consistent impacts on milk yield were detected, but methods incorporating cow behaviour are recommended for future studies of economic impact. PMID:16608497

  16. Temporal and spatial trends in adult nuisance fly populations on Australian cattle feedlots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like the US, Australia produces beef on large feedlots. Complaints of fly problems prompted a request for information on biology and management of feedlot flies. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists worked cooperatively for 3 years with Australian scientists to determine species composition, seasonality...

  17. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  18. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  19. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to do ...

  20. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide. PMID:25276929

  1. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature. PMID:25772096

  2. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  3. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  4. Segmentation of center brains and optic lobes in 3D confocal images of adult fruit fly brains.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shing Chun Benny; Ruan, Zongcai; Zhao, Ting; Long, Fuhui; Jenett, Arnim; Simpson, Julie; Myers, Eugene W; Peng, Hanchuan

    2010-02-01

    Automatic alignment (registration) of 3D images of adult fruit fly brains is often influenced by the significant displacement of the relative locations of the two optic lobes (OLs) and the center brain (CB). In one of our ongoing efforts to produce a better image alignment pipeline of adult fruit fly brains, we consider separating CB and OLs and align them independently. This paper reports our automatic method to segregate CB and OLs, in particular under conditions where the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low, the variation of the image intensity is big, and the relative displacement of OLs and CB is substantial. We design an algorithm to find a minimum-cost 3D surface in a 3D image stack to best separate an OL (of one side, either left or right) from CB. This surface is defined as an aggregation of the respective minimum-cost curves detected in each individual 2D image slice. Each curve is defined by a list of control points that best segregate OL and CB. To obtain the locations of these control points, we derive an energy function that includes an image energy term defined by local pixel intensities and two internal energy terms that constrain the curve's smoothness and length. Gradient descent method is used to optimize this energy function. To improve both the speed and robustness of the method, for each stack, the locations of optimized control points in a slice are taken as the initialization prior for the next slice. We have tested this approach on simulated and real 3D fly brain image stacks and demonstrated that this method can reasonably segregate OLs from CBs despite the aforementioned difficulties. PMID:19698789

  5. Stable Fly Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies feed on the blood of humans, pets and livestock, inflicting painful bites. Stable flies need one and sometimes two bloodmeals each day to develop their eggs. Unlike mosquitoes where only the females bloodfeed, both male and female stable flies require blood to reproduce. Stable fl...

  6. Evidence for Using Alendronate to Treat Adult Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ru-Bin; Lin, Tiao; Zhong, Hui-Ming; Yan, Shi-Gui; Wang, Jian-An

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis or avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a devastating multifactorial disease that affects 20 000 persons each year in the United States. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy and safety of alendronate for adult AVN during short- and long-term follow-up. Electronic databases were searched for randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials, cohort, case-control studies, and series of cases in which alendronate was used for treatment of adult AVN of the femoral head. Relevant articles with adequate data on reduction of pain, improvement of articular function, slowing of bone collapse progression, or need for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were included after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eight articles involving 788 hips with evidence level 1b to 3b were included in this systematic review. Most studies suggested a positive short-term efficacy of alendronate treatment in reducing pain, improving articular function, slowing of bone collapse progression, and delaying the need for THA for adult AVN patients. The favorable long-term results were also presented in those treated patients after 10-year follow-up. In addition, there were no severe adverse effects associated with alendronate treatment observed during short- and long-term follow-up, and most of the included studies suggested use of alendronate in early AVN with small necrotic lesion to achieve better outcomes. The findings support consideration of alendronate use for adult AVN, particularly with early stage and small necrotic size. The lack of large-scale, randomized, and double-blind studies justifies new studies to demonstrate the detailed indication and the optimized strategy of alendronate treatment. Level of evidence: Level 3a. PMID:25424061

  7. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  8. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  9. Sound pressure transformations by the head and pinnae of the adult Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera)

    PubMed Central

    Koka, Kanthaiah; Jones, Heath G.; Thornton, Jennifer L.; Lupo, J. Eric; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    There are three main cues to sound location: the interaural differences in time (ITD) and level (ILD) as well as the monaural spectral shape cues. These cues are generated by the spatial- and frequency-dependent filtering of propagating sound waves by the head and external ears. Although the chinchilla has been used for decades to study the anatomy, physiology, and psychophysics of audition, including binaural and spatial hearing, little is actually known about the sound pressure transformations by the head and pinnae and the resulting sound localization cues available to them. Here, we measured the directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of the head-related transfer functions, for 9 adult chinchillas. The resulting localization cues were computed from the DTFs. In the frontal hemisphere, spectral notch cues were present for frequencies from ~6–18 kHz. In general, the frequency corresponding to the notch increased with increases in source elevation as well as in azimuth towards the ipsilateral ear. The ILDs demonstrated a strong correlation with source azimuth and frequency. The maximum ILDs were < 10 dB for frequencies < 5 kHz, and ranged from 10–30 dB for the frequencies > 5 kHz. The maximum ITDs were dependent on frequency, yielding 236 μs at 4 kHz and 336 μs at 250 Hz. Removal of the pinnae eliminated the spectral notch cues, reduced the acoustic gain and the ILDs, altered the acoustic axis, and reduced the ITDs. PMID:20971180

  10. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  11. Efficacy of Alendronate for Preventing Collapse of Femoral Head in Adult Patients with Nontraumatic Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu-Cai; Luo, Ru-Bin; Zhong, Hui-Ming; Shi, Jian-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current review was to determine the efficacy of alendronate for preventing collapse of femoral head in adult patients with nontraumatic avascular osteonecrosis of femoral head (ANFH). Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 305 hips were included in this review, of which 3 studies investigated alendronate versus control/placebo and the other 2 studies compared the combination of alendronate and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) with ESWT alone. Our results suggested that even the patients with extensive necrosis encountered much less collapse in the alendronate group than control group. In these RCTs, their data also indicated a positive short- and middle-term efficacy of alendronate treatment in joint function improvement and hip pain diminishment. With the presence of the outlier study, only insignificant overall efficacy of alendronate could be observed with substantial heterogeneities. In addition, we did not find any additive benefits of alendronate in combination with ESWT for preventing collapse compared to ESWT alone. In conclusion, there is still lack of strong evidence for supporting application of alendronate in adult patients with nontraumatic ANFH, which justified that large scale, randomized, and double-blind studies should be developed to demonstrate the confirmed efficacies, detailed indication, and optimized strategy of alendronate treatment. PMID:25535614

  12. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    NUNES, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; MORONI, Raquel Borges; MENDES, Júlio; JUSTINIANO, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; MORONI, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  13. The Recline Exercise: Comparisons with the Head Lift Exercise in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avinash; Rajappa, Akila; Tipton, Elizabeth; Malandraki, Georgia A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the comparative effectiveness of the new Recline Exercise (RE) and the traditional Head Lift Exercise (Shaker Exercise) on submental muscle activity, tongue strength, and perceived exertion in 40 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.5 years, SD 2.6 years). Both groups participated in a 6-week exercise regimen. Outcome variables evaluated pre- and post-exercise included: duration and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity during swallowing measured via surface electromyography (sEMG); anterior and posterior isometric lingual pressures measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument; and perceived exertion levels measured with the Borg category-ratio scale of perceived exertion. Results indicated no significant pre-post differences within or between groups in swallow duration and peak amplitude. In addition, the RE group demonstrated significant post-treatment increases in anterior and posterior tongue strength [p = 0.009; p < 0.001]; however, these increases were of small magnitude (d = 0.132; d = 0.319). Both groups showed marked improvements in perceived exertion levels [p < 0.001]. Our findings indicate that healthy young adults who perform the RE or the HLE do not have significant swallow duration or amplitude gains, most likely due to the reduced need for such gains in the healthy head/neck musculature for submaximal tasks. Furthermore, the significant lingual strength gains seen with the RE indicate that additional musculature is being engaged during its completion. These results are encouraging; however, future research in older adults and patients with dysphagia with examination of swallowing biomechanics is needed to determine its full potential as a rehabilitative regimen. PMID:26386974

  14. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance. PMID:26709429

  15. Evaluation of the Mating Competitiveness of the Adult Oriental Fruit Fly Reared as Larvae in Liquid vs. Those Raised on Standard Wheat-based Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three strains (standard lab, DTWP pupal color sexing strain and wild strain) of adult oriental fruit flies, which were reared as larvae on a liquid diet, mill feed diet (Tanaka’s diet), or natural host fruit diet, were evaluated for mating competitiveness in both indoor and outdoor Boller’s mating c...

  16. Adult midgut expressed sequence tags from the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and expression analysis of putative immune response genes

    PubMed Central

    Lehane, M J; Aksoy, S; Gibson, W; Kerhornou, A; Berriman, M; Hamilton, J; Soares, M B; Bonaldo, M F; Lehane, S; Hall, N

    2003-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies transmit African trypanosomiasis leading to half a million cases annually. Trypanosomiasis in animals (nagana) remains a massive brake on African agricultural development. While trypanosome biology is widely studied, knowledge of tsetse flies is very limited, particularly at the molecular level. This is a serious impediment to investigations of tsetse-trypanosome interactions. We have undertaken an expressed sequence tag (EST) project on the adult tsetse midgut, the major organ system for establishment and early development of trypanosomes. Results A total of 21,427 ESTs were produced from the midgut of adult Glossina morsitans morsitans and grouped into 8,876 clusters or singletons potentially representing unique genes. Putative functions were ascribed to 4,035 of these by homology. Of these, a remarkable 3,884 had their most significant matches in the Drosophila protein database. We selected 68 genes with putative immune-related functions, macroarrayed them and determined their expression profiles following bacterial or trypanosome challenge. In both infections many genes are downregulated, suggesting a malaise response in the midgut. Trypanosome and bacterial challenge result in upregulation of different genes, suggesting that different recognition pathways are involved in the two responses. The most notable block of genes upregulated in response to trypanosome challenge are a series of Toll and Imd genes and a series of genes involved in oxidative stress responses. Conclusions The project increases the number of known Glossina genes by two orders of magnitude. Identification of putative immunity genes and their preliminary characterization provides a resource for the experimental dissection of tsetse-trypanosome interactions. PMID:14519198

  17. Comparative toxicity of oxygenated monoterpenoids in experimental hydroalcoholic lotions to permethrin-resistant adult head lice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Picollo, María Inés; Gallardo, Anabella; Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón

    2011-07-01

    The use of botanical compounds such as essential oils has recently become the subject of great interest as a natural means of pest control because of their ovicidal, larvicidal, or adulticidal activity against various insect species including head lice. We tested and compared the efficacy of pure oxygenated monoterpenoids that are main ingredients of essential oils of good biological activity. We used pulegone and citral, components of Aloysia citrodora, and geraniol, citronellol, and linalool, components of Geranium sp. oil. We found that citronellol and geraniol showed the highest knockdown and mortality effect (>60%) on adults of both sexes (50:50%) and third-stage nymphs. Pulegone, linalool, and citral showed knockdown percentages between 42 and 55%, and mortality percentages between 47 and 53%. A simple linear regression analysis showed statistically significant relationships between the studied toxic effects and viscosity of the monoterpenoids (p < 0.05), but not with their partition coefficient (log P). PMID:21174108

  18. Isolation of intact astrocytes from the optic nerve head of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee Joo; Sun, Daniel; Jakobs, Tatjana C.

    2015-01-01

    The astrocytes of the optic nerve head are a specialized subtype of white matter astrocytes that form the direct cellular environment of the unmyelinated ganglion cell axons. Due to their potential involvement in glaucoma, these astrocytes have become a target of research. Due to the heterogeneity of the optic nerve tissue, which also contains other cell types, in some cases it may be desirable to conduct gene expression studies on small numbers of well-characterized astrocytes or even individual cells. Here, we describe a simple method to isolate individual astrocytes. This method permits obtaining astrocytes with intact morphology from the adult mouse optic nerve and reduces contamination of the isolated astrocytes by other cell types. Individual astrocytes can be recognized by their morphology and collected under microscopic control. The whole procedure can be completed in 2-3 hours. We also discuss downstream applications like multiplex single-cell PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMID:26093274

  19. Some Observations on the Use of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability in Adults with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupper, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The study provides descriptive data on use of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability with 39 adults with closed head injury. Correlational analyses indicated significant relationships between coma duration and performance on the Perceptual Speed and Memory clusters of the test. Time since injury did not correlate with test results.…

  20. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Gregory A; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of two different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a blue-black cloth target modified into a cylindrical trap (BCT). Both traps were covered with sticky sleeves to retain the attracted flies. Paired trap types were placed at sites that were 20–100 m apart. Distance between trap pairs within sites ranged from 1 to 2 m, and was limited by exhibit design and geography. Both trap types reflect/refract ultraviolet (UV) light which attracts adult S. calcitrans. During this 15-week study, AFTs captured significantly more stable flies than the BCTs at 8 of the 10 sites. Of the 12,557 stable flies found on the traps, 80% and 20% were captured by AFTs and BCTs, respectively. The most attractive trap site at the zoo was at the goat exhibit where most stable flies were consistently captured throughout the study. This exhibit was 100 m from the other exhibits, next to a small lake, and adjacent to a field containing pastured exotic ungulates, rhea and ostrich. Stable fly populations peaked in early June then slowly decreased as the last trapping date approached. We believe this to be the first seasonality data collected at a zoological park. Results demonstrate the use of urban zoos by stable flies and the need to develop environmentally friendly stable fly management systems for zoos. Zoo Biol. 33:228–233, 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24740859

  1. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park.

    PubMed

    Ose, Gregory A; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of two different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a blue-black cloth target modified into a cylindrical trap (BCT). Both traps were covered with sticky sleeves to retain the attracted flies. Paired trap types were placed at sites that were 20-100 m apart. Distance between trap pairs within sites ranged from 1 to 2 m, and was limited by exhibit design and geography. Both trap types reflect/refract ultraviolet (UV) light which attracts adult S. calcitrans. During this 15-week study, AFTs captured significantly more stable flies than the BCTs at 8 of the 10 sites. Of the 12,557 stable flies found on the traps, 80% and 20% were captured by AFTs and BCTs, respectively. The most attractive trap site at the zoo was at the goat exhibit where most stable flies were consistently captured throughout the study. This exhibit was 100 m from the other exhibits, next to a small lake, and adjacent to a field containing pastured exotic ungulates, rhea and ostrich. Stable fly populations peaked in early June then slowly decreased as the last trapping date approached. We believe this to be the first seasonality data collected at a zoological park. Results demonstrate the use of urban zoos by stable flies and the need to develop environmentally friendly stable fly management systems for zoos. PMID:24740859

  2. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)-Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Boonsriwong, Worachote; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Sukontason, Kom

    2012-01-01

    The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly. PMID:22666549

  3. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Boonsriwong, Worachote; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Vogtsberger, Roy C.; Sukontason, Kom

    2012-01-01

    The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly. PMID:22666549

  4. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1 PMID:25904864

  5. Development, preimaginal phases and adult sensillar equipment in Aganaspis parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; de Pedro, Luis; Beitia, Francisco; Sabater, Beatriz; Asís, Josep Daniel; Polidori, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    Aganaspis daci and Aganaspis pelleranoi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) are important parasitoids of fruit flies. Here we studied, with light and scanning electron microscopy, aspects of their morphology that could help with plans to mass rear and thus contribute to improved pest control (preimaginal phases) and to shed light on parasitoid-pest relationships (sensillar equipment). The two species present a stalked egg, eucoiliform first and second-instar larvae and hymenopteriform third instar and mature larvae. The first instar presents tegumental differentiations in the mesoma and first metasomal segment in A. daci, but not in A. pelleranoi, while unlike other figitids, neither species displays setae in the mesosomal processes. Second and third instar and mature larvae present tegumental differentiations in A. daci, but not in A. pelleranoi. The moniliform (female) and filiform (male) antennae of A. daci and A. pelleranoi harbor seven types of sensilla, four of them (sensilla campaniformia, sensilla coeloconica type II, and two types of sensilla trichoidea) described here for the first time in Cynipoidea. The largest sensilla were the multiporous placoid sensilla, which were smaller and more numerous in A. pelleranoi. Species also differed to some extent in morphology of sensilla coeloconica. Observations on the ovipositor revealed the presence of coeloconic sensilla on Valva I in both species. PMID:23985273

  6. Susceptibility of adult and larval stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Mochi, Dinalva Alves; Monteiro, Antonio Carlos; Simi, Lucas Detogni; Sampaio, Alexandre Amstalden Moraes

    2009-12-01

    The efficacy of M. anisopliae strain E9 as a biological insecticide for the adult and larval stages of H. irritans was assessed under field conditions. To assess larvicidal activity, nine heifers were randomly divided into three groups, which were maintained separated from each other. The first group ingested fungal spores encapsulated in alginate pellets. The second group ingested in natura spores that were grown on sterilized rice. In both groups, each animal received three meals a day, with each meal containing 2 x 10(10)conidia. The third group received no treatment and was used as a control. Fecal samples from manure and whole dung pats were collected from each of the three separate pastures on the day that the animals were allocated and on days 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 afterwards. The fecal samples were tested for the presence of fungal colony forming units (CFU), and the emergence of horn flies was observed in the dung pats. Significantly less (P<0.01) adult horn flies were found in dung pats of the group treated with encapsulated fungi (11.7) than in those from the heifers treated with conidia in natura (27.9) or from the control group (29.5). The fecal samples of the treated animals presented significantly higher numbers of M. anisopliae CFUs then those from the untreated controls. We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura. To assess adulticide activity, four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10(10)conidial(-1) of M. anisopliae, and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content. Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals, and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present. After the second spraying, we observed an average of 22.9 flies per animal; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal; thus, the treatment significantly (P<0.05) decreases fly

  7. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Thais A.; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals world wide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using 2 week old horse manure (control) and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old) to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1–3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size) was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1–5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevundimonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly – microbial interactions. PMID:25426108

  8. Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Head and Neck Region in Older Adults; Genetic Characterization and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Taketoshi; Perry, Kyle D.; Nelson, Marilu; Bui, Marilyn M.; Nasir, Aejaz; Goldschmidt, Robert; Gnepp, Douglas R.; Bridge, Julia A

    2009-01-01

    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is remarkably rare in adults over 45 years. Initial immunoprofiling of a small cell neoplasm of the head and neck region in an older adult may not include myogenic markers. A valuable diagnostic aid and important prognostic parameter in ARMS is the identification of PAX3-FOXO1 [t(2;13)(q35;q14)] or PAX7-FOXO1 [t(1;13)(p36;q14)] rearrangements. The purpose of this study was to document the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features of head/neck ARMS in older adults. Prior isolated descriptions of three patients were included. Five patients were female and two male (median age 61 years). Each neoplasm was composed of undifferentiated, small round cells in a predominantly solid pattern. Initially ordered immunostains corresponded with early diagnostic impressions of a hematologic malignancy or neuroendocrine carcinoma. CD56 was positive in 5/5 tumors and synaptophysin in 1/6. Given the virtual absence of other lymphoid or epithelial markers, muscle immunostains were performed and these were positive. Definitive ARMS diagnoses were confirmed genetically. This study illustrates the diagnosis of head/neck ARMS in older adults is complicated by its rarity, lack of an alveolar pattern, and a potentially misleading immunoprofile (CD56 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity) if myogenic markers are not employed. Both PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1 ARMSs were identified in these patients. In children, PAX7-FOXO1 ARMS is associated with a significantly longer event-free survival. In contrast, adult ARMS behaves more aggressively with a worse overall survival than pediatric ARMS. Further follow-up and additional cases are required to assess the prognostic relevance of these fusion transcripts in the context of advanced age. PMID:18973919

  9. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  10. SU-E-I-32: Benchmarking Head CT Doses: A Pooled Vs. Protocol Specific Analysis of Radiation Doses in Adult Head CT Examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K; Bostani, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to collect CT dose index data from adult head exams to establish benchmarks based on either: (a) values pooled from all head exams or (b) values for specific protocols. One part of this was to investigate differences in scan frequency and CT dose index data for inpatients versus outpatients. Methods: We collected CT dose index data (CTDIvol) from adult head CT examinations performed at our medical facilities from Jan 1st to Dec 31th, 2014. Four of these scanners were used for inpatients, the other five were used for outpatients. All scanners used Tube Current Modulation. We used X-ray dose management software to mine dose index data and evaluate CTDIvol for 15807 inpatients and 4263 outpatients undergoing Routine Brain, Sinus, Facial/Mandible, Temporal Bone, CTA Brain and CTA Brain-Neck protocols, and combined across all protocols. Results: For inpatients, Routine Brain series represented 84% of total scans performed. For outpatients, Sinus scans represented the largest fraction (36%). The CTDIvol (mean ± SD) across all head protocols was 39 ± 30 mGy (min-max: 3.3–540 mGy). The CTDIvol for Routine Brain was 51 ± 6.2 mGy (min-max: 36–84 mGy). The values for Sinus were 24 ± 3.2 mGy (min-max: 13–44 mGy) and for Facial/Mandible were 22 ± 4.3 mGy (min-max: 14–46 mGy). The mean CTDIvol for inpatients and outpatients was similar across protocols with one exception (CTA Brain-Neck). Conclusion: There is substantial dose variation when results from all protocols are pooled together; this is primarily a function of the differences in technical factors of the protocols themselves. When protocols are analyzed separately, there is much less variability. While analyzing pooled data affords some utility, reviewing protocols segregated by clinical indication provides greater opportunity for optimization and establishing useful benchmarks.

  11. Hendra Virus Infection Dynamics in the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) at the Southern-Most Extent of Its Range: Further Evidence This Species Does Not Readily Transmit the Virus to Horses

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, A. L.; Durr, P. A.; Boyd, V.; Graham, K.; White, J. R.; Todd, S.; Barr, J.; Smith, I.; Baverstock, G.; Meers, J.; Crameri, G.; Wang, L-F

    2016-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is an important emergent virus in Australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast. Whilst pteropid bats (“flying foxes”) are considered the natural reservoir of HeV, which of the four mainland species is the principal reservoir has been a source of ongoing debate, particularly as shared roosting is common. To help resolve this, we sampled a colony consisting of just one of these species, the grey-headed flying fox, (Pteropus poliocephalus), at the southernmost extent of its range. Using the pooled urine sampling technique at approximately weekly intervals over a two year period, we determined the prevalence of HeV and related paramyxoviruses using a novel multiplex (Luminex) platform. Whilst all the pooled urine samples were negative for HeV nucleic acid, we successfully identified four other paramyxoviruses, including Cedar virus; a henipavirus closely related to HeV. Collection of serum from individually caught bats from the colony showed that antibodies to HeV, as estimated by a serological Luminex assay, were present in between 14.6% and 44.5% of animals. The wide range of the estimate reflects uncertainties in interpreting intermediate results. Interpreting the study in the context of HeV studies from states to the north, we add support for an arising consensus that it is the black flying fox and not the grey-headed flying fox that is the principal source of HeV in spillover events to horses. PMID:27304985

  12. Hendra Virus Infection Dynamics in the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) at the Southern-Most Extent of Its Range: Further Evidence This Species Does Not Readily Transmit the Virus to Horses.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, A L; Durr, P A; Boyd, V; Graham, K; White, J R; Todd, S; Barr, J; Smith, I; Baverstock, G; Meers, J; Crameri, G; Wang, L-F

    2016-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is an important emergent virus in Australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast. Whilst pteropid bats ("flying foxes") are considered the natural reservoir of HeV, which of the four mainland species is the principal reservoir has been a source of ongoing debate, particularly as shared roosting is common. To help resolve this, we sampled a colony consisting of just one of these species, the grey-headed flying fox, (Pteropus poliocephalus), at the southernmost extent of its range. Using the pooled urine sampling technique at approximately weekly intervals over a two year period, we determined the prevalence of HeV and related paramyxoviruses using a novel multiplex (Luminex) platform. Whilst all the pooled urine samples were negative for HeV nucleic acid, we successfully identified four other paramyxoviruses, including Cedar virus; a henipavirus closely related to HeV. Collection of serum from individually caught bats from the colony showed that antibodies to HeV, as estimated by a serological Luminex assay, were present in between 14.6% and 44.5% of animals. The wide range of the estimate reflects uncertainties in interpreting intermediate results. Interpreting the study in the context of HeV studies from states to the north, we add support for an arising consensus that it is the black flying fox and not the grey-headed flying fox that is the principal source of HeV in spillover events to horses. PMID:27304985

  13. Adult house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) activity and age of females near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene on a southern California dairy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sarah M; Mullens, Bradley A

    2010-10-01

    The number of adult male and female house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene alone (5, 50, or 100 micdrol) or combined (50 microl) with sugar was determined using conical screened traps on a dairy in southern California. Overall, significantly more males than females were collected in the traps. Significantly more flies (male and female) were collected in traps with (Z)-9-tricosene. There were no significant differences among doses of (Z)-9-tricosene alone, but numbers of both sexes were significantly higher in traps baited with (Z)-9-tricosene and sugar compared with the 5- and 50-microl doses without sugar. The age of female flies collected in traps was determined by pterin analysis. Mean female ages ranged from 94.7 to 99.6 degree-days (6.3-6.8 d of age) and did not differ significantly among treatments. Dissections of a subset of females from each treatment determined that collected females were primarily nongravid (86.3%). Proportions of gravid females that were collected did not differ among treatments. PMID:21061998

  14. Fly-ash utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The over 200 references in this bibliography cover some of the uses found for fly-ash, which range from the manufacture of bricks and as a new type of concrete to the recovery of aluminum and other valuable ores from the ash. The entries are grouped under seven headings: General, Agriculture, Brickmaking, Cement/Concrete, Land Reclamation, Resource Recovery, and Other.

  15. Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT) in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers likely to assist with

  16. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts From Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Captured From the Hospital Environments in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kassiri, Hamid; Zarrin, Majid; Veys-Behbahani, Rahele; Faramarzi, Sama; Kasiri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Musca domestica L., 1758 is capable of transferring a number of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify medically important filamentous fungi and yeasts from adult M. domestica collected from two wards of three hospital environments in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. The common house flies were caught by a sterile net. These insects were washed in a solution of 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min and twice in sterile distilled water for 1 min. The flies were individually crushed with sterile swabs in sterile test tubes. Then 2 ml of sterile normal saline (0.85%) was added to each tube, and the tube was centrifuged for 5 min. The supernatant was then discarded, and the remaining sediment was inoculated with a sterile swab in the Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. Isolation and identification of fungi were made by standard mycological methods. In this research, totally 190 M. domestica from hospital environments were captured. In total, 28 fungal species were isolated. The main fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. (67.4%), Penicillium sp. (11.6%), Mucorales sp. (11%), Candida spp. (10.5%), and Rhodotorula sp. (8.4%). Among the house flies caught at the hospitals, about 80% were found to carry one or more medically important species of fungi. This study has established that common house flies carry pathogenic fungi in the hospital environments of Ahvaz. The control of M. domestica in hospitals is essential in order to control the nosocomial fungal infections in patients. PMID:26405077

  18. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  19. Effect of duration of smartphone use on muscle fatigue and pain caused by forward head posture in adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Yeol; Koo, Sung-Ja

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The effect of duration of smartphone use on neck and shoulder muscle fatigue and pain was investigated in adults with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-four adults with forward head posture were classified into groups by duration of smartphone use: 11 used a smartphone for 10 minutes each (group 1), 12 for 20 minutes each (group 2), and 11 for 30 minutes each (group 3). Fatigue cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius muscles was measured by electromyography, and pain before and after the experiment was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores. [Results] There was a significant difference in the degree of fatigue in the left upper trapezius muscles in group 2 and left cervical erector spinae and bilateral upper trapeziuses group 3. There was a significant difference in fatigue in the left upper trapezius in groups 1 and 3. The VAS showed significant differences in all groups before and after the experiment and between groups 1 and 3. [Conclusion] Pain and fatigue worsened with longer smartphone use. This study provided data on the proper duration of smartphone use. Correct posture and breaks of at least 20 minutes are recommend when using smartphones. PMID:27390391

  20. Effect of duration of smartphone use on muscle fatigue and pain caused by forward head posture in adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Yeol; Koo, Sung-Ja

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of duration of smartphone use on neck and shoulder muscle fatigue and pain was investigated in adults with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-four adults with forward head posture were classified into groups by duration of smartphone use: 11 used a smartphone for 10 minutes each (group 1), 12 for 20 minutes each (group 2), and 11 for 30 minutes each (group 3). Fatigue cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius muscles was measured by electromyography, and pain before and after the experiment was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores. [Results] There was a significant difference in the degree of fatigue in the left upper trapezius muscles in group 2 and left cervical erector spinae and bilateral upper trapeziuses group 3. There was a significant difference in fatigue in the left upper trapezius in groups 1 and 3. The VAS showed significant differences in all groups before and after the experiment and between groups 1 and 3. [Conclusion] Pain and fatigue worsened with longer smartphone use. This study provided data on the proper duration of smartphone use. Correct posture and breaks of at least 20 minutes are recommend when using smartphones. PMID:27390391

  1. Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head.

    PubMed

    Okada, E; Firbank, M; Schweiger, M; Arridge, S R; Cope, M; Delpy, D T

    1997-01-01

    Near-infrared light propagation in various models of the adult head is analyzed by both time-of-flight measurements and mathematical prediction. The models consist of three- or four-layered slabs, the latter incorporating a clear cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer. The most sophisticated model also incorporates slots that imitate sulci on the brain surface. For each model, the experimentally measured mean optical path length as a function of source-detector spacing agrees well with predictions from either a Monte Carlo model or a finite-element method based on diffusion theory or a hybrid radiosity-diffusion theory. Light propagation in the adult head is shown to be highly affected by the presence of the clear CSF layer, and both the optical path length and the spatial sensitivity profile of the models with a CSF layer are quite different from those without the CSF layer. However, the geometry of the sulci and the boundary between the gray and the white matter have little effect on the detected light distribution. PMID:18250644

  2. Coming apart at the seams: morphological evidence for pregnathal head capsule borders in adult Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cephalization and seamless fusion of the anterior body segments during development obscure the segmental origins of the insect head. Most of the visible seams are thought to reflect infolding for structural reinforcement rather than a merger of segmental or cuticular plate borders. Incomplete fusion...

  3. Larval dietary wheat germ oil influences age-specific protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in essential dietary components alter global gene expression patterns in animals. We reported on a proteomics study designed to identify molecular markers of deficiencies in culture media developed for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. In that study, we found significant changes i...

  4. Effects of Several Newer Insecticides and Kaolin on Oviposition and Adult Mortality in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of newer insecticides and kaolin-based particle film (Surround™ WP Crop Protectant), on oviposition and mortality in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In a no-choice experiment, azinphos-methyl sprayed on cherries reduced oviposition by 98.5% comp...

  5. Volume-averaged SAR in adult and child head models when using mobile phones: a computational study with detailed CAD-based models of commercial mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Keshvari, Jafar; Heikkilä, Teemu

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies comparing SAR difference in the head of children and adults used highly simplified generic models or half-wave dipole antennas. The objective of this study was to investigate the SAR difference in the head of children and adults using realistic EMF sources based on CAD models of commercial mobile phones. Four MRI-based head phantoms were used in the study. CAD models of Nokia 8310 and 6630 mobile phones were used as exposure sources. Commercially available FDTD software was used for the SAR calculations. SAR values were simulated at frequencies 900 MHz and 1747 MHz for Nokia 8310, and 900 MHz, 1747 MHz and 1950 MHz for Nokia 6630. The main finding of this study was that the SAR distribution/variation in the head models highly depends on the structure of the antenna and phone model, which suggests that the type of the exposure source is the main parameter in EMF exposure studies to be focused on. Although the previous findings regarding significant role of the anatomy of the head, phone position, frequency, local tissue inhomogeneity and tissue composition specifically in the exposed area on SAR difference were confirmed, the SAR values and SAR distributions caused by generic source models cannot be extrapolated to the real device exposures. The general conclusion is that from a volume averaged SAR point of view, no systematic differences between child and adult heads were found. PMID:22005524

  6. Comparative efficacy of new commercial pediculicides against adults and eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2012-05-01

    The use of pyrethroids to control head louse infestations have suffered considerable loss of efficacy due to the development of resistance. In the last past years, several new alternative products to synthetic pyrethroids have been developed and are sold in the Argentinean market against head lice. The present study investigated the efficacy of two new Argentinean products Nopucid Qubit® and Nopucid Bio Citrus® and its comparison with two reference products Nyda® and Hedrin®. Nopucid Qubit® is a two-phase lotion containing geraniol and citronellol (phase 1) and ciclopentaxiloxane (phase 2); while Nopucid Bio Citrus® contains dimethicone, ciclopentaxiloxane, and bergamot essential oil. These products are physically acting compounds. The sensitivity of two laboratory assays for testing insecticide activity of new formulations was also compared. Mortality (100%) of motile forms occurred after they were exposed to any product for 1 and 2 min, either by in vitro or ex vivo test. Concerning ovicidal activity, the most effective pediculicides were Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nyda®, followed by Hedrin® and Nopucid Qubit®. The present study revealed, for the first time, the efficacy of over-the-counter commercial pediculicides available in Argentine (Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nopucid Qubit®) on either motile stages or eggs against head lice. PMID:21984369

  7. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1 : Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Elston, Ralph

    1996-08-01

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain.

  8. Large scale study on the variation of RF energy absorption in the head & brain regions of adults and children and evaluation of the SAM phantom conservativeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshvari, J.; Kivento, M.; Christ, A.; Bit-Babik, G.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of two computational large scale studies using highly realistic exposure scenarios, MRI based human head and hand models, and two mobile phone models. The objectives are (i) to study the relevance of age when people are exposed to RF by comparing adult and child heads and (ii) to analyze and discuss the conservativeness of the SAM phantom for all age groups. Representative use conditions were simulated using detailed CAD models of two mobile phones operating between 900 MHz and 1950 MHz including configurations with the hand holding the phone, which were not considered in most previous studies. The peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (psSAR) in the head and the pinna tissues is assessed using anatomically accurate head and hand models. The first of the two mentioned studies involved nine head-, four hand- and two phone-models, the second study included six head-, four hand- and three simplified phone-models (over 400 configurations in total). In addition, both studies also evaluated the exposure using the SAM phantom. Results show no systematic differences between psSAR induced in the adult and child heads. The exposure level and its variation for different age groups may be different for particular phones, but no correlation between psSAR and model age was found. The psSAR from all exposure conditions was compared to the corresponding configurations using SAM, which was found to be conservative in the large majority of cases.

  9. Adult blood-feeding tsetse flies, trypanosomes, microbiota and the fluctuating environment in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Anne; Ponton, Fleur; Simo, Gustave

    2015-01-01

    The tsetse fly vector transmits the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, responsible for Human African Trypanosomiasis, one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Despite a recent decline in new cases, it is still crucial to develop alternative strategies to combat this disease. Here, we review the literature on the factors that influence trypanosome transmission from the fly vector to its vertebrate host (particularly humans). These factors include climate change effects to pathogen and vector development (in particular climate warming), as well as the distribution of host reservoirs. Finally, we present reports on the relationships between insect vector nutrition, immune function, microbiota and infection, to demonstrate how continuing research on the evolving ecology of these complex systems will help improve control strategies. In the future, such studies will be of increasing importance to understand how vector-borne diseases are spread in a changing world. PMID:25500509

  10. Adult blood-feeding tsetse flies, trypanosomes, microbiota and the fluctuating environment in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Anne; Ponton, Fleur; Simo, Gustave

    2015-07-01

    The tsetse fly vector transmits the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, responsible for Human African Trypanosomiasis, one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Despite a recent decline in new cases, it is still crucial to develop alternative strategies to combat this disease. Here, we review the literature on the factors that influence trypanosome transmission from the fly vector to its vertebrate host (particularly humans). These factors include climate change effects to pathogen and vector development (in particular climate warming), as well as the distribution of host reservoirs. Finally, we present reports on the relationships between insect vector nutrition, immune function, microbiota and infection, to demonstrate how continuing research on the evolving ecology of these complex systems will help improve control strategies. In the future, such studies will be of increasing importance to understand how vector-borne diseases are spread in a changing world. PMID:25500509

  11. Impact of Mild Head Injury on Neuropsychological Performance in Healthy Older Adults: Longitudinal Assessment in the AIBL Cohort.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Matthew A; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Foster, Jonathan K

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suggested to be a significant risk factor for dementia. However, little research has been conducted into long-term neuropsychological outcomes after head trauma. Participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) who had recovered after sustaining a mild TBI involving loss of consciousness more than 5 years previously were compared with matched controls across a 3-year period. Bayesian nested-domain modeling was used to estimate the effect of TBI on neuropsychological performance. There was no evidence for a chronic effect of mild TBI on any neuropsychological domain compared to controls. Within the TBI group, there was some evidence suggesting that the age that the head trauma occurred and the duration of unconsciousness were modulators of episodic memory. However, these findings were not robust. Taken together, these findings indicate that adults who have sustained a TBI resulting in loss of consciousness, but who recover to a healthy level of cognitive functioning, do not experience frank deficits in cognitive ability. PMID:27242516

  12. Impact of Mild Head Injury on Neuropsychological Performance in Healthy Older Adults: Longitudinal Assessment in the AIBL Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Matthew A.; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Foster, Jonathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suggested to be a significant risk factor for dementia. However, little research has been conducted into long-term neuropsychological outcomes after head trauma. Participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) who had recovered after sustaining a mild TBI involving loss of consciousness more than 5 years previously were compared with matched controls across a 3-year period. Bayesian nested-domain modeling was used to estimate the effect of TBI on neuropsychological performance. There was no evidence for a chronic effect of mild TBI on any neuropsychological domain compared to controls. Within the TBI group, there was some evidence suggesting that the age that the head trauma occurred and the duration of unconsciousness were modulators of episodic memory. However, these findings were not robust. Taken together, these findings indicate that adults who have sustained a TBI resulting in loss of consciousness, but who recover to a healthy level of cognitive functioning, do not experience frank deficits in cognitive ability. PMID:27242516

  13. Coupling of head and body movements to acoustic flow in sighted adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Kim, Chunggon; Ito, Kiyohide; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2005-09-01

    Blindfolded sighted persons were found to detect acoustic flow patterns and use this information to control action. A moving room (a large box on wheels, with no floor, that moved in the subject's fore-aft axis) was used. Blindfolded sighted persons (1) stood comfortably or (2) moved their head backward and forward to track audible room motion. Pink noise was presented through four speakers attached to the room, or mounted on stationary stands. Room motion was a sinusoid at 0.2 Hz, 22 cm, along subject's fore-aft axis. When standing comfortably, participants exhibited weak but consistent coupling of body sway with room motion. Tracking of room motion with head movements was robust, matching both the frequency and amplitude of room motion. This was true even when the only information about room motion came from reflected sound (i.e., when the speakers were stationary). The results suggest a strong ability of sighted persons to use acoustic flow in the perception and control of their own action. [Work supported by NSF (BCS-0236627).

  14. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene

    PubMed Central

    Dharne, M.S.; Gupta, A.K.; Rangrez, A.Y.; Ghate, H.V.; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS). The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS) genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery. PMID:24031236

  15. Risk factors for head and neck cancer in young adults: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Znaor, Ariana; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Vilensky, Marta; Vaughan, Thomas; Thomson, Peter; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Ramroth, Heribert; Purdue, Mark P; Olshan, Andrew F; Eluf-Neto, José; Muscat, Joshua; Moyses, Raquel Ajub; Morgenstern, Hal; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mates, Dana; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; Vecchia, Carlo La; Lagiou, Pagona; Koifman, Sergio; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kelsey, Karl; Holcatova, Ivana; Herrero, Rolando; Healy, Claire; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; Maso, Luigino Dal; Curado, Maria Paula; Conway, David I; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; Canova, Cristina; Cadoni, Gabriella; Brennan, Paul; Boccia, Stefania; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Agudo, Antonio; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Filho, Victor Wünsch

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in young adults has been reported. We aimed to compare the role of major risk factors and family history of cancer in HNC in young adults and older patients. Methods: We pooled data from 25 case-control studies and conducted separate analyses for adults ≤45 years old (‘young adults’, 2010 cases and 4042 controls) and >45 years old (‘older adults’, 17 700 cases and 22 704 controls). Using logistic regression with studies treated as random effects, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The young group of cases had a higher proportion of oral tongue cancer (16.0% in women; 11.0% in men) and unspecified oral cavity / oropharynx cancer (16.2%; 11.1%) and a lower proportion of larynx cancer (12.1%; 16.6%) than older adult cases. The proportions of never smokers or never drinkers among female cases were higher than among male cases in both age groups. Positive associations with HNC and duration or pack-years of smoking and drinking were similar across age groups. However, the attributable fractions (AFs) for smoking and drinking were lower in young when compared with older adults (AFs for smoking in young women, older women, young men and older men, respectively, = 19.9% (95% CI = 9.8%, 27.9%), 48.9% (46.6%, 50.8%), 46.2% (38.5%, 52.5%), 64.3% (62.2%, 66.4%); AFs for drinking = 5.3% (−11.2%, 18.0%), 20.0% (14.5%, 25.0%), 21.5% (5.0%, 34.9%) and 50.4% (46.1%, 54.3%). A family history of early-onset cancer was associated with HNC risk in the young [OR = 2.27 (95% CI = 1.26, 4.10)], but not in the older adults [OR = 1.10 (0.91, 1.31)]. The attributable fraction for family history of early-onset cancer was 23.2% (8.60% to 31.4%) in young compared with 2.20% (−2.41%, 5.80%) in older adults. Conclusions: Differences in HNC aetiology according to age group may exist. The lower AF of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in young

  16. [S3 Guideline. Part 1: Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Non-Traumatic Adult Femoral Head Necrosis].

    PubMed

    Bohndorf, K; Beckmann, J; Jäger, M; Kenn, W; Maus, U; Nöth, U; Peters, K M; Rader, C; Reppenhagen, S; Roth, A

    2015-08-01

    Non-traumatic femoral head necrosis (FHN) is primarily a disease of the middle-aged adult. Early diagnosis, at a time with lacking or minimal clinical symptoms, is mandatory to consider conservative therapy or joint preserving operations as a therapeutic option. The new German S3 guideline about diagnosis and therapy of FHN is a cooperative effort of five professional medical societies, overall headed by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie (DGOOC). This review (part I/III) cites and explains the statements of the S3 guideline as agreed on the use of imaging methods for diagnosis of FHN. A diagnostic algorithm is presented. FHN clinically has to be considered in case of equivocal pain of a hip joint with a minimum of 6 weeks duration, when risk factors can be revealed, groin pain at clinical investigation, limping, pain or limitation of movement in case of load, and no obvious differential diagnoses. Is an FHN clinically suspected, primarily radiographs of the pelvis ap and a Lauenstein projection of the hip involved should be carried out. When the radiographs are normal, an MRI of the hips should follow routinely. MRI allows the diagnosis of FNH with high accuracy. Furthermore, MRI reveals the site and the size of the necrotic area involved and evaluates the integrity of the joint surface and subchondral fractures. When ARCO stage II (ARCO: Association Research Circulation Osseous) is diagnosed and MRI does not allow one to determine the joint surface with certainty, a CT of the hip joints should be performed. The S3 guideline explains and recommends the use of the ARCO classification. Although, this classification of 1993 is still largely based on radiographs, the pragmatic use of an "extended" version seems reasonable. Today, classical radiographic criteria like impression of the joint surface and subchondral fractures ("crescent sign") are better to be evaluated by MRI, in cases of subtle findings MRI is even surpassed by CT

  17. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? 286.90 Section 286.90 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...

  18. Effect of probiotic adult diets on fitness components of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) under laboratory and field cage conditions.

    PubMed

    Niyazi, Nuri; Lauzon, Carol R; Shelly, Todd E

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of probiotic adult diets, i.e., adult diets containing viable symbiotic intestinal bacteria, on the pheromone-calling activity, mating success, life expectancy, and survival of mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), as an avenue for improving the field performance of sterile males in release programs to eradicate, suppress, or prevent spread of wild populations. The effect of inoculation of two standard adult diets (sugar-yeast granulate [SY] and sugar agar [s]) and two experimental formulations (yeast-reduced granulate [Sy] and yeast-enhanced sugar agar [sy]) with Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella pneumoniae (typically occurring in the gut of wild flies) on the different fitness components was assessed in the laboratory and on field-caged host trees. We found that, in the laboratory, males reared on the probiotic yeast-enhanced agar, sy, had a significant mating advantage over competitors fed the standard s agar (probiotic and control) or noninoculated sy agar; no effect of probiotic enrichment (or lowering the yeast content) was found with the granular diets. Mating test results obtained in the field were inconsistent with laboratory data in that no differences in the numbers of matings were observed between males reared on any of the probiotic and control agar diets (or the SY granulate), whereas males feeding on the probiotic modified granulate, Sy, scored significantly more matings than their control competitors. The pheromone-calling activity of males maintained on the granular diets was not affected by probiotic enrichment on any of the seven observation days. Agar-fed males, however, "called" more frequently on days 6 and 7 (but not on days 1-5) when their diet contained the probiotic load. Laboratory survival of granulate-fed males was found to be significantly prolonged with probiotic inoculation and lowering the yeast content of the standard SY granulate

  19. Three mutations identified in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit gene of permethrin-resistant human head lice reduce the permethrin sensitivity of house fly Vssc1 sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    SupYoon, Kyong; Symington, Steven B; Hyeock Lee, Si; Soderlund, David M; Marshall Clark, J

    2008-03-01

    Point mutations in the para-orthologous sodium channel alpha-subunit of the head louse (M815I, T917I, and L920F) are associated with permethrin resistance and DDT resistance. These mutations were inserted in all combinations using site-directed mutagenesis at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions (M827I, T929I, and L932F) of the house fly para-orthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit (Vssc1(WT)) gene and heterologously co-expressed with the sodium channel auxiliary subunit of house fly (Vsscbeta) in Xenopus oocytes. The double mutant possessing M827I and T929I (Vssc1(MITI)/Vsscbeta) caused a approximately 4.0mV hyperpolarizing shift and the triple mutant, Vssc1(MITILF)/Vsscbeta, caused a approximately 3.2mV depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation curves. Vssc1(MITI)/Vsscbeta, Vssc1(TILF)/Vsscbeta, and Vssc1(MITILF)/Vsscbeta caused depolarizing shifts ( approximately 6.6, approximately 7.6, and approximately 8.8mV, respectively) in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation curves. The M827I and L932F mutations reduced permethrin sensitivity when expressed alone but the T929I mutation, either alone or in combination, virtually abolished permethrin sensitivity. Thus, the T929I mutation is the principal cause of permethrin resistance in head lice. Comparison of the expression rates of channels containing single, double and triple mutations with that of Vssc1(WT)/Vsscbeta channels indicates that the M827I mutation may play a role in rescuing the decreased expression of channels containing T929I. PMID:18252244

  20. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  1. National Survey of Radiation Dose and Image Quality in Adult CT Head Scans in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Jung; Mok, Greta S. P.; Tsai, Mang-Fen; Tsai, Wei-Ta; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tu, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different variables on radiation dose and image quality based on a national database. Materials and Methods Taiwan’s Ministry of Health and Welfare requested all radiology departments to complete a questionnaire for each of their CT scanners. Information gathered included all scanning parameters for CT head scans. For the present analysis, CT machines were divided into three subgroups: single slice CT (Group A); multi-detector CT (MDCT) with 2-64 slices (Group B); and MDCT with more than 64 slices (Group C). Correlations between computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with cumulated tube rotation number (CTW(n)) and cumulated tube rotation time (CTW(s)), and sub group analyses of CTDI and SNR across the three groups were performed. Results CTDI values demonstrated a weak correlation (r = 0.33) with CTW(n) in Group A. SNR values demonstrated a weak negative correlation (r = -0.46) with CTW(n) in Group C. MDCT with higher slice numbers used more tube potential resulting in higher effective doses. There were both significantly lower CTDI and SNR values in helical mode than in axial mode in Group B, but not Group C. Conclusion CTW(n) and CTW(s) did not influence radiation output. Helical mode is more often used in MDCT and results in both lower CTDI and SNR compared to axial mode in MDCT with less than 64 slices. PMID:26125549

  2. Racemic ketamine in adult head injury patients: use in endotracheal suctioning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is essential for patient care in an ICU but may represent a cause of cerebral secondary injury. Ketamine has been historically contraindicated for its use in head injury patients, since an increase of intracranial pressure (ICP) was reported; nevertheless, its use was recently suggested in neurosurgical patients. In this prospective observational study we investigated the effect of ETS on ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), jugular oxygen saturation (SjO2) and cerebral blood flow velocity (mVMCA) before and after the administration of ketamine. Methods In the control phase, ETS was performed on patients sedated with propofol and remifentanil in continuous infusion. If a cough was present, patients were assigned to the intervention phase, and 100 γ/kg/min of racemic ketamine for 10 minutes was added before ETS. Results In the control group ETS stimulated the cough reflex, with a median cough score of 2 (interquartile range (IQR) 1 to 2). Furthermore, it caused an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) (from 89.0 ± 11.6 to 96.4 ± 13.1 mmHg; P <0.001), ICP (from 11.0 ± 6.7 to 18.5 ± 8.9 mmHg; P <0.001), SjO2 (from 82.3 ± 7.5 to 89.1 ± 5.4; P = 0.01) and mVMCA (from 76.8 ± 20.4 to 90.2 ± 30.2 cm/sec; P = 0.04). CPP did not vary with ETS. In the intervention group, no significant variation of MAP, CPP, mVMCA, and SjO2 were observed in any step; after ETS, ICP increased if compared with baseline (15.1 ± 9.4 vs. 11.0 ± 6.4 mmHg; P <0.05). Cough score was significantly reduced in comparison with controls (P <0.0001). Conclusions Ketamine did not induce any significant variation in cerebral and systemic parameters. After ETS, it maintained cerebral hemodynamics without changes in CPP, mVMCA and SjO2, and prevented cough reflex. Nevertheless, ketamine was not completely effective when used to control ICP increase after administration of 100 γ/kg/min for 10

  3. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Failla, A J; Vasquez, A A; Hudson, P; Fujimoto, M; Ram, J L

    2016-02-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or 'species group' level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  4. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Failla, Andrew Joseph; Vasquez, Adrian Amelio; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  5. Thermal Index Evaluation of Local SAR in MRI-Based Head Models of Adult and Children for Portable Telephones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Osamu; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Wang, Jianqing

    Biological hazards due to radio-frequency (RF) waves result mainly from the temperature rise in tissue. It should be, therefore, clarified to what extent the RF waves of portable telephones increase the temperature-rise in human brain that includes the central part governing the body-temperature regulation function. In this paper, we calculated both the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the resultant temperature-rise for 900 MHz and 2 GHz portable telephones using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for three typical use positions, i.e., the vertical position, cheek position and tilt position. As a result, we found that there was an increase for median and 1% value of the cumulative distribution of temperature-rise in children’s brains for any use positions of the portable telephones compared to that in the adult’s brain, and also that the increasing trend in children’s brains for temperature-rise is identical to the temperature-rise trend in children’s hypothalamus. In addition, we found that the ten-gram averaged peak SAR among the adult and children heads had the same trend as that of the 0.1% value of the relatively cumulative distribution of temperature-rise, which shows that the ten-gram averaged peak SAR reflects only the localized temperature-rise in the brain surface.

  6. Why Adult Stem Cell Functionality Declines with Age? Studies from the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

    2014-01-01

    Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

  7. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  8. Practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with low-scattering regions by use of diffusion theory.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ogoshi, Yosuke; Okada, Eiji

    2005-04-10

    A practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with a low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region by use of diffusion theory was investigated. The diffusion approximation does not hold in a nonscattering or low-scattering regions. The hybrid radiosity-diffusion method was adopted to model the light propagation in the head with a nonscattering region. In the hybrid method the geometry of the nonscattering region is acquired as a priori information. In reality, low-level scattering occurs in the CSF region and may reduce the error caused by the diffusion approximation. The partial optical path length and the spatial sensitivity profile calculated by the finite-element method agree well with those calculated by the Monte Carlo method in the case in which the transport scattering coefficient of the CSF layer is greater than 0.3 mm(-1). Because it is feasible to assume that the transport scattering coefficient of a CSF layer is 0.3 mm(-1), it is practical to adopt diffusion theory to the modeling of light propagation in an adult head as an alternative to the hybrid method. PMID:15835358

  9. Practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with low-scattering regions by use of diffusion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ogoshi, Yosuke; Okada, Eiji

    2005-04-01

    A practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with a low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region by use of diffusion theory was investigated. The diffusion approximation does not hold in a nonscattering or low-scattering regions. The hybrid radiosity-diffusion method was adopted to model the light propagation in the head with a nonscattering region. In the hybrid method the geometry of the nonscattering region is acquired as a priori information. In reality, low-level scattering occurs in the CSF region and may reduce the error caused by the diffusion approximation. The partial optical path length and the spatial sensitivity profile calculated by the finite-element method agree well with those calculated by the Monte Carlo method in the case in which the transport scattering coefficient of the CSF layer is greater than 0.3 mm^-1. Because it is feasible to assume that the transport scattering coefficient of a CSF layer is 0.3 mm^-1, it is practical to adopt diffusion theory to the modeling of light propagation in an adult head as an alternative to the hybrid method.

  10. "A Bad Head for Maths"? Constructions of Educability and Mathematics in Adult Students' Narrative Life Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on the social differences of educability constructed in Finnish general upper secondary school adult graduates' narratives on mathematics. Social class, gender, and age intertwine in the narratives that express the adult students' worries about their ability and competence to study and learn mathematics. Social…

  11. New gene coding regions from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an EST approach to isolate new gene coding regions from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Two sources of expressed gene sequences were utilized. First, a subtracted library was synthesized from adult mixed sex fly cDNA of an organophosphate and pyrethroid resistant population of flies subtr...

  12. Resources for Educators of Adults. Annotated Bibliography for the Education of Public Offenders: by Descriptive Subject Headings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Michael J.; And Others

    This bibliography is presented to assist educators who are engaged in research activities with inmate or ex-inmate populations. The first part contains entries under descriptive subject headings (alphabetically by author); the second part contains abstracts of the material listed in part 1 (alphabetically by title). The descriptive headings…

  13. Free vascularized fibular grafting benefits severely collapsed femoral head in concomitant with osteoarthritis in very young adults: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Gao, You-Shui; Chen, Sheng-Bao; Jin, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2013-07-01

    Although free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) has been successfully employed for precollapsed osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), there are few reports concerning its radiographic and functional results for ONFH concomitant with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In the current study, 12 patients with OA induced by traumatic ONFH were enrolled, with FVFG employed as the treatment protocol. The collapsed step of the cartilage surface was measured and compared with the postoperative value, and the Merle d'Aubigné scoring system was used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative status of the hip joint. The collapsed step disappeared, and sphericity of the femoral head could be restored at an average duration of 56 months postoperatively in seven patients. With regard to the severity of hip OA, six were improved to Grade 1 and one to Grade 2. In terms of functionality, all patients with a restored femoral head experienced postoperative improvement in pain relief, mobility, and functional capacity. The average Merle d'Aubigné score increased from 6.0 to 16.9 postoperatively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, for traumatic ONFH concomitant with OA, FVFG can confer benefits in the form of restoration of the contour of the femoral head and improvement in joint function. PMID:23588546

  14. Head Start and Even Start: Greater Collaboration Needed on Measures of Adult Education and Literacy. Report to the Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Virginia; Doughty, Sherri; Boiman, Tiffany; Rebbe, James; Stenersen, Stan; Peterson, Jill

    This report examines whether Head Start and Even Start are substantially similar in key areas. At the request of a congressional subcommittee, the Government Accounting Office determined: (1) how similar the programs are in legal requirements and administration and the extent to which they have similar purposes, performance goals, and indicators;…

  15. Comparisons of peak SAR levels in concentric sphere head models of children and adults for irradiation by a dipole at 900 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Vitas

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the scale and significance of differences in peak specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the brains of children and adults exposed to radiofrequency emissions from mobile phones. Estimates were obtained by method of multipole analysis of a three layered (scalp/cranium/brain) spherical head exposed to a nearby 0.4lgr dipole at 900 MHz. A literature review of head parameters that influence SAR induction revealed strong indirect evidence based on total body water content that there are no substantive age-related changes in tissue conductivity after the first year of life. However, it was also found that the thickness of the ear, scalp and cranium do decrease on average with decreasing age, though individual variability within any age group is very high. The model analyses revealed that compared to an average adult, the peak brain 10 g averaged SAR in mean 4, 8, 12 and 16 year olds (yo) is increased by a factor of 1.31, 1.23, 1.15 and 1.07, respectively. However, contrary to the expectations of a recent prominent expert review, the UK Stewart Report, the relatively small scale of these increases does not warrant any special precautionary measures for child mobile phone users since: (a) SAR testing protocols as contained in the CENELEC (2001) standard provide an additional safety margin which ensures that allowable localized SAR limits are not exceeded in the brain; (b) the maximum worst case brain temperature rise (~0.13 to 0.14 °C for an average 4 yo) in child users of mobile phones is well within safe levels and normal physiological parameters; and (c) the range of age average increases in children is less than the expected range of variation seen within the adult population.

  16. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenil HEADS UP to School Sports Online Concussion Training Coaches Parents Athletes Sports Officials HEADS UP to Schools School Nurses Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals Parents HEADS UP ...

  17. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Wiese, Kristin M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Hua, Chia-ho; Daw, Najat; Navid, Fariba; Davidoff, Andrew M.; McGregor, Lisa; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; McCrarey, Lola; and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board-approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  18. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  19. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of 2 different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a...

  20. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) is a biting fly of extreme economic importance and can cause adverse economic effects on host animals. Within zoological parks, hosts may include practically any accessible animal (e.g., sheep, goats, cows, camels, equines, primates, canids, and felids). In many animals, e....

  1. A computational simulation study of the influence of helmet wearing on head injury risk in adult cyclists.

    PubMed

    McNally, D S; Whitehead, S

    2013-11-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of cycle helmets has relied either on simplified experiments or complex statistical analysis of patient cohorts or populations. This study directly assesses the effectiveness of cycle helmets over a range of accident scenarios, from basic loss of control to vehicle impact, using computational modelling. Simulations were performed using dynamics modelling software (MADYMO) and models of a 50% Hybrid III dummy, a hybrid cross bicycle and a car. Loss of control was simulated by a sudden turn of the handlebars and striking a curb, side and rear-on impacts by a car were also simulated. Simulations were run over a representative range of cycle speeds (2.0-14.0 m s(-1)) and vehicle speeds (4.5-17.9 m s(-1)). Bicycle helmets were found to be effective in reducing the severity of head injuries sustained in common accidents. They reduced the risk of an AIS>3 injury, in cases with head impacts, by an average of 40%. In accidents that would cause up to moderate (AIS=2) injuries to a non-helmeted rider, helmets eliminated the risk of injury. Helmets were also found to be effective in preventing fatal head injuries in some instances. The effectiveness of helmets was demonstrated over the entire range of cycle speeds studied, up to and including 14 m s(-1). There was no evidence that helmet wearing increased the risk of neck injury, indeed helmets were found to be protective of neck injuries in many cases. Similarly, helmets were found to offer an increase in protection even when an increase in cycle speed due to risk compensation was taken into consideration. PMID:24005027

  2. Design of the Neuro-ECAT: A high-resolution, high efficiency positron tomography for imaging the adult head or infant torso

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.W.; Burgiss, S.G.; Burke, M.R.; Crabtree, M.C.; Hoffman, E.J.; Keyser, R.M.; Phelps, M.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Neuro-ECAT scanner is a positron emission tomograph designed for high resolution cross-sectional imaging of the adult human head, or the complete torso of a child or small animal. The Neuro-ECAT scanner performs both rectilinear and tomographic scans, in both transmission and emission modes. There are three detector planes, producing five images. Each detector plane contains 88 bismuth germanate detectors, arranged in an octagonal array of 11 detectors per bank. Retained and electrically operated shadow shields provide two choices of reconstructed tomographic resolution, nominally 8.0 and 10.5 mm. Interplane septa, also retained and electrically operated, may be inserted between the detector planes for low noise, highly quantitative measurements, or moved aside for high efficiency scanning of low activity levels. The paper presents the Neuro-ECAT scanner design criteria and a description of the scanner. Data from phantom studies are presented to illustrate system performance.

  3. Following your heart or your head: focusing on emotions versus information differentially influences the decisions of younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mikels, Joseph A; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Maglio, Sam J; Goldstein, Mary K; Garber, Alan; Carstensen, Laura L

    2010-03-01

    Research on aging has indicated that whereas deliberative cognitive processes decline with age, emotional processes are relatively spared. To examine the implications of these divergent trajectories in the context of health care choices, we investigated whether instructional manipulations emphasizing a focus on feelings or details would have differential effects on decision quality among younger and older adults. We presented 60 younger and 60 older adults with health care choices that required them to hold in mind and consider multiple pieces of information. Instructional manipulations in the emotion-focus condition asked participants to focus on their emotional reactions to the options, report their feelings about the options, and then make a choice. In the information-focus condition, participants were instructed to focus on the specific attributes, report the details about the options, and then make a choice. In a control condition, no directives were given. Manipulation checks indicated that the instructions were successful in eliciting different modes of processing. Decision quality data indicate that younger adults performed better in the information-focus than in the control condition whereas older adults performed better in the emotion-focus and control conditions than in the information-focus condition. Findings support and extend extant theorizing on aging and decision making as well as suggest that interventions to improve decision-making quality should take the age of the decision maker into account. PMID:20350046

  4. Following Your Heart or Your Head: Focusing on Emotions Versus Information Differentially Influences the Decisions of Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mikels, Joseph A.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Maglio, Sam J.; Goldstein, Mary K.; Garber, Alan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Research on aging indicates that whereas deliberative cognitive processes decline with age, emotional processes are relatively spared. To examine the implications of these divergent trajectories in the context of healthcare choices, we investigated whether instructional manipulations emphasizing a focus on feelings or details would have differential effects on decision quality among younger and older adults. We presented 60 younger and 60 older adults with healthcare choices that required them to hold in mind and consider multiple pieces of information. Instructional manipulations in the emotion-focus condition asked participants to focus on their emotional reactions to the options, report their feelings about the options, and then make a choice. In the information-focus condition, participants were instructed to focus on the specific attributes, report the details about the options, and then make a choice. In a control condition, no directives were given. Manipulation checks indicated that the instructions were successful in eliciting different modes of processing. Decision quality data indicate that younger adults performed better in the information-focus than in the control condition whereas older adults performed better in the emotion-focus and control conditions than in the information-focus condition. Findings support and extend extant theorizing on aging and decision making as well as suggest that interventions to improve decision making quality should take the age of the decision maker into account. PMID:20350046

  5. Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy Improves the Prognosis of Unresectable Adult Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Jingu, Keiichi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Mizoe, Jun-Etsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Bessho, Hiroki; Takagi, Ryo; Morikawa, Takamichi; Tonogi, Morio; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Yamada, Shogo

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) with 70.4 GyE for unresectable bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (mean age, 46.2 years) were enrolled in this prospective study on C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fractions (fr) between April 2001 and February 2008. The primary end points were acute and late reactions of normal tissues, local control rate, and overall survival rate. The secondary end point was efficacy of the treatment in comparison to historical results with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE/16 fr. Results: The 3-year local control rate and overall survival rate for all patients were 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 81.0-100%) and 74.1% (95% CI = 57.5-90.6%), respectively. Acute reaction of Grade 3 or more was observed in only 1 patient. With regard to late reactions, visual loss was observed in 1 patient and a Grade 3 reaction of the maxillary bone was observed in 4 patients. A comparison with historical results revealed that the local control rate with 70.4 GyE was significantly higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 91.8% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the overall survival with 70.4 GyE tended to be higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 74.1% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.09). Conclusion: C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fr for bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck appears to be effective with acceptable toxicities in comparison to conventional RT and C-ion RT with lower doses.

  6. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) that were exposed as young flies to filter paper (3.75 % a.i.) or sugar (0.01-0.1 %) treated with pyriproxyfen produced significantly fewer F1 pupae than untreated flies but adult emergence success from pupae was unaffected. In contrast, treatment of larval re...

  7. ABDOMINAL PERICARDIAL SINUS: A NEUROHEMAL SITE IN THE TSETSE AND OTHER CYCLORRAPHAN FLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultrastructural study of the heart of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, and of several other species of cyclorraphan flies revealed that the ventral region of the heart of adult flies is encircled by a muscular septum not present in the larval stage. The pericardial septum of the adult heart ...

  8. Temporal characterization of bacteria in hayrings serving as stable fly larval development sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are important pests of pastured cattle, reducing weight gains, and causing discomfort to the animals. The focus of stable fly control has historically been on preventing adult stable flies from biting cattle. While the adult files biting t...

  9. Gene duplication, tissue-specific gene expression and sexual conflict in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Narechania, Apurva; Johns, Philip M.; Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication provides an essential source of novel genetic material to facilitate rapid morphological evolution. Traits involved in reproduction and sexual dimorphism represent some of the fastest evolving traits in nature, and gene duplication is intricately involved in the origin and evolution of these traits. Here, we review genomic research on stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) that has been used to examine the extent of gene duplication and its role in the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism. Stalk-eyed flies are remarkable because of the elongation of the head into long stalks, with the eyes and antenna laterally displaced at the ends of these stalks. Many species are strongly sexually dimorphic for eyespan, and these flies have become a model system for studying sexual selection. Using both expressed sequence tag and next-generation sequencing, we have established an extensive database of gene expression in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc, the adult head and testes. Duplicated genes exhibit narrower expression patterns than non-duplicated genes, and the testes, in particular, provide an abundant source of gene duplication. Within somatic tissue, duplicated genes are more likely to be differentially expressed between the sexes, suggesting gene duplication may provide a mechanism for resolving sexual conflict. PMID:22777023

  10. Commercial and naturally occurring fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biological control agents of stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on California dairies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J A; Mullens, B A; Cyr, T L; Stokes, C

    1990-06-01

    Filth fly parasites reared by commercial insectaries were released on two dairies (MO, DG) in southern California to determine their effect on populations of house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Spalangia endius Walker, Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner, and Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner were released on the MO dairy from 1985 to 1987 in varying quantities. Parasitism by Muscidifurax zaraptor on the MO dairy was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) from the field-collected stable fly (4.4%) and house fly (12.5%) pupae, compared with a control dairy (0.1%, stable fly; 1.3%, house fly). Muscidifurax zaraptor, released from April through October during 1987 on the DG dairy (350,000 per month), was not recovered in a significantly higher proportion from either fly species relative to the corresponding control dairy. No specimens of Muscidifurax raptorellus were recovered from the MO dairy. Parasite treatments had no apparent effect on adult populations of either fly species or on overall parasitism rate of field-collected stable fly (16.8%, MO; 17.2%, DG) and house fly (23.3%, MO; 20.9%, DG) pupae. Spalangia spp. were the predominant parasites recovered from field-collected stable fly and house fly pupae on all four dairies. Sentinel house fly pupae placed in fly-breeding sites on both release dairies were parasitized at a significantly higher rate, as compared with sentinel pupae on control dairies. The generic composition of parasites emerging from sentinel house fly pupae was 20.6% Spalangia spp. and 73.2% Muscidifurax spp., whereas in field-collected house fly pupae, Spalangia spp. and Muscidifurax spp. constituted 74.3 and 19.6% of the parasites, respectively. PMID:2376639

  11. Long-Distance and Frequent Movements of the Flying-Fox Pteropus poliocephalus: Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Billie J.; Catterall, Carla P.; Eby, Peggy; Kanowski, John

    2012-01-01

    Flying-foxes (Pteropodidae) are large bats capable of long-distance flight. Many species are threatened; some are considered pests. Effective conservation and management of flying-foxes are constrained by lack of knowledge of their ecology, especially of movement patterns over large spatial scales. Using satellite telemetry, we quantified long-distance movements of the grey-headed flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus among roost sites in eastern Australia. Fourteen adult males were tracked for 2–40 weeks (mean 25 weeks). Collectively, these individuals utilised 77 roost sites in an area spanning 1,075 km by 128 km. Movement patterns varied greatly between individuals, with some travelling long distances. Five individuals travelled cumulative distances >1,000 km over the study period. Five individuals showed net displacements >300 km during one month, including one movement of 500 km within 48 hours. Seasonal movements were consistent with facultative latitudinal migration in part of the population. Flying-foxes shifted roost sites frequently: 64% of roost visits lasted <5 consecutive days, although some individuals remained at one roost for several months. Modal 2-day distances between consecutive roosts were 21–50 km (mean 45 km, range 3–166 km). Of 13 individuals tracked for >12 weeks, 10 moved >100 km in one or more weeks. Median cumulative displacement distances over 1, 10 and 30 weeks were 0 km, 260 km and 821 km, respectively. On average, over increasing time-periods, one additional roost site was visited for each additional 100 km travelled. These findings explain why culling and relocation attempts have had limited success in resolving human-bat conflicts in Australia. Flying-foxes are highly mobile between camps and regularly travel long distances. Consequently, local control actions are likely to have only temporary effects on local flying-fox populations. Developing alternative methods to manage these conflicts remains an important challenge that

  12. Flying qualities research challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, Steven M.; George, Frank L.

    1987-01-01

    Traditional flying qualities requirements for airplane dynamics are based on airplane modal response characteristics derived from linear small-perturbation analysis. These requirements are supported by a large experimental data base. The challenge to the flying qualities community is to demonstrate how flying qualities, the control system and aircraft configuration are still closely linked. This is evident in the definition of flying qualities and, as far as pilots are concerned, that flying qualities are still the measure of overall design success.

  13. Head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's head circumference Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  14. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of head injuries include bicycle or motorcycle wrecks, sports injuries, falls from windows (especially among children who live ... to watch for? When can I start playing sports again after a head injury? How can brain damage from a head injury ...

  15. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  16. The characterization of the fat bodies and oenocytes in the adult females of the sand fly vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Wiviane Alves; Malta, Juliana; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon P; Ramalho-Ortigão, José Marcelo; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    The fat body (FB) is responsible for the storage and synthesis of the majority of proteins and metabolites secreted into the hemolymph. Oenocytes are responsible for lipid processing and detoxification. The FB is distributed throughout the insect body cavity and organized as peripheral and perivisceral portions in the abdomen, with trophocytes and oenocytes attached to the peripheral portion. Here, we investigated the morphology and the subcellular changes in the peripheral and perivisceral FBs and in oenocytes of the sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi after blood feeding. In L. longipalpis two-sized oenocytes (small and large) were identified, with both cell types displaying well-developed reticular system and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, whereas in P. papatasi, only small cells were observed. Detailed features of FBs of L. longipalpis and P. papatasi are shared either prior to or after blood feeding. The peripheral and perivisceral FBs responded to blood feeding with the development of glycogen zones and rough endoplasmic reticulum. This study provides the first detailed description of the FBs and oenocytes in sand flies, contributing significantly towards are better understanding of the biology of such important disease vectors. PMID:24863740

  17. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron as a development site treatment for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M

    2012-05-01

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% [AI]), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.); house flies, Musca domestica L.; and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), in cow manure. Various rates and insecticide placement locations (top, middle, and bottom of manure) were evaluated in this study and all combinations of these variables reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated controls. The presence of deformed pupae indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Top, middle, or bottom application rates of 0.125, 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron onto manure samples, reduced adult horn fly emergence by > 90%. Middle and bottom application rates of 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron reduced adult house fly emergence >93%. All rates and placement combinations resulted in >98% reduction of adult stable fly emergence. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species along with the ease of use of a granular formulation, make this product an ideal candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program. PMID:22679873

  18. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico. PMID:27280348

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, H; Delpy, D T

    2000-09-01

    Previous modeling of near-infrared (NIR) light distribution in models of the adult head incorporating a clear nonscattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer have shown the latter to have a profound effect on the resulting photon measurement density function (PMDF). In particular, the presence of the CSF limits the PMDF largely to the outer cortical gray matter with little signal contribution from the deeper white matter. In practice, the CSF is not a simple unobstructed clear layer but contains light-scattering membranes and is crossed by various blood vessels. Using a radiosity-diffusion finite-element model, we investigated the effect on the PMDF of introducing intrusions within the clear layer. The results show that the presence of such obstructions does not significantly increase the light penetration into the brain tissue, except immediately adjacent to the obstruction and that its presence also increases the light sampling of the adjacent skull tissues, which would lead to additional contamination of the NIR spectroscopy signal by the surface tissue layers. PMID:18350064

  20. Temperature cycle amplitude alters the adult eclosion time and expression pattern of the circadian clock gene period in the onion fly.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yosuke; Watari, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Goto, Shin G

    2016-03-01

    Soil temperature cycles are considered to play an important role in the entrainment of circadian clocks of underground insects. However, because of the low conductivity of soil, temperature cycles are gradually dampened and the phase of the temperature cycle is delayed with increasing soil depth. The onion fly, Delia antiqua, pupates at various soil depths, and its eclosion is timed by a circadian clock. This fly is able to compensate for the depth-dependent phase delay of temperature change by advancing the eclosion time with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. Therefore, pupae can eclose at the appropriate time irrespective of their location at any depth. However, the mechanism that regulates eclosion time in response to temperature amplitude is still unknown. To understand whether this mechanism involves the circadian clock or further downstream physiological processes, we examined the expression patterns of period (per), a circadian clock gene, of D. antiqua under temperature cycles that were square wave cycles of 12-h warm phase (W) and 12-h cool phase (C) with the temperature difference of 8 °C (WC 29:21 °C) and 1 °C (WC 25.5:24.5 °C). The phase of oscillation in per expression was found to commence 3.5h earlier under WC 25.5:24.5 °C as compared to WC 29:21 °C. This difference was in close agreement with the eclosion time difference between the two temperature cycles, suggesting that the mechanism that responds to the temperature amplitude involves the circadian clock. PMID:26776097

  1. Binocular interactions underlying the classic optomotor responses of flying flies.

    PubMed

    Duistermars, Brian J; Care, Rachel A; Frye, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    In response to imposed course deviations, the optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, many anatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that disparate motion cues stimulating the left and right eyes are not processed in isolation but rather are integrated in the brain to produce a cohesive panoramic percept. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory-motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record wing and head optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular rotation and monocular front-to-back and back-to-front motion. Within a narrow range of stimulus parameters that generates large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular front-to-back motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation, but are contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular back-to-front motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the influence of non-additive contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions that serve to confer contrast insensitivity to flight behaviors influenced by rotatory optic flow. PMID:22375108

  2. Binocular Interactions Underlying the Classic Optomotor Responses of Flying Flies

    PubMed Central

    Duistermars, Brian J.; Care, Rachel A.; Frye, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    In response to imposed course deviations, the optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, many anatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that disparate motion cues stimulating the left and right eyes are not processed in isolation but rather are integrated in the brain to produce a cohesive panoramic percept. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory–motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record wing and head optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular rotation and monocular front-to-back and back-to-front motion. Within a narrow range of stimulus parameters that generates large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular front-to-back motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation, but are contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular back-to-front motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the influence of non-additive contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions that serve to confer contrast insensitivity to flight behaviors influenced by rotatory optic flow. PMID:22375108

  3. Simulated flying performance after marihuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-02-01

    Ten pilots smoked, in counterbalanced order on a double blind basis, a social dose of marihuana (.09 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and a matched placebo after being trained to fly a specific flight sequence on an ATC-510 flight simulator. In contrast to placebo, marihuana caused a gross decrement in flying performance, with increased prevalence of major errors, minor errors, altitude deviations, heading deviations, and radio navigation errors. These effects of active marihuana persisted for at least 2 hr and generally had disappeared by 4 to 6 hr after marihuana administration. PMID:1252201

  4. Evaluation of time-resolved multi-distance methods to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads in vivo: Optical parameters dependences on geometrical structures of the models used to calculate reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanifuji, T.

    2016-03-01

    Time-resolved multi-distance measurements are studied to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads, which have enough depth sensitivity to determine the optical parameters in superficial tissues and brain separately. Measurements were performed by putting the injection and collection fibers on the left semi-sphere of the forehead, with the injection fiber placed toward the temporal region, and by moving the collection fiber between 10 and 60 mm from the central sulcus. It became clear that optical parameters of the forehead at all collection fibers were reasonably determined by selecting the appropriate visibility length of the geometrical head models, which is related to head surface curvature at each position.

  5. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Stable flies are considered to be one of themajor blood-feeding pests in theUS livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is ex...

  6. Enhanced trapping of stable flies via olfactory and visual cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies are highly attracted to the so-called Alsynite cylinder trap; however this trap is expensive. Here we report the development of a cheaper and better white panel trap with options of adding visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. The white panel trap attracte...

  7. Enhancing male sexual success in a lekking fly (Anastrepha suspensa Diptera: Tephritidae) through a juvenile hormone analog has no effect on adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rui; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Brockmann, Jane

    2010-11-01

    While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual success. However, sexual signals and interactions are likely to be physiologically expensive and so result in higher male mortality. Comparison of males kept in isolation for 35 days, but provided daily with a potential mate or a rival male, revealed that both male- and female-interactors shortened focal-male lifespan. In addition, focal males were either treated with methoprene or not, then either provided with protein in their sucrose-based diet or not. Protein proved to similarly double sexual success and also resulted in longer male life spans in all of the interactor-categories. However, there was no evidence that methoprene induced hypersexuality resulted in higher rates of mortality, i.e., the longevity of males treated with methoprene did not significantly differ from untreated males in the same interactor/diet categories. This apparent lack of costs to a putatively sexually selected signal is unexpected but presents an opportunity to increase the sexual competence of sterile flies with few consequences to their survival following mass-release. PMID:20470780

  8. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly,...

  9. Assessment of Antero-Posterior Skeletal and Soft Tissue Relationships of Adult Indian Subjects in Natural Head Position and Centric Relation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Vishnu Ben; Keshavaraj; Rai, Rohan; Hegde, Gautham; Shajahan, Shabna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to verify the intra-individual reproducibility of natural head position (NHP) in centric relation (CR) position, to prove the inter-individual differences in the Frankfort horizontal plane and sella-nasion line compared with the true horizontal line, and to establish linear norms from A-point, B-point, Pog as well as soft tissue A-point, soft tissue B-point, and soft tissue Pog to nasion true vertical line (NTVL) in adult Indian subjects. Methods: Lateral cephalograms (T1) of Angle’s Class I subjects were taken in NHP and with bite in CR. A second lateral cephalogram (T2) of these subjects with ANB angle in the range 1-4° were taken after 1 week using the same wax bite and both the radiographs were analyzed based on six angular parameters using cephalometric software (Do-it, Dental studio NX version 4.1) to assess the reproducibility of NHP. Linear values of six landmarks were taken in relation to NTVL, and the mean values were calculated. A total of 116 subjects were included in this study. Results: When the cephalometric values of T1 and T2 were analyzed, it was found that, the parameters showed a P < 0.001, indicating the reproducibility of NHP in CR. Mean values for point A, point B, Pog and their soft tissue counterparts were also obtained. Conclusion: The study proved that NHP is a reproducible and accurate when recorded with the mandible in CR. Linear norms for skeletal Class I subjects in relation to NTVL were established. PMID:26124598

  10. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  11. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prescription products. Over-the-counter shampoos and lotions containing pyrethrin (one brand name: Rid) or permethrin ( ... commonly used to treat head lice. Shampoos and lotions that kill head lice contain pesticides and other ...

  12. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... tell your health care provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips Certain types of artificial heart valves ...

  13. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Devore, Cynthia D; Schutze, Gordon E

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2010 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, newer medications have been approved for the treatment of head lice. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:25917986

  14. Emergence of Stable Flies From Winter Cattle Feeding Sites During the Spring and Summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly has become a serious pest of pasture cattle with the practice of feeding large round bales of hay during the winter. Manure and waste hay accumulate at these feeding sites and produce a habitat conducive to immature stable fly development. Adult stable fly emergence was monitored at...

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Musca domestica L.: temporospatial examination of bacteria population dynamics and house fly antimicrobial responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies associate with microbes throughout their life history. Bacteria ingested by adult flies enter the alimentary canal and face a hostile environment including antimicrobial defenses. Because the outcome of this interaction impacts bacterial survival and dissemination, our primary objective ...

  16. 24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR OF MAIN BUILDING. NOTE CABLE DRIVE DRUM AND FLY WHEELS OF CARRIAGE DRIVE STEAM ENGINE IN FOREGROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  17. Automatic Prompting and Positive Attention to Reduce Tongue Protrusion and Head Tilting by Two Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Pichierri, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed a simple behavioral strategy for reducing stereotypic tongue protrusion and forward head tilting displayed by a woman and a man with severe to profound intellectual disabilities. The strategy involved (a) auditory prompting (i.e., verbal encouragements to keep the tongue in the mouth or the head upright) delivered automatically…

  18. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  19. Central gating of fly optomotor response.

    PubMed

    Haag, Juergen; Wertz, Adrian; Borst, Alexander

    2010-11-16

    We study the integration of multisensory and central input at the level of an identified fly motoneuron, the ventral cervical nerve motoneuron (VCNM) cell, which controls head movements of the animal. We show that this neuron receives input from a central neuron signaling flight activity, from two identified wide-field motion-sensitive neurons, from the wind-sensitive Johnston organ on the antennae, and from the campaniform sensillae of the halteres. We find that visual motion alone leads to only subthreshold responses. Only when it is combined with flight activity or wind stimuli does the VCNM respond to visual motion by modulating its spike activity in a directionally selective way. This nonlinear enhancement of visual responsiveness in the VCNM by central activity is reflected at the behavioral level, when compensatory head movements are measured in response to visual motion. While head movements of flies have only a small amplitude when flies are at rest, the response amplitude is increased by a factor of 30-40 during flight. PMID:21045125

  20. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  1. An evaluation of flight path formats head-up and head-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, George A.; Moody, Laura E.; Evans, Joanne; Williams, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    Flight path primary flight display formats were incorporated on head-up and head-down electronic displays and integrated into an Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Objective and subjective data were collected while ten airline pilots evaluated the formats by flying an approach and landing task under various ceiling, visibility and wind conditions. Deviations from referenced/commanded airspeed, horizontal track, vertical track and touchdown point were smaller using the head-up display (HUD) format than the head-down display (HDD) format, but not significantly smaller. Subjectively, the pilots overwhelmingly preferred (1) flight path formats over attitude formats used in current aircraft, and (2) the head-up presentation over the head-down, primarily because it eliminated the head-down to head-up transition during low visibility landing approaches. This report describes the simulator, the flight displays, the format evaluation, and the results of the objective and subjective data.

  2. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal. Volume 1 contains the dissertation of Ghosal which covers the characterization of fly ash and the measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  3. Sound radiation around a flying fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Tuck, Elizabeth J.; Robert, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Many insects produce sounds during flight. These acoustic emissions result from the oscillation of the wings in air. To date, most studies have measured the frequency characteristics of flight sounds, leaving other acoustic characteristics-and their possible biological functions-unexplored. Here, using close-range acoustic recording, we describe both the directional radiation pattern and the detailed frequency composition of the sound produced by a tethered flying (Lucilia sericata). The flapping wings produce a sound wave consisting of a series of harmonics, the first harmonic occurring around 190 Hz. In the horizontal plane of the fly, the first harmonic shows a dipolelike amplitude distribution whereas the second harmonic shows a monopolelike radiation pattern. The first frequency component is dominant in front of the fly while the second harmonic is dominant at the sides. Sound with a broad frequency content, typical of that produced by wind, is also recorded at the back of the fly. This sound qualifies as pseudo-sound and results from the vortices generated during wing kinematics. Frequency and amplitude features may be used by flies in different behavioral contexts such as sexual communication, competitive communication, or navigation within the environment.

  4. Bacterial communities associated with larval development of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Adult stable flies are hematophagous parasites that preferentially feed on cattle. Persistent attacks and painful bites of the adults contribute to an economic impact of ~$2 billion/yr on the US cattle industry. Although stable flies are important livestock pests, relatively little is ...

  5. 454 pyrosequencing project identifying expressed genes from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an EST approach to initiate a study of the genome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans and have used 454 pyrosequencing techniques to sequence 73,512, 100,603, 71,550, and 85,769 expressed genes from the egg, first instar larvae, adult male, and adult female lifestages of the horn fly. cD...

  6. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2002 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, patterns of resistance to products available over-the-counter and by prescription have changed, and additional mechanical means of removing head lice have been explored. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:20660553

  7. Sensory Interactions for Head and Trunk Control in Space in Young and Older Adults During Normal and Narrow-Base Walking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Deshpande, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen young (20-30 years old) and 15 older (>65 years old) healthy participants were recruited to investigate age-related differences in head and trunk control under suboptimal vestibular conditions (galvanic vestibular stimulation, or GVS) and vision conditions during normal and narrow-based walking. Head-roll velocity decreased in the blurred-vision condition and marginally increased with GVS in older but not in young participants. Head pitch increased, whereas head-roll velocity decreased in narrow-base walking. Trunk pitch, trunk-pitch velocity, and gait speed increased with GVS, whereas trunk-pitch velocity and gait speed decreased in narrow-base walking. Marginally increased head-roll velocity in the older participants possibly suggests decreased integrative ability of the central nervous system in elderly people. The changes in head control during narrow-base walking may be an attempt to simplify the interpretation of the vestibular signal and increase otolith sensitivity. The complexity of controlling the trunk in the mediolateral direction was suggested by different strategies used for trunk control in different conditions. PMID:25675141

  8. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  9. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  10. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  11. A Flying Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Frank X.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a five-day summer camp which provided 12 children, ages 9-14, with a complete flying experience. The training consisted of ground school and one hour actual flying time, including the basics of aircraft control and a flight prepared and executed by the students. (MLH)

  12. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...

  13. Bionomics of the face fly, Musca autumnalis.

    PubMed

    Krafsur, E S; Moon, R D

    1997-01-01

    The face fly was introduced from the Palearctic region and spread across North America in 20 years after World War II. Adults feed on cattle and horses, and larvae develop in fresh cattle dung. Little genetic differentiation appears between European and North American populations and among regions within North America. After an autumnally initiated diapause, overwintered flies emerge in spring and reproduce through late spring and summer. Generations after the first overlap, and age structure develops toward a stable age distribution. After three to ten generations, depending on weather, facultative diapause interrupts host feeding and oogenesis, and flies with hypertrophied fat body enter overwintering hibernaculae. Life table statistics and factors affecting population growth and diapause are reviewed. Early views on the fly's effects on animal productivity may have been exaggerated. On-farm control by conventional means has not been effective because of the fly's population dynamics and mobility. We suggest that the alternatives of classical biological control and area-wide control with the sterile insect technique should be considered. PMID:9017900

  14. Novel Word Learning of Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start Regular and Bilingual Classrooms: Impact of Adult Vocabulary Noneliciting Questions during Shared Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study employed quantitative methods to investigate the impact of adult questioning styles on children's novel vocabulary acquisition during shared storybook reading. In an effort to examine adult qualitative variations in shared storybook readings, two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of noneliciting questions…

  15. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  16. Fly on the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The email was addressed not only to me, but also to all the Project Knowledge Sharing Community at Ames Research Center. We were invited to sit in on a major project review as a new experiment in knowledge sharing. This first-of-its-kind opportunity had been conceived by Claire Smith, who leads the knowledge sharing program, as well as heading up the Center's Project Leadership Development Program and serving as coordinator of the APPL-West program at Ames. The objective was to offer Ames project practitioners the opportunity to observe project-review processes as they happen. Not that I haven't participated in my share of project reviews, but this seemed like a great way for me to get up-to-date about a new project, the Kepler mission, and to experience a review from a new perspective. Typically, when you're being reviewed, it's difficult to see what's happening objectively-the same way it is on a project. Presenters are always thinking, 'Okay, what's on my slides? How much time do I have left? What are they going to ask me?' So when Claire's email pinged on my computer, I quickly responded by asking her to save a place for me. It was to be an informational review about progress on the project: what the team had done, where they were going, and what they needed to do to get there. There were people on the project team from all over the United States, and it was the first time for them to get together from all aspects of the project. For our part, as observers, we were asked to abide by a couple of rules: Don't ask any questions. and don't talk about the specifics of what we saw or heard. The idea was that we weren't supposed to be noticed. We weren't to buzz around and bother people. Hence the name for this experinient: Fly on the Wall.

  17. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Science and Technology Div.

    This guide lists information sources dealing with unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Not meant to be a comprehensive bibliography, this compilation is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target." Included are: (1) subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which publications on this subject can be…

  18. A Single-fly Assay for Foraging Behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zaninovich, Orel A.; Kim, Susy M.; Root, Cory R.; Green, David S.; Ko, Kang I.; Wang, Jing W.

    2013-01-01

    For many animals, hunger promotes changes in the olfactory system in a manner that facilitates the search for appropriate food sources. In this video article, we describe an automated assay to measure the effect of hunger or satiety on olfactory dependent food search behavior in the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In a light-tight box illuminated by red light that is invisible to fruit flies, a camera linked to custom data acquisition software monitors the position of six flies simultaneously. Each fly is confined to walk in individual arenas containing a food odor at the center. The testing arenas rest on a porous floor that functions to prevent odor accumulation. Latency to locate the odor source, a metric that reflects olfactory sensitivity under different physiological states, is determined by software analysis. Here, we discuss the critical mechanics of running this behavioral paradigm and cover specific issues regarding fly loading, odor contamination, assay temperature, data quality, and statistical analysis. PMID:24299900

  19. NASA head sworn in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James C. Fletcher was sworn in on May 12, 1986, as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At a news conference after he was sworn in, Fletcher said that NASA would deal with both its technical problems and its procedural problems before the shuttle will fly again. According to press accounts, he stressed that funds should be made available to replace the Challenger orbiter, which was lost in an explosion on January 28.Fletcher, who had also headed the agency from 1971 to 1977, succeeds James M. Beggs, who was indicted in December 1985 for conspiring to defraud the federal government while serving as a senior executive at the General Dynamics Corporation.

  20. House and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) seasonal abundance, larval development substrates, and natural parasitism on small equine farms in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 1-year study was designed to determine adult fly population levels and development substrates on four small equine farms. Results showed that pest flies were present year-round, but differences existed in population levels among farms and seasons. Fly larvae were not found on two of the farms, ...

  1. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  2. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  3. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  4. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  5. Insight into stable fly larvae: Salivary gland-specific polypeptides and evidence for genes that may have a role in the stable fly innate immune system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly is a pest of veterinary and economic importance, with damages in the United States estimated at $1 billion USD/year. Current control approaches have mostly been directed towards the adult stage of the fly, but control of the larval stage by identifying and treating larval habitats has...

  6. Proximal coracobrachialis tendon rupture, subscapularis tendon rupture, and medial dislocation of the long head of the biceps tendon in an adult after traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Bryan M; Harris, Joshua D; Forsythe, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Rupture of the coracobrachialis is a rare entity, in isolation or in combination with other muscular or tendinous structures. When described, it is often a result of direct trauma to the anatomic area resulting in rupture of the muscle belly. The authors present a case of a 57-year-old female who suffered a proximal coracobrachialis tendon rupture from its origin at the coracoid process, with concomitant subscapularis tear and medial dislocation of the long head of biceps tendon after first time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Two weeks after injury, magnetic resonance imaging suggested the diagnosis, which was confirmed during combined arthroscopic and open technique. Soft-tissue tenodesis of coracobrachialis to the intact short head of the biceps, tenodesis of the long head of biceps to the intertubercular groove, and double-row anatomic repair of the subscapularis were performed. The patient did well postoperatively, and ultimately at 6 months follow-up, she was without pain, and obtained 160° of active forward elevation, 45° of external rotation, internal rotation to T8, 5/5 subscapularis and biceps strength. Scoring scales had improved from the following preoperative to final follow-up: American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, 53.33-98.33; constant, 10-100; visual analogue scale-pain, 4-0. DASH score was 5. PMID:25937715

  7. Proximal coracobrachialis tendon rupture, subscapularis tendon rupture, and medial dislocation of the long head of the biceps tendon in an adult after traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Bryan M.; Harris, Joshua D.; Forsythe, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Rupture of the coracobrachialis is a rare entity, in isolation or in combination with other muscular or tendinous structures. When described, it is often a result of direct trauma to the anatomic area resulting in rupture of the muscle belly. The authors present a case of a 57-year-old female who suffered a proximal coracobrachialis tendon rupture from its origin at the coracoid process, with concomitant subscapularis tear and medial dislocation of the long head of biceps tendon after first time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Two weeks after injury, magnetic resonance imaging suggested the diagnosis, which was confirmed during combined arthroscopic and open technique. Soft-tissue tenodesis of coracobrachialis to the intact short head of the biceps, tenodesis of the long head of biceps to the intertubercular groove, and double-row anatomic repair of the subscapularis were performed. The patient did well postoperatively, and ultimately at 6 months follow-up, she was without pain, and obtained 160° of active forward elevation, 45° of external rotation, internal rotation to T8, 5/5 subscapularis and biceps strength. Scoring scales had improved from the following preoperative to final follow-up: American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, 53.33-98.33; constant, 10-100; visual analogue scale-pain, 4-0. DASH score was 5. PMID:25937715

  8. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered. PMID:25118422

  9. Comparison of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains: Effect of Hypoxia, Fly Density, Chilling Period, and Food Type on Fly Quality.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lía; Hernández, Emilio; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The use of genetic sexing strain (GSS) insects in the sterile insect technique (SIT) makes necessary the revision of quality parameters of some stressful steps used during the packing process for aerial release because of possible differences in tolerance between fly strains. Here, we determined the effect of three periods of hypoxia (12, 24, and 36 h at pupal stage), three cage densities (1.0, 1.3, and 1.5 flies/cm2), two different foods (protein/sugar (1/24) and Mubarqui), and three chilling times (20 min [control], 90, and 180 min) on the quality parameters of flies of two Anastrepha ludens (Loew) strains (bisexual and GSS Tapachula-7). In general, the response to stressful conditions of both fly strains was qualitatively equivalent but quantitatively different, as flies of both strains responded equally to the stressful factors; however, flies of Tapachula-7 exhibited lower quality parameters than the control flies. Thus, hypoxia affected the flying ability but not the emergence or longevity of flies. The food type affected the adult weight; protein/sugar produced heavier flies that also survived longer and had a greater mating propensity. Flies under the lowest density were better fliers that those at the other two densities. Increasing chilling time reduced flight ability but not longevity or mating propensity. The implications of these findings for the use of A. ludens GSS in SIT programs are discussed herein. PMID:26685109

  10. Intellectual Changes after Closed Head Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    This study provided more details on the nature of the intellectual deficit suffered by persons having closed head injuries and the recovery process as measured on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). (Author/RK)

  11. Intimate sex-biased relationships between flies and nematodes in the Fergusonina-Fergusobia mutualism (Diptera: Fergusoninidae; Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All known species of Fergusonina flies (Fergusoninidae) participate in an obligate mutualism with Fergusobia nematode worms (Neotylenchidae). From dissections, it is believed that all adult and late-instar larval female flies carry nematodes internally, while male adults and late-instar larvae do no...

  12. Cone Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The author, a middle school art teacher, describes a sculpture project lesson involving Cone Heads (sculptures made from cardboard cones). Discussion of caricatures with exaggerated facial features and interesting profiles helped students understand that the more expressive the face, the better. This project took approximately four to five…

  13. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  14. Behavioural responses of stable flies to cattle manure slurry associated odourants.

    PubMed

    Tangtrakulwanich, K; Albuquerque, T A; Brewer, G J; Baxendale, F P; Zurek, L; Miller, D N; Taylor, D B; Friesen, K A; Zhu, J J

    2015-03-01

    Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans [Diptera: Muscidae] L.) are blood-feeding synanthropic pests, which cause significant economic losses in livestock. Stable fly antennae contain olfactory sensilla responsive to host and host environment-associated odours. Field observation indicated that the abundance of stable flies increased significantly in grasslands or crop fields when cattle manure slurry was applied. Major volatile compounds emanating from manure slurry were collected and identified. Behavioural responses of stable flies to those compounds were investigated in laboratory bioassays and field-trapping studies. Results from olfactometer assays revealed that phenol, p-cresol and m-cresol were attractive to adult stable flies. When tested individually, attraction was higher with lower dosages. Stable flies were most attracted to blends of phenol and m-cresol or p-cresol. Traps with binary blend lures caught more stable flies in field trials as well. PMID:25557192

  15. Investigation of Mechanical Clearance Change with Thermal Flying-height Control Slider at High Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ookubo, Satoru; Shiramatsu, Toshiya; Kurita, Masayuki; Kohira, Hidekazu; Takeuchi, Yoshinori

    Clearance change between a magnetic head with a thermal flying-height control (TFC) function and a magnetic disk at high altitude was investigated. To clarify the change of head-disk clearance in the case of TFC actuation at high altitude, head-disk clearance change was experimentally evaluated as a function of altitude and head-disk clearance by using a TFC function. The evaluation results show that the head-disk clearance change is larger in the case with TFC actuation at high altitude than that in the case without TFC actuation.

  16. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  17. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

  18. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods. PMID:26845547

  19. Molecular characterization and immunolocalization of the olfactory co-recepter Orco from two blood-feeding muscid flies, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans, L.) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans, L.)

    PubMed Central

    Olafson, Pia Untalan

    2012-01-01

    Biting flies are economically important, blood-feeding pests of medical and veterinary significance. Chemosensory-based biting fly behaviors, such as host/nutrient source localization and ovipositional site selection, are intriguing targets for the development of supplemental control strategies. In an effort to expand our understanding of biting fly chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from two representative biting fly species, the stable fly (Scal\\Orco) and the horn fly (Hirr\\Orco). Orco forms a complex with an odor-specific odorant receptor to form an odor-gated ion channel. The biting fly transcripts were predicted to encode proteins with 87% – 94% amino acid similarity to published insect Orco sequences and were detected in various immature stages as well as in adult structures associated with olfaction, i.e. antennae and maxillary palps, and gustation, i.e. proboscis. Further, the relevant proteins were immunolocalized to specific antennal sensilla using anti-serum raised against a peptide sequence conserved between the two fly species. Results from this study provide a basis for functional evaluation of repellent/attractant effects on as yet uncharacterized stable fly and horn fly conventional odorant receptors. PMID:23278866

  20. Developmental times and life tables for shore flies, Scatella tenuicosta (Diptera: Ephydridae), at three temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development times and survivorship of immature shore flies, and longevity and reproduction of adult shore flies, Scatella tenuicosta Collin, reared on algae-infested filter paper, were studied at three temperatures (constant 20, 26 and 28.5 deg C) via life table analysis. The development time for e...

  1. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California table olives, USA: Invasion, distribution, and management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was discovered in California in late 1998. Thereafter, intensive research was conducted to develop pest control methods in table olives. The life history of olive fruit fly was elucidated, and the distribution and abundance of the adults determined through ...

  2. OVARIAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLY, ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable methods are needed for assessing sexual maturity in field-caught tephritid fruit flies. To provide such a tool for female Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), we documented changes in ovarian development over a four-week period following adult eclosion. The ovarian maturatio...

  3. Methyl Farnesoate a naturally occurring juvenoid that accelerates reproductive development in Caribbean Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl farnesoate, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and the bisepoxide homolog of JH III was identified from hemolymph of adult males and females of the Caribbean fruit fly. Application of methyl farnesoate to newly eclosed flies resulted in precocious sexual dev...

  4. Molecular markers for identification of Hessian fly males caught on pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone traps have been widely used to monitor insect populations in nature. However, pheromone traps for the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), one of the most destructive insect pests of wheat, have been used only in recent years. Because Hessian fly male adults are small and fragile, it is d...

  5. Expression of lysozyme in the life history of the house fly (Musca domestica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From egg to adult, all life history stages of house flies associate with septic environments teeming with bacteria. House fly lysozyme was first identified in the larval midgut, where it is used for digestion of microbe-rich meals due to its broad-spectrum activity against Gram positive and Gram neg...

  6. Honeydew and insecticide-bait as competing food resources for a fruit fly and common parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew from phloem-feeding insects and fruit fly insecticidal baits may both serve as adult food resources for some insect species. In California olive orchards the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), is a common honeydew-producer, while spinosad-based fruit fly bait (GF-120) is used to contro...

  7. Oviposition deterrence and immature survival if filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae) when exposed to commercial fungal products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the subletha...

  8. Ovarian development in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable methods are needed for assessing sexual maturity in field-caught tephritid fruit flies. To provide such a tool for female Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), we documented changes in ovarian development over a four-week period following adult eclosion. The ovarian maturatio...

  9. Sublethal consequences of commercial fungal products on filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the subletha...

  10. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  11. Economic Impact of Stable Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dynamic model was created to estimate the economic impact of stable flies on livestock production. Based upon a nationwide average of 10 stable flies per animal for 3 months per year, the model estimates the impact of stable flies to be $543 million to the dairy industry, $1.34 billion to pasture ...

  12. Flying High with Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art activity for first grade that uses multicolor scratch paper. Explains that students make scratch-drawings of bird nests, then, as a class, discuss types of birds and bird positions (such as sitting or flying), and finally each creates a bird to add to the nest. (CMK)

  13. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  14. Learning to Fly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Patricia E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents information on where to learn to fly, which aircraft is best for this purpose, and approximate costs. Includes additional information on certificates, licenses, and ratings, and a description of the two phases of the General Aviation Manufacturers Association flight training program. (JN)

  15. Go Fly a Kite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopack, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an "art kite" activity. The idea is to construct and decorate a non-flying kite that they could display for an art exhibit. Through the activity, students learn to give and take suggestions from one another, improve the quality of their work and set a wonderful atmosphere of collaboration. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. Wisdom from the fly.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Leila E; Larschan, Erica N

    2014-11-01

    Arguably, almost all research in Drosophila can be considered basic research, yet many of the most essential and fundamental concepts of human genetics were first decoded in the fly. Although the fly genome, which is organized into only four chromosomes, is approximately one-twentieth the size of the human genome, it contains roughly the same number of genes, and up to 75% of human disease-related genes have Drosophila homologues [1]. The fly was prized for its simplicity and utility even before such compelling homology with humans was apparent. Since Thomas Hunt Morgan began his seminal experiments over a century ago (Table 1), the Drosophila system has revealed countless key mechanisms by which cells function, including the factors that maintain chromatin and the signaling pathways that control cell fate determination and organism development. More recently, the fly has emerged as a critical neurobiological tool and disease model for a range of genetic disorders. In this review, we present a brief retrospective of Drosophila as an indispensable genetic system and discuss some of the many contributions, past and present, of this facile system to human genetics. PMID:25161083

  17. Head and neck injury risks in heavy metal: head bangers stuck between rock and a hard bass

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Declan

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risks of mild traumatic brain injury and neck injury associated with head banging, a popular dance form accompanying heavy metal music. Design Observational studies, focus group, and biomechanical analysis. Participants Head bangers. Main outcome measures Head Injury Criterion and Neck Injury Criterion were derived for head banging styles and both popular heavy metal songs and easy listening music controls. Results An average head banging song has a tempo of about 146 beats per minute, which is predicted to cause mild head injury when the range of motion is greater than 75°. At higher tempos and greater ranges of motion there is a risk of neck injury. Conclusion To minimise the risk of head and neck injury, head bangers should decrease their range of head and neck motion, head bang to slower tempo songs by replacing heavy metal with adult oriented rock, only head bang to every second beat, or use personal protective equipment. PMID:19091761

  18. House and Stable Fly Seasonal Abundance, Larval Development Substrates, and Natural Parasitism on Small Equine Farms in Florida.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Leppla, N C; Hogsette, J A

    2016-08-01

    House flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The successful use of pupal parasitoids for management of these pests requires knowledge of seasonal fluctuations and biology of the flies as well as natural parasitism levels. However, these dynamics have not been investigated on small equine farms. A 1-year field study began in July 2010, in north central Florida, to determine adult fly population levels and breeding areas on four small equine farms. Weekly surveillance showed that pest flies were present year-round, though there were differences in adult population levels among farms and seasons. Fly development was not confirmed on two of the four small farms, suggesting that subtle differences in husbandry may adversely affect the development of immature flies. In six substrates previously identified as the most common among the farms, stable fly puparia were found overwhelmingly in hay mixed with equine manure and house fly puparia were found in fresh pine shavings mixed with equine manure. Natural parasitism was minimal as expected, but greatest numbers of natural parasitoids collected were of the genus Spalangia. Differences in adult and immature fly numbers recovered emphasizes the need for farm owners to confirm on-site fly development prior to purchase and release of biological control agents. Additionally, due to the low natural parasitism levels and domination of parasitism by Spalangia cameroni, augmentative releases using this species may be the most effective. PMID:26902468

  19. Expression of lysozyme in the life history of the house fly (Musca domestica l.).

    PubMed

    Nayduch, Dana; Joyner, Chester

    2013-07-01

    From egg to adult, all life history stages of house flies associate with septic environments teeming with bacteria. House fly lysozyme was first identified in the larval midgut, where it is used for digestion of microbe-rich meals because of its broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. This study aimed to determine the temporal expression of lysozyme in the life history of house flies (from egg through adults) on both the mRNA and protein level, and to determine the tissue-specific expression of lysozyme in adult flies induced by feeding Staphylococcus aureus. From 30-min postoviposition through adulthood, all life history stages of the house fly express lysozyme on the mRNA level. In adult flies, lysozyme is expressed both locally in the alimentary canal and systemically in the fat body. Interestingly, we found that during the normal life history of flies, lysozyme protein was only detected in larval stages and older adults, likely because of ingestion of immune-stimulating levels of bacteria, not experienced during egg, pupa, and teneral adult stages. Constitutive expression on the mRNA level implies that this effector is a primary defense molecule in all stages of the house fly life history, and that a mechanism for posttranscriptional control of mature lysozyme enzyme expression may be present. Lysozyme active enzyme primarily serves both a digestive and defensive function in larval and adult flies, and may be a key player in the ability of Musca domestica L. to thrive in microbe-rich environments. PMID:23926784

  20. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), house flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)...

  2. Evaluating Perceived Probability of Threat-Relevant Outcomes and Temporal Orientation in Flying Phobia.

    PubMed

    Mavromoustakos, Elena; Clark, Gavin I; Rock, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    Probability bias regarding threat-relevant outcomes has been demonstrated across anxiety disorders but has not been investigated in flying phobia. Individual temporal orientation (time perspective) may be hypothesised to influence estimates of negative outcomes occurring. The present study investigated whether probability bias could be demonstrated in flying phobia and whether probability estimates of negative flying events was predicted by time perspective. Sixty flying phobic and fifty-five non-flying-phobic adults were recruited to complete an online questionnaire. Participants completed the Flight Anxiety Scale, Probability Scale (measuring perceived probability of flying-negative events, general-negative and general positive events) and the Past-Negative, Future and Present-Hedonistic subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (variables argued to predict mental travel forward and backward in time). The flying phobic group estimated the probability of flying negative and general negative events occurring as significantly higher than non-flying phobics. Past-Negative scores (positively) and Present-Hedonistic scores (negatively) predicted probability estimates of flying negative events. The Future Orientation subscale did not significantly predict probability estimates. This study is the first to demonstrate probability bias for threat-relevant outcomes in flying phobia. Results suggest that time perspective may influence perceived probability of threat-relevant outcomes but the nature of this relationship remains to be determined. PMID:27557054

  3. Evaluating Perceived Probability of Threat-Relevant Outcomes and Temporal Orientation in Flying Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Mavromoustakos, Elena; Clark, Gavin I.; Rock, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Probability bias regarding threat-relevant outcomes has been demonstrated across anxiety disorders but has not been investigated in flying phobia. Individual temporal orientation (time perspective) may be hypothesised to influence estimates of negative outcomes occurring. The present study investigated whether probability bias could be demonstrated in flying phobia and whether probability estimates of negative flying events was predicted by time perspective. Sixty flying phobic and fifty-five non-flying-phobic adults were recruited to complete an online questionnaire. Participants completed the Flight Anxiety Scale, Probability Scale (measuring perceived probability of flying-negative events, general-negative and general positive events) and the Past-Negative, Future and Present-Hedonistic subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (variables argued to predict mental travel forward and backward in time). The flying phobic group estimated the probability of flying negative and general negative events occurring as significantly higher than non-flying phobics. Past-Negative scores (positively) and Present-Hedonistic scores (negatively) predicted probability estimates of flying negative events. The Future Orientation subscale did not significantly predict probability estimates. This study is the first to demonstrate probability bias for threat-relevant outcomes in flying phobia. Results suggest that time perspective may influence perceived probability of threat-relevant outcomes but the nature of this relationship remains to be determined. PMID:27557054

  4. Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Jim

    1988-01-01

    The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

  5. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  6. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae

  7. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-01-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  8. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  9. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  10. Fly-scan ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519

  11. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Schetelig, M F; Targovska, A; Meza, J S; Bourtzis, K; Handler, A M

    2016-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes in all strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry-α promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality. PMID:27135433

  12. Simulation of cross-talk between thermal track positioning control and thermal flying height controla)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Shen, Shengnan; Cui, Fuhao; Huang, Jie; Wu, Shijing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, a coupling analysis of thermal-structural simulation and air-bearing simulation has been performed to investigate the cross-talk effects between thermal track positioning control (TPC) and thermal flying height control (TFC) on the static flying attitude of a TPC-TFC slider. Simulation results show that the TPC heating induced head protrusion towards disk is comparable to the head actuation stroke along the cross-track direction. By optimizing the distance of TPC heater to air bearing surface, and the distance of TPC heater to the slider center line, it can obtain a large TPC actuation stroke and a small head protrusion towards disk. Moreover, it is found that the TPC heating will cause large protrusion of the side edge of trailing pad and change the flying characteristics significantly. A trade-off performance between cross-talk effects and TPC actuation stroke along cross-track direction is needed.

  13. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  14. Temperature-dependent appearance of forensically useful flies on carcasses.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Flies are frequently used for postmortem interval (PMI) estimations. These estimates are usually based on the age of larval or pupal specimens. However, the age defines only the minimum PMI. In order to move forensic entomology further, a method useful for the estimation of an interval preceding insect appearance on a corpse called the pre-appearance interval (PAI) is needed. Recently, it was demonstrated that the PAI of several carrion beetles is closely related to the temperature prevailing throughout this interval. Hence, it was postulated to estimate PAI from temperature. In order to check premises for using this approach with flies, a test of the relationship between adult or oviposition PAI and temperature was made for nine species of European flies. Data on PAI originated from pig carcasses decomposing under various temperatures. Adult PAI of Hydrotaea dentipes, Hydrotaea ignava, Hydrotaea similis, Phormia regina, and Stearibia nigriceps and oviposition PAI of S. nigriceps were exponentially related to temperature. Only S. nigriceps revealed a close relationship, demonstrating solid premises for PAI estimation from temperature alone. Adult and oviposition PAI of Calliphora vomitoria and adult PAI of Hydrotaea pilipes were not related to temperature. Adult and oviposition PAI of Lucilia sericata and Lucilia caesar responded similarly, with an abrupt and large increase in a narrow range of low temperatures and no response in a broad range of high temperatures. Probably, different mechanisms form the basis for the response of PAI to temperature in flies colonizing carcasses shortly after death and flies colonizing carcasses later in the decomposition process. PMID:24096988

  15. Auditory system of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an invaluable model for auditory research. Advantages of using the fruit fly include its stereotyped behavior in response to a particular sound, and the availability of molecular-genetic tools to manipulate gene expression and cellular activity. Although the receiver type in fruit flies differs from that in mammals, the auditory systems of mammals and fruit flies are strikingly similar with regard to the level of development, transduction mechanism, mechanical amplification, and central projections. These similarities strongly support the use of the fruit fly to study the general principles of acoustic information processing. In this review, we introduce acoustic communication and discuss recent advances in our understanding on hearing in fruit flies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26560238

  16. The Morgan Recharger: a new horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control device for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Barton, W E; Gray, E W; Noblet, R; Thompson, C E

    1990-08-01

    A 20% diazinon formulation was evaluated for control efficacy against the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), in the Morgan Recharger (Morgan International Products, College Grove, Tenn.). The Morgan Recharger releases insecticide with a wicking system from an insecticide reservoir and can be attached to an animal's ear or tail. This device was most effective against the horn fly when used as an ear tag with two per head; horn fly counts did not exceed five flies per side through 8 wk. The diazinon formulation tested was released from the Morgan Recharger at a decreasing rate. The problems and potential of the Morgan Recharger as an effective horn fly control device are discussed. PMID:2212237

  17. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  18. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  19. Blood feeding behavior of the stable fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable fly is a fly that looks similar to a house fly but both sexes are blood feeders. Blood is required for successful fertilization and development of eggs. Bites are painful but there is usually no pain after the fly stops feeding. The stable fly is a persistent feeder and will continue trying t...

  20. The FlyBar: Administering Alcohol to Flies

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Kim; Fumagalli, Emiliano; Roman, Gregg; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) are an established model for both alcohol research and circadian biology. Recently, we showed that the circadian clock modulates alcohol sensitivity, but not the formation of tolerance. Here, we describe our protocol in detail. Alcohol is administered to the flies using the FlyBar. In this setup, saturated alcohol vapor is mixed with humidified air in set proportions, and administered to the flies in four tubes simultaneously. Flies are reared under standardized conditions in order to minimize variation between the replicates. Three-day old flies of different genotypes or treatments are used for the experiments, preferably by matching flies of two different time points (e.g., CT 5 and CT 17) making direct comparisons possible. During the experiment, flies are exposed for 1 hr to the pre-determined percentage of alcohol vapor and the number of flies that exhibit the Loss of Righting reflex (LoRR) or sedation are counted every 5 min. The data can be analyzed using three different statistical approaches. The first is to determine the time at which 50% of the flies have lost their righting reflex and use an Analysis of the Variance (ANOVA) to determine whether significant differences exist between time points. The second is to determine the percentage flies that show LoRR after a specified number of minutes, followed by an ANOVA analysis. The last method is to analyze the whole times series using multivariate statistics. The protocol can also be used for non-circadian experiments or comparisons between genotypes. PMID:24895004

  1. Ameliorative effect of fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Agronomic effectiveness and environmental impact of fly ashes used to reclaim pyritic acid mine spoils were investigated in the laboratory and field. Mine spoils at two abandoned sites were amended with three rates of fly ash, three rates of rock phosphate, and seeded with alfalfa and wheat. Application of fly ash decreased bulk density and increased moisture retention capacity of spoils. Fly ash application reduced cation exchange capacity, acidity, toxic levels of Al, Fe, and Mn in soils by buffering soil pH at 6.5, and retarded pyrite oxidation. The reduction in cation exchange capacity was compensated by release of plant nutrients through diffusion and dissolution of plerospheres in fly ash. Improvement of spoil physical, chemical and microbial properties resulted in higher yield, more nitrogen fixation, and utilization of P from rock phosphate by alfalfa. Laboratory investigations demonstrated that neutralization potential and the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron were more important for classifying fly ashes than the total elemental analysis presently used in a taxonomic classification system. Contamination of the food chain through plant removal of Mo and As in fly ash treated mine spoils was observed only for Mo and only for the first year of cropping. Plant available As and Mo decreased with time. Laboratory leaching and adsorption studies and a field experiment showed that trace metals do not leach from fly ashes at near neutral pH and more oxyanions will leach from fly ashes with low neutralization potential and low amounts of amorphous oxides of iron.

  2. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  3. NAVTOLAND and flying qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momiyama, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    The V/STOL operational capability is reviewed with emphasis on pilot workload and all-weather landing guidance systems. A research and development program to correlate and integrate the development of all systems and techniques involved in enabling the pilot to fly V/STOL aircraft onto ships and tactical sites is described. Aircraft design parameters that affect its control in the vertical takeoff and landing flight regimes are emphasized. Topics considered include: (1) integrated flight controls and displays; (2) low speed sensor; (3) air traffic control appraoch and landing guidance systems; (4) visual landing aids; (5) ground effect induced thrust variation problems; and (6) handling qualities.

  4. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. [Otorhinolaryngologic diseases and flying].

    PubMed

    Moser, M

    2002-01-01

    Physiological and pathological aspects of pressure changes, noise, acceleration, variation of temperature, low humidity, stress and time differences in flight passengers and aircrew are discussed. Typical ear, nose, and throat clinic (ENT)-cases such as tubal function disturbances, barotrauma, hypacusis, sudden hearing loss, tinnitus, acute and chronic middle ear diseases, post ear surgery conditions, hearing aids, vertigo and motion sickness are described. The influence on flying of acute and chronic affections of the paranasal sinuses, nasal septal deviation and allergy are listed. The problem of transport of ENT-incapacitated passengers in commercial aircrafts and ambulance jets are dealt with. PMID:12385068

  6. Flying over decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  7. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  8. FlySPEX: a flexible multi-angle spectropolarimetric sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snik, Frans; Keller, Christoph U.; Wijnen, Merijn; Peters, Hubert; Derks, Roy; Smulders, Edwin

    2016-05-01

    Accurate multi-angle spectropolarimetry permits the detailed and unambiguous characterization of a wide range of objects. Science cases and commercial applications include atmospheric aerosol studies, biomedical sensing, and food quality control. We introduce the FlySPEX spectropolarimetric fiber-head that constitutes the essential building block of a novel multi-angle sensing system. A combination of miniaturized standard polarization optics inside every fiber-head encodes the full linear polarization information as a spectral modulation of the light that enters two regular optical fibers. By orienting many FlySPEX fiber-heads in any desired set of directions, a fiber bundle contains the complete instantaneous information on polarization as a function of wavelength and as a function of the set of viewing directions. This information is to be recorded by one or several multi-fiber spectrometers. Not only is this system flexible in the amount of viewing directions and their configuration, it also permits multiplexing different wavelength ranges and spectral resolutions by implementing different spectrometers. We present the design and prototyping for a FlySPEX fiber-head that is optimized for both polarimetric accuracy and commercial series production. We integrate the polarimetric calibration of each FlySPEX fiber-head in the manufacturing process.

  9. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of two…

  10. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J; Devine, Gregor J

    2012-05-01

    Pyriproxyfen is an insect growth regulator with juvenile hormone-like activity that has potential uses for dipterans that are difficult to manage with conventional insecticides, such as house flies (Musca domestica L.). The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of this insect growth regulator against house flies using variety of delivery systems and target life stages, including an evaluation of the potential for autodissemination by female flies to larval development sites. Adult female house flies exposed to filter paper (3.75% active ingredient) or sugar treated with pyriproxyfen (0.01-0.1%) produced significantly fewer F1 pupae than untreated flies. Adult emergence from pupae was unaffected. In contrast, treatment of larval rearing medium with 0.35 ml/cm2 of a 12 mg pyriproxyfen/liter preparation had no effect on the number of pupae developing from eggs but markedly inhibited adult emergence from those pupae. There was little difference in susceptibility between an insecticide-susceptible and a wild strain of house fly. The LC50 for inhibiting fly emergence of dust formulations in diatomaceous earth incorporating commercial pyriproxyfen products ranged from 8 to 26 mg/liter, with little difference among products. Compared with untreated flies, significantly fewer pupae were produced at concentrations > 0.5% and no adults were produced at concentrations > 0.05% pyriproxyfen. When gravid females were exposed for 1 h to treated fabric (6 mg pyriproxyfen/cm2) and allowed to oviposit in rearing media containing eggs, sufficient pyriproxyfen was autodisseminated to reduce adult emergence from those eggs by > 99%. Intermittent contact with treated fabric over 2 d reduced adult emergence by 63-76%. PMID:22679868

  11. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  12. Influence of forward head posture on condylar position.

    PubMed

    Ohmure, H; Miyawaki, S; Nagata, J; Ikeda, K; Yamasaki, K; Al-Kalaly, A

    2008-11-01

    There are several reports suggesting that forward head posture is associated with temporomandibular disorders and restraint of mandibular growth, possibly due to mandibular displacement posteriorly. However, there have been few reports in which the condylar position was examined in forward head posture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the condyle moves posteriorly in the forward head posture. The condylar position and electromyography from the masseter, temporal and digastric muscles were recorded on 15 healthy male adults at mandibular rest position in the natural head posture and deliberate forward head posture. The condylar position in the deliberate forward head posture was significantly more posterior than that in the natural head posture. The activity of the masseter and digastric muscles in the deliberate forward head posture was slightly increased. These results suggest that the condyle moves posteriorly in subjects with forward head posture. PMID:18808377

  13. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  14. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities of the head and face (craniofacial). ... How surgery for head and face deformities (craniofacial reconstruction) ... and the person's condition. Surgical repairs involve the ...

  15. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  16. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  17. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  18. Flies, clocks and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, E; Kyriacou, C P

    2001-01-01

    The negative feedback model for gene regulation of the circadian mechanism is described for the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. The conservation of function of clock molecules is illustrated by comparison with the mammalian circadian system, and the apparent swapping of roles between various canonical clock gene components is highlighted. The role of clock gene duplications and divergence of function is introduced via the timeless gene. The impressive similarities in clock gene regulation between flies and mammals could suggest that variation between more closely related species within insects might be minimal. However, this is not borne out because the expression of clock molecules in the brain of the giant silk moth, Antheraea pernyi, is not easy to reconcile with the negative feedback roles of the period and timeless genes. Variation in clock gene sequences between and within fly species is examined and the role of co-evolution between and within clock molecules is described, particularly with reference to adaptive functions of the circadian phenotype. PMID:11710984

  19. Physics of flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  20. Variability of blowfly head optomotor responses.

    PubMed

    Rosner, R; Egelhaaf, M; Grewe, J; Warzecha, A K

    2009-04-01

    Behavioural responses of an animal are variable even when the animal experiences the same sensory input several times. This variability can arise from stochastic processes inherent to the nervous system. Also, the internal state of an animal may influence a particular behavioural response. In the present study, we analyse the variability of visually induced head pitch responses of tethered blowflies by high-speed cinematography. We found these optomotor responses to be highly variable in amplitude. Most of the variability can be attributed to two different internal states of the flies with high and low optomotor gain, respectively. Even within a given activity state, there is some variability of head optomotor responses. The amount of this variability differs for the two optomotor gain states. Moreover, these two activity states can be distinguished on a fine timescale and without visual stimulation, on the basis of the occurrence of peculiar head jitter movements. Head jitter goes along with high gain optomotor responses and haltere oscillations. Halteres are evolutionary transformed hindwings that oscillate when blowflies walk or fly. Their main function is to serve as equilibrium organs by detecting Coriolis forces and to mediate gaze stabilisation. However, their basic oscillating activity was also suggested to provide a gain-modulating signal. Our experiments demonstrate that halteres are not necessary for high gain head pitch to occur. Nevertheless, we find the halteres to be responsible for one component of head jitter movements. This component may be the inevitable consequence of their function as equilibrium and gaze-stabilising organs. PMID:19329750

  1. The Influence of Head Motion on Intrinsic Functional Connectivity MRI

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Koene R.A.; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) has been widely applied to explore group and individual differences. A confounding factor is head motion. Children move more than adults, older adults more than younger adults, and patients more than controls. Head motion varies considerably among individuals within the same population. Here we explored the influence of head motion on fcMRI estimates. Mean head displacement, maximum head displacement, the number of micro movements (> 0.1 mm), and head rotation were estimated in 1000 healthy, young adult subjects each scanned for two resting-state runs on matched 3T scanners. The majority of fcMRI variation across subjects was not linked to estimated head motion. However, head motion had significant, systematic effects on fcMRI network measures. Head motion was associated with decreased functional coupling in the default and frontoparietal control networks – two networks characterized by coupling among distributed regions of association cortex. Other network measures increased with motion including estimates of local functional coupling and coupling between left and right motor regions – a region pair sometimes used as a control in studies to establish specificity. Comparisons between groups of individuals with subtly different levels of head motion yielded difference maps that could be mistaken for neuronal effects in other contexts. These effects are important to consider when interpreting variation between groups and across individuals. PMID:21810475

  2. Why flies are good vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was around 1900 when house flies were implicated in disease transmission. Flies with white powder on their feet were seen landing on food in US Army chow halls. This white powder was lime that had been sprinkled over the human excrement in open latrines not too far from the eating establishments....

  3. Passive Baited Sequential Fly Trap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling fly populations associated with human populations is needed to understand diel behavior and to monitor population densities before and after control operations. Population control measures are dependent on the results of monitoring efforts as they may provide insight into the fly behavior ...

  4. Influence of impact speed on head and brain injury outcome in vulnerable road user impacts to the car hood.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Zhang, Liying; Boström, Ola; Yang, King

    2007-10-01

    EuroNCAP and regulations in Europe and Japan evaluate the pedestrian protection performance of cars. The test methods are similar and they all have requirements for the passive protection of the hood area at a pedestrian to car impact speed of 40 km/h. In Europe, a proposal for a second phase of the regulation mandates a brake-assist system along with passive requirements. The system assists the driver in optimizing the braking performance during panic braking, resulting in activation only when the driver brakes sufficiently. In a European study this was estimated to occur in about 50% of pedestrian accidents. A future system for brake assistance will likely include automatic braking, in response to a pre-crash sensor, to avoid or mitigate injuries of vulnerable road users. An important question is whether these systems will provide sufficient protection, or if a parallel, passive pedestrian protection system will be necessary. This study investigated the influence of impact speed on head and brain injury risk, in impacts to the carhood. One car model was chosen and a rigid adjustable plate was mounted under the hood. Free-flying headform impacts were carried out at 20 and 30 km/h head impact velocities at different under-hood distances, 20 to 100 mm; and were compared to earlier tests at 40 km/h. The EEVC WG17 adult pedestrian headform was used for non-rotating tests and a Hybrid III adult 50th percentile head was used for rotational tests where linear and rotational acceleration was measured. Data from the rotational tests was used as input to a validated finite element model of the human head, the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM). The model was utilized to assess brain injury risk and potential injury mechanism in a pedestrian-hood impact. Although this study showed that it was not necessarily true that a lower HIC value reduced the risk for brain injury, it appeared, for the tested car model, under-hood distances of 60 mm in 20 km/h and 80 mm

  5. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  6. Biological control of olive fruit fly by 2006 parasitoid releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Releases of parasitoid adults in 2006 were ...

  7. Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and the phenology of its native host plant, Yellow Chapote (Rutaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In northeastern Mexico, the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), breeds on its native host, yellow chapote, Casimiroa greggii (Wats.), which typically produces fruit in the spring. Peak populations of the fly occur in late spring or early summer when adults emerge from the generation of lar...

  8. HOST PLANT USE BY APPLE MAGGOT, WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT FLY, AND OTHER RHAGOLETIS SPECIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant use by apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in western Washington state and northwestern Oregon were determined by rearing larvae in fruit to adults in 2004 to 2006. Rh...

  9. Characteristics of Syntactic Comprehension Deficits Following Closed Head Injury versus Left Cerebrovascular Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler-Hinz, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined the ability to assign thematic roles and to coindex referentially dependent noun phrases in closed head injured adults (N=20), adult stroke patients (N=20), and normal adults (N=20). Results suggested that syntactic comprehension disturbances are similar following left cerebral hemisphere infarction and closed head injury.…

  10. Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant Binding Proteins in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Chipan; Zhang, Qun; Saccone, Giuseppe; Zhang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna) of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10) are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies. PMID:23867609

  11. Exclusion of phlebotomine sand flies from inhabited areas by means of vertical mesh barriers.

    PubMed

    Faiman, R; Kirstein, O; Freund, M; Guetta, H; Warburg, A

    2011-09-01

    Vector control constitutes an important component of integrated disease control campaigns. Source reduction is not an option for phlebotomine sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis, because larval breeding sites remain either unknown or inaccessible. Thus, all control efforts are directed against the adult sand flies, mostly attempting to limit their contact with humans. We describe experiments using an insecticide-treated vertical barrier to prevent sand flies from reaching inhabited areas of an agricultural settlement. A 400 meter long section of the peripheral fence of Kibbutz Sde Eliyahu, Jordan Valley, Israel was draped with a deltamethrin-impregnated net that is impenetrable to sand flies (polyester net, 450 holes/inch(2)). Sand flies were captured before and after construction of the barrier using CO(2)-baited CDC traps. Sand fly numbers, as monitored around three houses internal to the barrier, exhibited an 84.9% decrease once the barrier was erected (P=0.003). Concurrently, the neighboring control group of three houses, not protected by the barrier, exhibited a 15.9% increase in sand fly numbers (P=0.974). These results corroborate previous findings of field tests conducted on a smaller scale in an arid suburban setting. Campaigns for reducing the burden of sand fly bites and curtailing the transmission of leishmaniasis, should consider integrating vertical fine-mesh nets with other sand fly control measures. PMID:21752415

  12. The flying radiation case

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

  13. Laboratory Colonization, Life History Observations, and Desiccation Tolerance of the Canyon Fly Fannia conspicua (Diptera: Fanniidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congcong; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-07-01

    "Canyon flies" are flies within the Fannia benjamini Malloch species complex. These flies can be considerable pests to humans and animals due to their habit of feeding on animal body secretions such as tears, mucus, sweat, and blood. Adult "canyon flies" (Fannia conspicua Malloch) were collected from the coastal mountain community of La Habra Heights in Los Angeles County, CA, during late spring and early summer of 2011. Canyon flies were colonized in the laboratory and maintained for over two years. Larval growth, sex-specific adult emergence, and fecundity were evaluated quantitatively. At 25°C, male flies required a minimum of 22 d postoviposition to develop from egg to adult, with peak emergence occurring at 24-26 d; female flies required a minimum of 25 d postoviposition, with peak emergence occurring at 26-28 d. Female flies were capable of oviposition starting at 7 d postemergence, and produced a mean of 90.6±54.7 eggs over a 19-41-d life span. Canyon fly eggs were quite resistant to desiccation, with hatching rate of eggs reduced only after ≥12 wk of desiccation, and some successful hatching even when eggs were desiccated up to 28 wk. When immature flies were removed from their food source and subjected to continuous desiccation and starvation, flies at 3-d-old posthatching did not survive, and only 8% of flies at 5-d posthatching survived and completed development to the adult stage. Immature flies that were 7- or 11-d-old posthatching survived to adulthood in good numbers, having reached the mid to late L3 stage at the time of food removal. Exposure to desiccation in either the egg or larval stage had no effect on fecundity of surviving females. This extreme level of desiccation tolerance is likely an adaptation to increase survival in desert climates of the southwestern United States with long, hot summers and little precipitation, where Fannia conspicua are typically distributed. PMID:26335459

  14. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL). Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism), their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL) in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Methods Consecutive patients (n=101) treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years) with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL)-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and Psychological Well Being (PGWB) questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. Results The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy) to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy) to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2). The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. Conclusion In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls. PMID:23101561

  15. The SILAC Fly Allows for Accurate Protein Quantification in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Sury, Matthias D.; Chen, Jia-Xuan; Selbach, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is widely used to quantify protein abundance in tissue culture cells. Until now, the only multicellular organism completely labeled at the amino acid level was the laboratory mouse. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used small animal models in biology. Here, we show that feeding flies with SILAC-labeled yeast leads to almost complete labeling in the first filial generation. We used these “SILAC flies” to investigate sexual dimorphism of protein abundance in D. melanogaster. Quantitative proteome comparison of adult male and female flies revealed distinct biological processes specific for each sex. Using a tudor mutant that is defective for germ cell generation allowed us to differentiate between sex-specific protein expression in the germ line and somatic tissue. We identified many proteins with known sex-specific expression bias. In addition, several new proteins with a potential role in sexual dimorphism were identified. Collectively, our data show that the SILAC fly can be used to accurately quantify protein abundance in vivo. The approach is simple, fast, and cost-effective, making SILAC flies an attractive model system for the emerging field of in vivo quantitative proteomics. PMID:20525996

  16. Sorptivity of fly ash concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied by treating the samples in two curving conditions. A functional relationship of sorptivity against the strength, curing condition and fly ash content has been presented. The results were useful to analyze the factors influencing the durability of cement and fly ash concretes and to explain why some of the previously reported findings were contradictory. Curing conditions have been found to be the most important factor that affected the durability properties of fly ash concrete. When proper curing was provided, a mix with 40% fly ash was found to reduce the sorptivity by 37%. Under inadequate curing the sorptivity was found to increase by 60%. The influence of curing on cement concrete was found to be of much less importance.

  17. Variation in natural head position and establishing corrected head position.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A L; Sampson, W J; Townsend, G C

    2014-06-01

    Corrected head position (CHP) has been simulated by using the Frankfurt horizontal (FH) for over 100 years but FH varies between individuals. Because CHP is biologically relevant for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, orthognathic surgical planning, and art, this study examined relationships between head position and selected cephalometric planes. Natural head position cephalograms of Aboriginal Australians and two contemporary samples from private orthodontic practices were analysed. Each sample comprised 40 individuals (20 males and 20 females). The Aboriginal Australian sample comprised longitudinal data (T1 early adolescent, T2 late adolescent, and T3 adult), enabling examination of natural head position (NHP) reproducibility over a period of approximately 8 years. Results of reproducibility differences revealed an absolute mean=2.9°, range=-7.9° to 8.2°, and standard deviation=3.6°. Stable basicranial line (SBL), neutral horizontal axis (NHA), FH, palatal plane (P plane), and Krogman-Walker plane (KW plane) demonstrated near parallelism and their mean angulations from the true horizontal (HOR) ranged between -4.6° and 2.4°. While NHP is not consistently reproducible at the individual level, the combined use of multiple planes such as SBL, P plane, and KW plane enables a more consistent CHP to be achieved. PMID:24785580

  18. Contact force measurements at the head/disk interface for contact recording heads in magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathi, S. K.; Donovan, Mark; Hsia, Yiao-Tee

    1996-01-01

    As the spacing between the magnetic transducer and media decreases in hard disk drives, one approaches the regime of constant contact between the head and disk. In this regime, conventional measures of the head/disk interface such as 'takeoff velocity' and 'fly height' become less important. Instead, the 'contact force' between the head and the disk is a more relevant parameter to evaluate the performance and reliability of the interface. In this paper, a new contact force measurement technique that uses the acoustic emission (AE) from the interface is introduced. The contact force is modeled as a series of continuous collisions that cause the slider to vibrate at its resonant frequencies. These vibrations generate an AE signal, the magnitude of which is proportional to the contact force. The Read-Rite tripad slider, which is a contact recording head, is used for the measurements. Some intuitive expectations from contact force measurements are presented as validation of the technique. Specifically, it is shown that contact force decreases with increasing disk velocity, that the contact force varies inversely with the flying height measured on a glass disk, and that the contact force decreases with burnishing of the interface.

  19. Livestock bedding effects on two species of parasitoid wasps of filth flies.

    PubMed

    King, B H; Colyott, K L; Chesney, A R

    2014-01-01

    Choice of livestock bedding has been shown to affect density of filth fly maggots. Here, laboratory experiments indicate that bedding type can also affect natural enemies of the flies, specifically the parasitoid wasps Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitizing a natural host, the house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). For both parasitoid species, when females parasitized hosts under bedding, cedar shavings resulted in fewer parasitoids compared with pine shavings, but pine shavings did not differ from wood pellets and corn cob pellets. In the absence of exposure to hosts, longevity of adult females was reduced in cedar shavings compared with pine shavings and pellets. In contrast to the effects on parasitization and on adult survival, shavings treatment had no significant effect on the number of parasitoids or flies that emerged when hosts were not exposed to shavings until after parasitization. PMID:25480971

  20. Molecular Studies of Fly-Borne Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vector-borne diseases are among the most significant threats to agriculture and human health. Mosquitoes are the most significant vectors of disease, but other biting and blood feeding flies such as black flies (Simuliidae), keds (Hippoboscidae), bot flies (Oestridae), and stable flies (Muscidae) a...

  1. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Doud, C W; Taylor, D B; Zurek, L

    2012-03-01

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas were evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May through 20 October 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May through 18 November 2010 (25 wk). In total, 11,349 muscoid flies were collected emerging from the biosolid cake. Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) and house flies (Musca domestica (L.)), represented 80 and 18% of the muscoid flies, respectively. An estimated 550 stable flies and 220 house flies per square-meter of surface area developed in the biosolid cake annually producing 450,000 stable flies and 175,000 house flies. Stable fly emergence was seasonally bimodal with a primary peak in mid-July and a secondary peak in late August. House fly emergence peaked with the first stable fly emergence peak and then declined gradually for the remainder of the year. House flies tended to emerge from the biosolid cake sooner after its deposition than did stable flies. In addition, house fly emergence was concentrated around midsummer whereas stable fly emergence began earlier in the spring and continued later into the fall. Biosolid age and temperature were the most important parameters affecting emergence for house flies and stable flies, whereas precipitation was not important for either species. This study highlights the importance of biosolid cake as a larval developmental habitat for stable flies and house flies. PMID:22493845

  2. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  3. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  4. Adult Education and Development, No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education and Development, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This serial issue contains a total of 26 articles grouped under five headings: "Adult Learning: A Key for the Twenty-First Century (Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Confintea V))"; "Trends in Adult Education Policy" (Belanger); "Adult Education in Modern Times" (Geissler); "From Criticism to Constructiveness" (Torres); "An…

  5. Accident Flying Squad

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Roger

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the organization, evaluation, and costing of an independently financed and operated accident flying squad. 132 accidents involving 302 casualties were attended, six deaths were prevented, medical treatment contributed to the survival of a further four, and the condition or comfort of many other casualties was improved. The calls in which survival was influenced were evenly distributed throughout the three-and-a-half-year survey and seven of the 10 so aided were over 16 and under 30 years of age, all 10 being in the working age group. The time taken to provide the service was not excessive and the expense when compared with the overall saving was very small. The scheme was seen to be equally suitable for basing on hospital or general practice or both, and working as an integrated team with the ambulance service. The use of specialized transport was found to be unnecessary. Other benefits of the scheme included use of the experience of attending accidents to ensure relevant and realistic training for emergency service personnel, and an appreciation of the effect of ambulance design on the patient. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5069642

  6. Prevention of sand fly attack by topical application of a permethrin/pyriproxyfen combination on dogs.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Patrick; Jasmin, Pierre; Sanquer, Annaelle

    2003-01-01

    Dogs are the primary domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the parasite responsible for most cases of human visceral leishmaniasis. A strategy for the control of leishmaniasis would be to inhibit the sand fly bite. A study was designed to measure the prevention of the sand fly attack by spraying a combination of permethrin and pyriproxyfen on dogs artificially exposed to the vector of leishmaniasis. Eight dogs were individually challenged with 100 female sand flies for 1 hour on Days -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Four dogs were randomly assigned to a control group and four dogs were treated with topically applied permethrin/pyriproxyfen on Day 0. After each exposure, sand flies were collected, counted, and scored as fed or unfed. Efficacy of the combination for prevention of feeding was based on the number of unfed sand flies (dead or alive). The combination of permethrin/pyriproxyfen demonstrated a significant (P <.05) repellent effect against Phlebotomus perniciosus bites as soon as it was sprayed on the dogs, and its repellent efficacy lasted at least for 28 days. The combination product provided significant (P <.05) knockdown activity against challenge with sand flies for 21 days in adult dogs and 14 days in puppies. These findings indicate that adult animals in endemic areas should be sprayed with the permethrin/pyriproxyfen product at 3- to 4-week intervals, and young dogs should be sprayed at approximately 2-week intervals, to prevent sand fly attack. PMID:15136993

  7. Gypsum treated fly ash as a liner for waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sivapullaiah, Puvvadi V.; Baig, M. Arif Ali

    2011-02-15

    Fly ash has potential application in the construction of base liners for waste containment facilities. While most of the fly ashes improve in the strength with curing, the ranges of permeabilities they attain may often not meet the basic requirement of a liner material. An attempt has been made in the present context to reduce the hydraulic conductivity by adding lime content up to 10% to two selected samples of class F fly ashes. The use of gypsum, which is known to accelerate the unconfined compressive strength by increasing the lime reactivity, has been investigated in further improving the hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic conductivities of the compacted specimens have been determined in the laboratory using the falling head method. It has been observed that the addition of gypsum reduces the hydraulic conductivity of the lime treated fly ashes. The reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the samples containing gypsum is significantly more for samples with high amounts of lime contents (as high as 1000 times) than those fly ashes with lower amounts of lime. However there is a relatively more increase in the strengths of the samples with the inclusion of gypsum to the fly ashes at lower lime contents. This is due to the fact that excess lime added to fly ash is not effectively converted into pozzolanic compounds. Even the presence of gypsum is observed not to activate these reactions with excess lime. On the other hand the higher amount of lime in the presence of sulphate is observed to produce more cementitious compounds which block the pores in the fly ash. The consequent reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of fly ash would be beneficial in reducing the leachability of trace elements present in the fly ash when used as a base liner.

  8. Hormetic protection of Drosophila melanogaster middle-aged male flies from heat stress by mildly stressing them at young age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, Éric

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing flies to hypergravity (3g or 5g) for the first 2 weeks of adult life slightly increases longevity of male flies and survival time at 37°C for both sexes, and delays an age-linked behavioral change. The present experiment tested whether the hypergravity could also protect flies from four successive deleterious non-lethal heat shocks at 4 and 5 weeks of age. Males that lived in hypergravity for the first 2 weeks of adult life lived slightly longer (ca. +15% or 1.2 day) after heat shocks (30 min or 45 min at 37°C) than flies that always lived at 1g, but this positive effect of hypergravity was not observed in females. Therefore, hypergravity exposure at young age can help the male flies recovering from a heat shock at older ages.

  9. Osteonecrosis of the metatarsal head with exuberant periostitis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ines; Saidane, Olfa; Goldcher, Alain; Fautrel, Bruno; Lechevalier, Dominique

    2014-06-01

    Idiopathic necrosis of the metatarsal head is unusual in adulthood. We report five cases of an atypical necrosis of the metatarsal head with a solid periosteal reaction in adults. Different imaging features are reported and diagnosis difficulties are highlighted. PMID:24814952

  10. [Factors Affecting the Dynamics of Circadian Activity of Frit Flies Meromyza saltatrix (L) (Diptera: Chloropidae)].

    PubMed

    Safonkin, A F; Triselyova, T A; Yazchuk, A A; Akent'eva, N A

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of circadian activity in adult frit flies of the Holarctic species Meromyza saltatrix (L) from Mongolian, Moscow, and Polish populations was studied. Synchronous peaks of activity were revealed with the periodicity multiple of three-four hours, which may depend on the level of light. The direct effect of temperature and humidity on the activity of flies outside the optimal values of these factors was found. It was detected that the peak of adult emergence falls on the beginning of a general increase in the abundance of flies, which indicates constant rejuvenation of the population. The sex ratio is close to 1, but the emergence of males and females is in antiphase. The synchronization of peaks of circadian activity in the populations from different regions confirms the presence of a circadian rhythm of activity. The rhythm synchronizing the reproductive activity of adults was found to be modified by the photoperiod under the optimum conditions of temperature and humidity. PMID:26852486

  11. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  12. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... the radius bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is falling with an outstretched arm.

  13. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  14. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  15. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking ...

  16. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries may cause ... of people who suffer head injuries are children. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for over 1 in 6 injury- ...

  17. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  18. Temporospatial fate of bacteria and immune effector expression in house flies (Musca domestica L.) fed GFP-E. coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, A.; Kumar, H.V.; Joyner, C.; Reynolds, A.; Nayduch, D.

    2014-01-01

    House flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) harbor and transmit a variety of human enteropathogens including E. coli O157:H7. Interactions between ingested bacteria and the fly gut directly impact bacterial persistence, survival and ultimately fly vector competence. We assessed the temporospatial fate of GFP-E. coli O157:H7 (GFP-ECO157) in house flies along with fly antimicrobial responses for 12 h post-ingestion. In flies fed GFP-ECO157, culture and microscopy revealed a steady decrease in bacterial load over 12 h, which was likely attributable to the combined effects of immobilization within the peritrophic matrix, lysis and peristaltic excretion. However, flies can putatively transmit this pathogen in excreta because intact bacteria were observed in the crop and rectum. qRT-PCR analysis of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and lysozyme gene expression showed minimal upregulation in both the gut and carcass of house flies fed GFP-ECO157. However, these genes were upregulated in fly heads and salivary glands, and effector proteins were detected in the gut of some flies. Collectively, these data indicate that house flies can serve as reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 for up to 12 h, and factors in addition to AMPs and lysozyme may contribute to bacteria destruction in the gut. PMID:24712451

  19. Head Start Facilities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Assessment Management, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    A quality Head Start facility should provide a physical environment responsive both to the needs of the children and families served and to the needs of staff, volunteers, and community agencies that share space with Head Start. This manual is a tool for Head Start grantees and delegate agencies for assessing existing facilities, making…

  20. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  1. Pediatric head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2011-01-01

    Head injury in children accounts for a large number of emergency department visits and hospital admissions. Falls are the most common type of injury, followed by motor-vehicle-related accidents. In the present study, we discuss the evaluation, neuroimaging and management of children with head trauma. Furthermore, we present the specific characteristics of each type of pediatric head injury. PMID:21887034

  2. Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation.

    PubMed

    Savall, Joan; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Huang, Cheng; Maxey, Jessica R; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    We present a robot that enables high-content studies of alert adult Drosophila by combining operations including gentle picking; translations and rotations; characterizations of fly phenotypes and behaviors; microdissection; or release. To illustrate, we assessed fly morphology, tracked odor-evoked locomotion, sorted flies by sex, and dissected the cuticle to image neural activity. The robot's tireless capacity for precise manipulations enables a scalable platform for screening flies' complex attributes and behavioral patterns. PMID:26005812

  3. Habitat exploration and use in dispersing juvenile flying squirrels.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Vesa; Hanski, Ilpo K

    2006-11-01

    1. Variation in behaviours involved in habitat selection is important for several evolutionary and ecological processes. For example, habitat use during dispersal may differ from breeding habitat use, and for dispersers the scale of habitat familiarity is determined by exploratory behaviour. We studied habitat use and exploration of 56 radio-collared juvenile flying squirrels Pteromys volans L. within natal home range and during dispersal, and compared habitat use between juveniles and 37 adults within breeding home range. 2. Before dispersal, young flying squirrels actively moved around the natal site. Surprisingly, long-distance dispersers explored less than short-distance dispersers, but philopatric individuals explored similar distances as dispersers. Females explored less than males, although females are the more dispersive sex in flying squirrels. 3. For most of the individuals the settlement area was unfamiliar due to long dispersal distance. Consequently, direction and distance of exploration were not very strong predictors of settlement location. However, individuals familiar with the settlement area concentrated exploration to that area. Exploration did not correlate with short-term survival. 4. Dispersers preferred breeding habitat while dispersing, but were found more often in matrix habitat than juveniles within natal, or adults within breeding, home ranges. 5. We conclude that familiarity does not determine settlement as much as, for example, availability of the habitat for flying squirrels. Based on our results, it also seems clear that data on adult habitat use are not enough to predict habitat use of dispersing individuals. In addition, our results support the recent view that short- and long-distance dispersers may need to be analysed separately in ecological and evolutionary analyses. PMID:17032376

  4. XMM flying beautifully

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  5. Pancreatoblastoma in an adult.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Tang, Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, En-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatoblastoma is a malignant pancreatic tumor that rarely occurs in adults. We report a case of an adult female with pancreatoblastoma. A mass was detected in the pancreatic head using computed tomography and ultrasonography. The clinical diagnosis was a solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas. However, after the operation, the final diagnosis was pancreatoblastoma, which showed two lines of differentiation: Acinar differentiation and squamoid corpuscles. The patient is currently in good condition. PMID:25673604

  6. House fly (Diptera: Muscidae) activity near baits containing (Z)-9-tricosene and efficacy of commercial toxic fly baits on a southern California dairy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sarah M; Gerry, Alec C; Mullens, Bradley A

    2007-08-01

    Sticky card captures of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), were used to compare efficacy of screen-covered baits containing sugar, sugar and 0.1% (Z)-9-tricosene, sugar and 1.0% (Z)-9-tricosene, Golden Malrin [1.1% methomyl and 0.049% (Z)-9-tricosene], and Quick-Bayt [0.5% imidacloprid and 0.1% (Z)-9-tricosene]. The QuickBayt treatment caught more flies per hour (mean = 116.5) than sugar alone (mean = 81.0), but the addition of (Z)-9-tricosene to sugar did not increase fly capture compared with sugar alone. More males (65% of total) than females were collected on the sticky cards for all treatments. Fly kill by plain sugar (control) and the commercial baits Golden Malrin, QuikStrike Fly Abatement strips (1.0% nithiazine), and QuickBayt was tested over a 90-min period. An average of 1.4, 5.6, 363.0, and 1,266.0 flies were killed using sugar, Golden Malrin, QuikStrike, and QuickBayt, respectively. The similarity between Golden Malrin and plain sugar reflects severe resistance to this once effective methomyl bait. A no-choice feeding assay using lab-reared methomyl-susceptible and methomyl-resistant house flies was conducted with and without (Z)-9-tricosene. Adult mortality was significantly higher in the methomyl-susceptible strain exposed to treatments containing methomyl. Lower consumption of the methomyl treatments by resistant flies suggested resistance was behavioral and mortality was not influenced by (Z)-9-tricosene for either fly strain. PMID:17849907

  7. Fly with Eagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. E.

    My training in many areas of research in theoretical physics derived from what I learned from the "eagles" I flew with. Let me enumerate them. First of all, when the Navy sent me to the University of Wisconsin in January 1944 to become an electrical engineering officer, I met Gregory Breit, who practically adopted me as a son. I learned from him to drag a problem bleeding through the street until it cried for help and gave up. My political indiscretions during my young life forced me to flee to England from Joe McCarthy, where I ended up in the inspiring theory group of Rudi Peierls. Peierls taught us to drive immediately to fundamentals. When I began collaborating with Hans Bethe, the first thing I learned was why he had never had long-term collaborators. I had to wait until he was more than 70 years old in order to have any chance of keeping up with him. He worked like a bulldozer, heading directly for the light at the end of the tunnel. Most important is confidence. He starts each day with a pile of white paper in the upper left-hand corner of his desk and fills it with calculations at a more or less even rate, although he's happy to stop for lunch. I found this to be an amazingly effective procedure to imitate. From my training with Rudi Peierls, his closest friend, I was well prepared to work with Hans. The twenty-odd years I've collaborated with him have been exciting and productive.

  8. Animal Models of Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cernak, Ibolja

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are used to elucidate primary and secondary sequelae underlying human head injury in an effort to identify potential neuroprotective therapies for developing and adult brains. The choice of experimental model depends upon both the research goal and underlying objectives. The intrinsic ability to study injury-induced changes in behavior, physiology, metabolism, the blood/tissue interface, the blood brain barrier, and/or inflammatory- and immune-mediated responses, makes in vivo TBI models essential for neurotrauma research. Whereas human TBI is a highly complex multifactorial disorder, animal trauma models tend to replicate only single factors involved in the pathobiology of head injury using genetically well-defined inbred animals of a single sex. Although such an experimental approach is helpful to delineate key injury mechanisms, the simplicity and hence inability of animal models to reflect the complexity of clinical head injury may underlie the discrepancy between preclinical and clinical trials of neuroprotective therapeutics. Thus, a search continues for new animal models, which would more closely mimic the highly heterogeneous nature of human TBI, and address key factors in treatment optimization. PMID:16389305

  9. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo; Cancino, Jorge; Ruiz, Lía

    2012-01-01

    The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies. PMID:26466634

  10. Obligate symbionts activate immune system development in the tsetse fly

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Brian L.; Maltz, Michele; Aksoy, Serap

    2012-01-01

    Many insects rely on the presence of symbiotic bacteria for proper immune system function. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Adult tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house 3 symbiotic bacteria that are vertically transmitted from mother to offspring during this insect's unique viviparous mode of reproduction. Larval tsetse that undergo intrauterine development in the absence of their obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia, exhibit a compromised immune system during adulthood. In this study we characterize the immune phenotype of tsetse that develop in the absence of all of their endogenous symbiotic microbes. Aposymbiotic tsetse (GmmApo) present a severely compromised immune system that is characterized by the absence of phagocytic hemocytes and atypical expression of immunity-related genes. Correspondingly, these flies quickly succumb to infection with normally non-pathogenic E. coli. The susceptible phenotype exhibited by GmmApo adults can be reversed when they receive hemocytes transplanted from wild-type donor flies prior to infection. Furthermore, the process of immune system development can be restored in intrauterine GmmApo larvae when their moms are fed a diet supplemented with Wigglesworthia cell extracts. Our finding that molecular components of Wigglesworthia exhibit immunostimulatory activity within tsetse is representative of a novel evolutionary adaptation that steadfastly links an obligate symbiont with it's host. PMID:22368278

  11. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period.

    PubMed

    Huang, Diying; Nel, André; Cai, Chenyang; Lin, Qibin; Engel, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The species of the Strashilidae (strashilids) have been the most perplexing of fossil insects from the Jurassic period of Russia and China. They have been widely considered to be ectoparasites of pterosaurs or feathered dinosaurs, based on the putative presence of piercing and sucking mouthparts and hind tibio-basitarsal pincers purportedly used to fix onto the host's hairs or feathers. Both the supposed host and parasite occur in the Daohugou beds from the Middle Jurassic epoch of China (approximately 165 million years ago). Here we analyse the morphology of strashilids from the Daohugou beds, and reach markedly different conclusions; namely that strashilids are highly specialized flies (Diptera) bearing large membranous wings, with substantial sexual dimorphism of the hind legs and abdominal extensions. The idea that they belong to an extinct order is unsupported, and the lineage can be placed within the true flies. In terms of major morphological and inferred behavioural features, strashilids resemble the recent (extant) and relict members of the aquatic fly family Nymphomyiidae. Their ontogeny are distinguished by the persistence in adult males of larval abdominal respiratory gills, representing a unique case of paedomorphism among endopterygote insects. Adult strashilids were probably aquatic or amphibious, shedding their wings after emergence and mating in the water. PMID:23426262

  12. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be ...

  13. Rich Rogers Flying Over Greenland Icecap

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ihis is a view from the NASA P3 aircraft cockpit as it flies 1000 feet over the Greenland icecap during Operation Icebridge mission, which flies each March-May. The end of video shows an ice camp w...

  14. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough to imagine a ...

  15. The compressive stiffness of human pediatric heads.

    PubMed

    Loyd, Andre Matthew; Nightingale, Roger W; Luck, Jason F; Song, Yin; Fronheiser, Lucy; Cutcliffe, Hattie; Myers, Barry S; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-11-01

    Head injury is a persistent and costly problem for both children and adults. Globally, approximately 10 million people are hospitalized each year for head injuries. Knowing the structural properties of the head is important for modeling the response of the head in impact, and for providing insights into mechanisms of head injury. Hence, the goal of this study was to measure the sub-injurious structural stiffness of whole pediatric heads. 12 cadaveric pediatric (20-week-gestation to 16 years old) heads were tested in a battery of viscoelastic compression tests. The heads were compressed in both the lateral and anterior-posterior directions to 5% of gauge length at normalized deformation rates of 0.0005/s, 0.01/s, 0.1/s, and 0.3/s. Because of the non-linear nature of the response, linear regression models were used to calculate toe region (<2.5%) and elastic region (>2.5%) stiffness separately so that meaningful comparisons could be made across rate, age, and direction. The results showed that age was the dominant factor in predicting the structural stiffness of the human head. A large and statistically significant increase in the stiffness of both the toe region and the elastic region was observed with increasing age (p<0.0001), but no significant difference was seen across direction or normalized deformation rate. The stiffness of the elastic region increased from as low as 5 N/mm in the neonate to >4500 N/mm in the 16 year old. The changes in stiffness with age may be attributed to the disappearance of soft sutures and the thickening of skull bones with age. PMID:26476760

  16. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California

    PubMed Central

    Holston, Kevin C.

    2005-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The

  17. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California.

    PubMed

    Holston, Kevin C

    2005-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The

  18. Predictors of Positive Head CT Scan and Neurosurgical Procedures After Minor Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kisat, Mehreen; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Latif, Asad; Villegas, Cassandra V.; Efron, David T.; Stevens, Kent A.; Haut, Elliott R; Schneider, Eric B.; Zafar, Hasnain; Haider, Adil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background There continues to be an ongoing debate regarding the utility of Head CT scans in patients with a normal Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) after minor head injury. The objective of this study is to determine patient and injury characteristics that predict a positive head CT scan or need for a Neurosurgical Procedure (NSP) among patients with blunt head injury and a normal GCS. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of adult patients in the National Trauma Data Bank who presented to the ED with a history of blunt head injury and a normal GCS of 15. The primary outcomes were a positive head CT scan or a NSP. Multivariate logistic regression controlling for patient and injury characteristics was used to determine predictors of each outcome. Results Out of a total of 83,566 patients, 24,414 (29.2%) had a positive head CT scan and 3,476 (4.2%) underwent a NSP. Older patients and patients with a history of fall (as compared to a motor vehicle crash) were more likely to have a positive finding on a head CT scan. Male patients, African-Americans (as compared to Caucasians) and those who presented with a fall were more likely to have a NSP. Conclusions Older age, male gender, ethnicity and mechanism of injury are significant predictors of a positive finding on head CT scans and the need for neurosurgical procedures. This study highlights patient and injury specific characteristics that may help in identifying patients with supposedly minor head injury who will benefit from a head CT scan. PMID:21872271

  19. Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Zhu, Junwei J; Sims, Steve R; Taylor, David B; Zeng, Xiaopeng

    2013-04-01

    A commercial vinegar product (ChinKiang) was found to be highly attractive to adult house flies, Musca domestica L. Field experiments on a Nebraska dairy demonstrated that traps baited with vinegar and brown sugar captured more house flies than those baited with other house fly attractants. Solid phase microextraction was used in the field to collect volatiles from the vinegar bait. Seven compounds were identified as, acetic acid, furfural, butanoic acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-phenylethanol, and p-cresol. Electroantennograms showed that the seven vinegar components elicited significant responses from antennae of female and male house flies. Bioassays indicated that the vinegar blend of the seven volatile components were more attractive than any of the individual components. Field evaluations demonstrated that traps baited with the synthetic seven component blend caught as many flies as those baited with vinegar. This is the first detailed report of house fly attractants from vinegar. The vinegar volatile compounds identified in this study will be useful for the development of less objectionable alternatives to the fetid, manure mimicking volatiles currently used in commercial fly bait systems, especially those designed for use in indoor environments. PMID:23786090

  20. Repellency of α-pinene against the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Haselton, Aaron T; Acevedo, Angela; Kuruvilla, Jacob; Werner, Eric; Kiernan, Jaydon; Dhar, Preeti

    2015-09-01

    Musca domestica L. is a non-biting nuisance fly that is capable of transmitting a large variety of pathogens to humans and non-human animals. Natural compounds and their derivatives, which are often less toxic than entirely synthetic compounds, may be used as repellents against M. domestica as part of comprehensive pest control and disease mitigation programs. This work investigates the repellent properties of the natural compound α-pinene against M. domestica. Adult house flies of both sexes avoided the volatile plant-derived terpenes (1S)-(-)-α-pinene 1 and (1R)-(+)-α-pinene 2 in constant air flow laboratory conditions, with 1 exhibiting a stronger repellent effect. House flies also avoided tarsal contact with filter paper saturated with 1. Furthermore, both 1 and 2 are electrophysiologically active on in situ female house fly antennal preparations. These findings demonstrate that α-pinene exhibits natural baseline repellency against the house fly, elicits a specific physiological response in this fly, and that functional or structural modification of 1 in particular may yield novel fly repellents with desirable properties. PMID:26209937

  1. John Glenn: His first Flying Lesson Remembered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Pilot Harry Clever remembers giving John Glenn his first flying lesson. From: The John Glenn Story: Summary of astronaut John Glenn's flying career, from naval aviation training to space flight. The Mercury project is featured as John Glenn flies the Friendship 7 spacecraft. President John F. Kennedy presents the NASA Distinguished service Medal to Astronaught John Glenn.

  2. Utilization of fly ash in metallic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.; Guo, R.Q.; Golden, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Fly ash particles have been successfully dispersed into aluminum alloy to make aluminum alloy-fly ash composites (Ashalloy) at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Additions of solid and hollow particles of fly ash reduce the cost and density of aluminum castings while increasing their performance. Ashalloy represents a candidate material for high value added use of fly ash, while reducing the disposal volumes of fly ash for the electric utility industry and making the US foundries more competitive. The fly ash particle distribution in the matrix aluminum alloy and the microstructure of aluminum-fly ash composite was determined. Selected properties of cast aluminum-fly ash composites are also presented in this paper. Mechanical properties of aluminum-fly ash composites show that the composite possesses higher hardness and higher elastic modulus compared to the matrix alloy. The flow behavior of molten aluminum-fly ash slurries along with the components cast in aluminum-fly ash composites will be presented. Fly ash containing metal components have potential applications in covers, shrouds, casings, manifolds, valve covers, garden furniture, engine blocks in automotive, small engine and electromechanical industry sector.

  3. Molecular diagnostics & phylogenetics of filth fly parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of synanthropic muscoid flies, often referred to as filth flies, breed in animal wastes and are serious pests of humans and livestock. Pteromalid wasps are among the most promising biological control agents for these filth flies. Because of their small size and relative lack of morph...

  4. The Spider and the Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  5. Flying Training at West Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, M. Hamlin

    During World War Two the United States Military Academy operated a three-year program of instruction. Superimposed on this abbreviated curriculum was full-scale pilot training program. The emphasis of this study is on the problems that arose as a result. Included is a summary of responses to a questionnaire on the value of the flying training…

  6. Physics between a Fly's Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A novel method of localizing the direction of a source of sound has evolved in the auditory system of certain small parasitic flies. A mechanical model of this design has been shown to describe the system well. Here, a simplified version of this mechanical model is presented which demonstrates the key feature: direction estimates of high accuracy…

  7. To Fly in the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  8. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  9. Choreographing the fly's danse macabre.

    PubMed

    Poon, Peter C; Pletcher, Scott D

    2007-08-01

    In several species, immune signaling networks are emerging as critical modulators of disease resistance, energy metabolism, and aging. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Ren et al. (2007) lay the groundwork for dissecting the mechanisms of this coordination by characterizing the interplay between microbial pathogens and aging in the fly. PMID:17681142

  10. Discovering the flight autostabilizer of fruit flies by inducing aerial stumbles.

    PubMed

    Ristroph, Leif; Bergou, Attila J; Ristroph, Gunnar; Coumes, Katherine; Berman, Gordon J; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2010-03-16

    Just as the Wright brothers implemented controls to achieve stable airplane flight, flying insects have evolved behavioral strategies that ensure recovery from flight disturbances. Pioneering studies performed on tethered and dissected insects demonstrate that the sensory, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems play important roles in flight control. Such studies, however, cannot produce an integrative model of insect flight stability because they do not incorporate the interaction of these systems with free-flight aerodynamics. We directly investigate control and stability through the application of torque impulses to freely flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and measurement of their behavioral response. High-speed video and a new motion tracking method capture the aerial "stumble," and we discover that flies respond to gentle disturbances by accurately returning to their original orientation. These insects take advantage of a stabilizing aerodynamic influence and active torque generation to recover their heading to within 2 degrees in < 60 ms. To explain this recovery behavior, we form a feedback control model that includes the fly's ability to sense body rotations, process this information, and actuate the wing motions that generate corrective aerodynamic torque. Thus, like early man-made aircraft and modern fighter jets, the fruit fly employs an automatic stabilization scheme that reacts to short time-scale disturbances. PMID:20194789

  11. Initial flight test of a ground deployed system for flying qualities assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Mary F.; Koehler, Ruthard; Wilson, Edward M.; Levy, David R.

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide a safe, repeatable, precise, high-gain flying qualities task a ground deployed system was developed and tested at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. This system, the adaptable target lighting array system (ATLAS), is based on the German Aerospace Research Establishment's ground attack test equipment (GRATE). These systems provide a flying-qualities task, emulating the ground-attack task with ground deployed lighted targets. These targets light in an unpredictable sequence and the pilot has to aim the aircraft at whichever target is lighted. Two flight-test programs were used to assess the suitability of ATLAS. The first program used the United States Air Force (USAF) NT-33A variability stability aircraft to establish that ATLAS provided a task suitable for use in flying qualities research. A head-up display (HUD) tracking task was used for comparison. The second program used the X-29A forward-swept wing aircraft to demonstrate that the ATLAS task was suitable for assessing the flying qualities of a specific experimental aircraft. In this program, the ground-attack task was used for comparison. All pilots who used ATLAS found it be highly satisfactory and thought it to be superior to the other tasks used in flying qualities evaluations. It was recommended that ATLAS become a standard for flying qualities evaluations.

  12. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    PubMed

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed. PMID:20304573

  13. Control of horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Florida with an Australian trap.

    PubMed

    Tozer, R S; Sutherst, R W

    1996-04-01

    A newly developed Haematobia spp. trap is described, and results are presented from field trials to reduce populations of adult horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., on 5 dairy farms in western Florida and Alabama during the summer of 1992. We compared fly infestations on milkers subjected to trapping, versus either dry cattle on the same farm or milkers on a nearby farm, without the trap but where traditional horn fly control practices were used. Results gave 96.9% (95% CI, 93.8-98.4) reduction compared with dry cattle with a mean count of 228 per animal, and 90.2% (84.5-94.5%) compared with milkers on the control farms with a mean count of 113. Trapping removed the need to use insecticides to control this pest on milking dairy cattle and so offers a practical, environmentally acceptable, safe, and sustainable means of horn fly control on cattle which pass through the trap regularly. PMID:8934825

  14. Efficacy of Brahman breeding in the management of insecticide-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Brown, M A; Tolley, G; Phillips, J M

    1994-02-01

    The efficacy of Brahman breeding used as an alternative tactic to manage insecticide-resistant populations of adult horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), was determined. Concentration-mortality bioassays done at Booneville and Hope, AR, in 1988 and 1989, respectively, showed that horn fly populations were resistant to diazinon, pirimiphos methyl, tetrachlorvinphos, and methoxychlor. Data showed loss of field efficacy for coumaphos and delnav. Mean horn fly counts on Braham cows were significantly lower than on Angus cows for all sampling dates in 1989 and 1990. Mean fly counts on Brahman x Angus cows were approximately intermediate to the two purebred mean fly counts. Brahman breeding caused significant reductions in the number of organophosphate-resistant horn flies, which had been equal to or greater than that obtained from continued spraying with organophosphate insecticides. The Brahman x Hereford cows, which have one-eighth greater Brahman breeding than the Brangus cows, had fewer horn flies on 48 of 56 sampling dates in 1988-1990 and significantly fewer flies on 37 sampling dates. The effectiveness of Brahman breeding in causing lower numbers of insecticide-resistant horn flies significantly increased as the percentage of Brahman breeding increased. PMID:8144749

  15. Regulatory peptides in fruit fly midgut.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jan A; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen; Sellami, Azza

    2008-12-01

    Regulatory peptides were immunolocalized in the midgut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Endocrine cells were found to produce six different peptides: allatostatins A, B and C, neuropeptide F, diuretic hormone 31, and the tachykinins. Small neuropeptide-F (sNPF) was found in neurons in the hypocerebral ganglion innervating the anterior midgut, whereas pigment-dispersing factor was found in nerves on the most posterior part of the posterior midgut. Neuropeptide-F (NPF)-producing endocrine cells were located in the anterior and middle midgut and in the very first part of the posterior midgut. All NPF endocrine cells also produced tachykinins. Endocrine cells containing diuretic hormone 31 were found in the caudal half of the posterior midgut; these cells also produced tachykinins. Other endocrine cells produced exclusively tachykinins in the anterior and posterior extemities of the midgut. Allatostatin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were present throughout the midgut. Those in the caudal half of the posterior midgut produced allatostatins A, whereas those in the anterior, middle, and first half of the posterior midgut produced allatostatin C. In the middle of the posterior midgut, some endocrine cells produced both allatostatins A and C. Allatostatin-C-immunoreactive endocrine cells were particularly prominent in the first half of the posterior midgut. Allatostatin B/MIP-immunoreactive cells were not consistently found and, when present, were only weakly immunoreactive, forming a subgroup of the allatostatin-C-immunoreactive cells in the posterior midgut. Previous work on Drosophila and other insect species suggested that (FM)RFamide-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the insect midgut could produce NPF, sNPF, myosuppressin, and/or sulfakinins. Using a combination of specific antisera to these peptides and transgenic fly models, we showed that the endocrine cells in the adult Drosophila midgut produced exclusively NPF. Although the Drosophila insulin gene Ilp3

  16. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    PubMed

    Barker, Clive S; Meshcheryakova, Irina V; Kostyukova, Alla S; Samatey, Fadel A

    2010-09-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  17. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice. PMID:19580574

  18. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  19. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Neven, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  20. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  1. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  2. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  3. Extension of the use of Augmentoria for Sanitation in a Cropping System Susceptible to the Alien Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: This study reports efforts to demonstrate to growers of fruiting crops a technique to sequester emerging adult flies while conserving their parasitoid natural enemies. Sequestering infested fruit to prevent progeny survival is often overlooked. Methods: Demonstration trials were cond...

  4. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Fly ash chemical classification based on lime

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    2007-07-01

    Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Droppings from captive Coturnix coturnix (Galliformes: Phasianidae) as a fly breeding resource.

    PubMed

    Horenstein, M Battán; Lynch-Ianniello, I; de Dio, B; Gleiser, R M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fauna of flies associated with captive Coturnix coturnix (L.) (Galliformes: Phasianidae) droppings. Samples of 150 g of quail droppings were exposed in the quail house for 48 h in plastic containers to promote eventual access of flies, and then placed in emergence traps. The number of adults and species emerging was recorded daily. This procedure was carried out in spring 2008 and spring and autumn 2009. In total, 2,138 adults belonging to Muscidae, Calliphoridae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Fanniidae, and Milichiidae families were collected. The most numerous family was Muscidae (representing >82% of the total specimens), with Musca domestica L. being the most abundant species followed by Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann) (both Diptera: Muscidae). Quail breeding should include adequate droppings management policies to avoid potential sanitary issues related to fly production. PMID:25347840

  7. Bumblebee Homing: The Fine Structure of Head Turning Movements

    PubMed Central

    Boeddeker, Norbert; Mertes, Marcel; Dittmar, Laura; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Changes in flight direction in flying insects are largely due to roll, yaw and pitch rotations of their body. Head orientation is stabilized for most of the time by counter rotation. Here, we use high-speed video to analyse head- and body-movements of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris while approaching and departing from a food source located between three landmarks in an indoor flight-arena. The flight paths consist of almost straight flight segments that are interspersed with rapid turns. These short and fast yaw turns (“saccades”) are usually accompanied by even faster head yaw turns that change gaze direction. Since a large part of image rotation is thereby reduced to brief instants of time, this behavioural pattern facilitates depth perception from visual motion parallax during the intersaccadic intervals. The detailed analysis of the fine structure of the bees’ head turning movements shows that the time course of single head saccades is very stereotypical. We find a consistent relationship between the duration, peak velocity and amplitude of saccadic head movements, which in its main characteristics resembles the so-called "saccadic main sequence" in humans. The fact that bumblebee head saccades are highly stereotyped as in humans, may hint at a common principle, where fast and precise motor control is used to reliably reduce the time during which the retinal images moves. PMID:26352836

  8. Bumblebee Homing: The Fine Structure of Head Turning Movements.

    PubMed

    Boeddeker, Norbert; Mertes, Marcel; Dittmar, Laura; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Changes in flight direction in flying insects are largely due to roll, yaw and pitch rotations of their body. Head orientation is stabilized for most of the time by counter rotation. Here, we use high-speed video to analyse head- and body-movements of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris while approaching and departing from a food source located between three landmarks in an indoor flight-arena. The flight paths consist of almost straight flight segments that are interspersed with rapid turns. These short and fast yaw turns ("saccades") are usually accompanied by even faster head yaw turns that change gaze direction. Since a large part of image rotation is thereby reduced to brief instants of time, this behavioural pattern facilitates depth perception from visual motion parallax during the intersaccadic intervals. The detailed analysis of the fine structure of the bees' head turning movements shows that the time course of single head saccades is very stereotypical. We find a consistent relationship between the duration, peak velocity and amplitude of saccadic head movements, which in its main characteristics resembles the so-called "saccadic main sequence" in humans. The fact that bumblebee head saccades are highly stereotyped as in humans, may hint at a common principle, where fast and precise motor control is used to reliably reduce the time during which the retinal images moves. PMID:26352836

  9. The molecular biology of the olive fly comes of age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    were shown to be differentially expressed in the female and male reproductive systems analyzed. Finally, the expression profile of the embryonic serendipity-α locus and the pre-apoptotic head involution defective gene were analyzed during embryonic developmental stages. Conclusions Several years of molecular studies on the olive fly can now be combined with new information from whole transcriptome analyses and lead to a deep understanding of the biology of this notorious insect pest. This is a prerequisite for the development of novel embryonic lethality female sexing strains for successful SIT efforts which, combined with improved mass-reared conditions, give new hope for efficient SIT applications for the olive fly. PMID:25472866

  10. GPM Satellite Flies Over Gonzalo

    NASA Video Gallery

    On October 16th, 2014 (1342 UTC) the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core Observatory flew over Hurricane Gonzalo as it headed towards Bermuda. Hurricane Gonzalo remains a category...

  11. Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of the Microbiome Associated with the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans

    PubMed Central

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D.; Heekin, Andrew M.; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E.; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect. PMID:23028533

  12. Head-up transition behavior of pilots with and without head-up display in simulated low-visibility approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fischer, E.; Price, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    To quantify head-up transition behavior with and without a flightpath type head-up display, eight rated B-727 pilots each flew 31 manual and coupled approaches in a simulator with B-727 dynamics and collimated model board external scene. Data were also obtained on the roll played by the head-up display in the coupled-to-manual transition. Various wind shears, low visibilities, and ceilings were tested along with unexpected misalignment between the runway and head-up display symbology. The symbolic format used was a conformal scene. Every pilot except one stayed head-up, flying with the display after descending below the ceiling. Without the display and as altitude decreased, the number of lookups from the instrument panel decreased and the duration of each one increased. No large differences in mean number or duration of transitions up or down were found during the head-up display runs comparing the no-misalignment with the lateral instrument landing system offset misalignment runs. The head-up display led to fewer transitions after the pilot made a decision to land or execute a missed approach. Without the display, pilots generally waited until they had descended below the ceiling to look outside the first time, but with it several pilots looked down at their panel at relatively high altitudes (if they looked down at all). Manual takeover of control was rapid and smooth both with and without the display which permitted smoother engine power changes.

  13. Locomotor head-trunk coordination strategies following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Smith, S. L.; Huebner, W. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    During locomotion, angular head movements act in a compensatory fashion to oppose the vertical trunk translation that occurs during each step in the gait cycle. This coordinated strategy between head and trunk motion serves to aid gaze stabilization and perhaps simplifies the sensory coordinate transformation between the head and trunk, allowing efficient descending motor control during locomotion. Following space flight, astronauts often experience oscillopsia during locomotion in addition to postural and gait instabilities, suggesting a possible breakdown in head-trunk coordination. The goal of the present investigation was to determine if exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight induces alteration in head-trunk coordination during locomotion. Astronaut subjects were asked to walk (6.4 km/h, 20 s trials) on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a centrally located earthfixed target positioned either 2 m (FAR) or 30 cm (NEAR) from the eyes. In addition, some trials were also performed during periodic visual occlusion. Head and trunk kinematics during locomotion were determined with the aid of a video-based motion analyzing system. We report data collected preflight (10 days prior to launch) and postflight (2 to 4 hours after landing). The coherence between pitch head and vertical trunk movements during gaze fixation of both FAR and NEAR targets was significantly reduced following space flight indicating decreased coordination between the head and trunk during postflight locomotion. Astronauts flying on their first mission showed greater alterations in the frequency spectra of pitch head movements as compared to their more experienced counterparts. These modifications in the efficacy of head movement control may account for the reported disruption in gaze performance during locomotion and may contribute to postflight postural and gait dysfunction.

  14. Push and Pull strategy in control of filth flies in urban settings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the discovery of several natural substances associated volatile compounds that may be used as chemical cues for adult flies for host and oviposition location. Among them, 1-octen-3-ol, phenol and cresol and sulfide-related compounds elicited significant EAG responses from b...

  15. Phenology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in round bale hay feeding sites in Eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of adult stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), emergence from six sites where large round baled hay had been provided to pastured cattle as winter feed were studied using emergence traps. The substrate at these sites, consisting of waste hay mixed with bovine manure...

  16. Effects of male condition on fitness in two tropical tephritid flies with contrasting life histories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Size and nutritional status, two factors that can determine male mating competitiveness, are usually studied independently. Here we investigated the interactions between size and adult diet on the sexual competitiveness and female fitness of two tephritid flies with contrasting natural histories, t...

  17. Biological and molecular characterization of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological evaluation of adults emerging in 5 field collections from Israel supported they were Hessian fly. One of the field collections from Israel was successfully established in culture and a free choice ovipositional preference test with barley and wheat documented females overwhelmingly pr...

  18. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult mosquito traps of four types that are marketed for homeowner use in residential settings were compared with a standard CDC light trap for efficacy in collecting phlebotomine sand flies. We evaluated the Mosquito MagnetTM Pro (MMP), the SentinelTM 360 mosquito trap (S360), the BG-SentinelTM mo...

  19. Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) interactions with barley, rice, and wheat seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A choice test revealed that Hessian fly adults deposited approximately three times more eggs on wheat seedlings than on barley or rice seedlings. On a barley seedling, 49.4% of eggs were deposited on either the abaxial leaf-surface or the coleoptile and first leaf-sheath (C&FLS), where newly hatche...

  20. Spatial-temporal dynamics of stable fly (Diptera:muscidae) trap catches in eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial and temporal relationships among catches of adult stable flies on sticky traps in eastern Nebraska were evaluated. Twenty-five alsynite sticky traps were placed in a 5 × 5 grid with ˜1.6 km intervals in a mixed agricultural environment from 2003 to 2011. Denser grids of 45-90 traps were impl...

  1. Stable fly phenology in a mixed agricultural-wildlife ecosystem in northeast Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable fly phenology was monitored and compared at three habitats (peninsula, pasture, confinement lot) located within 1.5 to 4.5 km of each other in a mixed agricultural-wildlife ecosystem in northeast Montana. Results revealed that temporal dynamics differed by site. Adult abundance was generall...

  2. Identification and sequences of the Treponema pallidum fliM', fliY, fliP, fliQ, fliR and flhB' genes.

    PubMed

    Hardham, J M; Frye, J G; Stamm, L V

    1995-12-01

    Information regarding the biology and virulence attributes of Treponema pallidum (Tp) is limited due to the lack of genetic exchange mechanisms and the inability to continuously cultivate this spirochete. We have utilized TnphoA mutagenesis of a Tp genomic DNA library in Escherichia coli (Ec) to identify genes encoding exported proteins, a subset of which are likely to be important in treponemal pathogenesis. We report here the identification and nucleotide (nt) sequence of a 5-kb treponemal DNA insert that contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). The proteins encoded by six of these ORFs have homology with members of a newly described protein family involved in the biogenesis/assembly of flagella and the control of flagellar rotation in Ec, Salmonella typhimurium (St) and Bacillus subtilis (Bs). Certain members of this family are also involved in the export of virulence factors in Yersinia (Yr) spp., St and Shigella flexneri (Sf). We have named these six ORFs fliM', fliY, fliP, fliQ, fliR and flhB'. The operon containing these ORFs has been designated as the fla operon. We hypothesize that the protein products of these genes are involved in the biogenesis/assembly of flagella and the control of flagellar rotation in Tp. PMID:8529894

  3. Head Injuries in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  4. Helmet slippage during visual tracking: the effect of voluntary head movements.

    PubMed

    Neary, C; Bate, I J; Heller, L F; Williams, M

    1993-07-01

    The influence of visual tracking on head movement and on the head/helmet system was investigated for two different helmets (a motorcycle helmet and a flying helmet) under static laboratory conditions. Subjects visually refixated between pairs of illuminated targets located at various horizontal (up to 160 degrees) and vertical (up to 90 degrees) distances apart while head position and helmet slippage were measured in azimuth, pitch, roll, X, Y, and Z using a double magnetic coil system. Results showed that for both helmets, root mean square (RMS) head movement increased with refixation distance, especially in the main axis of refixation, and that RMS helmet slippage can be a function of RMS head motion. Further, large individual differences in the degree of head motion were found. These findings may have implications for designers and investigators of helmet-mounted avionics. PMID:8357316

  5. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of BdFoxO gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Bei; Yang, Wen-Jia; Xie, Yi-Fei; Xu, Kang-Kang; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-03-10

    The forkhead box O transcription factor (FoxO) is an important downstream transcription factor in the well-conserved insulin signaling pathway, which regulates the body size and development of insects. In this study, the FoxO gene (BdFoxO) was identified from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The open reading frame of BdFoxO (2732 bp) encoded a 910 amino acid protein, and the sequence was well conserved with other insect species. The BdFoxO was highly expressed in larvae and pupae among different development stages, and the highest tissue-specific expression level was found in the fat bodies compared to the testis, ovary, head, thorax, midgut, and Malpighian tubules of adults. Interestingly, we found BdFoxO expression was also up-regulated by starvation, but down-regulated when re-fed. Moreover, the injection of BdFoxO double-stranded RNAs into third-instar larvae significantly reduced BdFoxO transcript levels, which in turn down-regulated the expression of other four genes in the insulin signaling pathway. The silencing of BdFoxO resulted in delayed pupation, and the insect body weight increased significantly compared with that of the control. These results suggested that BdFoxO plays an important role in body size and development in B. dorsalis. PMID:26701614

  6. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  7. The buzzing of flies' wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Don

    1999-02-01

    The object of this science-fair project was to determine the wing-beat frequency of common house flies from the frequency of the sound produced when they buzz their wings. The data produced a pattern that I have seen many times and felt sure that I knew what was going on. Like many interesting and seemingly simple phenomena, the longer that I look at this one the more intriguing and less explicable it becomes.

  8. Notes on flying and dying.

    PubMed

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion. PMID:6351146

  9. Trunnion-Head Stresses in THA: Are Big Heads Trouble?

    PubMed

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Iacobelli, David A; Villa, Jesus M; Jones, Kinzy; Gonzalez, Jose L; Jones, William Kinzy

    2015-06-01

    The effects of large heads on stresses at the THA trunnion-head junction and their impact on tribocorrosion/metal ion release remain controversial. A 12/14 3D-model of a stem with different head sizes was investigated. Material properties of titanium were assigned to the trunnion and cobalt-chrome/alumina to the heads. A load simulating walking single-leg stand phase was applied to the head. A total contact head-trunnion interface was assumed. The area underneath the junction underwent significant elevations in stresses as head size increased from 28- to 40-mm. Maximum principal stress doubled between 28 and 40-mm heads, regardless of head material. Stress levels had a direct correlation to head diameter. Stress increases observed using increasingly larger heads will probably contribute to head-trunnion tribocorrosion and ion release. PMID:25724112

  10. Visual control of host pursuit in the parasitoid fly Exorista japonica.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Kainoh, Yooichi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    The tachinid fly Exorista japonica is a parasitoid of many kinds of lepidopterous larvae. After encountering a suitable host, the fly pursues the crawling larva on foot using visual cues to guide it. To investigate the visual control of host pursuit, we observed and videotaped pursuits of a host, the common armyworm Mythimna separata, for frame-by-frame analysis. Observation was performed in sunlight and under illumination from a fluorescent lamp. The fly pursued hosts discontinuously with a repeated stop-and-run motion. During a run, its movements consisted of rotation, forward translation and sideways translation. Rotation during a run was positively correlated with the angular position of the host's head. The direction of translation depended on the angular position of the host's head. Forward translation was negatively correlated with the visual angle subtended by the host. These results suggest that the fly orients and walks towards the leading edge of a moving target. There was little difference in the results between sunlight and illumination from a fluorescent lamp. PMID:11893762

  11. Manitoba crash a wake-up call for "fly-in" physicians

    PubMed Central

    Square, D

    1998-01-01

    A December plane crash in northern Manitoba served to remind the province's "fly-in" physicians of the perils their work may entail. Four people were killed and 13 injured in the crash, which left Dr. Gerry Huot in serious condition in a Winnipeg hospital. The accident caused a serious head injury, and 4 months later he remains in hospital. It is causing some physicians to rethink their travel plans. PMID:9580740

  12. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present. PMID:24318779

  13. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughenbaugh, Katherine; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS), calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS), a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  14. Assessment effect of gamma radiation on the flight ability of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders).

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ismail Ragab; El-Aw, M A M; Hashem, A G; Draz, K A

    2013-12-01

    The sterile insect technique is one of the most methods of fruit flies control. Flight ability of the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata was conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on flight ability of PFF, B. zonata. Pupae of PFF, B. zonata, were irradiated in an air atmosphere at 24, 48 and 72 h before adult emergence with three doses of Cobalt 60 (10, 30 and 50 Gray) and tested against 6, 12 and 20 cm tube heights. Flight Ability Percentage (FAP) of PFF was carried out for newly emerged flies and six-days-old of adult flies. FAP of newly emerged-and six- days-old of adult flies was inversely proportional to the tube heights, doses of gamma rays and with progress the age of flies. The FAP value was significantly higher at 6 cm tube height, followed by 12 cm then 20 cm tube heights for all tested levels of gamma rays, respectively. PMID:24506040

  15. Head Circumference and Neurocognitive Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-07-01

    Investigators from Universities of Glasgow and Bristol, UK, determined the value of head circumference (HC) as a screening measure, the incidence of head centile shifting, and the relationship between extremes of head size and later neurodevelopmental problems. PMID:26933592

  16. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  17. What do tiger-fly larvae (Diptera: Muscidae) eat?

    PubMed

    Santos, S; Martins, J; Marcelino, J; Mateus, C; Figueiredo, E

    2013-01-01

    Coenosia attenuata, usually known as tiger-fly, is a generalist predator of agricultural and forest pests in both larval and adult stages; it has potential to be an effective biocontrol agent in protected crops. To contribute for the knowledge of which prey this predator larvae potentially consumes, and of the occurrence and the conditions that promote cannibalism by tiger-fly larvae, intact alive specimens and portions of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris were tested as prey and the cannibalism was evaluated in the presence or in absence of fungus gnat larvae. The tiger-fly larvae fed on the bisected earthworm portions but seem to have difficulty to penetrate in the cuticle of the alive and moving L. terrestris. However, the time to start feeding on the portions of L terrestris was shorter than on fungus gnats. Cannibalism by C. attenuato was not detected, but mortality occurred in several modalities. Nevertheless, escaping from the Petri dishes was the dominant behaviour of the larvae in the cannibalism evaluation assay. PMID:25145255

  18. Anatomy of the infant head

    SciTech Connect

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

  19. Sniffing Out Chemosensory Genes from the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Falchetto, Marco; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Field, Linda M.; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs). A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs) were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera Bactrocera and

  20. High fliers: the physiology of bar-headed geese.

    PubMed

    Butler, Patrick J

    2010-07-01

    Up to half the world's population of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) migrate between central Asia and India and fly between 5000 m and 9000 m above sea level as they cross the Himalayas. The partial pressures of oxygen at these altitudes are, respectively, about 50% and 30% those at sea level. Flapping flight is energetically expensive, so how are bar-headed geese able to migrate at such altitudes? The haemoglobin of bar-headed geese has a greater affinity for oxygen than those of lowland birds, and birds are able to hyperventilate to a greater extent than mammals during severe hypoxia. Together, these mean that the concentration of oxygen in the arterial blood at a given altitude is greater in bar-headed geese than in lowland birds and mammals. The low partial pressure of CO(2) in arterial blood (hypocapnia) that accompanies hyperventilation does not cause reduction of cerebral blood flow in birds as it does in mammals, thus there is greater oxygen delivery to the brain in hypoxic birds, including bar-headed geese, than in mammals. Captive bar headed geese could not maintain elevated aerobic metabolism during exercise at a simulated altitude of 8500 m and their cardiac stroke volume was much lower than that during exercise at sea level. This suggests that if some individuals of this species of geese do really manage to fly over Mt Everest, they may only do so if they receive assistance from vertical air movements, for example from lee waves downwind from the mountains. PMID:20116442

  1. Fly emergence from manure of Japanese quail fed thymol- or isoeugenol-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Lynch Ianniello, I; Horenstein, M Battán; Lábaque, M C; Luna, A; Marin, R H; Gleiser, R M

    2014-10-01

    Many problems in poultry production are caused by a combination of interrelated factors such as management, stress, nutrition, and exposure to pathogens. Saprophagous flies that develop in poultry manure are a potential route of pathogen transmission. Besides being a nuisance, defecation and regurgitation of flies soil equipment and structures and can reduce light levels of lighting fixtures. These effects clearly affect management and may contribute to reductions in poultry egg production, health, and welfare. Many essential oils or their main components have bioactive effects such as natural repellents and insecticides, antioxidants, anticholesterolemics, and antimicrobials. This study evaluated if supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol as functional food could alter the production of flies from manure. Dropping samples deposited by quail fed with a supplementation of 2,000 mg of thymol or isoeugenol per kg of feed or no supplement (control) were collected. Each sample was incubated inside an emergence cage that was inspected daily to collect emerging adult flies. Fewer flies emerged from droppings of quail fed a thymol-supplemented diet (P = 0.01) and there was a tendency to a lower emergence from droppings of isoeugenol-fed quail (P = 0.09). The number of positive containers for Musca domestica was smaller from quail droppings of thymol- (P = 0.02) or isoeugenol- (P = 0.01) supplemented feed than from the control counterparts, suggesting an oviposition repellent effect. Supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol has an overall moderate effect against flies, reducing M. domestica emergence. PMID:25104767

  2. Efficacy of cyantraniliprole fly bait against housefly (Musca domestica L.) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Q F; Li, X; Hunag, J B; Zhang, D M; Yuan, J Z

    2015-09-01

    Novel and effective baits are needed to manage pest housefly populations and avoid the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we bioassayed the efficacy of Zyrox®, a novel fly bait containing a novel 0.5 % cyantraniliprole insecticide, to kill adult houseflies under laboratory conditions. We found that Zyrox® killed a significantly greater proportion of flies than the current competing fly bait, QuickBayt®, after a 24-h exposure. The cumulative mortalities of houseflies were up to 96.36 % and 92.57 % for Zyrox® and 78.88 % and 68.76 % for QuickBayt® in no-choice and choice tests, respectively. Our results suggested that there was negligible behavioral resistance to both fly baits but revealed that Zyrox® appeared to work slower than QuickBayt® (at a 3-h exposure, proportionally fewer flies were killed by Zyrox® than by QuickBayt®). Importantly, we found that the efficacy of Zyrox® did not diminish with the age of the bait (up to 90 days old). In actual knockdown time (KDT) feeding bioassay, the results showed that Zyrox® knocked down flies significantly slower (11.97 min for females; 12.30 min for males) than QuickBayt® (1.89 min for females; 2.24 min for males). These results reveal the high efficacy of Zyrox® bait to kill adult flies and suggest that it is a promising slow-action bait for management of houseflies. PMID:26113508

  3. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  4. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  5. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Murrant, Meghan N.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  6. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    PubMed

    Murrant, Meghan N; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  7. The role of passive avian head stabilization in flapping flight.

    PubMed

    Pete, Ashley E; Kress, Daniel; Dimitrov, Marina A; Lentink, David

    2015-09-01

    Birds improve vision by stabilizing head position relative to their surroundings, while their body is forced up and down during flapping flight. Stabilization is facilitated by compensatory motion of the sophisticated avian head-neck system. While relative head motion has been studied in stationary and walking birds, little is known about how birds accomplish head stabilization during flapping flight. To unravel this, we approximate the avian neck with a linear mass-spring-damper system for vertical displacements, analogous to proven head stabilization models for walking humans. We corroborate the model's dimensionless natural frequency and damping ratios from high-speed video recordings of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) flying over a lake. The data show that flap-induced body oscillations can be passively attenuated through the neck. We find that the passive model robustly attenuates large body oscillations, even in response to head mass and gust perturbations. Our proof of principle shows that bird-inspired drones with flapping wings could record better images with a swan-inspired passive camera suspension. PMID:26311316

  8. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Fertility and Fecundity of Two Species of Fruit Flies and Horizontal Transmission of Mycotic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sookar, P.; Bhagwant, S.; Allymamod, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are the major pest of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Fruit growers make use of broad-spectrum insecticides to protect their crops from fruit fly attack. This method of fruit fly control is hazardous to the environment and is a threat to beneficial insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which was isolated from the soils of Mauritius, was used to investigate whether fungus-treated adult fruit flies could transfer conidia to non-treated flies during mating, and whether fungal infection could have an effect on mating behavior, fecundity, and fertility of the two female fruit fly species. When treated male flies were maintained together with non-treated female flies, they were able to transmit infection to untreated females, resulting in high mortalities. Similarly, fungus-infected female flies mixed with untreated males also transmitted infections to males, also resulting in high mortalities. Infection by M. anisopliae also resulted in the reduction of the number of eggs produced by females of B. cucurbitae. The results suggest that M. anisopliae may have potential for use in integrated control programs of B. zonata and B. cucurbitae using the sterile insect technique in Mauritius. PMID:25201230

  9. Interaction of feel system and flight control system dynamics on lateral flying qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. E.; Knotts, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of lateral feel system characteristics on fighter aircraft roll flying qualities was conducted using the variable stability USAF NT-33. Forty-two evaluation flights were flown by three engineering test pilots. The investigation utilized the power approach, visual landing task and up-and-away tasks including formation, gun tracking, and computer-generated compensatory attitude tracking tasks displayed on the Head-Up Display. Experimental variations included the feel system frequency, force-deflection gradient, control system command type (force or position input command), aircraft roll mode time constant, control system prefilter frequency, and control system time delay. The primary data were task performance records and evaluation pilot comments and ratings using the Cooper-Harper scale. The data highlight the unique and powerful effect of the feel system of flying qualities. The data show that the feel system is not 'equivalent' in flying qualities influence to analogous control system elements. A lower limit of allowable feel system frequency appears warranted to ensure good lateral flying qualities. Flying qualities criteria should most properly treat the feel system dynamic influence separately from the control system, since the input and output of this dynamic element is apparent to the pilot and thus, does not produce a 'hidden' effect.

  10. Discovering the flight autostabilizer of fruit flies by inducing aerial stumbles

    PubMed Central

    Ristroph, Leif; Bergou, Attila J.; Ristroph, Gunnar; Coumes, Katherine; Berman, Gordon J.; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z. Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2010-01-01

    Just as the Wright brothers implemented controls to achieve stable airplane flight, flying insects have evolved behavioral strategies that ensure recovery from flight disturbances. Pioneering studies performed on tethered and dissected insects demonstrate that the sensory, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems play important roles in flight control. Such studies, however, cannot produce an integrative model of insect flight stability because they do not incorporate the interaction of these systems with free-flight aerodynamics. We directly investigate control and stability through the application of torque impulses to freely flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and measurement of their behavioral response. High-speed video and a new motion tracking method capture the aerial “stumble,” and we discover that flies respond to gentle disturbances by accurately returning to their original orientation. These insects take advantage of a stabilizing aerodynamic influence and active torque generation to recover their heading to within 2° in < 60 ms. To explain this recovery behavior, we form a feedback control model that includes the fly’s ability to sense body rotations, process this information, and actuate the wing motions that generate corrective aerodynamic torque. Thus, like early man-made aircraft and modern fighter jets, the fruit fly employs an automatic stabilization scheme that reacts to short time-scale disturbances. PMID:20194789

  11. Head Injury With Subsequent, Intermittent, Nonschizophrenic, Psychotic Symptoms and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Kelly, Ruby P.

    1987-01-01

    A young, black, adult woman presented to an outpatient clinic for treatment with a history of intermittent, nonschizophrenic, psychotic symptoms. Blacks, because of their situational sociology, may be more predisposed to severe head injuries, and this acquired biologic factor may be, in part, responsible for the high rates of black-on-black murder. The use of beta blockers is discussed as an adjunct in the treatment of violence occurring in patients with a past history of severe head injury. PMID:3694693

  12. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Rosetta’s unique instruments, such as its ultraviolet light instrument ALICE, should be able to make critical contributions to the American mission. About Rosetta Rosetta is the first mission designed to both orbit and land on a comet, and consists of an orbiter and a lander. The spacecraft carries 11 scientific experiments and will be the first mission to undertake long-term exploration of a comet at close quarters. After entering orbit around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the spacecraft will release a small lander onto the icy nucleus. Rosetta will orbit the comet for about a year as it heads towards the Sun, remaining in orbit for another half-year past perihelion (closest approach to the Sun). Comets hold essential information about the origin of our Solar System because they are the most primitive objects in the Solar System and their chemical composition has changed little since their formation. By orbiting and landing on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta will help us reconstruct the history of our own neighbourhood in space. Note for broadcasters: The ESA TV Service will transmit a TV exchange with images of the fly-by, together with science results/images from observations as far as available on 11 March. For further details : http://television.esa.int

  13. Passive Baited Sequential Filth Fly Trap.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Robert L; Britch, Seth C; Snelling, Melissa; Gutierez, Arturo; White, Gregory; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-09-01

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted-cone design to passively confine flies in 8 modified collection bottles corresponding to 8 intervals. Efficacy trials in a hot-arid desert environment indicate no significant difference (P  =  0.896) between the modified sequential trap and a Rid-Max® fly trap. PMID:26375911

  14. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... head and neck cancer. Poor oral and dental hygiene . Poor care of the mouth and teeth has ... sore throat Foul mouth odor not explained by hygiene Hoarseness or change in voice Nasal obstruction or ...

  15. Head Lice: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it may be necessary to use a second bottle. Pay special attention to instructions on the label ... or printed on the label. Nit (head lice egg) combs, often found in lice medicine packages, should ...

  16. Overview of Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Baby Health Highlights: Sept. 13, 2016 Smokers' Perceptions May Play Role in Addiction Sugar Companies Shifted ... amount of oxygen given and the rate and depth of breaths given by the ventilator. The head ...

  17. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome, Brown’s syndrome, orbital wall fractures, and restricted eye movement associated with thyroid eye disease. 2) Nystagmus: Some patients with nystagmus (jerky eye movements) will acquire a head turn or tilt if ...

  18. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial ... or other growth (mass) Cerebral atrophy (loss of brain tissue) ... with the hearing nerve Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  19. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  20. Head tilt during driving.

    PubMed

    Zikovitz, D C; Harris, L R

    1999-05-01

    In order to distinguish between the use of visual and gravito-inertial force reference frames, the head tilt of drivers and passengers were measured as they went around corners at various speeds. The visual curvature of the corners were thus dissociated from the magnitude of the centripetal forces (0.30-0.77 g). Drivers' head tilts were highly correlated with the visually-available estimate of the curvature of the road (r2=0.86) but not with the centripetal force (r2<0.1). Passengers' head tilts were inversely correlated with the lateral forces (r2=0.3-0.7) and seem to reflect a passive sway. The strong correlation of the tilt of drivers' heads with a visual aspect of the road ahead, supports the use of a predominantly visual reference frame for the driving task. PMID:10722313

  1. TCGA head Neck

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  2. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  3. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention. Head lice are most common among preschool children attending child care, elementary school children, and ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  4. Point of decision: when do pigeons decide to head home?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffner, Ingo; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2009-02-01

    Pigeons released away from their loft usually fly around at the release site for a while before they finally leave. Visual observations had suggested that the moment when the birds decide to head home is associated with a certain change in flying style. To see whether this change is also reflected by GPS-recorded tracks, a group of pigeons equipped with flight recorders was released at two sites about 10 km from their home loft. The initial part of their flight paths was analyzed in order to find objective criteria indicating the point of decision. We selected the highest increase in steadiness as the best estimate for the moment of decision. This criterion allows us to divide the pigeons’ paths in two distinct phases, an initial phase and the homing phase, with the moment of decision, on an average, 2 min after release. The moment of decision marks a change in behavior, with a significant increase in steadiness and flying speed and headings significantly closer to the home direction. The behavior of the individual birds at the two sites was not correlated, suggesting no pronounced individual traits for the length of the initial phase. The behavior during this phase seems to be controlled by flight preparation, exploration, and non-navigational motivations rather than by navigational necessities alone.

  5. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  6. Fly-by-Wireless Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2010-01-01

    The presentation reviews what is meant by the term 'fly-by-wireless', common problems and motivation, provides recent examples, and examines NASA's future and basis for collaboration. The vision is to minimize cables and connectors and increase functionality across the aerospace industry by providing reliable, lower cost, modular, and higher performance alternatives to wired data connectivity to benefit the entire vehicle/program life-cycle. Focus areas are system engineering and integration methods to reduce cables and connectors, vehicle provisions for modularity and accessibility, and a 'tool box' of alternatives to wired connectivity.

  7. Characterization, expression, and evolutionary aspects of Corazonin neuropeptide and its receptor from the House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Sha, Kai; Conner, W Craig; Choi, Dae Y; Park, Jae H

    2012-04-15

    In this article, we characterized structure and expression of genes encoding the neuropeptide Corazonin (MdCrz) and its putative receptor (MdCrzR) in the House Fly, Musca domestica. The MdCrz gene contains two introns, one within the 5' untranslated region and the other within the open reading frame. The 150-amino-acid precursor consists of an N-terminal signal peptide, and mature Crz followed by Crz-associated peptide (CAP). The CAP region is highly diverged from those of other insect precursors, whereas the mature Crz is identical in other dipteran members. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry consistently found a group of three MdCrz-producing neurons in the dorso-lateral protocerebrum, and eight pairs of bi-lateral neurons in the ventral nerve cord in the larvae. In adults, the expression was found exclusively in a cluster of five to seven neurons per brain lobe. Comparable expression patterns observed in other dipteran species suggest conserved regulatory mechanisms of Crz expression and functions during the course of evolution. MdCrzR deduced from the full-length cDNA sequence is a 655-amino acid polypeptide that contains seven trans-membrane (TM) domains and other motifs that are characteristics of Class-A G-protein coupled receptors. Although the TMs and loops between the TMs are conserved in other CrzRs, N-terminal extracellular domain is quite dissimilar. Tissue-specific RT-PCR revealed a high level of MdCrzR expression in the larval salivary glands and a moderate level in the CNS. In adults, the receptor was expressed both in the head and body, suggesting multifunctionality of the Crz signaling system. PMID:22326268

  8. A Drosophila model of closed head traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J.; Loewen, Carin A.; Wassarman, Douglas R.; Petersen, Andrew J.; Ganetzky, Barry; Wassarman, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a substantial health issue worldwide, yet the mechanisms responsible for its complex spectrum of pathologies remains largely unknown. To investigate the mechanisms underlying TBI pathologies, we developed a model of TBI in Drosophila melanogaster. The model allows us to take advantage of the wealth of experimental tools available in flies. Closed head TBI was inflicted with a mechanical device that subjects flies to rapid acceleration and deceleration. Similar to humans with TBI, flies with TBI exhibited temporary incapacitation, ataxia, activation of the innate immune response, neurodegeneration, and death. Our data indicate that TBI results in death shortly after a primary injury only if the injury exceeds a certain threshold and that age and genetic background, but not sex, substantially affect this threshold. Furthermore, this threshold also appears to be dependent on the same cellular and molecular mechanisms that control normal longevity. This study demonstrates the potential of flies for providing key insights into human TBI that may ultimately provide unique opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24127584

  9. Purification of Transcripts and Metabolites from Drosophila Heads

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kurt; Sanchez-Garcia, Jonatan; Williams, Caroline; Khare, Swati; Mathur, Krishanu; Graze, Rita M.; Hahn, Daniel A.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Rincon-Limas, Diego E.; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    For the last decade, we have tried to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuronal degeneration using Drosophila as a model organism. Although fruit flies provide obvious experimental advantages, research on neurodegenerative diseases has mostly relied on traditional techniques, including genetic interaction, histology, immunofluorescence, and protein biochemistry. These techniques are effective for mechanistic, hypothesis-driven studies, which lead to a detailed understanding of the role of single genes in well-defined biological problems. However, neurodegenerative diseases are highly complex and affect multiple cellular organelles and processes over time. The advent of new technologies and the omics age provides a unique opportunity to understand the global cellular perturbations underlying complex diseases. Flexible model organisms such as Drosophila are ideal for adapting these new technologies because of their strong annotation and high tractability. One challenge with these small animals, though, is the purification of enough informational molecules (DNA, mRNA, protein, metabolites) from highly relevant tissues such as fly brains. Other challenges consist of collecting large numbers of flies for experimental replicates (critical for statistical robustness) and developing consistent procedures for the purification of high-quality biological material. Here, we describe the procedures for collecting thousands of fly heads and the extraction of transcripts and metabolites to understand how global changes in gene expression and metabolism contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. These procedures are easily scalable and can be applied to the study of proteomic and epigenomic contributions to disease. PMID:23524378

  10. Assembly States of FliM and FliG within the Flagellar Switch Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P.; Lynch, Michael J.; Bhatnagar, Jaya; Beyersdorf, Matthew S.; Halkides, Christopher J.; Freed, Jack H.; Crane, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    At the base of the bacterial flagella a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima have been investigated with x-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled component proteins fit to a self-consistent model that agrees well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. This data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions. PMID:25536293

  11. Thermal pole tip protrusion finite element analysis of thin film inductive recording heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wentao

    2002-05-01

    In recent low flying height hard disk drives, the head write current causes thermal protrusion of the pole tip region that results in head-disk contact. Finite element analysis is performed in this work to study the temperature and displacement fields in heads during writing. Three-dimensional steady-state thermal-structural analysis of a head in air and over a disk is presented. Complex head geometry is modeled. Velocity slip and temperature jump boundary conditions are used in formulating heat transfer through the air bearing. Moreover, transient analysis of head thermal protrusion is presented. Step direct current is applied. Snapshots of the temperature field as well as temperature and displacement time functions of several locations in the head are exhibited. It is found that head protrusion first occurs at the pole tip, then spreads to the trailing end of the slider. For the head-disk interface studied, it takes 0.6 ms for the head to come in contact with the disk after writing starts.

  12. Experimental Injury Biomechanics of the Pediatric Head and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulies, Susan; Coats, Brittany

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among children and young adults in the United States and results in over 2,500 childhood deaths, 37,000 hospitalizations, and 435,000 emergency department visits each year (Langlois et al. 2004). Computational models of the head have proven to be powerful tools to help us understand mechanisms of adult TBI and to determine load thresholds for injuries specific to adult TBI. Similar models need to be developed for children and young adults to identify age-specific mechanisms and injury tolerances appropriate for children and young adults. The reliability of these tools, however, depends heavily on the availability of pediatric tissue material property data. To date the majority of material and structural properties used in pediatric computer models have been scaled from adult human data. Studies have shown significant age-related differences in brain and skull properties (Prange and Margulies 2002; Coats and Margulies 2006a, b), indicating that the pediatric head cannot be modeled as a miniature adult head, and pediatric computer models incorporating age-specific data are necessary to accurately mimic the pediatric head response to impact or rotation. This chapter details the developmental changes of the pediatric head and summarizes human pediatric properties currently available in the literature. Because there is a paucity of human pediatric data, material properties derived from animal tissue are also presented to demonstrate possible age-related differences in the heterogeneity and rate dependence of tissue properties. The chapter is divided into three main sections: (1) brain, meninges, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF); (2) skull; and (3) scalp.

  13. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  14. Effect of Repetitive Sub-concussive Head Impacts on Ocular Near Point of Convergence.

    PubMed

    Kawata, K; Tierney, R; Phillips, J; Jeka, J J

    2016-05-01

    This study intended to examine effects of repetitive sub-concussive head impacts on ocular near point of convergence (NPC). 20 healthy young adult soccer players were assigned to either a heading or control group. Heading subjects completed 10 headers of soccer balls projected at a speed of 11.2 m/s. Control subjects did not perform heading. Linear head acceleration was measured with a triaxial accelerometer. The NPC assessment was performed at pre-, 0 h post-, and 24 h post-heading. During the NPC assessment participants were seated and a visual target was moved towards the eyes at 1cm/sec. The participant signaled when he/she experienced diplopia or deviation of the eye was observed, and the distance was recorded. The assessment was repeated twice and average NPC scores were used for further analysis. Soccer heading induced mean group head accelerations of 14.49±5.4 g. Mild head impacts led to an increased NPC distance, which was supported by a significant Group x Time interaction. In the heading group, 0 h post- and 24 h post-heading NPC scores were significantly receded compared to baseline. Conversely, NPC scores for the control group showed no difference over time. Our findings indicate that mild frontal head impacts affekt NPC for a minimum of 24 h-post heading, suggesting that oculomotor processes are disrupted, at least transiently, by repetitive mild head impact. PMID:26859643

  15. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  16. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  17. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  18. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  19. CONTROL FIRE ANTS BY USING DECAPITATING FLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers with the USDA, ARS Biological Control of Pests Research Unit are rearing Pseudacteon curvatus, a tiny fly in the family Phoridae that parasitizes and kills imported fire ants. The flies only attack fire ants, and are not attracted to vegetables (12 kinds), fruit (13 kinds), raw meat (7 ...

  20. Passive Baited Sequential Filth Fly Trap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted cone design to passively confi...

  1. FATE OF INHALED FLY ASH IN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine pulmonary deposition, translocation, and clearance of inhaled fly ash, hamsters received a single 95-min nose-only exposure to neutron-activated fly ash. Over a period of 99 days postexposure, the hamsters were sacrificed in groups of six animals. Lungs, liver, kidne...

  2. Heavy metals leaching in Indian fly ash.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Bably; Mondal, Kajal Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Fly ash is an industrial waste generated from thermal power plants. Fly ash constitutes 80-85% of the total ash produced. A small part of fly ash is utilised in some sectors such as construction materials, building engineering, road, back fill, agriculture, selective engineering and processing useful materials. A large part of fly ash produced is disposed of with very high environmental risk. In the present paper, laboratory leaching test has been used to determine the potential mobility of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Ni in fly ash samples, collected from Chandrapura Thermal Power Plant, Jharkhand and Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Plant, Andhra Pradesh, in order to assess their leachability when these wastes are disposed of. A cascade-leaching test was used at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) ranging between 20 and 100. Both fly ash samples exhibited neutral reactions, as indicated by pH values <11.75 and >7.0 at L/S=10 and contact time of 10 minutes. The percentage of leached amounts found to follow the trend Zn>Fe>Mn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd for fly ash from Chandrapura and Fe>Zn>Cu>Mn>Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd for fly ash from Ramagundam. Effect of pH on metals released from ash surface in aqueous solution followed a predictable pattern of decreasing release with increasing pH. PMID:19295096

  3. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  4. Neuroscience: Hunger Pangs in the Fly Brain.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Andreas; Pankratz, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Which neurons in the brain become engaged when the body is deprived of food? A new study addresses this question using the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, examining a group of neurons in the brain that show alterations in neural activity when flies are satiated or starved. PMID:27505238

  5. Status of microbial control of house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies are major pests of human and animal health throughout the world and are among the most difficult to control because of resistance to every insecticide that has been developed for their control. There are a variety of microbial agents available to manage flies, each with advantages and d...

  6. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  7. Can leek interfere with bean plant-bean fly interaction? Test of ecological pest management in mixed cropping.

    PubMed

    Bandara, K A N P; Kumar, V; Ninkovic, V; Ahmed, E; Pettersson, J; Glinwood, R

    2009-06-01

    Effects of volatile odors from leek, Allium porum L., on the behavior of bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), were tested in laboratory olfactometer bioassays. Aqueous and solvent extracts (dichloromethane and methanol) of leek were repellent to adult flies. Whole leek plants were repellent and prevented attraction to the host plant, beans. Beans that had been exposed to volatiles from living leek plants for 7 d became repellent to the fly. Leek and several other crops were tested in field experiments to identify candidate crops for a mixed cropping system to minimize bean fly attack in beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. In a wet season field experiment, mixed cropping of bean with leek or three other vegetable crops did not significantly reduce bean fly infestation or infection with Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. compared with a mono crop, but significantly reduced plant death caused by both agents combined. In two dry season field experiments, mixed cropping of beans with leek significantly reduced adult bean fly settling, emergence, and death of bean plants compared with a mono crop. Bean yield per row was approximately 150% higher for the mixed crop, and economic returns were approximately Sri Lankan Rs. 180,000/ha, higher than for the mono crop. For the mono crop, the farmer had a monetary loss, which would become a small profit only if the costs of family labor are excluded. The study is an example of the first steps toward development of sustainable plant protection in a subsistence system. PMID:19610413

  8. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  9. Adsorption of phenolic compounds on fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Akgerman, A.; Zardkoohi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Adsorption isotherms for adsorption of phenol, 3-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol from water onto fly ash were determined. These isotherms were modeled by the Freundlich isotherm. The fly ash adsorbed 67, 20, and 22 mg/g for phenol, chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively, for the highest water phase concentrations used. The affinity of phenolic compounds for fly ash is above the expected amount corresponding to a monolayer coverage considering that the surface area of fly ash is only 1.87 m{sup 2}/g. The isotherms for contaminants studied were unfavorable, indicating that adsorption becomes progressively easier as more solutes are taken up. Phenol displayed a much higher affinity for fly ash than 3-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  10. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  11. Flightless Flies: Drosophila models of neuromuscular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Thomas E.; Taylor, J. Paul

    2010-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has a long and rich history as an important model organism for biologists. In particular, study of the fruit fly has been essential to much of our fundamental understanding of the development and function of the nervous system. In recent years, studies using fruit flies have provided important insights into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. Fly models of spinal muscular atrophy, spinobulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, dystrophinopathies and other inherited neuromuscular diseases recapitulate many of the key pathologic features of the human disease. The ability to perform genetic screens holds promise for uncovering the molecular mechanisms of disease, and indeed, for identifying novel therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent progress in developing fly models of neuromuscular diseases and will emphasize the contribution that Drosophila has made to our understanding of these diseases. PMID:20329357

  12. Bacteria mediate oviposition by the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied. PMID:23995019

  13. Bacteria Mediate Oviposition by the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L.; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L.; Benbow, M. Eric; Tarone, Aaron M.; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied. PMID:23995019

  14. Ketamine and xylazine combinations for short-term immobilization of wild variable flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus).

    PubMed

    Sohayati, A R; Zaini, C M; Hassan, L; Epstein, J; Siti Suri, A; Daszak, Peter; Sharifah, S H

    2008-12-01

    Collection of biological samples from pteropid bats requires chemical restraint of the bats to minimize risks to humans and stress to the bat. The effectiveness of an intravenous combination of ketamine and xylazine for short-term restraint of wild-caught variable flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus) in a field situation was evaluated. Eight adult male variable flying foxes were injected intravenously with 0.1 ml of ketamine and xylaxine containing 5 mg of ketamine and 1 mg of xylazine. The mean induction time was 80 +/- 20 sec, and mean immobilization time was 26 +/- 10 min. The ketamine-xylazine combination used in this study produced effective short-term immobilization of wild variable flying foxes for the collection of biological samples. PMID:19110718

  15. From trickle to flood: the large-scale, cryptic invasion of California by tropical fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Plant, Richard E; Carey, James R

    2013-10-01

    Since 1954, when the first tropical tephritid fruit fly was detected in California, a total of 17 species in four genera and 11 386 individuals (adults/larvae) have been detected in the state at more than 3348 locations in 330 cities. We conclude from spatial mapping analyses of historical capture patterns and modelling that, despite the 250+ emergency eradication projects that have been directed against these pests by state and federal agencies, a minimum of five and as many as nine or more tephritid species are established and widespread, including the Mediterranean, Mexican and oriental fruit flies, and possibly the peach, guava and melon fruit flies. We outline and discuss the evidence for our conclusions, with particular attention to the incremental, chronic and insidious nature of the invasion, which involves ultra-small, barely detectable populations. We finish by considering the implications of our results for invasion biology and for science-based invasion policy. PMID:23926154

  16. From trickle to flood: the large-scale, cryptic invasion of California by tropical fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Plant, Richard E.; Carey, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1954, when the first tropical tephritid fruit fly was detected in California, a total of 17 species in four genera and 11 386 individuals (adults/larvae) have been detected in the state at more than 3348 locations in 330 cities. We conclude from spatial mapping analyses of historical capture patterns and modelling that, despite the 250+ emergency eradication projects that have been directed against these pests by state and federal agencies, a minimum of five and as many as nine or more tephritid species are established and widespread, including the Mediterranean, Mexican and oriental fruit flies, and possibly the peach, guava and melon fruit flies. We outline and discuss the evidence for our conclusions, with particular attention to the incremental, chronic and insidious nature of the invasion, which involves ultra-small, barely detectable populations. We finish by considering the implications of our results for invasion biology and for science-based invasion policy. PMID:23926154

  17. Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Maxey, Jessica R.; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a robot that enables high-content studies of alert adult Drosophila by combining operations including gentle picking, translations and rotations, characterizations of fly phenotypes and behaviors, micro-dissection or release. To illustrate, we assessed fly morphology, tracked odor-evoked locomotion, sorted flies by sex, and dissected the cuticle to image neural activity. The robot's tireless capacity for precise manipulations enables a scalable platform for screening flies’ complex attributes and behavioral patterns. PMID:26005812

  18. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  19. Lubricating the swordfish head.

    PubMed

    Videler, John J; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Szabo, Ben G

    2016-07-01

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy scanning, the discovery of a complex organ consisting of an oil-producing gland connected to capillaries that communicate with oil-excreting pores in the skin of the head. The capillary vessels transport oil to abundant tiny circular pores that are surrounded by denticles. The oil is distributed from the pores over the front part of the head. The oil inside the gland is identical to that found on the skin and is a mixture of methyl esters. We hypothesize that the oil layer, in combination with the denticles, creates a super-hydrophobic layer that reduces streamwise friction drag and increases swimming efficiency. PMID:27385753

  20. The role of passive avian head stabilization in flapping flight

    PubMed Central

    Pete, Ashley E.; Kress, Daniel; Dimitrov, Marina A.; Lentink, David

    2015-01-01

    Birds improve vision by stabilizing head position relative to their surroundings, while their body is forced up and down during flapping flight. Stabilization is facilitated by compensatory motion of the sophisticated avian head–neck system. While relative head motion has been studied in stationary and walking birds, little is known about how birds accomplish head stabilization during flapping flight. To unravel this, we approximate the avian neck with a linear mass–spring–damper system for vertical displacements, analogous to proven head stabilization models for walking humans. We corroborate the model's dimensionless natural frequency and damping ratios from high-speed video recordings of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) flying over a lake. The data show that flap-induced body oscillations can be passively attenuated through the neck. We find that the passive model robustly attenuates large body oscillations, even in response to head mass and gust perturbations. Our proof of principle shows that bird-inspired drones with flapping wings could record better images with a swan-inspired passive camera suspension. PMID:26311316

  1. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    PubMed

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study. PMID:25171605

  2. Hydrodynamic drag constrains head enlargement for mouthbrooding in cichlids.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Potes, Nuno Zavattieri; Adriaens, Dominique

    2015-08-01

    Presumably as an adaptation for mouthbrooding, many cichlid fish species have evolved a prominent sexual dimorphism in the adult head. Since the head of fishes serves as a bow during locomotion, an evolutionary increase in head volume to brood more eggs can trade-off with the hydrodynamic efficiency of swimming. Here, the differences between males and females in three-dimensional shape and size of the external head surfaces and the effect thereof on drag force during locomotion was analysed for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a maternal mouthbrooder. To do so, three-dimensional body surface reconstructions from laser scans and computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed. After scaling the scanned specimens to post-cranial body volume, in order to theoretically equalize propulsive power, the external volume of the head of females was 27% larger than that of males (head length + 14%; head width + 9%). These differences resulted in an approximate 15% increase in drag force. Yet, hydrodynamics imposed important constraints on the adaptation for mouthbrooding as a much more drastic drop in swimming efficiency seems avoided by mainly enlarging the head along the swimming direction. PMID:26224567

  3. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency

    PubMed Central

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A.; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  4. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.

    PubMed

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  5. Fruit flies in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Wangler, Michael F; Yamamoto, Shinya; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-03-01

    Many scientists complain that the current funding situation is dire. Indeed, there has been an overall decline in support in funding for research from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. Within the Drosophila field, some of us question how long this funding crunch will last as it demotivates principal investigators and perhaps more importantly affects the long-term career choice of many young scientists. Yet numerous very interesting biological processes and avenues remain to be investigated in Drosophila, and probing questions can be answered fast and efficiently in flies to reveal new biological phenomena. Moreover, Drosophila is an excellent model organism for studies that have translational impact for genetic disease and for other medical implications such as vector-borne illnesses. We would like to promote a better collaboration between Drosophila geneticists/biologists and human geneticists/bioinformaticians/clinicians, as it would benefit both fields and significantly impact the research on human diseases. PMID:25624315

  6. Fruit Flies in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Wangler, Michael F.; Yamamoto, Shinya; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Many scientists complain that the current funding situation is dire. Indeed, there has been an overall decline in support in funding for research from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. Within the Drosophila field, some of us question how long this funding crunch will last as it demotivates principal investigators and perhaps more importantly affects the long-term career choice of many young scientists. Yet numerous very interesting biological processes and avenues remain to be investigated in Drosophila, and probing questions can be answered fast and efficiently in flies to reveal new biological phenomena. Moreover, Drosophila is an excellent model organism for studies that have translational impact for genetic disease and for other medical implications such as vector-borne illnesses. We would like to promote a better collaboration between Drosophila geneticists/biologists and human geneticists/bioinformaticians/clinicians, as it would benefit both fields and significantly impact the research on human diseases. PMID:25624315

  7. Feed-forward and visual feedback control of head roll orientation in wasps (Polistes humilis, Vespidae, Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Viollet, Stéphane; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Flying insects keep their visual system horizontally aligned, suggesting that gaze stabilization is a crucial first step in flight control. Unlike flies, hymenopteran insects such as bees and wasps do not have halteres that provide fast, feed-forward angular rate information to stabilize head orientation in the presence of body rotations. We tested whether hymenopteran insects use inertial (mechanosensory) information to control head orientation from other sources, such as the wings, by applying periodic roll perturbations to male Polistes humilis wasps flying in tether under different visual conditions indoors and in natural outdoor conditions. We oscillated the thorax of the insects with frequency-modulated sinusoids (chirps) with frequencies increasing from 0.2 to 2 Hz at a maximal amplitude of 50 deg peak-to-peak and maximal angular velocity of ±245 deg s(-1). We found that head roll stabilization is best outdoors, but completely absent in uniform visual conditions and in darkness. Step responses confirm that compensatory head roll movements are purely visually driven. Modelling step responses indicates that head roll stabilization is achieved by merging information on head angular velocity, presumably provided by motion-sensitive neurons and information on head orientation, presumably provided by light level integration across the compound eyes and/or ocelli (dorsal light response). Body roll in free flight reaches amplitudes of ±40 deg and angular velocities greater than 1000 deg s(-1), while head orientation remains horizontal for most of the time to within ±10 deg. In free flight, we did not find a delay between spontaneous body roll and compensatory head movements, and suggest that this is evidence for the contribution of a feed-forward control to head stabilization. PMID:23239889

  8. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  9. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  10. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  11. Flying fruit flies correct for visual sideslip depending on relative speed of forward optic flow

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Stephanie; Theobald, Jamie C.

    2013-01-01

    As a fly flies through its environment, static objects produce moving images on its retina, and this optic flow is essential for steering and course corrections. Different types of rotation and translation produce unique flow fields, which fly brains are wired to identify. However, a feature of optic flow unique to translational motion is that adjacent images may move across the retina at different speeds, depending on their distance from the observer. Many insects take advantage of this depth cue, called motion parallax, to determine the distance to objects. We wanted to know if differential object speeds affect the corrective responses of fruit flies when they experience unplanned course deviations. We presented tethered flying flies with optic flow and measured their corrective responses to sideways perturbations of images with different relative forward speeds. We found that flying flies attend to the relative speed of dots during forward motion, and adjust their corrective responses to sideslip deviations depending on this cue. With no other distinguishing features (such as brightness or size), flies mounted a greater response to sideways deviations that were signaled by faster moving dots in the forward flow field, those that appeared radially closer by their speeds. This is consistent with the interpretation that fruit flies attend to seemingly nearer objects, and correct more strongly when they indicate a perturbation. PMID:23847482

  12. Environment Adaptive Heading Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Kanata, Sayaka; Sawaragi, Tetsuo; Horiguchi, Yukio

    To develop flying rescue robots using autonomous unmanned helicopters, it is necessary to improve performance and reliability of flight control systems. Adaptation against the environmental changes, such as wind, has very important role. In this paper, adaptive heading (yaw) control for an autonomous helicopter is proposed. Roll angle and roll rate are used to determine desired yaw angle. Therefore, roll dynamics and yaw dynamics are coupled and stable dutch roll is induced to change the yaw angle corresponding to wind direction or the direction of the helicopter's motion. Results of flight experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Therapeutic opportunities in Ewing sarcoma: EWS-FLI inhibition via LSD1 targeting.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Emily R; Pishas, Kathleen I; Saund, Ranajeet S; Lessnick, Stephen L

    2016-04-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive primary pediatric bone tumor, often diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. A pathognomonic reciprocal chromosomal translocation results in a fusion gene coding for a protein which derives its N-terminus from a FUS/EWS/TAF15 (FET) protein family member, commonly EWS, and C-terminus containing the DNA-binding domain of an ETS transcription factor, commonly FLI1. Nearly 85% of cases express the EWS-FLI protein which functions as a transcription factor and drives oncogenesis. As the primary genomic lesion and a protein which is not expressed in normal cells, disrupting EWS-FLI function is an attractive therapeutic strategy for Ewing sarcoma. However, transcription factors are notoriously difficult targets for the development of small molecules. Improved understanding of the oncogenic mechanisms employed by EWS-FLI to hijack normal cellular programming has uncovered potential novel approaches to pharmacologically block EWS-FLI function. In this review we examine targeting the chromatin regulatory enzymes recruited to conspire in oncogenesis with a focus on the histone lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). LSD1 inhibitors are being aggressively investigated in acute myeloid leukemia and the results of early clinical trials will help inform the future use of LSD1 inhibitors in sarcoma. High LSD1 expression is observed in Ewing sarcoma patient samples and mechanistic and preclinical data suggest LSD1 inhibition globally disrupts the function of EWS-ETS proteins. PMID:26848860

  14. Kohonen's feature maps for fly ash categorization.

    PubMed

    Nataraja, M C; Jayaram, M A; Ravikumar, C N

    2006-12-01

    Fly ash is a common admixture used in concrete and may constitute up to 50% by weight of the total binder material. Incorporation of fly ash in Portland-cement concrete is highly desirable due to technological, economic, and environmental benefits. This article demonstrates the use of artificial intelligence neural networks for the classification of fly ashes in to different groups. Kohonen's Self Organizing Feature Maps is used for the purpose. As chemical composition of fly ash is crucial in the performance of concrete, eight chemical attributes of fly ashes have been considered. The application of simple Kohonen's one-dimensional feature maps permitted to differentiate three main groups of fly ashes. Three one-dimensional feature maps of topology 8-16, 8-24 and 8-32 were explored. The overall classification result of 8-16 topology was found to be significant and encouraging. The data pertaining to 80 fly ash samples were collected from standard published works. The categorization was found to be excellent and compares well with Canadian Standard Association's [CSA A 3000] classification scheme. PMID:17285691

  15. Erodibility of fly ash-treated minesoils

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.M.; Sencindiver, J.C.; Singh, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    Fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power plants, has been used successfully in reclaiming adverse mine sites such as abandoned mine lands by improving minesoil chemical and physical properties. But, the fine sand-silt particle size of fly ash may make it more susceptible to detachment and transport by erosive processes. Furthermore, the high content of silt-size particles in fly ash may make it more susceptable to surface crust formation resulting in reduced infiltration and increased surface runoff and erosion. In the summer of 1989, fly ash/wood waste mixtures were surface applied on two separate mine sites, one with 10% slope and the other 20% slope, in central Preston County, West Virginia. Erosion rates were measured directly using the Linear Erosion/Elevation Measuring Instrument (LEMI). Erosion measurements were taken during the first two growing seasons on both sites. Erosion values were up to five times greater on the fly ash-treated minesoil than on the minesoil without fly ash cover. Mulching with wood chips reduced fly ash erosion to about one-half the loss of the unmulched plots. Erosion was related to both the amount and type of ground cover. Increased vegetative ground cover resulted in reduced erosion. Mosses and fungi appeared to provide better erosion protection than grass-legume cover.

  16. Adult Education Dissertation Abstracts: 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Loague, Nehume, Ed.

    This bibliography contains citations, abstracts, and ordering information for 303 dissertations pertinent to the education or training of adults. Studies are classified by broad subject headings used in the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education. Each section of the classification is identified by a four-digit number, with a one-, two-, or…

  17. The Retired Fly: Detecting Life History Transition in Individual Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, James W

    2015-12-01

    Life history observations at the level of individual model organisms are relatively scarce, but highly informative. Here I analyze published data on the survival and lifetime fecundity of 3,971 individually housed, mated Drosophila melanogaster females from nine experimental populations. Data were collected from four laboratories and include counts of over 4.6 million eggs. Individual fecundity records are dominated by zero-egg-days (ZEDs). I show that the timing of ZEDs is informative about the survival and reproduction of individual flies. The first postmaturation ZED divides adult life into two functional stages: working and retired. The working stage is characterized by relatively high levels of oviposition and survival, while the retired stage is characterized by low levels of oviposition and reduced survival. The retired stage typically lasts one quarter of the total adult life span. The age of transition varies between flies; consequently age-synchronized cohorts will generally contain a mixture of working and retired flies, possibly influencing responses to experimental treatments. ZED can be used as a nonintrusive, real-time biomarker to distinguish live flies in the prime of life from those in a terminal state. PMID:26359246

  18. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  19. Head Start Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clare Coe; And Others

    One of a series of guides for preschool teachers and aides, the book offers a Head Start curriculum guide to help achieve goals regarding social behavior, general attitudes, academic skills, health, and parent development. Information on curriculum is divided into areas of bloc time outline, classroom arrangement, building concepts (such as…

  20. Sculpting Ceramic Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    Clay sculpture is difficult to produce because of the requirements of kiln firing. The problems can be overcome by modeling the original manikin head and making a plaster mold, pressing molding slabs of clay into the plaster mold to form the hollow clay armature, and sculpting on the armature. (IS)

  1. Imaging of head trauma.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Sandra; Gupta, Rajiv; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is an indispensable part of the initial assessment and subsequent management of patients with head trauma. Initially, it is important for diagnosing the extent of injury and the prompt recognition of treatable injuries to reduce mortality. Subsequently, imaging is useful in following the sequelae of trauma. In this chapter, we review indications for neuroimaging and typical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols used in the evaluation of a patient with head trauma. We review the role of CT), the imaging modality of choice in the acute setting, and the role of MRI in the evaluation of patients with head trauma. We describe an organized and consistent approach to the interpretation of imaging of these patients. Important topics in head trauma, including fundamental concepts related to skull fractures, intracranial hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, penetrating trauma, cerebrovascular injuries, and secondary effects of trauma, are reviewed. The chapter concludes with advanced neuroimaging techniques for the evaluation of traumatic brain injury, including use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS), techniques which are still under development. PMID:27432678

  2. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  3. Formation of the insect head involves lateral contribution of the intercalary segment, which depends on Tc-labial function.

    PubMed

    Posnien, Nico; Bucher, Gregor

    2010-02-01

    The insect head is composed of several segments. During embryonic development, the segments fuse to form a rigid head capsule where obvious segmental boundaries are lacking. Hence, the assignment of regions of the insect head to specific segments is hampered, especially with respect to dorsal (vertex) and lateral (gena) parts. We show that upon Tribolium labial (Tc-lab) knock down, the intercalary segment is deleted but not transformed. Furthermore, we find that the intercalary segment contributes to lateral parts of the head cuticle in Tribolium. Based on several additional mutant and RNAi phenotypes that interfere with gnathal segment development, we show that these segments do not contribute to the dorsal head capsule apart from the dorsal ridge. Opposing the classical view but in line with findings in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster and the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, we propose a "bend and zipper" model for insect head capsule formation. PMID:19913530

  4. Effects of fly ash particle size on strength of Portland cement fly ash mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogdu, K.; Tuerker, P.

    1998-09-01

    Fly ashes do not have the same properties for different size fractions. It can be accepted that the effect of a fly ash on mortar strength is a combined effect of its size fractions. Therefore, it was concluded that by separating the size fractions and replacing cement with them, the combined bulk effect of a fly ash on strength can be better analyzed. In this study, different size fractions of fly ash were used to replace cement partially in standard compressive strength mortars. The authors attempted to interpret the strength of Portland cement-fly ash mortars in terms of the chemical, mineralogical, morphological, and physical properties of different fly ash size fractions used. Strengths of the mortars were compared at 2, 7, 28, and 90 days. Also strength of mortars with all-in ash (original ash containing all the fractions) were estimated by using strength of mortars with size fractions and the suitability of this estimation was discussed.

  5. Alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for killing pupae and preventing emergence of apple maggot fly (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of methyl bromide, ECO2FUME (phosphine gas + CO2), Vapam (sodium methyldithiocarbamate), chloropicrin, Telone II (1, 3 dichloropropene), and chloropicrin + Telone II on killing the pupae and preventing adult emergence of apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) was determined. In an e...

  6. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  7. Field Performance and Fitness of an Olive Fruit Fly Parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) mass reared on irradiated Medfly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) (230,908) were produced from sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped from September 2008 to January 2009 to the USDA-ARS, SJVASC, Parlier for biological control ...

  8. Suitability of a liquid larval diet for rearing the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet as an artificial rearing medium was successfully tested for the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock. The biological parameters studied were pupal weight, adult emergence and fliers, sex ratio, fecundity and fertility. The insects performed most satisfa...

  9. Disease dynamics and persistence of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertropy virus infections in laboratory house fly (Musca domestica) populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past surveys of feral house fly populations have shown that Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) has a world-wide distribution with an average prevalence varying between 0.5% and 10%. How this adult-specific virus persists in nature is unknown. In the present study, experiments ...

  10. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National... UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a) Civil... or provide a static display. (2) A flying safety seminar. (b) Civil fly-in procedures: (1)...

  11. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National... UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a) Civil... or provide a static display. (2) A flying safety seminar. (b) Civil fly-in procedures: (1)...

  12. Vaccine Therapy Plus Biological Therapy in Treating Adults With Metastatic Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-19

    Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Melanoma (Skin); Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  14. Heads Up to High School Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenil HEADS UP to School Sports Online Concussion Training Coaches Parents Athletes Sports Officials HEADS UP to Schools School Nurses Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals Parents HEADS UP ...

  15. Neuropsychiatric changes following penetrating head injury in children

    PubMed Central

    Badhiwala, Jetan H.; Blackham, Janet R.; Bhardwaj, Ratan D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Penetrating head injuries demand the prompt attention of a neurosurgeon. While most neurosurgical centers are experienced in the acute management of these injuries, less is known about the long-term neuropsychiatric sequelae of penetrating head trauma. In adults, direct injury to the frontal lobe classically has been associated with mental status changes. However, there is less published data in children. Case Description: We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who suffered a penetrating head injury to the frontal lobes secondary to a self-inflicted gunshot wound, and experienced subsequent resolution of pre-existing bipolar disorder and new onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion: Children with penetrating head injury require close multidisciplinary follow-up in order to monitor, and accordingly implement management strategies, for associated sequelae, including behavioral and neuropsychiatric changes. PMID:25422782

  16. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    PubMed

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) due to development time differences. For flies reared on pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with

  17. X-48B: How Does it Fly?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Gary Cosentino, lead flight operations engineer at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, talks about what it's like to fly the remotely piloted test vehicle -- X-48B -- a new kind of aircraft that ...

  18. Flying and danger, joy and fear.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R

    1986-02-01

    U.S. Air Force fliers are all volunteers who undergo rigorous training for their profession. Their motivation may be deeprooted and emotional, or may arise from a conscious decision made in early adulthood. Some motivation is flawed and fails early. Other motivation may be eroded by a single dangerous event, by an accumulation of "close calls" (one's own or others'), or by a growing interest in nonaviation elements. Since Air Force fliers may "quit" only at some personal cost to pride or pocketbook, they may develop a fear of flying. This may be truly phobic, a situational reaction, or an awareness of personal vulnerability. Some displace anxiety about flying into somatic symptoms. The author discusses motivation to fly, its various modes of failure, and some clinical aspects of fear of flying. PMID:3954701

  19. NASA Administrator Flies Dream Chaser Simulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden had the opportunity to fly a simulated landing of the Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Dream Chaser while touring the agency's Dryden Flight Research Center in Cali...

  20. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M; Cohen, Itai

    2015-04-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional-integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. PMID:25762650