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Sample records for adult football helmet

  1. Helmet hazards. Do's & don'ts of football helmet removal.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, D M; Pollak, A N; McAdam, C

    2001-07-01

    EMS providers must use extreme caution when evaluating and treating an unconscious football player, especially when the extent of the injury remains unknown. Suspect any unconscious football player has an accompanying spinal injury until proven otherwise. If the football player isn't breathing or the possibility of respiratory arrest exists, it's essential that certified athletic trainers and EMS providers work quickly and effectively to remove the face mask and administer care. In most situations, the helmet doesn't need to be removed in the field. Proper management of head and neck injuries includes leaving the helmet in place whenever possible, removing only the face mask from the helmet and developing a plan to manage head- and neck-injured football players using well-trained sports medicine and EMS providers. EMS agencies should work with their local high school or college athletic trainers to practice these removal techniques prior to the start of the football season.

  2. Impact performance of modern football helmets.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Halstead, David

    2012-01-01

    Linear impact tests were conducted on 17 modern football helmets. The helmets were placed on the Hybrid III head with the neck attached to a sliding table. The head was instrumented with an array of 3-2-2-2 accelerometers to determine translational acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HIC. Twenty-three (23) different impacts were conducted on four identical helmets of each model at eight sites on the shell and facemask, four speeds (5.5, 7.4, 9.3, and 11.2 m/s) and two temperatures (22.2 and 37.8 °C). There were 1,850 tests in total; 276 established the 1990 s helmet performance (baseline) and 1,564 were on the 17 different helmet models. Differences from the 1990 s baseline were evaluated using the Student t test (p < 0.05 as significant). Four of the helmets had significantly lower HICs and head accelerations than the 1990 s baseline with average reductions of 14.6-21.9% in HIC, 7.3-14.0% in translational acceleration, and 8.4-15.9% in rotational acceleration. Four other helmets showed some improvements. Eight were not statistically different from the 1990 s baseline and one had significantly poorer performance. Of the 17 helmet models, four provided a significant reduction in head responses compared to 1990 s helmets.

  3. Biomechanical performance of leather and modern football helmets.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Daniel, Ray W; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-09-01

    With the increased national concern about concussions in football, recent research has focused on evaluating the impact performance of modern football helmets. Specifically, this technical note offers a biomechanical analysis of classic leather helmets compared with modern helmets. Furthermore, modern helmets were examined to illustrate the performance differences between the better- and worse-performing ones. A total of 1224 drop tests were performed from a range of drop heights and impact locations on 11 different helmet types (10 modern and 1 leather helmet model). The resulting head acceleration was used to assess the risk of concussion for each drop test. The results of this analysis demonstrate that modern helmets are significantly and substantially superior to leather helmets in all impact scenarios, and that notable differences exist among modern helmets.

  4. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  5. External Foam Layers to Football Helmets Reduce Head Impact Severity

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2014-01-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport. PMID:25157327

  6. Variability and Sampling Inspection in the NOCSAE Standards for Football Helmets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, G. Rex; Barker, Ruel M.

    1984-01-01

    The variability in the testing procedures of football helmets is examined in this article. Inadequacies in standards for recertifying helmets indicates the probability of unsafe helmets being used. (Author/DF)

  7. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football?

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Greenwald, Richard M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C; Broglio, Steven P; Schnebel, Brock; Anderson, Scott; Brolinson, P Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    Of all sports, football accounts for the highest incidence of concussion in the US due to the large number of athletes participating and the nature of the sport. While there is general agreement that concussion incidence can be reduced through rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. A retrospective analysis was performed of head impact data collected from 1833 collegiate football players who were instrumented with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays for games and practices. Data were collected between 2005 and 2010 from 8 collegiate football teams: Virginia Tech, University of North Carolina, University of Oklahoma, Dartmouth College, Brown University, University of Minnesota, Indiana University, and University of Illinois. Concussion rates were compared between players wearing Riddell VSR4 and Riddell Revolution helmets while controlling for the head impact exposure of each player. A total of 1,281,444 head impacts were recorded, from which 64 concussions were diagnosed. The relative risk of sustaining a concussion in a Revolution helmet compared with a VSR4 helmet was 46.1% (95% CI 28.1%-75.8%). When controlling for each player's exposure to head impact, a significant difference was found between concussion rates for players in VSR4 and Revolution helmets (χ(2) = 4.68, p = 0.0305). This study illustrates that differences in the ability to reduce concussion risk exist between helmet models in football. Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury.

  8. Methodology for mapping football head impact exposure to helmet pads for repeated loading testing.

    PubMed

    MacAlister, Anna; Young, Tyler; Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    Football helmets have a lifespan of 10 years; however, no work has investigated how helmet padding properties change over time with use. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to control repeated pad loading and quantify changes in energy management. Head impact exposure data for 7-8 year old football players were used to find an average impact magnitude. NOCSAE-style drop tests were performed using an instrumented headform fitted with the same style helmet (Helmet A) used to collect population data to determine the compression depth and rate of the helmet padding during an average impact. Drops from the same height were then conducted for two other helmet types (Helmet B and Helmet C). For the average impact of ~15 g, the compression depth and rate of the pads from Helmet A were found to be 9.8 mm and 0.72 m/s respectively. The compression depths and rates for Helmets B and C were found to be 6.1 mm and 0.71 m/s and 10.7 mm and 0.69 m/s respectively. These parameters were utilized by a material testing system program to impact helmet padding. Repeated helmet pad loading can be tested using a material testing system for populations with known head impact exposure. The energy absorbing characteristics of the padding can be used to develop new safety regulations regarding the lifetime of helmets, affording better protection to athletes.

  9. On the accuracy of the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System used in football helmets.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; Dau, Nathan; King, Albert I; McCarthy, Joe

    2013-09-01

    On-field measurement of head impacts has relied on the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System, which uses helmet mounted accelerometers to determine linear and angular head accelerations. HIT is used in youth and collegiate football to assess the frequency and severity of helmet impacts. This paper evaluates the accuracy of HIT for individual head impacts. Most HIT validations used a medium helmet on a Hybrid III head. However, the appropriate helmet is large based on the Hybrid III head circumference (58 cm) and manufacturer's fitting instructions. An instrumented skull cap was used to measure the pressure between the head of football players (n=63) and their helmet. The average pressure with a large helmet on the Hybrid III was comparable to the average pressure from helmets used by players. A medium helmet on the Hybrid III produced average pressures greater than the 99th percentile volunteer pressure level. Linear impactor tests were conducted using a large and medium helmet on the Hybrid III. Testing was conducted by two independent laboratories. HIT data were compared to data from the Hybrid III equipped with a 3-2-2-2 accelerometer array. The absolute and root mean square error (RMSE) for HIT were computed for each impact (n=90). Fifty-five percent (n=49) had an absolute error greater than 15% while the RMSE was 59.1% for peak linear acceleration.

  10. Change in size and impact performance of football helmets from the 1970s to 2010.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Halstead, David

    2012-01-01

    Linear impactor tests were conducted on football helmets from the 1970s-1980s to complement recently reported tests on 1990 s and 2010 s helmets. Helmets were placed on the Hybrid III head with an array of accelerometers to determine translational and rotational acceleration. Impacts were at four sites on the helmet shell at 3.6-11.2 m/s. The four generations of helmets show a continuous improvement in response from bare head impacts in terms of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), peak head acceleration and peak rotational acceleration. Helmets of 2010 s weigh 1.95 ± 0.2 kg and are 2.7 times heavier than 1970s designs. They are also 4.3 cm longer, 7.6 cm higher, and 4.9 cm wider. The extra size and weight allow the use of energy absorbing padding that lowers forces in helmet impacts. For frontal impacts at 7.4 m/s, the four best performing 2010 s helmets have HIC of 148 ± 23 compared to 179 ± 42 for the 1990 s baseline, 231 ± 27 for the 1980s, 253 ± 22 for the 1970s helmets, and 354 ± 3 for the bare head. The additional size and padding of the best 2010 s helmets provide superior attenuation of impact forces in normal play and in conditions associated with concussion than helmets of the 1970s-1990 s.

  11. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    PubMed

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions. PMID:26867124

  12. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    PubMed

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions.

  13. Head acceleration is less than 10 percent of helmet acceleration in football impacts.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah; McNeely, David; Duma, Stefan; Brolinson, Gunnar; Greenwald, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related concussions constitute 20 percent of brain injuries each year in the United States. Concussion research has included a variety of instrumentation and techniques to measure head accelerations. Most recently, the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System (Simbex, Lebanon, NH), a wireless system that provides real-time data from impacts, is used to measure in-situ head accelerations in collegiate football. The purpose of this study is to compare helmet shell acceleration to head center of gravity acceleration using two measures of linear head acceleration. A study of 50 helmet to helmet impact tests using a pendulum provided a range of head accelerations from 5 g to 50 g. The primary measure of head acceleration is accelerometers mounted at the center of gravity of the Hybrid III head. A secondary measure is the in-helmet HIT System. The series of 50 pendulum impacts included three impact velocities of 2.0 m/s, 3.5 m/s and 5.0 m/s at four different impact locations. The impact locations were on the side, back, top and just above the facemask on the front. By comparing these two measured head accelerations and the helmet acceleration during a pendulum impact, it is shown that the response of the head and the helmet vary greatly and the in-helmet system matches the head and not helmet acceleration. Specifically, head acceleration is less than 10 percent of helmet acceleration in football impacts; moreover, the HIT System is able to accurately measure the head acceleration.

  14. Redesigning Football Helmets to Reduce Concussion Risk: Return to the Leatherheads?

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-01-01

    Background American football is a popular sport that has most recently brought attention to head injury/concussion severity. The current football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. While the internal helmet design can reduce the potential for injury, the hardness of the outer portion of the helmet promotes its use as a striking force to injure other players. New helmet designs have focused on reducing the injury potential of the helmet, but most of the efforts have focused on modifying/improving the interior of the helmet. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the incentive to use the helmet as a striking force if it can no longer be used to injure another player. Our hypothesis is that adding a soft cushion layer to the exterior of the helmet will reduce the impact potential of the helmet. The purpose of this study is to reduce the injury risk of concussions by providing additional head protection and removing the incentive to use the helmet as a striking force against opposing players. Methods We obtained a commercially available Riddell (Elyria, OH) football helmet that measures complex impact characteristics via accelerometer-based sensors known as HITS (high impact telemetry system). This helmet has been used in previous studies on head trauma impact sustained in football. This helmet was used to measure the impact sustained within the helmet. In the initial phase of this study, we placed the HITS helmet on a heavy duty head and torso mannequin used for boxing practice (Century BOB, Century MMA, Oklahoma City, OK), to mimic the degree of neck movement that would normally occur with a helmet strike. We then struck the upper parietal region of the HITS helmet with a conventional weighted helmet swung from a pendulum. We then applied a 1.3 cm layer of polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the HITS helmet and then repeated the same process. The Riddell HITS software recorded the resulting linear acceleration (in G

  15. Analysis of cerebral concussion frequency with the most commonly used models of football helmets.

    PubMed

    Zemper, E D

    1994-03-01

    Data on helmet models used and occurrence of cerebral concussions over five seasons were collected from a representative sample of college football teams including a total of 8,312 player-seasons and 618,596 athlete-exposures to the possibility of being injured in a game or practice. Results showed that players with a history of concussion any time during the previous 5 years were six times as likely to suffer a new concussion as those with no previous history. In light of previous studies showing cognitive deficits for up to 30 days following even minor head injuries, and the growing awareness of "second impact" fatalities, these data support a need for reconsideration of the common practice of immediate return to play following non-loss-of-consciousness head injuries. Results on concussion frequency in ten models of football helmets indicated a significantly lower than expected frequency in the Riddell M155 and a significantly higher frequency in the Bike Air Power. All other models performed within expectations. This study demonstrates the need for monitoring on-the-field performance of football helmets through continuing epidemiological studies to supplement laboratory test data, which cannot duplicate all the factors involved in actual helmet performance.

  16. Analysis of Cerebral Concussion Frequency With the Most Commonly Used Models of Football Helmets

    PubMed Central

    Zemper, Eric D.

    1994-01-01

    Data on helmet models used and occurrence of cerebral concussions over five seasons were collected from a representative sample of college football teams including a total of 8,312 player-seasons and 618,596 athlete-exposures to the possibility of being injured in a game or practice. Results showed that players with a history of concussion any time during the previous 5 years were six times as likely to suffer a new concussion as those with no previous history. In light of previous studies showing cognitive deficits for up to 30 days following even minor head injuries, and the growing awareness of “second impact” fatalities, these data support a need for reconsideration of the common practice of immediate return to play following non-loss-of-consciousness head injuries. Results on concussion frequency in ten models of football helmets indicated a significantly lower than expected frequency in the Riddell M155 and a significantly higher frequency in the Bike Air Power. All other models performed within expectations. This study demonstrates the need for monitoring on-the-field performance of football helmets through continuing epidemiological studies to supplement laboratory test data, which cannot duplicate all the factors involved in actual helmet performance. PMID:16558258

  17. Subdural hemorrhage in two high-school football players: post-injury helmet testing.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Jonathan A; Zuckerman, Scott L; He, Lucy; McCalley, Elizabeth; Lee, Young M; Solomon, Gary S; Halstead, P David; Sills, Allen K

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of catastrophic head injury in American football is at a 30-year high; over 90% of these injuries are secondary to subdural hemorrhage (SDH). At the present time, it is unknown why the incidence of this devastating injury complex continues to rise. Because previous investigations have documented deficiencies in the process of equipment certification at youth and high-school levels, we sought to investigate the adequacy of headgear worn by two athletes who suffered contact-related SDH on the football field and presented to Vanderbilt Children's Hospital between 2009 and 2011. Helmets worn by the struck players at the time of collision (Medium Schutt Air Advantage 7888 and Large Schutt Air XP 7890) were obtained for formal biomechanical testing at a National Operating Committee on the Safety of Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE)-certified facility. Both helmets were found to be compliant with a modified version of the NOCSAE standard ND002-11m12. Based on the aforementioned tests, it can be concluded that headgear worn by both players who suffered SDH was not substandard, as defined by contemporary helmet quality assurance criteria. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of helmet testing following sports-related helmeted collisions resulting in severe traumatic intracranial injuries.

  18. Computed Tomography is Diagnostic in the Cervical Imaging of Helmeted Football Players With Shoulder Pads

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Michael; Foley, Jack; Heller, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Prospective, observational case series evaluating the value of cervical spine computed tomography (CT) scans in the initial evaluation of a helmeted football player with suspected cervical spine injury. Subjects: Five asymptomatic male football players, fully equipped and immobilized on a backboard. Design: Multiple 3.0-mm, helically acquired, axially displayed CT images of the cervical spine were obtained from the skull base inferiorly through T1, with images filmed at soft tissue and bone windows. Sagittal and coronal reformatted images were performed. Software was used to minimize metallic artifact. Measurements: All series were reviewed by a Board-certified neuroradiologist for image clarity and diagnostic capability. Results: Lateral scout films demonstrated mild segmental degradation, depending on the location of the metallic snaps overlying the spine. Anteroposterior scout films and bone window images were of diagnostic quality. The soft tissue windows showed minimal localized artifact occurring at the same levels as in the lateral scout views. This minimal beam-hardening streak artifact did not affect the diagnostic quality of the soft tissue windows. Reconstructed images were uniformly of clinical diagnostic quality. Discussion: When CT scans were reviewed as a unit, sufficient information was available to allow reliable clinical decisions about the helmeted football player. In light of recent publications demonstrating the difficulty of obtaining adequate radiographs to evaluate cervical spine injury in equipped football players, helmeted athletes may undergo CT scanning without any significant diagnostic limitations. PMID:15496989

  19. Football helmet drop tests on different fields using an instrumented Hybrid III head.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An instrumented Hybrid III head was placed in a Schutt ION 4D football helmet and dropped on different turfs to study field types and temperature on head responses. The head was dropped 0.91 and 1.83 m giving impacts of 4.2 and 6.0 m/s on nine different football fields (natural, Astroplay, Fieldturf, or Gameday turfs) at turf temperatures of -2.7 to 23.9 °C. Six repeat tests were conducted for each surface at 0.3 m (1') intervals. The Hybrid III was instrumented with triaxial accelerometers to determine head responses for the different playing surfaces. For the 0.91-m drops, peak head acceleration varied from 63.3 to 117.1 g and HIC(15) from 195 to 478 with the different playing surfaces. The lowest response was with Astroplay, followed by the engineered natural turf. Gameday and Fieldturf involved higher responses. The differences between surfaces decreased in the 1.83 m tests. The cold weather testing involved higher accelerations, HIC(15) and delta V for each surface. The helmet drop test used in this study provides a simple and convenient means of evaluating the compliance and energy absorption of football playing surfaces. The type and temperature of the playing surface influence head responses.

  20. Successful Removal of Football Helmet Face-Mask Clips After 1 Season of Use

    PubMed Central

    Scibek, Jason S.; Gatti, Joseph M.; McKenzie, Jennifer I.

    2012-01-01

    Context Whereas many researchers have assessed the ability to remove loop straps in traditional face-mask attachment systems after at least 1 season of use, research in which the effectiveness of the Riddell Quick Release (QR) Face Guard Attachment System clip after 1 season has been assessed is limited. Objective To examine the success rate of removing the QR clips after 1 season of use at the Football Championship Subdivision level. We hypothesized that 1 season of use would negatively affect the removal rate of the QR clip but repeated clip-removal trials would improve the removal rate. Design Retrospective, quasi-experimental design. Setting Controlled laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants Sixty-three football helmets from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university located in western Pennsylvania used during the 2008 season were tested. Intervention(s) Three certified athletic trainers (2 men, 1 woman; age = 31.3 ± 3.06 years, time certified = 9.42 ± 2.65 years) attempted to remove the QR clips from each helmet with the tool provided by the manufacturer. Helmets then were reassembled to allow each athletic trainer to attempt clip removal. Main Outcome Measure(s) The dependent variables were total left clips removed (TCR-L), total right clips removed (TCR-R), and total clips removed (TCR). Success rate of clip removal (SRCR) also was assessed. Results Percentages for TCR-L, TCR-R, and TCR were 100% (189 of 189), 96.30% (182 of 189), and 98.15% (371 of 378), respectively. A paired-samples t test revealed a difference between TCR-R and TCR-L (t188 = −2.689, P = .008, μd = 0.037, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.064, −0.010). The percentage for SRCR was 96.30% (n = 182), whereas SRCR percentages for trials 1, 2, and 3 were 95.24% (n = 60), 98.41% (n = 62), and 95.24% (n = 60), respectively, and did not represent a difference (F2,186 = 0.588, P = .56, 95% CI = 0.94, 0.99). Conclusions Our results indicated favorable and

  1. Towards reducing impact-induced brain injury: lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads.

    PubMed

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J; Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterise the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the head injury criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry and material stiffness. We find that (1) the football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily relevant impact scenarios; (2) optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy and (3) thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Although we considered only the isolated response of pad materials, not entire helmet systems, our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be reduced.

  2. Development of the STAR evaluation system for football helmets: integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2011-08-01

    In contrast to the publicly available data on the safety of automobiles, consumers have no analytical mechanism to evaluate the protective performance of football helmets. The objective of this article is to fill this void by introducing a new equation that can be used to evaluate helmet performance by integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) equation relates on-field impact exposure to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four impact locations and six impact energy levels. Using 62,974 head acceleration data points collected from football players, the number of impacts experienced for one full season was translated to 24 drop test configurations. A new injury risk function was developed from 32 measured concussions and associated exposure data to assess risk of concussion for each impact. Finally, the data from all 24 drop tests is combined into one number using the STAR formula that incorporates the predicted exposure and injury risk for one player for one full season of practices and games. The new STAR evaluation equation will provide consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of football helmets.

  3. A headform for testing helmet and mouthguard sensors that measure head impact severity in football players.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Bonin, Stephanie J

    2014-09-01

    A headform is needed to validate and compare helmet- and mouthguard-based sensors that measure the severity and direction of football head impacts. Our goal was to quantify the dynamic response of a mandibular load-sensing headform (MLSH) and to compare its performance and repeatability to an unmodified Hybrid III headform. Linear impactors in two independent laboratories were used to strike each headform at six locations at 5.5 m/s and at two locations at 3.6 and 7.4 m/s. Impact severity was quantified using peak linear acceleration (PLA) and peak angular acceleration (PAA), and direction was quantified using the azimuth and elevation of the PLA. Repeatability was quantified using coefficients of variation (COV) and standard deviations (SD). Across all impacts, PLA was 1.6±1.8 g higher in the MLSH than in the Hybrid III (p=0.002), but there were no differences in PAA (p=0.25), azimuth (p=0.43) and elevation (p=0.11). Both headforms exhibited excellent or acceptable repeatability for PLA (HIII:COV=2.1±0.8%, MLSH:COV=2.0±1.2%, p=0.98), but site-specific repeatability ranging from excellent to poor for PAA (HIII:COV=7.2±4.0%, MLSH:COV=8.3±5.8%, p=0.58). Direction SD were generally <1° and did not vary between headforms. Overall, both headforms are similarly suitable for validating PLA in sensors that measure head impact severity in football players, however their utility for validating sensor PAA values varies with impact location.

  4. The Influence of Various Factors on High School Football Helmet Face Mask Removal: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Cappaert, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Most research on face mask removal has been performed on unused equipment. Objective: To identify and compare factors that influence the condition of helmet components and their relationship to face mask removal. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting: Five athletic equipment reconditioning/recertification facilities. Participants: 2584 helmets from 46 high school football teams representing 5 geographic regions. Intervention(s): Helmet characteristics (brand, model, hardware components) were recorded. Helmets were mounted and face mask removal was attempted using a cordless screwdriver. The 2004 season profiles and weather histories were obtained for each high school. Main Outcome Measure(s): Success and failure (including reason) for removal of 4 screws from the face mask were noted. Failure rates among regions, teams, reconditioning year, and screw color (type) were compared. Weather histories were compared. We conducted a discriminant analysis to determine if weather variables, region, helmet brand and model, reconditioning year, and screw color could predict successful face mask removal. Metallurgic analysis of screw samples was performed. Results: All screws were successfully removed from 2165 (84%) helmets. At least 1 screw could not be removed from 419 (16%) helmets. Significant differences were found for mean screw failure per helmet among the 5 regions, with the Midwest having the lowest failure rate (0.08 ± 0.38) and the Southern (0.33 ± 0.72), the highest. Differences were found in screw failure rates among the 46 teams (F1,45 = 9.4, P < .01). Helmets with the longest interval since last reconditioning (3 years) had the highest failure rate, 0.47 ± 0.93. Differences in success rates were found among 4 screw types (χ21,4 = 647, P < .01), with silver screws having the lowest percentage of failures (3.4%). A discriminant analysis (Λ = .932, χ214,n=2584 = 175.34, P < .001) revealed screw type to be the strongest predictor of

  5. Effect of mouthguards on head responses and mandible forces in football helmet impacts.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The potential for mouthguards to change the risk of concussion was studied in football helmet impacts. The Hybrid III head was modified with an articulating mandible, dentition, and compliant temporomandibular joints (TMJ). It was instrumented for triaxial head acceleration and triaxial force at the TMJs and upper dentition. Mandible force and displacement were validated against cadaver impacts to the chin. In phase 1, one of five mouthguards significantly lowered HIC in 6.7 m/s impacts (p = 0.025) from the no mouthguard condition but not in 9.5 m/s tests. In phase 2, eight mouthguards increased HIC from +1 to +17% in facemask impacts that loaded the chinstraps and mandible; one was statistically higher (p = 0.018). Peak head acceleration was +1 to +15% higher with six mouthguards and 2-3% lower with two others. The differences were not statistically significant. Five of eight mouthguards significantly reduced forces on the upper dentition by 40.8-63.9%. Mouthguards tested in this study with the Hybrid III articulating mandible lowered forces on the dentition and TMJ, but generally did not influence HIC or concussion risks.

  6. The Association of the Type of Football Helmet and Mouth Guard With the Incidence of Sport Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy; Brooks, Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Rasmussen, Jessica; McCrea, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately 40,000 Sport Related Concussions (SRC) occur annually in high school football in the US. Football helmet and mouth guard manufacturers cite laboratory research to claim that their models will absorb and lessen impact forces associated with SRC greater than their competitors models. Therefore, players who utilize their equipment may reduce the likelihood they will sustain a SRC. However, there are limited prospective data detailing how specific types of football helmets and mouth guards affect the incidence and severity of SRC in players actually participating in high school football. The objective of this study is to determine which types of football helmets and mouth guards are associated with the incidence and severity of SRC in high school football players. Methods: This prospective study collected data at 36 public and private high schools in Wisconsin during the 2012 high school football season. A convenience sample of N = 1,332 football players (grades 9 - 12, age: 15.9 + 1.8 yrs) enrolled in the study. During the pre-season, subjects completed a demographic questionnaire. Athletic Trainers (ATCs) at each high school recorded the incidence and severity (days lost) of SRC throughout the season. Chi-square tests were used to compare the incidence of SRC in players with their non-injured peers. SRC severity (median days lost, IQR) was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Relative risks [RR, 95% CI] were calculated for variables with significant tests (p <.05). Results: Two hundred fifty-one (19%) reported at least one SRC within the last 6 years while 171 (13%) reported SRC within the previous 12 months. The helmets worn by the players were manufactured by Riddell (52%), Schutt (35%) and Xenith (13%) and were purchased in 2011-2012 (39%), 2009-2010 (33%), 2002-2008 (28%). Mouth guards worn by players included generic models provided by the school (61%) and specialized mouth guards (39%) custom fitted by a dental professional or

  7. Football Face-Mask Removal With a Cordless Screwdriver on Helmets Used for at Least One Season of Play

    PubMed Central

    Decoster, Laura C; Shirley, Chandra P; Swartz, Erik E

    2005-01-01

    Context: The Inter-Association Task Force for the Appropriate Care of the Spine-Injured Athlete recommends leaving a football player's helmet in place and removing the face mask from the helmet “as quickly as possible and with as little movement of the head and neck as possible.” Although 2 groups have studied face-mask removal from new equipment, to our knowledge no researchers have investigated equipment that has been previously used. A full season of play may have a significant effect on football equipment and its associated hardware. Countless impacts, weather, playing surfaces, sweat, and other unforeseen or unknown variables might make the face-mask removal process more difficult on equipment that has been used. Objective: To determine the percentage of face masks that we could unscrew, with a cordless screwdriver, from football helmets used for a full season. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Three New England high schools. Patients or Other Participants: All football helmets used at 3 local high schools were tested (n = 222, mean games, 9.7 ± 1.2; mean practice weeks, 13.7 ± 1.2). Intervention(s): Each helmet was secured to a board, and a cordless screwdriver was used to attempt to remove all 4 screws attaching the face mask to the helmet. Main Outcome Measure(s): Variables included overall success or failure, time required for face-mask removal, and success by screw location. Data were analyzed with χ2, analysis of variance, and Tamhane post hoc tests. Results: Overall, 832 (94%) of 885 screws were unscrewed, and 183 (82.4%) of 222 face masks were removed. Mean removal time was 26.9 ± 5.83 seconds. Face-mask removal success was significantly different between school 1 (24 [52.2%] of 46) and schools 2 (84 [91.3%] of 92) and 3 (75 [89.3%] of 84; F2,219 = 24.608; P < .001). The removal success rate was significantly higher at top screws (98%) than at screws adjacent to ear holes (90%) (P < .001). Conclusions: Based on our results and previous findings

  8. Emergency Face-Mask Removal Effectiveness: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Football Helmet Face-Mask Attachment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C.; Armstrong, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. Objective: To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Applied biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Main Outcome Measure(s): Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Results: Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F4,20  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F4,20  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected

  9. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  10. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  11. A centric/non-centric impact protocol and finite element model methodology for the evaluation of American football helmets to evaluate risk of concussion.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Oeur, Anna; Walsh, Evan; Hoshizaki, Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    American football reports high incidences of head injuries, in particular, concussion. Research has described concussion as primarily a rotation dominant injury affecting the diffuse areas of brain tissue. Current standards do not measure how helmets manage rotational acceleration or how acceleration loading curves influence brain deformation from an impact and thus are missing important information in terms of how concussions occur. The purpose of this study was to investigate a proposed three-dimensional impact protocol for use in evaluating football helmets. The dynamic responses resulting from centric and non-centric impact conditions were examined to ascertain the influence they have on brain deformations in different functional regions of the brain that are linked to concussive symptoms. A centric and non-centric protocol was used to impact an American football helmet; the resulting dynamic response data was used in conjunction with a three-dimensional finite element analysis of the human brain to calculate brain tissue deformation. The direction of impact created unique loading conditions, resulting in peaks in different regions of the brain associated with concussive symptoms. The linear and rotational accelerations were not predictive of the brain deformation metrics used in this study. In conclusion, the test protocol used in this study revealed that impact conditions influences the region of loading in functional regions of brain tissue that are associated with the symptoms of concussion. The protocol also demonstrated that using brain deformation metrics may be more appropriate when evaluating risk of concussion than using dynamic response data alone.

  12. Association Between Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Helmet Use Among Motorcycle Riders

    PubMed Central

    Safiri, Saeid; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Hashemi, Fatemeh; Amiri, Shahrokh; Raza, Owais; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of helmets plays a major role in preventing injuries or decreasing injury severity among motorcycle riders. Use of helmets may depend on personal factors such as psychological factors. Objectives The aim of this study was to independently assess the association between helmet use among motorcycle riders and ADHD scores, with controlling the accident history and was taken more sensitive measures if helmet use was different between motorcycle riders, according to their ADHD scores. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 205 motorcycle riders referred to Kerman Referral Injury Hospital after a motorcycle traffic accident. Friends and family members possessing motorcycles who visited the patient in this facility were included in our sample. The Persian version of the Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) self-report (screening version) was used in order to screen for adult ADHD. CAARS scores were compared between those who usually used helmets and those who did not. Results Univariable analysis showed the mean of the age variable was significantly higher in the helmeted group, 26.94 ± 7.72 vs. 23.08 ± 7.7.32, (P < 0.001). The majority of the non-helmeted group was single (P < 0.001). Subjects with secondary educational level were more often in the helmeted group (P = 0.007). Daily and weekly driving hours were higher in the non-helmeted group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). Most of the subjects in the helmeted group had a driving license in comparison with the other group (P < 0.001). There was not a significant association between SES and having hyperactive children and helmet use (P = 0.159). In all ADHD subscales, a significant association was found and scores were higher in the non-helmeted group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, multivariable analysis did not confirm the association of the ADHD screening score with helmet use. Conclusions The result of this study did not find an independent association between ADHD and helmet use. PMID

  13. Association Between Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Helmet Use Among Motorcycle Riders

    PubMed Central

    Safiri, Saeid; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Hashemi, Fatemeh; Amiri, Shahrokh; Raza, Owais; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of helmets plays a major role in preventing injuries or decreasing injury severity among motorcycle riders. Use of helmets may depend on personal factors such as psychological factors. Objectives The aim of this study was to independently assess the association between helmet use among motorcycle riders and ADHD scores, with controlling the accident history and was taken more sensitive measures if helmet use was different between motorcycle riders, according to their ADHD scores. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 205 motorcycle riders referred to Kerman Referral Injury Hospital after a motorcycle traffic accident. Friends and family members possessing motorcycles who visited the patient in this facility were included in our sample. The Persian version of the Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) self-report (screening version) was used in order to screen for adult ADHD. CAARS scores were compared between those who usually used helmets and those who did not. Results Univariable analysis showed the mean of the age variable was significantly higher in the helmeted group, 26.94 ± 7.72 vs. 23.08 ± 7.7.32, (P < 0.001). The majority of the non-helmeted group was single (P < 0.001). Subjects with secondary educational level were more often in the helmeted group (P = 0.007). Daily and weekly driving hours were higher in the non-helmeted group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). Most of the subjects in the helmeted group had a driving license in comparison with the other group (P < 0.001). There was not a significant association between SES and having hyperactive children and helmet use (P = 0.159). In all ADHD subscales, a significant association was found and scores were higher in the non-helmeted group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, multivariable analysis did not confirm the association of the ADHD screening score with helmet use. Conclusions The result of this study did not find an independent association between ADHD and helmet use.

  14. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  15. Football Fitness - a new version of football? A concept for adult players in Danish football clubs.

    PubMed

    Bennike, S; Wikman, J M; Ottesen, L S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities and parental environment.

  16. Verification of biomechanical methods employed in a comprehensive study of mild traumatic brain injury and the effectiveness of American football helmets.

    PubMed

    Newman, J A; Beusenberg, M C; Shewchenko, N; Withnall, C; Fournier, E

    2005-07-01

    Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, occurs in many activities, mostly as a result of the head being accelerated. A comprehensive study has been conducted to understand better the mechanics of the impacts associated with concussion in American football. This study involves a sequence of techniques to analyse and reconstruct many different head impact scenarios. It is important to understand the validity and accuracy of these techniques in order to be able to use the results of the study to improve helmets and helmet standards. Two major categories of potential errors have been investigated. The first category concerns error sources specific to the use of crash test dummy instrumentation (accelerometers) and associated data processing techniques. These are relied upon to establish both linear and angular head acceleration responses. The second category concerns the use of broadcast video data and crash test dummy head-neck-torso systems. These are used to replicate the complex head impact scenarios of whole body collisions that occur on the football field between two living human beings. All acceleration measurement and processing techniques were based on well-established practices and standards. These proved to be reliable and reproducible. Potential errors in the linear accelerations due to electrical or mechanical noise did not exceed 2% for the three different noise sources investigated. Potential errors in the angular accelerations due to noise could be as high as 6.7%, due to error accumulation of multiple linear acceleration measurements. The potential error in the relative impact velocity between colliding heads could be as high as 11%, and was found to be the largest error source in the sequence of techniques to reconstruct the game impacts. Full-scale experiments with complete crash test dummies in staged head impacts showed maximum errors of 17% for resultant linear accelerations and 25% for resultant angular accelerations.

  17. Lacrosse Helmet Facemask Removal

    PubMed Central

    Bradney, Debbie A; Bowman, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Context Facemask removal (FMR) is required to access the airway of a catastrophically injured football or ice hockey athlete. However, the best method of caring for the helmeted lacrosse athlete with suspected catastrophic injury remains unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of sex and grip strength on the speed and ease of use of various FMR methods across different lacrosse helmet types. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Athletic training laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Fourteen athletic trainers (7 men, 7 women). Intervention(s) Removal method (cordless screwdriver [CSD], Face Mask Extractor 2 [FMX], pruner, Trainer's Angel [TA]), helmet type (Cascade CPX, Cascade Pro7, Riddell Revolution, Brine Triumph, Warrior Venom), and sex. Main Outcome Measure(s) Facemask removal time and participant-reported ease of use of the removal method (6-point Likert scale). Results We found a 2-way interaction for removal method and sex only for the ease-of-use scores (F3,246 = 4.67, P = .01). A main effect for removal method for time (F3,200 = 19.41, P < .001) and ease of use (F3,200 = 53.78, P < .001) was seen. The fastest times (32.32 ± 11.70 seconds) and highest ease-of-use scores (4.94 ± 0.30) were recorded for the CSD. We noted a main effect for helmet type only for time (F4,200 = 5.34, P < .001), with the fastest removal times (72.75 ± 74.67 seconds) recorded for the CPX. We discovered a main effect for sex only for time (F1,200 = 17.57, P < .001), with slower times recorded for women (115.51 ± 110.80 seconds) than men (75.71 ± 83.87 seconds). We found correlations between FMR time and grip strength only when using the FMX (r = −0.40, P = .001), pruner (r = −0.26, P = .04), and TA (r = −0.26, P = .047). Conclusions Based on our results, FMR of lacrosse helmets should be attempted with a CSD. We recommend carrying a pruner as a backup cutting tool in case the CSD fails, practicing FMR regularly, and inspecting helmets for faulty hardware to

  18. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity.

  19. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  20. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  1. Helmet blastometer

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J

    2015-03-24

    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  2. A computational simulation study of the influence of helmet wearing on head injury risk in adult cyclists.

    PubMed

    McNally, D S; Whitehead, S

    2013-11-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of cycle helmets has relied either on simplified experiments or complex statistical analysis of patient cohorts or populations. This study directly assesses the effectiveness of cycle helmets over a range of accident scenarios, from basic loss of control to vehicle impact, using computational modelling. Simulations were performed using dynamics modelling software (MADYMO) and models of a 50% Hybrid III dummy, a hybrid cross bicycle and a car. Loss of control was simulated by a sudden turn of the handlebars and striking a curb, side and rear-on impacts by a car were also simulated. Simulations were run over a representative range of cycle speeds (2.0-14.0 m s(-1)) and vehicle speeds (4.5-17.9 m s(-1)). Bicycle helmets were found to be effective in reducing the severity of head injuries sustained in common accidents. They reduced the risk of an AIS>3 injury, in cases with head impacts, by an average of 40%. In accidents that would cause up to moderate (AIS=2) injuries to a non-helmeted rider, helmets eliminated the risk of injury. Helmets were also found to be effective in preventing fatal head injuries in some instances. The effectiveness of helmets was demonstrated over the entire range of cycle speeds studied, up to and including 14 m s(-1). There was no evidence that helmet wearing increased the risk of neck injury, indeed helmets were found to be protective of neck injuries in many cases. Similarly, helmets were found to offer an increase in protection even when an increase in cycle speed due to risk compensation was taken into consideration. PMID:24005027

  3. The inertial and geometrical properties of helmets.

    PubMed

    Njus, G O; Liu, Y K; Nye, T A

    1984-10-01

    The center of gravity (CG) and the principal mass moments of inertia about the CG of Army aviator, American football, and bicycle helmets were experimentally determined by a variation of the classic differential weighing and torsional pendulum techniques. In the course of these experiments, an innovative method for three-dimensional (3D) digitization was found. An electronic caliper, which measured length, was used with a computer algorithm to achieve 3D digitization. The results of the above measurements show that the weight of the helmet and the distances from the CG to the orthogonal coordinate axes intercepts with the outer shell surface were highly correlated with its principal mass moments of inertia. A set of regression equations was derived on theoretical considerations and served to unify the experimentally obtained data. Our results indicate that the principal mass moments of inertia of helmets vary linearly with its mass but nonlinearly with size and shape. For a helmet, given its weight and certain geometrical distances, the regression equations estimate the principal mass moments of inertia to within 5% of its experimentally-determined values. For the helmets studied in this series, a modified linear-regression relationship between the principal mass moments of inertia and its mass was found. This result is reasonable because the mass distribution of the current generation of helmets are set primarily by the head size and secondarily by helmet size, shape, and materials.

  4. The inertial and geometrical properties of helmets.

    PubMed

    Njus, G O; Liu, Y K; Nye, T A

    1984-10-01

    The center of gravity (CG) and the principal mass moments of inertia about the CG of Army aviator, American football, and bicycle helmets were experimentally determined by a variation of the classic differential weighing and torsional pendulum techniques. In the course of these experiments, an innovative method for three-dimensional (3D) digitization was found. An electronic caliper, which measured length, was used with a computer algorithm to achieve 3D digitization. The results of the above measurements show that the weight of the helmet and the distances from the CG to the orthogonal coordinate axes intercepts with the outer shell surface were highly correlated with its principal mass moments of inertia. A set of regression equations was derived on theoretical considerations and served to unify the experimentally obtained data. Our results indicate that the principal mass moments of inertia of helmets vary linearly with its mass but nonlinearly with size and shape. For a helmet, given its weight and certain geometrical distances, the regression equations estimate the principal mass moments of inertia to within 5% of its experimentally-determined values. For the helmets studied in this series, a modified linear-regression relationship between the principal mass moments of inertia and its mass was found. This result is reasonable because the mass distribution of the current generation of helmets are set primarily by the head size and secondarily by helmet size, shape, and materials. PMID:6513769

  5. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

    2010-05-01

    Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. PMID:19574097

  6. The Effects of Helmet Weight on Hybrid III Head and Neck Responses by Comparing Unhelmeted and Helmeted Impacts.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; McCarthy, Joe; King, Albert I

    2016-10-01

    Most studies on football helmet performance focus on lowering head acceleration-related parameters to reduce concussions. This has resulted in an increase in helmet size and mass. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of helmet mass on head and upper neck responses. Two independent test series were conducted. In test series one, 90 pendulum impact tests were conducted with four different headform and helmet conditions: unhelmeted Hybrid III headform, Hybrid III headform with a football helmet shell, Hybrid III headform with helmet shell and facemask, and Hybrid III headform with the helmet and facemask with mass added to the shell (n = 90). The Hybrid III neck was used for all the conditions. For all the configurations combined, the shell only, shell and facemask, and weighted helmet conditions resulted in 36%, 43%, and 44% lower resultant head accelerations (p < 0.0001), respectively, when compared to the unhelmeted condition. Head delta-V reductions were 1.1%, 4.5%, and 4.4%, respectively. In contrast, the helmeted conditions resulted in 26%, 41%, and 49% higher resultant neck forces (p < 0.0001), respectively. The increased neck forces were dominated by neck tension. In test series two, testing was conducted with a pneumatic linear impactor (n = 178). Fourteen different helmet makes and models illustrate the same trend. The increased neck forces provide a possible explanation as to why there has not been a corresponding reduction in concussion rates despite improvements in helmets ability to reduce head accelerations.

  7. The Effects of Helmet Weight on Hybrid III Head and Neck Responses by Comparing Unhelmeted and Helmeted Impacts.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; McCarthy, Joe; King, Albert I

    2016-10-01

    Most studies on football helmet performance focus on lowering head acceleration-related parameters to reduce concussions. This has resulted in an increase in helmet size and mass. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of helmet mass on head and upper neck responses. Two independent test series were conducted. In test series one, 90 pendulum impact tests were conducted with four different headform and helmet conditions: unhelmeted Hybrid III headform, Hybrid III headform with a football helmet shell, Hybrid III headform with helmet shell and facemask, and Hybrid III headform with the helmet and facemask with mass added to the shell (n = 90). The Hybrid III neck was used for all the conditions. For all the configurations combined, the shell only, shell and facemask, and weighted helmet conditions resulted in 36%, 43%, and 44% lower resultant head accelerations (p < 0.0001), respectively, when compared to the unhelmeted condition. Head delta-V reductions were 1.1%, 4.5%, and 4.4%, respectively. In contrast, the helmeted conditions resulted in 26%, 41%, and 49% higher resultant neck forces (p < 0.0001), respectively. The increased neck forces were dominated by neck tension. In test series two, testing was conducted with a pneumatic linear impactor (n = 178). Fourteen different helmet makes and models illustrate the same trend. The increased neck forces provide a possible explanation as to why there has not been a corresponding reduction in concussion rates despite improvements in helmets ability to reduce head accelerations. PMID:27456840

  8. An Update on Football Deaths and Catastrophic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    1986-01-01

    The latest figures (1985) indicate a continued decline in football deaths and catastrophic injuries, which is credited to a ban on spearing and to a helmet standard. Guidelines for prevention of fatalities and injuries are listed. (Author/MT)

  9. Rugby football.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  10. Four Quarters of Football Helmet Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... debe participar en el juego y recibir una evaluación de jugador. La salud a largo plazo del ... REACONDICIONAMIENTO Y REMPLAZO CUIDADO Y MANTENIMIENTO PARA MÁS INFORMACIÓN VISITE >> http://www.cdc.gov/concussion/HeadsUp/spanish/ ...

  11. Reliability of handheld dynamometry in assessment of hip strength in adult male football players.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Mark L; Hanna, Chris M; Raina Elley, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of handheld dynamometry (HHD) for measuring hip muscle strength in a sample of 30 healthy semi-professional adult male football players. The reliability of HHD had not been assessed in athletes who were likely to be stronger than populations tested previously. Maximal isometric strength of resisted hip flexion and adduction were measured. Mean strength ranged from 51.5 kg for dominant hip flexion to 26.7 kg for hip adduction at 90 degrees of hip flexion. Intrarater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. ICCs for interrater reliability ranged from 0.66 to 0.87. As expected, muscle strength in this group of athletes was significantly higher than that of populations in which HHD reliability has been assessed. Despite this, muscle strength testing of hip flexor and adductor muscles can be performed with good to excellent intra- and interrater reliability in this population. PMID:19376747

  12. Bike Racing Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  13. Bicycle helmet use by children. Evaluation of a community-wide helmet campaign.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, C G; Rivara, F P; Koepsell, T D; Polissar, L

    1989-10-27

    To assess the effect of a community-wide bicycle helmet campaign on helmet use, we observed 9827 children riding bicycles at sites in high-, middle-, and low-income census tracts in Seattle, Wash (intervention city), and Portland, Ore (control city); observations were made during 2-week intervals before and 4, 12, and 16 months after the campaign's start. Helmet use increased from 5.5% before the campaign to 15.7% afterward in Seattle and from 1.0% to 2.9% in Portland. Strong associations were found between helmet use and white compared with black or other race; riding geared vs nongeared bicycles; riding at playgrounds, in parks, or on bicycle paths vs on city streets; and riding with adults or other children compared with riding alone. The proportions of helmet wearers, adjusted for these variables, increased from 4.6% to 14.0% in Seattle and from 1.0% to 3.6% in Portland, a significantly greater increase in use in Seattle compared with Portland. We conclude that a community-wide bicycle helmet campaign can increase helmet use among children.

  14. Posttraumatic Cerebellar Infarction after Repeated Sport-related Minor Head Injuries in a Young Adult: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    MATSUMOTO, Hiroaki; YOSHIDA, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    A healthy 23-year-old man suffered helmet-to-helmet collisions with an opponent during American football game twice within 3 days. He then experienced continuous vomiting and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed transient stenosis of the right superior cerebellar artery. Although minor head injury is not usually accompanied by complications, posttraumatic ischemic stroke has been reported on rare occasions. We report a case of cerebellar infarction after repeated sports-related minor head injuries in a young adult and discuss the etiology. PMID:25746313

  15. Effects of Football Collars on Cervical Hyperextension and Lateral Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Gorden, Jeffery A.; Swanik, C. Buz; Swanik, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of 3 football collars in reducing cervical range of motion. Design and Setting: A repeated-measures design in a controlled laboratory setting. Subjects: Fifteen male National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity football athletes. Measurements: Cervical hyperextension and lateral flexion were measured with video analysis. Subjects underwent 5 testing conditions: standard football helmet, standard helmet and shoulder pads, and standard pads with the addition of the Cowboy Collar, A-Force Neck Collar, or a foam neck roll. Subjects performed motions both actively and passively. Results: All 3 collars reduced hyperextension when compared with the helmet and shoulder pads alone (P < .05); in addition, the Cowboy Collar was superior to the foam neck roll (P < .05) in reducing hyperextension. No collar reduced passive lateral flexion when compared with the helmet and shoulder pads, but the foam neck roll permitted significantly less active lateral flexion (P < .01) than the other 3 brace conditions. Conclusions: In a laboratory setting, cervical hyperextension can be controlled through the use of various cervical collars. Cervical lateral flexion (a more common cause of burners in a scholastic population) cannot be controlled with any of the cervical collars tested. Moreover, foam collars may impede active lateral flexion while not providing additional protection when loaded. These results are limited in that they were produced in a controlled situation as opposed to active football play. PMID:14608429

  16. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  17. "Love" Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, William S.

    1975-01-01

    The author, headmaster and football coach of St. Mary's and St. John's School, Peekskill, New York, tells us how he changed his football players' fear of opponents through use of civil rights tactics by using a positive approach to fearful situations. (RK)

  18. Fit Effect of Motorcycle Helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li-Tung; Chang, Chih-Han; Chang, Guan-Liang

    Optimized assessment of the adequacy of fit conditions between a motorcycle helmet and head size in relation to prevention of head injury remains unclear and is complicated by wide variations in the size and shape characteristics of helmet and wearer’s heads. A finite element model (LS-DYNA3D) based on realistic geometric features of a motorcycle helmet was established to simulate the standard shock absorption test for evaluating the dynamic response and fit effects of a helmet. The model was used to simulate crown, rear and side sites impacts of the helmet. The peak acceleration and Head Injury Criterion (HIC) were employed to assess the protective performance of the helmet against head injuries. The results show that this helmet model had various dynamic responses at different impact sites due to its geometric shape, but that the impact-absorbing capability did not vary markedly within these sites. The fit conditions between the headform and the helmet dramatically affected the assessment of the impact-absorbing capability of the helmet in the standard shock absorption test. However, for a motorcyclist, the helmet fit would have only minor influence on the protection against head injuries. This observation suggests that a better fitting helmet with stable fixation should provide more protection against head injury.

  19. Linear and angular head acceleration measurements in collegiate football.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Brolinson, Gunnar; Goforth, Mike; Dietter, Dave; Duma, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Each year, between 1.6x10(6) and 3.8x10(6) concussions are sustained by athletes playing sports, with football having the highest incidence. The high number of concussions in football provides a unique opportunity to collect biomechanical data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. Human head acceleration data for a range of impact severities were collected by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players with accelerometers. The helmets of ten Virginia Tech football players were instrumented with measurement devices for every game and practice for the 2007 football season. The measurement devices recorded linear and angular accelerations about each of the three axes of the head. Data for each impact were downloaded wirelessly to a sideline data collection system shortly after each impact occurred. Data were collected for 1712 impacts, creating a large and unbiased data set. While a majority of the impacts were of relatively low severity (<30 g and <2000 rad/s2), 172 impacts were greater than 40 g and 143 impacts were greater than 3000 rad/s2. No instrumented player sustained a clinically diagnosed concussion during the 2007 season. A large and unbiased data set was compiled by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players. Football provides a unique opportunity to collect head acceleration data of varying severity from human volunteers. The addition of concurrent concussive data may advance the understanding of the mechanics of mild traumatic brain injury. With an increased understanding of the biomechanics of head impacts in collegiate football and human tolerance to head acceleration, better equipment can be designed to prevent head injuries.

  20. Head Impacts During High School Football: A Biomechanical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, Steven P; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Shin, SungHoon; He, Xuming; Alcaraz, Christopher; Zimmerman, Jerrad

    2009-01-01

    Context: Little is known about the impact biomechanics sustained by players during interscholastic football. Objective: To characterize the location and magnitude of impacts sustained by players during an interscholastic football season. Design: Observational design. Setting: On the field. Patients or Other Participants: High school varsity football team (n  =  35; age  =  16.85 ± 0.75 years, height  =  183.49 ± 5.31 cm, mass  =  89.42 ± 12.88 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Biomechanical variables (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, jerk, force, impulse, and impact duration) related to head impacts were categorized by session type, player position, and helmet impact location. Results: Differences in grouping variables were found for each impact descriptor. Impacts occurred more frequently and with greater intensity during games. Linear acceleration was greatest in defensive linemen and offensive skill players and when the impact occurred at the top of the helmet. The largest rotational acceleration occurred in defensive linemen and with impacts to the front of the helmet. Impacts with the highest-magnitude jerk, force, and impulse and shortest duration occurred in the offensive skill, defensive line, offensive line, and defensive skill players, respectively. Top-of-the-helmet impacts yielded the greatest magnitude for the same variables. Conclusions: We are the first to provide a biomechanical characterization of head impacts in an interscholastic football team across a season of play. The intensity of game play manifested with more frequent and intense impacts. The highest-magnitude variables were distributed across all player groups, but impacts to the top of the helmet yielded the highest values. These high school football athletes appeared to sustain greater accelerations after impact than their older counterparts did. How this finding relates to concussion occurrence has yet to be elucidated. PMID:19593415

  1. Analysis of linear head accelerations from collegiate football impacts.

    PubMed

    Brolinson, P Gunnar; Manoogian, Sarah; McNeely, David; Goforth, Mike; Greenwald, Richard; Duma, Stefan

    2006-02-01

    Sports-related concussions result in 300,000 brain injuries in the United States each year. We conducted a study utilizing an in-helmet system that measures and records linear head accelerations to analyze head impacts in collegiate football. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System is an in-helmet system with six spring-mounted accelerometers and an antenna that transmits data via radio frequency to a sideline receiver and laptop computer system. A total of 11,604 head impacts were recorded from the Virginia Tech football team throughout the 2003 and 2004 football seasons during 22 games and 62 practices from a total of 52 players. Although the incidence of injury data are limited, this study presents an extremely large data set from human head impacts that provides valuable insight into the lower limits of head acceleration that cause mild traumatic brain injuries.

  2. Sport helmet design and virtual impact test by image-based finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunhua; Liang, Zhaoyang

    2013-01-01

    Head injury has been a major concern in various sports, especially in contact sports such as football and ice hockey. Helmet has been adopted as a protective device in such sports, aiming at preventing or at least alleviating head injuries. However, there exist two challenges in current helmet design and test. One is that the helmet does not fit the subject's head well; the other is that current helmet testing methods are not able to provide accurate information about intracranial pressure and stress/strain level in brain tissues during impact. To meet the challenges, an image-based finite element modeling procedure was proposed to design subject-specific helmet and to conduct virtual impact test. In the procedure, a set of medical images such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the subject's head was used to construct geometric shape of the helmet and to develop a helmet-head finite element model that can be used in the virtual impact test.

  3. Football Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Paul R.

    1972-01-01

    The probabilities of certain English football teams winning different playoffs are determined. In each case, a mathematical model is fitted to the observed data, assumptions are verified, and the calculations performed. (LS)

  4. Head Impact Exposure in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Crisco, Joseph J.; Wilcox, Bethany J.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Rowson, Steve; Duma, Stefan M.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Greenwald, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    In American football, impacts to the helmet and the resulting head accelerations are the primary cause of concussion injury and potentially chronic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposures to impacts to the head (frequency, location and magnitude) for individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences in head impact exposure by player position. A total of 314 players were enrolled at three institutions and 286,636 head impacts were recorded over three seasons. The 95th percentile peak linear and rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were 62.7g, 4378 rad/s2, and 32.6, respectively. These exposure measures as well as the frequency of impacts varied significantly by player position and by helmet impact location. Running backs (RB) and quarter backs (QB) received the greatest magnitude head impacts, while defensive line (DL), offensive line (OL) and line backers (LB) received the most frequent head impacts (more than twice as many than any other position). Impacts to the top of the helmet had the lowest peak rotational acceleration (2387 rad/s2), but the greatest peak linear acceleration (72.4 g), and were the least frequent of all locations (13.7%) among all positions. OL and QB had the highest (49.2%) and the lowest (23%.7%) frequency, respectively, of front impacts. QB received the greatest magnitude (70.8g and 5428 rad/s2) and the most frequent (44% and 38.9%) impacts to the back of the helmet. This study quantified head impact exposure in collegiate football, providing data that is critical to advancing the understanding of the biomechanics of concussive injuries and sub-concussive head impacts. PMID:21872862

  5. Head impact exposure in collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Maerlender, Arthur C; McAllister, Thomas W; Greenwald, Richard M

    2011-10-13

    In American football, impacts to the helmet and the resulting head accelerations are the primary cause of concussion injury and potentially chronic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposures to impacts to the head (frequency, location and magnitude) for individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences in head impact exposure by player position. A total of 314 players were enrolled at three institutions and 286,636 head impacts were recorded over three seasons. The 95th percentile peak linear and rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were 62.7g, 4378rad/s(2) and 32.6, respectively. These exposure measures as well as the frequency of impacts varied significantly by player position and by helmet impact location. Running backs (RB) and quarter backs (QB) received the greatest magnitude head impacts, while defensive line (DL), offensive line (OL) and line backers (LB) received the most frequent head impacts (more than twice as many than any other position). Impacts to the top of the helmet had the lowest peak rotational acceleration (2387rad/s(2)), but the greatest peak linear acceleration (72.4g), and were the least frequent of all locations (13.7%) among all positions. OL and QB had the highest (49.2%) and the lowest (23.7%) frequency, respectively, of front impacts. QB received the greatest magnitude (70.8g and 5428rad/s(2)) and the most frequent (44% and 38.9%) impacts to the back of the helmet. This study quantified head impact exposure in collegiate football, providing data that is critical to advancing the understanding of the biomechanics of concussive injuries and sub-concussive head impacts.

  6. EMU helmet mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose (Inventor); Smith, Stephen (Inventor); Plough, Alan (Inventor); Clarke, Robert (Inventor); Mclean, William (Inventor); Fournier, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A helmet mounted display device is disclosed for projecting a display on a flat combiner surface located above the line of sight where the display is produced by two independent optical channels with independent LCD image generators. The display has a fully overlapped field of view on the combiner surface and the focus can be adjusted from a near field of four feet to infinity.

  7. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  8. Improved Helmet-Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.; Weiss, Fred R.; Eck, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide foamed into lightweight padding material for use in helmets. Exhibits increased resistance to ignition, combustion, and impact, and it outgasses less. Foam satisfies offgassing and toxicity requirements of NASA/JSC criteria (NHB80601B). Helmets containing this improved padding material used by firefighters, police, offshore drilling technicians, construction workers, miners, and race-car drivers.

  9. Protective capability of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, N J

    1990-01-01

    Cycle helmets that meet UK and US standards have been tested. The mechanisms of energy absorption for frontal and side impacts have been analysed. A good helmet should protect the wearer for impacts up to 15 mph into a rigid flat surface. PMID:2350670

  10. Bicyclists, Helmets and Head Injuries: A Rider-Based Study of Helmet Use and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Richard C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Of 516 bicyclists interviewed, 19 percent owned helmets but only eight percent were wearing them. Riders wearing helmets were more highly educated and reported higher car seat belt use. Helmets afford protection from bicycling head injuries. (Author/BJV)

  11. Wireless nanosensors for monitoring concussion of football players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  12. Sub-concussive hit characteristics predict deviant brain metabolism in football athletes.

    PubMed

    Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Shenk, Trey E; Abbas, Kausar; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Dydak, Ulrike; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and helmet telemetry were used to monitor the neural metabolic response to repetitive head collisions in 25 high school American football athletes. Specific hit characteristics were determined highly predictive of metabolic alterations, suggesting that sub-concussive blows can produce biochemical changes and potentially lead to neurological problems.

  13. How to Rescue American Football

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  14. How to Rescue American Football.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  15. Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists.

    PubMed Central

    Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

  16. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  17. Helmet latching and attaching ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, E. W.; Viikinsalo, S. J. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A neck ring releasably secured to a pressurized garment carries an open-ended ring normally in the engagement position fitted into an annular groove and adapted to fit into a complementary annular groove formed in a helmet. Camming means formed on the inner surface at the end of the helmet engages the open-ended ring to retract the same and allow for one motion donning even when the garment is pressurized. A projection on the end of the split ring is engageable to physically retract the split ring.

  18. Investigating Helmet Promotion for Cyclists: Results from a Randomised Study with Observation of Behaviour, Using a Semi-Automatic Video System

    PubMed Central

    Constant, Aymery; Messiah, Antoine; Felonneau, Marie-Line; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. Methods We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18–75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of “helmet only”, “helmet and information” or “information only”, and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. Results Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the “helmet only” group (OR = 7.73 [2.09–28.5]) and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. Conclusion Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure. PMID:22355384

  19. Tibial shaft fractures in amateur footballers

    PubMed Central

    Lenehan, B; Fleming, P; Walsh, S; Kaar, K

    2003-01-01

    Background: Footballers constitute a unique group of patients with tibial shaft fractures. They tend to have excellent general health and well developed musculature in the leg, and their fractures are generally closed injuries caused by low velocity trauma. However, little has been reported on the outcome after tibial shaft fractures in this group. Objective: To identify patterns of injury, response to treatment, and functional outcome in such a group. Method: Fifty consecutive tibial shaft fractures in adult footballers treated at Merlin Park Regional Hospital over a five year period were analysed. Results: Most of the fractures were type A injuries (AO/ASIF classification). The incidence of complications was low. All patients reported good or excellent satisfaction with their outcome. However, only 54% of patients returned to playing competitive football. Conclusion: Tibial shaft fractures in amateur footballers are associated with good results when traditional outcome criteria are used, but many patients do not regain their previous level of function. PMID:12663363

  20. Effect of wearing a ski helmet on perception and localization of sounds.

    PubMed

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Zorowka, P; Weichbold, V; Stephan, K; Koci, V; Seebacher, J

    2014-07-01

    Helmet use on ski slopes has steadily increased worldwide over the past years. A common reason reported for helmet non-use, however, is impaired hearing. Therefore, an intra-subject design study was conducted to compare hearing thresholds and sound source localization of 21 adults with normal hearing in an anechoic chamber when wearing a ski helmet and ski goggles or wearing a ski cap and ski goggles to the condition head bare. Hearing thresholds while wearing a ski helmet (6.8 ± 1.6 dB HL) and ski cap (5.5 ± 1.6 dB HL) were significantly different (p = 0.030, d = 0.44). Compared to head bare (2.5 ± 1.2 dB HL), a significant difference was found for the ski helmet only (p = 0.040, d = 1.57). Regarding sound source localization, correct scores in the condition head bare (90%) showed a highly significant difference compared with those of condition cap (65%) and helmet (58%), respectively (p < 0.001; d > 2.5). Compared to the ski cap, wearing the helmet significantly reduced correct scores (p = 0.020, d = 0.59) irrespective of the tested sound pressure levels. In conclusion, wearing a ski helmet impairs hearing to a small though significantly greater extent compared with a cap, the degree, however, being less than what is termed as a hearing impairment. Compared to the condition head bare, wearing a ski cap or a ski helmet significantly reduced one's ability of sound source localization.

  1. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  2. A shape-based helmet fitting system for concussion protection.

    PubMed

    Xingcheng Cai; Blostein, Dorothea; Saunders, Fraser W

    2015-08-01

    Helmets are widely used as protection against sports-related concussions. The degree of concussion protection offered by a helmet may be related to the fit between the helmet and head. This paper presents the design of a prototype helmet fitting recommendation system using shape-based helmet fitting. The shape-based helmet fitting system uses a Kinect sensor to scan a client's head and then compares the head shape to helmet shapes from a database of off-the-shelf helmets. A slice extraction method is used to compare a standard reference slice extracted from the head to a corresponding slice from the helmet. The degree to which the helmet fits the client's head is calculated and displayed to the user. The prototype system could potentially help a concussion expert make recommendations about helmet fit to clients, if more research about the effects of helmet fitting on concussion protection becomes available. PMID:26737322

  3. Raster graphic helmet-mounted display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamon, William S.; Moran, Susanna I.

    1990-01-01

    A design of a helmet mounted display system is presented, including a design specification and development plan for the selected design approach. The requirements for the helmet mounted display system and a survey of applicable technologies are presented. Three helmet display concepts are then described which utilize lasers, liquid crystal display's (LCD's), and subminiature cathode ray tubes (CRT's), respectively. The laser approach is further developed in a design specification and a development plan.

  4. Virtual Testing of Composite Motorcycle Helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernicchi, Alessandro; Galvanetto, Ugo; Olsson, Robin

    A study about the response of motorcycle helmets to impacts is described in this paper and possible ways to improve current designs are discussed. Firstly, a simple unidimensional model of helmet is analyzed and the main parameters that affect its response are pointed out. Subsequently, the generation and testing of the Finite Element model of a commercially available helmet are described and numerical results are compared to experimental results. Finally, the FE modeled is used to compare different design configurations.

  5. [Where are all the Viking helmets?].

    PubMed

    Wester, K

    2001-06-30

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this article describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry, burial customs, and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. Only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the wide-spread misunderstanding that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed. The archaeological profession must partly bear the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding.

  6. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    PubMed

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.

  7. Costs of non-helmeted motorcycle riding in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H; Grauer, Jonathan N; Browner, Bruce D; Born, Christopher T

    2014-02-01

    Motorcycle-related head injuries and fatalities are a serious public health concern that can be reduced with helmet use. Caring for crash victims places additional economic stress on the healthcare system. The current Connecticut motorcycle helmet law does not require all motorcyclists to wear helmets. Universal motorcycle helmet laws increase helmet use. Efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be considered for review, given the number of deaths and injuries that could be prevented. PMID:24741858

  8. Biomechanics of subdural hemorrhage in American football: review of the literature in response to rise in incidence.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Jonathan A; Zuckerman, Scott; Abla, Adib A; Mocco, J; Bode, Ken; Eads, Todd

    2014-02-01

    The number of catastrophic head injuries recorded during the 2011 football season was the highest since data collection began in 1984--the vast majority of these cases were secondary to subdural hemorrhage (SDH). The incidence of catastrophic head injury continues to rise: the average yearly incidence from 2008 to 2012 was 238% that of the average yearly incidence from 1998 to 2002. Greater than 95% of the football players who suffered catastrophic head injury during this period were age 18 or younger. Currently, the helmet industry utilizes a standard based on data obtained at Wayne State University approximately 50 years ago that seeks to limit severity index--a surrogate marker of translational acceleration. In this manuscript, we utilize a focused review of the literature to better characterize the biomechanical factors associated with SDH following collisions in American football and discuss these data in the context of current helmet standard. Review of the literature indicates the rotational acceleration (RA) threshold above which the risk of SDH becomes appreciable is approximately 5,000 rad/s(2). This value is not infrequently surmounted in typical high school football games. In contrast, translational accelerations (TAs) experienced during even elite-level impacts in football are not of sufficient magnitude to result in SDH. This information raises important questions about the current helmet standard--in which the sole objective is limitation of TA. Further studies will be necessary to better define whether helmet constructs and quality assurance standards designed to limit RA will also help to decrease the risk of catastrophic head injury in American football.

  9. Evaluation of cricket helmet performance and comparison with baseball and ice hockey helmets

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, A; Janda, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Protective helmets in sport are important for reducing the risk of head and facial injury. In cricket and other sports with projectiles, national test standards control the minimum helmet performance. However, there are few field data showing if helmets are effective in reducing head injury. Objectives: (a) To examine the performance of cricket helmets in laboratory tests; (b) to examine performance with regard to test standards, game hazards, and helmet construction; (c) to compare and contrast these findings with baseball and ice hockey helmets. Methods: Impact tests were conducted on a selection of helmet models: five cricket, two baseball, and two ice hockey. Ball to helmet impacts at speeds of 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s were produced using an air cannon and a Hybrid III dummy headform and neck unit. Free fall drop tests with a rigid headform on to a selection of anvils (flat rigid, flat deformable, and hemispherical rigid) were conducted. Resultant headform acceleration was measured and compared between tests. Results: At the lower speed impacts, all helmets produced a good reduction in headform acceleration, and thus injury risk. At the higher speed impacts, the effectiveness was less. For example, the mean maximum headform accelerations for all cricket helmets at each speed were: 67, 160, 316, and 438 g for 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s ball speeds respectively. Drop tests on to a hemispherical anvil produced the highest accelerations. The variation in performance increased as the magnitude of the impact energy increased, in both types of testing. Conclusions: The test method used for baseball helmets in which the projectile is fired at the helmet may be superior to helmet drop tests. Cricket helmet performance is satisfactory for low speed impacts, but not for impacts at higher, more realistic, speeds. Baseball and ice hockey helmets offer slightly better relative and absolute performance at the 27 m/s ball and puck impacts. PMID:12893718

  10. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P <.001) than in players who wore a generic mouth guard. The rate of SRC was also higher (HR = 1.96 [95% CI, 1.40–2.73], P <.001) in players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months (15.1% of the 259 players [95% CI, 11.0%–20.1%]) than in players without a previous SRC (8.2% of the 2028 players [95% CI, 7.1%–9.5%]). Conclusion Incidence of SRC was similar

  11. Football with three ‘halves’: A qualitative exploratory study of the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010

    PubMed Central

    ZA, Kaufman; MA, Clark; ST, McGarvey

    2015-01-01

    The “football3” model refers to a restructuring of traditional football/soccer rules to bring social and developmental benefits to participating youth and their communities. The model incorporates three “halves”: pre-game discussion, football match, and post-game discussion. This study was carried out to shed light on the experiences of youth and adults with the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010. As an official 2010 FIFA World Cup event, the festival assembled 32 mixed-sex delegations of youth for cultural activities and a football tournament. The study's aim was to inform the model's future design and implementation. Twenty interviews, two focus group discussions, and participant observation were conducted. Findings highlight positive experiences with the model regarding cultural exchange and relationship building, Fair Play and social values, and gender integration. Challenges pertain to misunderstanding of the football3 model, tournament atmosphere, and skill level differences. Recommendations centre on systematically formulating desired outcomes, formalizing a curriculum and training plan, piloting football3 in a range of settings over an extended period of time, and emphasizing monitoring and evaluation to assess the model's effectiveness and impact. Future piloting and research should inform the potential scale-up of the model. PMID:27064214

  12. Helmet system broadcasts electroencephalograms of wearer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westbrook, R. M.; Zuccaro, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    EEG monitoring system consisting of nonirritating sponge-type electrodes, amplifiers, and a battery-powered wireless transmitter, all mounted in the subjects helmet, obtains electroencephalograms /EEGs/ of pilots and astronauts performing tasks under stress. After a quick initial fitting, the helmet can be removed and replaced without adjustments.

  13. Protecting Helmets And Visors From Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Dawn, Frederic

    1991-01-01

    Thin layer of polysulfone on polycarbonate safety helmets and visors protects them from attack by chemicals. Useful in industrial safety helmets. Highly resistant to creep under tension load. Retains dimensional stability when exposed to moisture. Does not adversely affect optical properties of polycarbonate visors. Configuration varied to accommodate such special requirements as high impact strength or protection against moving particles and debris.

  14. The biomechanics of concussion in unhelmeted football players in Australia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A; Fréchède, Bertrand; Pierré, Paul-André; Ferry, Edouard; Barthels, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concussion is a prevalent brain injury in sport and the wider community. Despite this, little research has been conducted investigating the dynamics of impacts to the unprotected human head and injury causation in vivo, in particular the roles of linear and angular head acceleration. Setting Professional contact football in Australia. Participants Adult male professional Australian rules football players participating in 30 games randomly selected from 103 games. Cases selected based on an observable head impact, no observable symptoms (eg, loss-of-consciousness and convulsions), no on-field medical management and no injury recorded at the time. Primary and secondary outcome measures A data set for no-injury head impact cases comprising head impact locations and head impact dynamic parameters estimated through rigid body simulations using the MAthematical DYnamic MOdels (MADYMO) human facet model. This data set was compared to previously reported concussion case data. Results Qualitative analysis showed that the head was more vulnerable to lateral impacts. Logistic regression analyses of head acceleration and velocity components revealed that angular acceleration of the head in the coronal plane had the strongest association with concussion; tentative tolerance levels of 1747 rad/s2 and 2296 rad/s2 were reported for a 50% and 75% likelihood of concussion, respectively. The mean maximum resultant angular accelerations for the concussion and no-injury cases were 7951 rad/s2 (SD 3562 rad/s2) and 4300 rad/s2 (SD 3657 rad/s2), respectively. Linear acceleration is currently used in the assessment of helmets and padded headgear. The 50% and 75% likelihood of concussion values for resultant linear head acceleration in this study were 65.1 and 88.5 g, respectively. Conclusions As hypothesised by Holbourn over 70 years ago, angular acceleration plays an important role in the pathomechanics of concussion, which has major ramifications in terms of

  15. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

  16. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR=28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r=0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use. PMID:24119233

  17. Wearable nanosensor system for monitoring mild traumatic brain injuries in football players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2016-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  18. A six degree of freedom head acceleration measurement device for use in football.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Leonard, Daniel S; Greenwald, Richard M; Duma, Stefan M

    2011-02-01

    The high incidence rate of concussions in football provides a unique opportunity to collect biomechanical data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. The goal of this study was to validate a six degree of freedom (6DOF) measurement device with 12 single-axis accelerometers that uses a novel algorithm to compute linear and angular head accelerations for each axis of the head. The 6DOF device can be integrated into existing football helmets and is capable of wireless data transmission. A football helmet equipped with the 6DOF device was fitted to a Hybrid III head instrumented with a 9 accelerometer array. The helmet was impacted using a pneumatic linear impactor. Hybrid III head accelerations were compared with that of the 6DOF device. For all impacts, peak Hybrid III head accelerations ranged from 24 g to 176 g and 1,506 rad/s(2) to 14,431 rad/s(2). Average errors for peak linear and angular head acceleration were 1% ± 18% and 3% ± 24%, respectively. The average RMS error of the temporal response for each impact was 12.5 g and 907 rad/s(2).

  19. Tackling in Youth Football.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk.

  20. Head impact exposure in youth football: middle school ages 12-14 years.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-09-01

    The head impact exposure experienced by football players at the college and high school levels has been well documented; however, there are limited data regarding youth football despite its dramatically larger population. The objective of this study was to investigate head impact exposure in middle school football. Impacts were monitored using a commercially available accelerometer array installed inside the helmets of 17 players aged 12-14 years. A total of 4678 impacts were measured, with an average (±standard deviation) of 275 ± 190 impacts per player. The average of impact distributions for each player had a median impact of 22 ± 2 g and 954 ± 122 rad/s², and a 95th percentile impact of 54 ± 9 g and 2525 ± 450 rad/s². Similar to the head impact exposure experienced by high school and collegiate players, these data show that middle school football players experience a greater number of head impacts during games than practices. There were no significant differences between median and 95th percentile head acceleration magnitudes experienced during games and practices; however, a larger number of impacts greater than 80 g occurred during games than during practices. Impacts to the front and back of the helmet were most common. Overall, these data are similar to high school and college data that have been collected using similar methods. These data have applications toward youth football helmet design, the development of strategies designed to limit head impact exposure, and child-specific brain injury criteria.

  1. Removal Time and Efficacy of Riddell Quick Release Face Guard Attachment System Side Clips During 1 Football Season

    PubMed Central

    Gruppen, Tonia; Smith, Molly; Ganss, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Context In the National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement, “Acute Management of the Cervical Spine-Injured Athlete,” the technique recommended for face-mask (FM) removal is one that “creates the least head and neck motion, is performed most quickly, is the least difficult, and carries the least chance of failure.” Industrial and technological advances in football helmet design and FM attachment systems might influence the efficacy of emergency FM removal. Objective To examine the removal times and success rates of the Quick Release (QR) Face Guard Attachment System (Riddell Sports, Inc, Elyria, OH) throughout and at the conclusion of 1 season of play by a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III football team competing in the Midwest. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting College laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 69 randomly selected Revolution IQ (Riddell Sports, Inc) football helmets fitted with the QR system were used. Intervention(s) Each helmet was secured to a spine board, and investigators attempted to remove both of the QR side clips from the helmet with the Riddell insertion tool. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables included total time for removal of both QR side clips from the FM and success rate for removal of both side clips. Results The overall success rate for removal of both clips was 94.8% (164/173), whereas the mean times for removal of both clips ranged from 9.92 ± 12.06 seconds to 16.65 ± 20.97 seconds over 4 trial sessions. We found no differences among mean times for trial sessions throughout the season of play among the same helmets or among different helmets (P > .05). Conclusions Removal time and success rate of the Riddell QR were satisfactory during and after 1 season of play despite use in various temperatures and precipitation. PMID:22889658

  2. Quantification of ventilation characteristics of a helmet.

    PubMed

    Van Brecht, A; Nuyttens, D; Aerts, J M; Quanten, S; De Bruyne, G; Berckmans, D

    2008-05-01

    Despite the augmented safety offered by wearing a cyclist crash helmet, many cyclists still refuse to wear one because of the thermal discomfort that comes along with wearing it. In this paper, a method is described that quantifies the ventilation characteristics of a helmet using tracer gas experiments. A Data-Based Mechanistic model was applied to provide a physically meaningful description of the dominant internal dynamics of mass transfer in the imperfectly mixed fluid under the helmet. By using a physical mass balance, the local ventilation efficiency could be described by using a single input-single output system. Using this approach, ventilation efficiency ranging from 0.06 volume refreshments per second (s(-1)) at the side of the helmet to 0.22s(-1) at the rear ventilation opening were found on the investigated helmet. The zones at the side were poorly ventilated. The influence of the angle of inclination on ventilation efficiency was dependent on the position between head and helmet. General comfort of the helmet can be improved by increasing the ventilation efficiency of fresh air at the problem zones.

  3. Bicycle helmet promotion programs--Canada, Australia, and United States.

    PubMed

    1993-03-26

    The use of bicycle helmets substantially reduces the risk for serious head injuries during bicycle-related crashes. Despite this benefit, epidemiologic data indicate a worldwide low prevalence of helmet use. Strategies to increase the use of bicycle helmets in the United States and other countries include subsidies, legislation, and education. This report summarizes information regarding three strategies to increase bicycle helmet use and the impact of implementing these approaches in Canada (helmet subsidies), Australia (legislation), and the United States (education). PMID:8446097

  4. Anomalous cases of astronaut helmet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  5. Anomalous Cases of Astronaut Helmet Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  6. The effect of helmet liner density upon acceleration and local contact forces during bicycle helmet impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Terrance Alan

    In order to address the need to monitor local contact forces during head impacts, a custom transducer was designed to monitor local force distribution patterns on an ISO size E magnesium headform concurrently with linear acceleration measures from an accelerometer located at the center of gravity of the headform. The response characteristics of the transducer were found to be predictable and acceptable given the limitations of high speed data collection in a confined environment. During bicycle helmet testing, the output from the transducer was also found to be sensitive to ventilation openings and ventilation channels located on the underside of the helmet liner. The effect of helmet liner density upon local contact forces and headform acceleration was evaluated using an identical bicycle helmet model fabricated in four different helmet liner densities. The study found that peak headform acceleration and peak local contact sensor force values were significantly lower for the low density helmet liners when compared to the highest density of helmet liners during low to moderate energy impacts. During the high energy impact tests against the hemispherical anvil, the lower density helmets bottomed out, resulting in high local contact forces and high peak headform acceleration values relative to the higher density helmets. These results suggest that a tradeoff does exist in terms of the protection offered by low density helmets at low to moderate energy impacts compared to the performance of higher density helmets during the higher energy impacts. The study also found that a poor correlation exists between peak headform acceleration and local contact force suggesting that future head protection standards should include evaluation of the load distribution characteristics of the helmet.

  7. Motorcycle helmets: What about their coating?

    PubMed

    Schnegg, Michaël; Massonnet, Geneviève; Gueissaz, Line

    2015-07-01

    In traffic accidents involving motorcycles, paint traces can be transferred from the rider's helmet or smeared onto its surface. These traces are usually in the form of chips or smears and are frequently collected for comparison purposes. This research investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of the coatings found on motorcycles helmets. An evaluation of the similarities between helmet and automotive coating systems was also performed.Twenty-seven helmet coatings from 15 different brands and 22 models were considered. One sample per helmet was collected and observed using optical microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was then used and seven replicate measurements per layer were carried out to study the variability of each coating system (intravariability). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were also performed on the infrared spectra of the clearcoats and basecoats of the data set. The most common systems were composed of two or three layers, consistently involving a clearcoat and basecoat. The coating systems of helmets with composite shells systematically contained a minimum of three layers. FTIR spectroscopy results showed that acrylic urethane and alkyd urethane were the most frequent binders used for clearcoats and basecoats. A high proportion of the coatings were differentiated (more than 95%) based on microscopic examinations. The chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings allowed the differentiation of all but one pair of helmets of the same brand, model and color. Chemometrics (PCA and HCA) corroborated classification based on visual comparisons of the spectra and allowed the study of the whole data set at once (i.e., all spectra of the same layer). Thus, the intravariability of each helmet and its proximity to the others (intervariability) could be more readily assessed. It was also possible to determine the most discriminative chemical variables based on the study of the PCA loadings. Chemometrics

  8. Cyclists' helmet usage and characteristics in central and southern Malawi: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, John D; Honermann, Brian J; Roffenbender, Jason S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, bicycle helmet usage in southern and central Malawi. This study was across-sectional observation of public behaviour. The urban and rural roadways in southern and central Malawi were studied during the dry season. In total, 1900 bicyclists were observed along the roadways of southern and central Malawi over a four-day period. Observer ascertainment of cyclists' helmet status, approximate age, sex and bicycle operator or passenger status were measured. Of the 1900 cyclists observed, no cyclist was identified as wearing a helmet (exact 95% CI: 0.0-0.2%). There was no variation by age, sex or operator/passenger status. Nearly, 91.5% of observed cyclists were males and 87.7% were operating the bicycle. The sizeable majority of male cyclists were classified as young adults from adolescence to 25 years old (47.2%) or adults over age 25 (44.9%); 7.9% of male cyclists were pre-adolescent. Passengers were more likely to be female than operators (39.1% versus 4.2%), though, even for passengers, a higher proportion were males than females (p < 0.001). In Malawi, helmet usage is so rare as to be non-existent. This suggests an opportunity for significant improvement. Based on the observed cyclists' characteristics, interventions should be targeted to adult and young adult males. PMID:22394127

  9. Cyclists' helmet usage and characteristics in central and southern Malawi: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, John D; Honermann, Brian J; Roffenbender, Jason S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, bicycle helmet usage in southern and central Malawi. This study was across-sectional observation of public behaviour. The urban and rural roadways in southern and central Malawi were studied during the dry season. In total, 1900 bicyclists were observed along the roadways of southern and central Malawi over a four-day period. Observer ascertainment of cyclists' helmet status, approximate age, sex and bicycle operator or passenger status were measured. Of the 1900 cyclists observed, no cyclist was identified as wearing a helmet (exact 95% CI: 0.0-0.2%). There was no variation by age, sex or operator/passenger status. Nearly, 91.5% of observed cyclists were males and 87.7% were operating the bicycle. The sizeable majority of male cyclists were classified as young adults from adolescence to 25 years old (47.2%) or adults over age 25 (44.9%); 7.9% of male cyclists were pre-adolescent. Passengers were more likely to be female than operators (39.1% versus 4.2%), though, even for passengers, a higher proportion were males than females (p < 0.001). In Malawi, helmet usage is so rare as to be non-existent. This suggests an opportunity for significant improvement. Based on the observed cyclists' characteristics, interventions should be targeted to adult and young adult males.

  10. Aeroacoustic sources of motorcycle helmet noise.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J; Adetifa, O; Carley, M; Holt, N; Walker, I

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of noise in the riding of motorcycles has been a source of concern to both riders and researchers in recent times. Detailed flow field information will allow insight into the flow mechanisms responsible for the production of sound within motorcycle helmets. Flow field surveys of this nature are not found in the available literature which has tended to focus on sound pressure levels at ear as these are of interest for noise exposure legislation. A detailed flow survey of a commercial motorcycle helmet has been carried out in combination with surface pressure measurements and at ear acoustics. Three potential noise source regions are investigated, namely, the helmet wake, the surface boundary layer and the cavity under the helmet at the chin bar. Extensive information is provided on the structure of the helmet wake including its frequency content. While the wake and boundary layer flows showed negligible contributions to at-ear sound the cavity region around the chin bar was identified as a key noise source. The contribution of the cavity region was investigated as a function of flow speed and helmet angle both of which are shown to be key factors governing the sound produced by this region. PMID:21895059

  11. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  12. Effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation to increase helmet use: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Karkhaneh, M; Kalenga, J‐C; Hagel, B E; Rowe, B H

    2006-01-01

    Background Head injuries related to bicycle use are common and can be serious. They can be prevented or reduced in severity with helmet use; however, education has resulted in modest helmet use in most developed countries. Helmet legislation has been proposed as a method to increase helmet wearing; while this social intervention is thought to be effective, no systematic review has been performed. Objectives This review evaluates the scientific evidence for helmet use following legislation to identify the effectiveness of legislative interventions to increase bicycle helmet use among all age groups. Search strategy Comprehensive searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, British Education Index, LILACS Database, TRIS (Transport Research Information Service), the grey literature, reference lists, and communication with authors was performed to identify eligible studies. Selection criteria Eligible studies for this review were community based investigations including cohort studies, controlled before‐after studies, interrupted time series studies, non‐equivalent control group studies Data collection and analysis Two reviewers extracted the data regarding the percentage of helmet use before and after legislation from each study. Individual and pooled odds ratios were calculated along with 95% confidence intervals. Main results Out of 86 prescreened articles, 25 were potentially relevant to the topic and 11 were finally included in the review. Of 11 studies, eight were published articles, two were published reports, and one was an unpublished article. One additional survey was incorporated following personal communication with the author. While the baseline rate of helmet use among these studies varied between 4% and 59%, after legislation this range changed to 37% and 91%. Helmet wearing proportions increased less than 10% in one study, 10–30% in four studies, and more than 30% in seven studies. While the effectiveness of bicycle helmet

  13. Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Larry L.; Brown, Randall W.; MacMillan, Robert T.

    1995-05-01

    The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than its predecessor. Because of human physiological limits, the human has become the weak link in today's fighter aircraft. The fighter pilot must endure and function with peak performance in conditions that are much worse than anything the majority of us will ever encounter. When these conditions reach a point that human endurance is exceeded, devices such as anti-g suits and positive pressure breathing apparatus help the fighter pilot squeeze out that extra percentage of strength necessary to outperform the opponent. As fighter aircraft become more sophisticated, helmet trackers, helmet displays and noise cancellation devices are being added to the helmet. Yet the fighter pilot's helmet must remain lightweight and be aesthetically appealing, while still offering ballistic protection. It must function with existing life support equipment such as the Combined Advanced Technology Enhanced Design g-Ensemble (COMBAT-EDGE). It must not impede the pilot's ability to perform any action necessary to accomplish the planned mission. The helmet must protect the pilot during the harsh environment of ejection. When the pilot's only resort is to pull the handle and initiate the ejection sequence, the helmet becomes his salvation or instant death. This paper discusses the safety concerns relative to the catapult phase of ejecting from a high-speed fighter while wearing an advanced fighter helmet.

  14. Simulation-based assessment for construction helmets.

    PubMed

    Long, James; Yang, James; Lei, Zhipeng; Liang, Daan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a concerted effort for greater job safety in all industries. Personnel protective equipment (PPE) has been developed to help mitigate the risk of injury to humans that might be exposed to hazardous situations. The human head is the most vulnerable to impact as a moderate magnitude can cause serious injury or death. That is why industries have required the use of an industrial hard hat or helmet. There have only been a few articles published to date that are focused on the risk of head injury when wearing an industrial helmet. A full understanding of the effectiveness of construction helmets on reducing injury is lacking. This paper presents a simulation-based method to determine the threshold at which a human will sustain injury when wearing a construction helmet and assesses the risk of injury for wearers of construction helmets or hard hats. Advanced finite element, or FE, models were developed to study the impact on construction helmets. The FE model consists of two parts: the helmet and the human models. The human model consists of a brain, enclosed by a skull and an outer layer of skin. The level and probability of injury to the head was determined using both the head injury criterion (HIC) and tolerance limits set by Deck and Willinger. The HIC has been widely used to assess the likelihood of head injury in vehicles. The tolerance levels proposed by Deck and Willinger are more suited for finite element models but lack wide-scale validation. Different cases of impact were studied using LSTC's LS-DYNA. PMID:23495784

  15. High magnitude head impacts experienced during youth football practices.

    PubMed

    Young, Tyler; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the risk of concussion in the 3.5 million youth athletes who participate in organized football leagues in the United States each year, practice structure can be modified to decrease impact frequency and magnitude. The objective of this study is to identify activities that result in high magnitude head impacts in youth football players during practice. The HIT System was used to record the head acceleration magnitude, impact location on the helmet, and time of each impact for each game and practice players participated in. These data were used to quantify the head impact exposure associated with players between the ages of 9 and 11 years. Video footage recorded during each practice and game session was used to identify the activity associated with any impact above 45 g. The incidence rate of high magnitude impacts in various activities were compared by normalizing by the amount of time associated with each activity. It was determined that scrimmages accounted for 0.094 impacts greater than 45 g per minute in practices while contact drills contributed to 0.102 impacts greater than 45 g per minute during practices. The results of this study indicate future youth football practice modifications should focus on both scrimmages and contact drills. PMID:25405410

  16. Helmet integration: an overview of critical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, Robert J.

    1989-09-01

    Helmet mounted sights and displays are becoming basic requirements for new aircraft designs, upgrade programs, special mission applications and simulators. The common objective in all these efforts is to increase the mission effectiveness and survivability of the ground/air/space vehicle crew. This presentation will focus on the human integration of the helmet, display and sight subsystem functions to meet this goal. The specific intent of this information will be to impart a higher level of sensitivity to the importance of helmet subsystem functionality as it applies to the interrelated issues of protection, comfort, pilot interface, aircraft interface and supportability. Design and field experiences relative to current helmet mounted sight/display (HMS/D) production and development programs will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evolution of specific helmet subsystems based on performance specifications, mission requirements analysis, user evaluation and the subsequent but inevitable tradeoff analysis. The performance potential of any HMS/D will ultimately be judged by the physical interface to the user. When a piecemeal, one-display-fits-all approach is taken, the results can be both ineffective and hazardous. When a thorough, functionally integrated approach is applied to the physical interaction of an HMS/D application, the vehicle crew capability will improve dramatically. Many fixed and rotary wing programs as well as land vehicle demonstrations have conclusively demonstrated this over the past twenty years. This can be safely achieved without compromising the current base line crew comfort and crew-to-vehicle interface.

  17. Attenuation of noise by motorcycle safety helmets.

    PubMed

    Młyński, Rafał; Kozłowski, Emil; Zera, Jan

    2009-01-01

    For workers such as police motorcyclists or couriers, traffic and engine noise reaching the ears is an important factor contributing to the overall condition of their work. This noise can be reduced with motorcycle helmets. In this study, insertion loss of motorcycle helmets was measured with the microphone-in-real-ear technique and sound attenuation with the real-ear-at-threshold method. Results for 3 Nolan helmets show essentially no protection against external noise in the frequency range <250 Hz. In the frequency range >500 Hz, attenuation increases linearly at a rate of 8-9 dB per octave, to ~30 dB at 8 kHz. Lack of attenuation in the low-frequency range may cause annoying effects. In addition, high attenuation in the high-frequency range may decrease intelligibility of speech signals for a rider in a helmet. Attenuation measured in this study does not take into account noise generated by turbulent wind around the helmet. Thus, the measured values of attenuation represent a motorcycle rider's best conditions of hearing. PMID:19744370

  18. Impact attenuation properties of new and used lacrosse helmets.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Thomas G; Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Dodge, Thomas M; Nauman, Eric A

    2015-11-01

    The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) has developed impact attenuation thresholds that protective helmets worn in sport must meet to be commercially available in an attempt to prevent injury. It remains unknown how normal helmet use in athletic activity alters the force attenuation ability of lacrosse helmets. We tested 3 new and 3 randomly selected used helmets from 2 popular lacrosse models (Cascade Pro7, Cascade CPXR). All used helmets had been worn for 3 collegiate seasons prior to testing and had never been refurbished. Helmets were drop-tested using 3 prescribed impact velocities at 6 locations according to the NOCSAE lacrosse helmet standard, and we compared the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) scores between new and used helmets using a repeated measure ANOVA with location as the repeated variable and data separated by impact velocity. All 12 helmets passed the NOCSAE GSI threshold for all testing conditions; however 1 used helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test. We found a significant main effect for helmet age at the low (F5,50=2.98, P=.02), medium (F5,50=3.71, P=.006), and high (F5,50=2.70, P=.03) velocities. We suspect that helmet use can degrade materials under some conditions, but improve performance in others due to changes in helmet composition from use. The clinical implications of the differences in GSI scores noted remain unclear. Because one helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test, used helmets should be regularly inspected for cracks or other signs of mechanical fatigue that may weaken helmet integrity.

  19. Impact attenuation properties of new and used lacrosse helmets.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Thomas G; Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Dodge, Thomas M; Nauman, Eric A

    2015-11-01

    The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) has developed impact attenuation thresholds that protective helmets worn in sport must meet to be commercially available in an attempt to prevent injury. It remains unknown how normal helmet use in athletic activity alters the force attenuation ability of lacrosse helmets. We tested 3 new and 3 randomly selected used helmets from 2 popular lacrosse models (Cascade Pro7, Cascade CPXR). All used helmets had been worn for 3 collegiate seasons prior to testing and had never been refurbished. Helmets were drop-tested using 3 prescribed impact velocities at 6 locations according to the NOCSAE lacrosse helmet standard, and we compared the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) scores between new and used helmets using a repeated measure ANOVA with location as the repeated variable and data separated by impact velocity. All 12 helmets passed the NOCSAE GSI threshold for all testing conditions; however 1 used helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test. We found a significant main effect for helmet age at the low (F5,50=2.98, P=.02), medium (F5,50=3.71, P=.006), and high (F5,50=2.70, P=.03) velocities. We suspect that helmet use can degrade materials under some conditions, but improve performance in others due to changes in helmet composition from use. The clinical implications of the differences in GSI scores noted remain unclear. Because one helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test, used helmets should be regularly inspected for cracks or other signs of mechanical fatigue that may weaken helmet integrity. PMID:26429768

  20. Nonuse of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: a proportional mortality, case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Navindra; Coleman, Emily; Zwolakowski, Dorothy; Lauwers, Bert; Cass, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of helmets at preventing cycling fatalities, a leading cause of death among young adults worldwide, is controversial, and safety regulations for cycling vary by jurisdiction. We sought to determine whether nonuse of helmets is associated with an increased risk of fatal head injury. Methods: We used a case–control design involving 129 fatalities using data from a coroner’s review of cycling deaths in Ontario, Canada, between 2006 and 2010. We defined cases as cyclists who died as a result of head injuries; we defined controls as cyclists who died as a result of other injuries. The exposure variable was nonuse of a bicycle helmet. Results: Not wearing a helmet while cycling was associated with an increased risk of dying as a result of sustaining a head injury (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–7.3). We saw the same relationship when we excluded people younger than 18 years from the analysis (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.5) and when we used a more stringent case definition (i.e., only a head injury with no other substantial injuries; adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2–10.2). Interpretation: Not wearing a helmet while cycling is associated with an increased risk of sustaining a fatal head injury. Policy changes and educational programs that increase the use of helmets while cycling may prevent deaths. PMID:23071369

  1. Frequency and Location of Head Impact Exposures in Individual Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Crisco, Joseph J.; Fiore, Russell; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Brolinson, Per Gunnar; Duma, Stefan; McAllister, Thomas W.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Greenwald, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Measuring head impact exposure is a critical step toward understanding the mechanism and prevention of sport-related mild traumatic brain (concussion) injury, as well as the possible effects of repeated subconcussive impacts. Objective: To quantify the frequency and location of head impacts that individual players received in 1 season among 3 collegiate teams, between practice and game sessions, and among player positions. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Collegiate football field. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred eighty-eight players from 3 National Collegiate Athletic Association football teams. Intervention(s): Participants wore football helmets instrumented with an accelerometer-based system during the 2007 fall season. Main Outcome Measure(s): The number of head impacts greater than 10g and location of the impacts on the player's helmet were recorded and analyzed for trends and interactions among teams (A, B, or C), session types, and player positions using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results: The total number of impacts players received was nonnormally distributed and varied by team, session type, and player position. The maximum number of head impacts for a single player on each team was 1022 (team A), 1412 (team B), and 1444 (team C). The median number of head impacts on each team was 4.8 (team A), 7.5 (team B), and 6.6 (team C) impacts per practice and 12.1 (team A), 14.6 (team B), and 16.3 (team C) impacts per game. Linemen and linebackers had the largest number of impacts per practice and per game. Offensive linemen had a higher percentage of impacts to the front than to the back of the helmet, whereas quarterbacks had a higher percentage to the back than to the front of the helmet. Conclusions: The frequency of head impacts and the location on the helmet where the impacts occur are functions of player position and session type. These data provide a basis for quantifying specific head impact exposure for studies related to

  2. Motorcycle Helmet Laws: A Case Study of Consumer Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardis, Rachel; Lefkowitz, Camille

    1987-01-01

    The study examines societal losses from 1976 federal legislation on state motorcycle helmet laws. Comprehensive state helmet laws would have had cost-benefit ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.18. The fact that 31 states did not have comprehensive helmet laws in 1981 raises questions concerning whether society should intervene on behalf of consumers.…

  3. The impact absorption characteristics of cricket batting helmets.

    PubMed

    Stretch, R A

    2000-12-01

    To determine whether the helmets currently used by cricket batsmen offer sufficient protection against impacts of a cricket ball, the impact absorption characteristics of six helmets were measured using the drop test at an impact velocity equivalent to a cricket ball with a release speed of 160 km x h(-1) (44.4 m x s(-1)). An accelerometer transducer attached to a 5.0 kg striker was dropped from a height of 3.14 m onto the batting helmets to measure the impact characteristics at the three different impact sites: right temple, forehead and back of the helmet. These data were further expressed as a percentage above (-) or below (+) the recommended safety standard of 300 g. The results indicate that the force absorption characteristics of the helmets showed inter- and intra-helmet variations, with 14 of the 18 impact sites (66.7%) assessed meeting the recommended safety standards. Helmets 1, 2 and 4 succeeded in meeting the safety standards at all impact sites; helmets 5 and 6 both failed at the back and forehead, while helmet 3 failed at all impact sites. These differences were due to the structure and composition of the inner protective layer of the helmets. The helmets that succeeded in meeting the standards were made with a moulded polystyrene insert, a heat-formed ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) insert, or EVA with a relatively high density that allows a minimal amount of movement of the helmet at ball impact.

  4. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties.

  5. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    PubMed

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  6. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties. PMID:22327159

  7. Metabolic and thermoregulatory responses to a simulated American football practice in the heat.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Kristen M; Millard-Stafford, Melinda L; Phillips, Jeremy M; Snow, Teresa K

    2007-08-01

    Energy cost is a major factor influencing the tolerable thermal load, particularly during exercise in the heat. However, no data exist on the metabolic cost of football practice, although a value of 35% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) has been estimated. The energy cost and thermoregulatory response of offensive linemen (OL) was measured wearing different American football ensembles during a simulated half of football practice in the heat. Five collegiate offensive linemen (133 kg, 20% fat, 42 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) maximal oxygen uptake) completed each of four 60-minute test sessions in an environmental chamber (28 degrees C, 55% relative humidity [RH]) wearing shorts (S), helmet (H), helmet and shoulder pads (HS), and full gear (FUL). Core temperature in the digestive tract (TGI) was obtained using an ingestible sensor. During simulated football drills (e.g., repetitions of drive blocking), exercise intensity ranged from 30 to 81% VO(2)max but averaged 55%VO(2)max (6.7 METS) overall. Blood lactate remained >5 mmol x L(-1), and heart rate (HR) averaged 79%HRmax. Equipment had a significant effect on %VO(2)max but only during recovery between drills with HS (61.4 +/- 3.7%) compared with H (53.3 +/- 6.9%) and S (40.1 +/- 8.5%). The TGI was higher (p < 0.05) with HS compared with H at several time-points after 30 minutes. Football practice for OL elicits a significantly higher overall metabolic cost (>6 METS, >50%VO(2)max) than assumed in previous studies. The addition of shoulder pads increases core temperature and energy cost, especially during recovery between active drills in unacclimatized linemen.

  8. Flying helmet attenuation, and the measurement, with particular reference to the Mk 4 helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, G. M.

    1981-06-01

    To predict the intelligibility of communication systems, it is necessary to be able to measure helmet attenuation accurately and repeatably, and it is this particular aspect which is highlighted. Some of the results from a comprehensive series of tests involving subjective and semiobjective measurement of the attenuation of noise by flying helmets are discussed. The analysis shows that the semiobjective method of ascertaining hearing protector or flying helmet attenuation, using miniature measuring microphones, is a viable alternative to the existing standard REAT methods, and has considerable advantages in providing more useful information in less time. Additionally, high correlations exist between laboratory and in-flight mesurements of attenuation, clearly indicating that laboratory measurements reproduce helmet attenuation actually found in the air.

  9. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. PMID:27448519

  10. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use.

  11. Removal Tools are Faster and Produce Less Force and Torque on the Helmet Than Cutting Tools During Face-Mask Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Heather L.; Valovich, Tamara C.; Arnold, Brent L.; Gansneder, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the retraction time, forces, and torques applied to the football helmet during removal of the face mask with different face-mask removal tools. Design and Setting: Subjects retracted the face mask of a football helmet mounted to a force platform in a laboratory setting. They removed a standard face mask by cutting or removing (or both) the lateral plastic loop straps using 4 different tools: the Trainer's Angel (TA), FM Extractor (FM), power screwdriver (SD), and Quick Release System (QR) in a counterbalanced fashion. Subjects: Eighteen certified athletic trainers participated in this study. Measurements: We started measuring time when the subject picked up the tool and ended when the face mask was in a fully retracted position. Maximum forces and torques were measured from the force platform during the retraction process. Results: The SD and QR retracted the face mask significantly faster than the TA and FM. Forces producing superior-inferior translation were least with the SD. The SD and QR produced less lateral translation and rotation and lateral flexion moment than the TA and FM. The FM produced less torque in the lateral flexion moment than the TA. Conclusions: Tools that removed the loop straps (SD, QR) were faster and produced less force and torque on the helmet than the tools that cut through the loop straps (TA, FM). PMID:12937580

  12. Laboratory Validation of Two Wearable Sensor Systems for Measuring Head Impact Severity in Football Players.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Bonin, Stephanie J

    2016-04-01

    Wearable sensors can measure head impact frequency and magnitude in football players. Our goal was to quantify the impact detection rate and validity of the direction and peak kinematics of two wearable sensors: a helmet system (HITS) and a mouthguard system (X2). Using a linear impactor, modified Hybrid-III headform and one helmet model, we conducted 16 impacts for each system at 12 helmet sites and 5 speeds (3.6-11.2 m/s) (N = 896 tests). Peak linear and angular accelerations (PLA, PAA), head injury criteria (HIC) and impact directions from each device were compared to reference sensors in the headform. Both sensors detected ~96% of impacts. Median angular errors for impact directions were 34° for HITS and 16° for X2. PLA, PAA and HIC were simultaneously valid at 2 sites for HITS (side, oblique) and one site for X2 (side). At least one kinematic parameter was valid at 2 and 7 other sites for HITS and X2 respectively. Median relative errors for PLA were 7% for HITS and -7% for X2. Although sensor validity may differ for other helmets and headforms, our analyses show that data generated by these two sensors need careful interpretation.

  13. Lateral bending biomechanical analysis of neck protection devices used in football.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steve; McNeely, David; Duma, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a dynamic biomechanical analysis of football neck collars in order to determine their effect on head and neck loading. A total of 48 tests were performed comparing the Cowboy Collar, Bullock Collar, and the Kerr Collar. A control and each collar was tested at two speeds (5 m/s and 7 m/s), three impact locations (front, top, and side of the helmet), and two shoulder pad positions (normal and raised). This paper specifically analyzes the load limiting capabilities of these collars during an impact to the side of the helmet. A 50 percentile male Hybrid III dummy was equipped with a helmet, shoulder pads, and the various neck collars mentioned. The dummy was instrumented with tri-axial accelerometers at the CG of the head. Angular rate sensors were used in the head and chest. In addition, both the upper and lower neck were instrumented with load cells. The helmet was struck with a pneumatic linear impactor to provoke rotation of the head and neck. With the side impact location, the Kerr Collar substantially reduced lower neck moment. These reductions in loads correlate with the degree to which each collar restricted the motion of the head and neck.

  14. Newspapers, Football & Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Star/Times, MO. Educational Services Dept.

    This booklet focuses on the Kansas City (Missouri) Chiefs professional football team and is designed to teach geography through the use of newspapers. In Section 1, "The Local Scene," the instructional activities help students to learn about the Kansas City metropolitan area through collecting news stories and advertisements. Section 2, "The…

  15. The Science of Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity designed to interest and motivate students in science. By comparing scientific experimentation to the processes employed in planning, playing, and analyzing the results of a football match, students become more aware of the similarity between activities in their lives and in science. (JR)

  16. Changing the Culture: Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  17. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Head-Down Contact and Spearing in Tackle Football

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Clarke, Kenneth S.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Torg, Joseph S.; Weis, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations that decrease the risk of cervical spine fractures and dislocations in football players. Background: Axial loading of the cervical spine resulting from head-down contact is the primary cause of spinal cord injuries. Keeping the head up and initiating contact with the shoulder or chest decreases the risk of these injuries. The 1976 rule changes resulted in a dramatic decrease in catastrophic cervical spine injuries. However, the helmet-contact rules are rarely enforced and head-down contact still occurs frequently. Our recommendations are directed toward decreasing the incidence of head-down contact. Recommendations: Educate players, coaches, and officials that unintentional and intentional head-down contact can result in catastrophic injuries. Increase the time tacklers, ball carriers, and blockers spend practicing correct contact techniques. Improve the enforcement and understanding of the existing helmet-contact penalties. PMID:15085218

  18. Emergent Access to the Airway and Chest in American Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Mihalik, Jason P.; Decoster, Laura C.; Al-Darraji, Sossan; Bric, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Context: American football has the highest rate of fatalities and catastrophic injuries of any US sport. The equipment designed to protect athletes from these catastrophic events challenges the ability of medical personnel to obtain neutral spine alignment and immobilization during airway and chest access for emergency life-support delivery. Objective: To compare motion, time, and difficulty during removal of American football helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads. Design: Quasi-experimental, crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: We recruited 40 athletic trainers (21 men, 19 women; age = 33.7 ± 11.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 9.2 cm, mass = 80.7 ± 17.1 kg, experience = 10.6 ± 10.4 years). Intervention(s): Paired participants conducted 16 trials in random order for each of 4 helmet, face-mask, and shoulder-pad combinations. An 8-camera, 3-dimensional motion-capture system was used to record head motion in live models wearing properly fitted helmets and shoulder pads. Main Outcome Measure(s): Time and perceived difficulty (modified Borg CR-10). Results: Helmet removal resulted in greater motion than face-mask removal, respectively, in the sagittal (14.88°, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.72°, 16.04° versus 7.04°, 95% CI = 6.20°, 7.88°; F1,19 = 187.27, P < .001), frontal (7.00°, 95% CI = 6.47°, 7.53° versus 4.73°, 95% CI = 4.20°, 5.27°; F1,19 = 65.34, P < .001), and transverse (7.00°, 95% CI = 6.49°, 7.50° versus 4.49°, 95% CI = 4.07°, 4.90°; F1,19 = 68.36, P < .001) planes. Face-mask removal from Riddell 360 helmets took longer (31.22 seconds, 95% CI = 27.52, 34.91 seconds) than from Schutt ION 4D helmets (20.45 seconds, 95% CI = 18.77, 22.12 seconds) or complete ION 4D helmet removal (26.40 seconds, 95% CI = 23.46, 29.35 seconds). Athletic trainers required less time to remove the Riddell Power with RipKord (21.96 seconds, 95% CI = 20.61°, 23.31° seconds) than traditional shoulder pads (29.22 seconds

  19. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    PubMed

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  20. Head Position and Football Equipment Influence Cervical Spinal-Cord Space During Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Ryan T.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Sitler, Michael R.; Maldjian, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of head position and football equipment (ie, helmet and shoulder pads) on cervical spinal cord space in individuals lying supine on a spine board. Design and Setting: The independent variables were head position (0-cm, 2-cm, and 4-cm occiput elevation with no helmet and shoulder pads and with helmet and shoulder pads) and cervical spine level (C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7). The 3 dependent variables were sagittal space available for the cord (SAC) (mm), sagittal spinal-cord diameter (mm), and cervical-thoracic angle (°), determined via magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects: Twelve men (age = 24.3 ± 2.1 years; height = 181.1 ± 5.7 cm; weight = 93.9 ± 3.6 kg). Measurements: Sagittal space available for the cord was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The spinal-canal diameter was measured as the shortest distance from the vertebral body to the spinolaminar line at each of the spinal levels. Each measurement was taken 3 times, and the 3 measurements were averaged. Results: Sagittal space available for the cord was significantly greater (P < .01) for 0-cm (mean = 5.50 mm) than for 2-cm (mean = 4.86 mm) and 4-cm (mean = 5.07 mm) occiput elevation. SAC was also significantly greater (P < .01) for the equipment condition (mean = 5.34 mm) than for the 2-cm and 4-cm elevation levels. No significant difference (P = .093) in SAC existed between 0-cm elevation and the equipment condition. Conclusions: The helmet and shoulder pads should be left on during spine-board immobilization of the injured football player. Similarly, during spine-board immobilization of an individual without football helmet and shoulder pads, the head should be maintained at 0 cm of occiput elevation. Sagittal spinal-cord space is optimized in both of these conditions. PMID:12937433

  1. Joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS) helmet qualification testing requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orf, Garry W.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) program will provide capability to cue high off-boresight (HOBS) weapons to the operator's line of sight and to confirm weapon sensor LOS for the US Air Force and US Navy (USN) aircrew. This capability will ensure the USAF and USN pilots a first shot opportunity. The JHMCS incorporates an ejection-compatible helmet-mounted display system that will be installed on F- 15, F-16, F/A-18, and F-22 aircraft. The JHMCS includes a flight helmet with display optics, miniature cathode ray tube, magnetic receiver unit, miniature camera, automatic brightness control sensor, and microcontroller. The flight helmet for JHMCS is based on the new lightweight HGU-55A/P. This paper describes the requirements for the helmet qualification tests including: windblast, ejection tower, hanging harness, centrifuge, mass properties, energy attenuation and penetration resistance, noise attenuation, visor characteristics, compatibility demonstration, sled/in- flight ejection, water survival, standard conditions and environment. The test objective, success criteria, equipment configuration, and data collection requirements for each test is discussed.

  2. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  3. Advanced rotorcraft helmet display sighting system optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynal, Francois; Chen, Muh-Fa

    2002-08-01

    Kaiser Electronics' Advanced Rotorcraft Helmet Display Sighting System is a Biocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) for Rotary Wing Aviators. Advanced Rotorcraft HMDs requires low head supported weight, low center of mass offsets, low peripheral obstructions of the visual field, large exit pupils, large eye relief, wide field of view (FOV), high resolution, low luning, sun light readability with high contrast and low prismatic deviations. Compliance with these safety, user acceptance and optical performance requirements is challenging. The optical design presented in this paper provides an excellent balance of these different and conflicting requirements. The Advanced Rotorcraft HMD optical design is a pupil forming off axis catadioptric system that incorporates a transmissive SXGA Active Matrix liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD), an LED array backlight and a diopter adjustment mechanism.

  4. Helmets, head injury and concussion in sport.

    PubMed

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Shin, Samuel S; Kanter, Adam S

    2015-07-01

    Research on the mechanism of concussion in recent years has been focused on the mechanism of injury as well as strategies to minimize or reverse injury. Sports-related head injury research has led to the development of head protective gear that has evolved over the years. Headgears have been designed to protect athletes from skull fractures, subdural hemorrhages and concussions. Over the years, through experience of athletes and continued scientific research, improvements in helmet design have been made. Although these advances have decreased the number of catastrophic injuries throughout sports, the effects on concussions are promising, but largely unproven. In this review, we will discuss development of helmets and studies analyzing their level of protection for both concussion and head injury. This will help us understand what future developments are still needed to minimize the risk of concussion among athletes in various forms of sports.

  5. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  6. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  7. Helmet use among motorcyclists who died in crashes and economic cost savings associated with state motorcycle helmet laws--United States, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-06-15

    In 2010, the 4,502 motorcyclists (operators and passengers) killed in motorcycle crashes made up 14% of all road traffic deaths, yet motorcycles accounted for <1% of all vehicle miles traveled. Helmet use consistently has been shown to reduce motorcycle crash-related injuries and deaths, and the most effective strategy to increase helmet use is enactment of universal helmet laws. Universal helmet laws require all motorcyclists to wear helmets whenever they ride. To examine the association between states' motorcycle helmet laws and helmet use or nonuse among fatally injured motorcyclists, CDC analyzed 2008-2010 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal traffic crashes in the United States. Additionally, economic cost data from NHTSA were obtained to compare the costs saved as a result of helmet use, by type of state motorcycle helmet law. The findings indicated that, on average, 12% of fatally injured motorcyclists were not wearing helmets in states with universal helmet laws, compared with 64% in partial helmet law states (laws that only required specific groups, usually young riders, to wear helmets) and 79% in states without a helmet law. Additionally, in 2010, economic costs saved from helmet use by society in states with a universal helmet law were, on average, $725 per registered motorcycle, nearly four times greater than in states without such a law ($198).

  8. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  9. College Football Games and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  10. Advanced helmet vision system (AHVS) integrated night vision helmet mounted display (HMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Todd W.; Atac, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Gentex Corporation, under contract to Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 4.0T), designed the Advanced Helmet Vision System to provide aircrew with 24-hour, visor-projected binocular night vision and HMD capability. AHVS integrates numerous key technologies, including high brightness Light Emitting Diode (LED)-based digital light engines, advanced lightweight optical materials and manufacturing processes, and innovations in graphics processing software. This paper reviews the current status of miniaturization and integration with the latest two-part Gentex modular helmet, highlights the lessons learned from previous AHVS phases, and discusses plans for qualification and flight testing.

  11. Measurement of Impact Acceleration: Mouthpiece Accelerometer Versus Helmet Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michael; Halstead, P. David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Barlow, David

    2007-01-01

    Context: Instrumented helmets have been used to estimate impact acceleration imparted to the head during helmet impacts. These instrumented helmets may not accurately measure the actual amount of acceleration experienced by the head due to factors such as helmet-to-head fit. Objective: To determine if an accelerometer attached to a mouthpiece (MP) provides a more accurate representation of headform center of gravity (HFCOG) acceleration during impact than does an accelerometer attached to a helmet fitted on the headform. Design: Single-factor research design in which the independent variable was accelerometer position (HFCOG, helmet, MP) and the dependent variables were g and Severity Index (SI). Setting: Independent impact research laboratory. Intervention(s): The helmeted headform was dropped (n = 168) using a National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) drop system from the standard heights and impact sites according to NOCSAE test standards. Peak g and SI were measured for each accelerometer position during impact. Main Outcome Measures: Upon impact, the peak g and SI were recorded for each accelerometer location. Results: Strong relationships were noted for HFCOG and MP measures, and significant differences were seen between HFCOG and helmet g measures and HFCOG and helmet SI measures. No statistically significant differences were noted between HFCOG and MP g and SI measures. Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between HFCOG and MP measures but not between HFCOG and helmet measures. Conclusions: Upon impact, MP acceleration (g) and SI measurements were closely related to and more accurate in measuring HFCOG g and SI than helmet measurements. The MP accelerometer is a valid method for measuring head acceleration. PMID:17597937

  12. Adaptive sensor array algorithm for structural health monitoring of helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Wu, Nan; Sun, Kai; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-04-01

    The adaptive neural network is a standard technique used in nonlinear system estimation and learning applications for dynamic models. In this paper, we introduced an adaptive sensor fusion algorithm for a helmet structure health monitoring system. The helmet structure health monitoring system is used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull. Installed inside the helmet system, there is an optical fiber pressure sensors array. After implementing the adaptive estimation algorithm into helmet system, a dynamic model for the sensor array has been developed. The dynamic response characteristics of the sensor network are estimated from the pressure data by applying an adaptive control algorithm using artificial neural network. With the estimated parameters and position data from the dynamic model, the pressure distribution of the whole helmet can be calculated following the Bazier Surface interpolation method. The distribution pattern inside the helmet will be very helpful for improving helmet design to provide better protection to soldiers from head injuries.

  13. One-piece transparent shell improves design of helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Okane, J. H.

    1966-01-01

    One-piece transparent helmet shell made of polycarbonate is equipped with a helmet protection pad, a visor assembly, a communications skull cap, and an emergency oxygen supply. This design offers improvements over previous designs in weight, visual field, comfort and protection.

  14. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011). Two... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the...

  15. Helmet CPAP versus Oxygen Therapy in Hypoxemic Acute Respiratory Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuwen; Luo, Yan; Li, Yun; Zhou, Luqian; Zhu, Zhe; Chen, Yitai; Huang, Yuxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) remains unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to critically review studies that investigated the effect of helmet CPAP on gas exchange, mortality, and intubation rate in comparison with standard oxygen therapy. Materials and Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by searching the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, OVID, and CBM databases, and the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. Studies that enrolled adults with hARF who were treated with helmet CPAP and measured at least one of the following parameters were included: gas exchange, intubation rate, in-hospital mortality rate. Results Four studies with 377 subjects met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Compared to the standard oxygen therapy, helmet CPAP significantly increased the PaO2/FiO2 [weighted mean difference (WMD)=73.40, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 43.92 to 102.87, p<0.00001], and decreased the arterial carbon dioxide levels (WMD=-1.92, 95% CI: -3.21 to -0.63, p=0.003), intubation rate [relative risk (RR)=0.21, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.40, p<0.00001], and in-hospital mortality rate (RR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.50, p=0.0004). Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest that helmet CPAP improves oxygenation and reduces mortality and intubation rates in hARF. However, the significant clinical and statistical heterogeneity of the literature implies that large RCTs are needed to determine the role of helmet CPAP in different hypoxemic ARF populations. PMID:27189288

  16. Qualification of the scorpion helmet cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atac, Robert; Bugno, Tony

    2011-06-01

    Gentex Corporation won the Helmet Mounted Integrated Targeting (HMIT) contract with the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve in May 2010 along with Raytheon Technical Services Corporation as the prime contractor. The HMIT program involves qualification and installation of the Scorpion HMCS Color HMD in both the A-10C and F-16C Block 30 aircraft types. Qualification tests include all aspects from ejection safety, to NVG and pilot compatibility as well as performance testing. This paper will review the qualification testing results and program status along with any lessons learned.

  17. Middle School Students and Bicycle Helmet Use: Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Morissette, Brenda; Noland, Virginia; McDermott, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding bicycle helmet use. Surveys indicated that most rode bicycles but did not use helmets, despite understanding their protective capabilities, because of poor peer support and helmet design. There was a positive relationship between helmet ownership and use. Most…

  18. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  19. Racial Discrimination in College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jones A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study investigating racial discrimination in college football. In particular, the study focuses on the concept of stacking, which is the disproportional allocation of players to central and noncentral team positions based on race or ethnicity. (RKM)

  20. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  1. Teaching French via American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)

  2. 'Thoroughly Good Football': Teachers and the Origins of Elementary School Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerrigan, Colm

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of elementary school soccer (football), addressing topics such as: the role of public schools in organized soccer, soccer in elementary schools, the first schoolboy soccer association, South London Schools' Football Association, the London Schools' Football Association, and the English Schools' Football Association. (CMK)

  3. Analysis of fatal injuries to motorcyclists by helmet type.

    PubMed

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Shigeta, Akio; Takatsu, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Tokudome, Shogo

    2004-06-01

    To clarify the characteristics of injuries of motorcyclists dying in accidents in relation to helmet type, we retrospectively analyzed forensic autopsies of 36 helmeted motorcycle riders. The presence of major injuries and injury severity were evaluated with the injury severity score and the 1990 revision of the Abbreviated Injury Scale. Persons with open-face helmets (19 cases) were significantly more likely to have sustained severe head and neck injuries, especially brain contusions, than were persons with full-face helmets (17 cases). Furthermore, major injuries of the chest or abdomen, rib fractures, lung injuries, and liver injuries were each present in more than one quarter of all cases (26.3% to 70.6%), but their prevalences did not differ significantly between riders with different types of helmet. Because many types of head and neck injuries cannot be prevented and fatal chest and abdominal injuries occur despite the use of full-face helmets, more effective helmets and devices for protecting the chest and abdomen are needed to decrease deaths from motorcycle accidents. PMID:15166762

  4. Human factor requirements of helmet trackers for HMDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Gary L.; Havig, Paul R.; Post, David L.; Reis, George A.; Simpson, Matthew A.

    2003-09-01

    A helmet tracker is a critical element in the path that delivers targeting and other sensor data to the user of a helmet-mounted display (HMD) in a military aircraft. The original purpose of an HMD was to serve as a helmet-mounted sight and provide a means to fully utilize the capabilities of off-boresight munitions. Recently, the role of the HMD has evolved from being strictly a targeting tool to providing detailed flight path and situation awareness information. These changes, however, have placed even greater value on the visual information that is transferred through the helmet tracker to the HMD. Specifically, the timeliness and accuracy of the information, which is of critical importance when the HMD is used as a targeting aid, is of even greater importance when the HMD is used to display flight reference information. This is especially relevant since it has been proposed to build new military aircraft without a physical head-up display (HUD) and display HUD information virtually with an HMD. In this paper, we review the current state of helmet tracker technology with respect to use in military aviation. We also identify the parameters of helmet trackers that offer the greatest risk when using an HMD to provide information beyond targeting data to the user. Finally, we discuss the human factors limitations of helmet tracker systems for delivering both targeting and flight reference information to a military pilot.

  5. Archaeometallurgical characterization of the earliest European metal helmets

    PubMed Central

    Mödlinger, Marianne; Piccardo, Paolo; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Kovács, Imre; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Zoltán; Káli, György; Szilágyi, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Archaeometric analyses on conical and decorated cap helmets from the Bronze Age are presented. The helmets are dated to the 14–12th century BC according to associated finds in hoards. Alloy composition, material structure and manufacturing processes are determined and shed light on the earliest development of weaponry production in Central and Eastern Europe. Analyses were carried out using light and dark field microscopy, SEM–EDXS, PIXE, TOF-ND and PGAA. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process, the differences between the cap of the helmets and their knobs (i.e. alloy composition) and the joining technique of the two parts. PMID:26523114

  6. A Lightweight Innovative Helmet Airborne Display And Sight (HADAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, Daniel; Arnon, Oded; Avnur, Arie

    1987-09-01

    The Helmet Airborne Display and Sight (HADAS) system under development, has succeeded in surmounting many of the problems experienced by current, as well as past helmet mounted display and sight designs for operation in fighter aircraft. The goal has been achieved by combination of holographic optical elements and fiber optics for the display function, as well as real-time image processing of the helmet location for the sight function. The integrated system can provide "all aspect head-up display" performance in the cockpit.

  7. Factors associated with bicycle helmet use among young adolescents in a multinational sample

    PubMed Central

    Klein, K; Thompson, D; Scheidt, P; Overpeck, M; Gross, L; the, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors associated with variation in bicycle helmet use by youth of different industrialized countries. Design: A multinational cross sectional nationally representative survey of health behaviors including symptoms, risk taking, school setting, and family context. Setting: School based survey of 26 countries. Subjects: School students, ages 11, 13, and 15 years totaling 112 843. Outcome measures: Reported frequency of bicycle helmet use among bicycle riders. Results: Reported helmet use varied greatly by country from 39.2% to 1.9%, with 12 countries reporting less than 10% of the bicycle riders as frequent helmet users and 14 countries more than 10%. Reported helmet use was highest at 11 years and decreased as children's age increased. Use was positively associated with other healthy behaviors, with parental involvement, and with per capita gross domestic product of the country. It is negatively associated with risk taking behaviors. Countries reported to have interventions promoting helmet use, exemplified by helmet giveaway programmes, had greater frequency of reported helmet use than those without programmes. Conclusions: Bicycle helmet use among young adolescents varies greatly between countries; however, helmet use does not reach 50% in any country. Age is the most significant individual factor associated with helmet for helmet using countries. The observation that some helmet promotion programmes are reported for countries with relatively higher student helmet use and no programmes reported for the lowest helmet use countries, suggests the possibility of a relation and the need for objective evaluation of programme effectiveness. PMID:16203837

  8. Concussion and football: a review and editorial.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Kalil G; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M

    2015-04-01

    The issue of concussion in football is of substantial interest to players, coaches, fans, and physicians. In this article, we review specific cultural hindrances to diagnosis and treatment of concussion in football. We review current trends in management and identify areas for improvement. We also discuss the obligations that physicians, particularly neurosurgeons and neurologists, have toward brain-injured football players and the larger societal role they may play in helping to minimize football-associated brain injury.

  9. Cervical Spine Motion During Football Equipment-Removal Protocols: A Challenge to the All-or-Nothing Endeavor

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Bradley; Cendoma, Michael; Gdovin, Jacob; Cooney, Kevin; Bruening, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Context The National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete recommended the all-or-nothing endeavor, which involves removing or not removing both helmet and shoulder pads, from equipment-laden American football and ice hockey athletes. However, in supporting research, investigators have not considered alternative protocols. Objective To measure cervical spine movement (head relative to sternum) produced when certified athletic trainers (ATs) use the all-or-nothing endeavor and to compare these findings with the movement produced using an alternative pack-and-fill protocol, which involves packing the area under and around the cervical neck and head with rolled towels. Design Crossover study. Setting Movement analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Eight male collegiate football players (age = 21.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 1.87 ± 0.02 m; mass = 103.6 ± 12.5 kg). Intervention(s) Four ATs removed equipment under 4 conditions: removal of helmet only followed by placing the head on the ground (H), removal of the helmet only followed by pack-and-fill (HP), removal of the helmet and shoulder pads followed by placing the head on the ground (HS), and removal of the helmet and shoulder pads followed by pack-and-fill (HSP). Motion capture was used to track the movement of the head with respect to the sternum during equipment removal. Main Outcome Measure(s) We measured head movement relative to sternum movement (translations and rotations). We used 4 × 4 analyses of variance with repeated measures to compare discrete motion variables (changes in position and total excursions) among protocols and ATs. Results Protocol HP resulted in a 0.1 ± 0.6 cm rise in head position compared with a 1.4 ± 0.3 cm drop with protocol HS (P < .001). Protocol HP produced 4.9° less total angular excursion (P < .001) and 2.1 cm less total vertical excursion (P < .001) than protocol HS. Conclusions The pack

  10. Airway Preparation Techniques for the Cervical Spine-Injured Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Richard; Luchies, Carl; Bazuin, Doug; Farrell, Robert N.

    1995-01-01

    Athletic health care professionals have been concerned about how to optimize the emergency care the cervical spine-injured football player receives on the field. Much of the discussion has centered on how to best expose and prepare the airway for rescue breathing in the quickest and safest manner possible. This study compared the time required and the extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine during three traditional and one new airway exposure and preparation technique. Twelve subjects wearing football helmets and shoulder pads were exposed to multiple trials of airway exposure via face mask repositioning using a manual screwdriver, power screwdriver, and the Trainer's Angel cutting device. Subjects also underwent airway preparation using the pocket mask insertion technique. Cervical spine motion was measured in two dimensions using an optoelectronic motion analysis system. Time and qualitative assessment were obtained through videotape analysis. Significant differences were found between the techniques with respect to time and cervical spine motion. The pocket mask allowed quicker activation of rescue breathing than the other three traditional techniques. There was no significant difference in the amount of extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine between the pocket mask, manual screwdriver, and power screwdriver techniques. The Trainer's Angel induced significantly more motion than the other three techniques in each of the four motions measured. Changes in traditional protocols used to treat cervical spine-injured football players on the field are recommended based on these data. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2. PMID:16558339

  11. What Research Tells the Coach About Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Roderick R.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…

  12. Kicking the Football?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  13. A comparison of Gaelic football injuries in males and females in primary care.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J; Jordan, J; Falvey, E

    2011-10-01

    The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men's Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports.

  14. Helmets Don't Prevent Kids' Motocross Concussions

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161623.html Helmets Don't Prevent Kids' Motocross Concussions Fractures, head injuries common ... have to say that kids under 18 shouldn't do motocross," said Dr. Barbara Pena, research director ...

  15. 21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. Comparison of maxillofacial and dental injuries in four contact team sports: American football, bandy, basketball, and handball.

    PubMed

    Sane, J

    1988-01-01

    Maxillofacial and dental injuries were studied in registered players of American football, bandy, basketball, and handball in Finland between 1979 and 1985. In American football, where facial protection is complete and mandatory, maxillofacial and dental accidents accounted for only 1.4% of all accidents. In bandy, where facial protection was inadequate during the time of study (only the helmet and extraoral mouth protector were mandatory), the respective figure was 10.6%. The most frequent causes of injury were a blow from another player (in American football, basketball, and handball) or a blow from the stick (in bandy). In American football, the mean cost of treatment related to maxillofacial and dental injuries was only 60% of the mean total cost of all injuries. In contrast, the mean cost of treatment for maxillofacial and dental injuries in basketball and bandy was twice and three times as high, respectively, as that for all injuries. The need for adequate facial protection in contact sports is also discussed.

  17. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072

  18. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072

  19. Sound localisation ability of soldiers wearing infantry ACH and PASGT helmets.

    PubMed

    Scharine, Angelique A; Binseel, Mary S; Mermagen, Timothy; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2014-01-01

    Helmets provide soldiers with ballistic and fragmentation protection but impair auditory spatial processing. Missed auditory information can be fatal for a soldier; therefore, helmet design requires compromise between protection and optimal acoustics. Twelve soldiers localised two sound signals presented from six azimuth angles and three levels of elevation presented at two intensity levels and with three background noises. Each participant completed the task while wearing no helmet and with two U.S. Army infantry helmets - the Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops (PASGT) helmet and the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH). Results showed a significant effect of helmet type on the size of both azimuth and elevation error. The effects of level, background noise, azimuth and elevation were found to be significant. There was no effect of sound signal type. As hypothesised, localisation accuracy was greatest when soldiers did not wear helmet, followed by the ACH. Performance was worst with the PASGT helmet.

  20. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurjewicz, Laryssa; Berndt, Anita

    2007-03-15

    The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm{sup 3} thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm{sup 2}) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements.

  1. Motorcycle helmets--a state of the art review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, F A O; Alves de Sousa, R J

    2013-07-01

    This paper tries to make an overview of the work carried out by scientific community in the area of road helmets safety. In an area that is constantly being pushed forward by market competition, self-awareness of danger and tighter standards, several research groups around the world have contributed to safety gear improvement. In this work concepts related to head impact protection and energy absorption are explained. It also makes reference to the theories related to the development of helmets, as well as to the different existing types nowadays. The materials that are typically used in impact situations and new design concepts are also approached. In addition, it is presented a literature review of current--and most commonly used--helmet test standards, along with new tests and helmet concepts to assess the effects of rotational motion. In a non-restrictive, and never up-to-date report, a state-of-art review on road helmets safety is done, with a special insight into brain injury, helmet design and standards. PMID:23583353

  2. Measurement of Hybrid III Head Impact Kinematics Using an Accelerometer and Gyroscope System in Ice Hockey Helmets.

    PubMed

    Allison, Mari A; Kang, Yun Seok; Maltese, Matthew R; Bolte, John H; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2015-08-01

    Helmet-based instrumentation is used to study the biomechanics of concussion. The most extensively used systems estimate rotational acceleration from linear acceleration, but new instrumentation measures rotational velocity using gyroscopes, potentially reducing error. This study compared kinematics from an accelerometer and gyroscope-containing system to reference measures. A Hybrid III (HIII) adult male anthropometric test device head and neck was fit with two helmet brands, each instrumented with gForce Tracker (GFT) sensor systems in four locations. Helmets were impacted at various speeds and directions. Regression relationships between GFT-measured and reference peak kinematics were quantified, and influence of impact direction, sensor location, and helmet brand was evaluated. The relationship between the sensor output and the reference acceleration/velocity experienced by the head was strong. Coefficients of determination for data stratified by individual impact directions ranged from 0.77 to 0.99 for peak linear acceleration and from 0.78 to 1.0 for peak rotational velocity. For the data from all impact directions combined, coefficients of determination ranged from 0.60 to 0.80 for peak resultant linear acceleration and 0.83 to 0.91 for peak resultant rotational velocity. As expected, raw peak resultant linear acceleration measures exhibited large percent differences from reference measures. Adjustment using regressions resulted in average absolute errors of 10-15% if regression adjustments were done by impact direction or 25-40% if regressions incorporating data from all impact directions were used. Average absolute percent differences in raw peak resultant rotational velocity were much lower, around 10-15%. It is important to define system accuracy for a particular helmet brand, sensor location, and impact direction in order to interpret real-world data.

  3. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  4. It's not football.

    PubMed

    Ryan, G

    1998-01-01

    Today I am as happy as I could ever be. I have created a lot out of very little, I have worked full time, played full time, got full-time friends, full-time independence, had full-time love and am lucky enough to be with my new full-time love who helps me a great deal both physically and mentally. It is definitely no fun coughing until your chest is sore in the morning, afternoon and evening. Having wringing night-sweats from cepacia. Wanting to sleep more than Mr Sleep from Sleepland. Taking tablets the size of which sunk the Belgrano. Finding time for physiotherapy, eating the right meals, playing on my Playstation. Depression has got through on previous occasions, but not for long, and it has never resulted in anything more than a 'wake up and smell the coffee' call from myself. Having CF is no ball game (otherwise it would be called football or something!), but I have had a lot of fun and will continue to do so for however long. Two years, five years, 20 years--who's to say, not me. We could all have the same left, I just hope that everyone has as much fun.

  5. Effect of an aerodynamic helmet on head temperature, core temperature, and cycling power compared with a traditional helmet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua F; Brown, Skyler R; Lange, Andrew P; Brothers, R Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Nonvented "aerodynamic helmets" reduce wind resistance but may increase head (Th) and gastrointestinal (Tgi) temperature and reduce performance when worn in hot conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that Th and Tgi would be greater during low-intensity cycling (LIC) in the heat while wearing an aero helmet (AERO) vs. a traditional vented racing helmet (REG). This study also tested the hypothesis that Th, Tgi, and finish time would be greater, and power output would be reduced during a self-paced time trial in the heat with AERO vs. REG. Ten highly trained heat-acclimated endurance athletes conducted LIC (50% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LIC) and a high-intensity 12-km self-paced time trial (12-km TT) on a cycle ergometer in 39° C on 2 different days (AERO and REG), separated by >48 hours. During LIC, Th was higher at minute 7.5 and all time points thereafter in AERO vs. REG (p < 0.05). Similarly, during the 12-km TT, Th was higher at minutes 12.5, 15, and 17.5 in AERO vs. REG (p < 0.05). Heart rate (HR) and Tgi increased during LIC and during 12-km TT (both p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction (helmet × time) existed for HR or Tgi at either intensity (all p > 0.05). No group differences existed for finish time or power output during the 12-km TT (both p > 0.05). In conclusion, Th becomes elevated during cycling in the heat with an aero helmet compared with a traditional vented racing helmet during LIC and high-intensity cycling, yet Tgi and HR responses are similar irrespective of helmet type and Th. Furthermore, the higher Th that develops when an aero helmet is worn during cycling in the heat does not affect power output or cycling performance during short-duration high-intensity events.

  6. Role of helmet in the mechanics of shock wave propagation under blast loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Ganpule, S; Gu, L; Alai, A; Chandra, N

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of helmets in extenuating the primary shock waves generated by the explosions of improvised explosive devices is not clearly understood. In this work, the role of helmet on the overpressurisation and impulse experienced by the head were examined. The shock wave-head interactions were studied under three different cases: (i) unprotected head, (ii) head with helmet but with varying head-helmet gaps and (iii) head covered with helmet and tightly fitting foam pads. The intensification effect was discussed by examining the shock wave flow pattern and verified with experiments. A helmet with a better protection against shock wave is suggested. PMID:21806412

  7. Influence of type of helmet on facial trauma in motorcycle accidents.

    PubMed

    Cini, Marcelo Augusto; Prado, Bárbara Grassi; Hinnig, Patricia de Fragas; Fukushima, Walter Yoshinori; Adami, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The mandatory use of helmets by motorcyclists has lowered the incidence of facial trauma, but we know little about the effects of different models of helmet on such injuries. We aimed to find out how different types of helmet affect facial injuries. We collected retrospective data from the medical records of 157 patients treated in a trauma centre in metropolitan São Paulo between January and December 2011. Patients wearing open-face helmets were twice as likely to require an operation as those wearing full-face helmets. The type of helmet is strongly associated with the treatment required. PMID:24969842

  8. Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: High School Ages 14 to 18 Years and Cumulative Impact Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Jillian E.; Davenport, Elizabeth M.; Golman, Adam J.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Powers, Alexander K.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact exposure in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact exposure was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact exposure metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative exposure for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative exposure. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted exposure based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact exposure of

  9. Head impact exposure in youth football: high school ages 14 to 18 years and cumulative impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Golman, Adam J; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-12-01

    Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact exposure in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact exposure was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact exposure metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative exposure for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative exposure. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted exposure based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact exposure of

  10. Head impact exposure in youth football: high school ages 14 to 18 years and cumulative impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Golman, Adam J; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-12-01

    Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact exposure in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact exposure was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact exposure metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative exposure for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative exposure. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted exposure based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact exposure of

  11. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds.

  12. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds. PMID:27077273

  13. The Assessment of Airway Maneuvers and Interventions in University Canadian Football, Ice Hockey, and Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, J. Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Baylis, Penny-Jane; Troutman, Tracy; Aljufaili, Mahmood; Correa, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Managing an airway in an unconscious athlete is a lifesaving skill that may be made more difficult by the recent changes in protective equipment. Different airway maneuvers and techniques may be required to help ventilate an unconscious athlete who is wearing full protective equipment. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of different airway maneuvers with football, ice hockey, and soccer players wearing full protective equipment. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University sports medicine clinic. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 146 university varsity athletes, consisting of 62 football, 45 ice hockey, and 39 soccer players. Intervention(s): Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three investigators then evaluated the effectiveness of different bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation techniques in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while inline cervical spine immobilization was maintained. Main Outcome Measure(s): The effectiveness of 1-person BVM ventilation (1-BVM), 2-person BVM ventilation (2-BVM), and inline immobilization and ventilation (IIV) was judged by each investigator for each athlete using a 4-point rating scale. Results: All forms of ventilation were least difficult in soccer players and most difficult in football players. When compared with 1-BVM, both 2-BVM and IIV were deemed more effective by all investigators for all athletes. Interference from the helmet and stabilizer were common reasons for difficult ventilation in football and ice hockey players. Conclusions: Sports medicine professionals should practice and be comfortable with different ventilation techniques for athletes wearing full equipment. The use of a new ventilation technique, termed inline immobilization and ventilation, may be beneficial, especially when the number of responders is limited. PMID:21391796

  14. Advances in sports medicine. Prevention of head and neck injuries in football.

    PubMed

    Reid, S E; Reid, S E

    1981-01-01

    Statistics on catastrophic head and neck injuries in football provide a more realistic indication of the incidence of serious injuries occurring on the football field than do the fatality figures. These statistics, however, provide no clues for preventing such injuries. Moreover, research using head models, anesthetized animals, cadaveric heads, and estimates of brain tolerance to impact based on studies of actual injuries to the heads of humans has produced conflicting data with respect to the goal of improving the safety record of the sport. To reconcile the data and to provide some solutions to the problem of serious injuries on the playing field, we reviewed the data collected in the laboratory and correlated it with the information obtained from telemetry studies. As a result of combining these two data sources, we concluded that injuries on the playing field occur at either end of the spectrum of offered resistance: when too much resistance is offered and when little or no resistance is offered. We demonstrated that, by avoiding either of these extremes, serious injuries to the head and neck can be reduced considerably. Finally, we discussed the importance of preprogrammed responses by the experienced, well-conditioned athlete. These allow the athlete to avoid either extreme of resistance and, thereby, protect him from injury. Clearly, the data obtained from laboratory and telemetry studies will prove instrumental in effecting changes in the sport of football. As a result of these studies, we can hope for alterations in the design of the helmet, enlightened coaching techniques, and rule revisions--all of which will serve to make football a safe sport.

  15. Concussion - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... to ask your doctor about concussion - adult; Brain injury - mild - what to ask your doctor - adult ... I start contact sports, such as football or soccer? When can I begin skiing or snowboarding When ...

  16. Magnitude of Head Impact Exposures in Individual Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Bethany J.; Machan, Jason T.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Duma, Stefan M.; Rowson, Steven; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Greenwald, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the severity of head impacts sustained by individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences between impacts sustained during practice and game sessions, as well as by player position and impact location. Head impacts (N = 184,358) were analyzed for 254 collegiate players at three collegiate institutions. In practice, the 50th and 95th percentile values for individual players were 20.0 g and 49.5 g for peak linear acceleration, 1187 rad/s2 and 3147 rad/s2 for peak rotational acceleration, and 13.4 and 29.9 for HITsp, respectively. Only the 95th percentile HITsp increased significantly in games compared with practices (8.4%, p= .0002). Player position and impact location were the largest factors associated with differences in head impacts. Running backs consistently sustained the greatest impact magnitudes. Peak linear accelerations were greatest for impacts to the top of the helmet, whereas rotational accelerations were greatest for impacts to the front and back. The findings of this study provide essential data for future investigations that aim to establish the correlations between head impact exposure, acute brain injury, and long-term cognitive deficits. PMID:21911854

  17. Selected physical capacity norms for Australian football players at the non-elite level.

    PubMed

    Batt, Angela K; Braham, Rebecca A; Goodman, Carmel

    2007-04-01

    Australian football is a popular male team sport that consists mainly of participants competing at the non-elite level. The main purpose of this study was to compare in non-elite Australian football players competing in sub-elite and community leagues, selected physical capacities recognised as predictors of lower extremity injury in Australian football and/or other sports. Participants were 143 adult (mean age of 22.2 years) male Western Australian footballers from the Western Australian Football League (WAFL) (sub-elite) and the Western Australian Amateur Football League (WAAFL) (community). During the 2005 regular playing season participants completed a questionnaire and a physical measurement testing session. The physical testing session involved the following lower extremity measures: generalised joint laxity, leg length discrepancy, presence of Morton's toe, foot arch, hamstring flexibility and static balance. Football players from the sub-elite and community leagues did not differ significantly in any of the physical testing session measures or in the questionnaire items relating to injury number in the past 12 months and lower limb preventative device use. However, they did differ in some measures with players from the sub-elite league significantly more likely to stretch after a match and training, and to have a designated stretching leader at their club. While players from the community league were significantly more likely to smoke and to participate in sports additional to Australian football. Although the selected physical capacities did not differ between the sub-elite and community players in this study, future research should be aimed at identifying differences for a greater number of physical capacities, including skill and endurance, while utilising a larger sample.

  18. Disinfection of football protective equipment using chlorine dioxide produced by the ICA TriNova system

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Anthony L; DuBois, John D; Tenney, Joel D

    2009-01-01

    Backround Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks have occurred in individuals engaged in athletic activities such as wrestling and football. Potential disease reduction interventions include the reduction or elimination of bacteria on common use items such as equipment. Chlorine dioxide has a long history of use as a disinfectant. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of novel portable chlorine dioxide generation devices to eliminate bacteria contamination of helmets and pads used by individuals engaged in football. Methods In field studies, the number of bacteria associated with heavily used football helmets and shoulder pads was determined before and after overnight treatment with chlorine dioxide gas. Bacteria were recovered using cotton swabs and plated onto trypticase soy agar plates. In laboratory studies, Staphylococcus aureus was applied directly to pads. The penetration of bacteria into the pads was determined by inoculating agar plates with portions of the pads taken from the different layers of padding. The ability to eliminate bacteria on the pad surface and underlying foam layers after treatment with chlorine dioxide was also determined. Results Rates of recovery of bacteria after treatment clearly demonstrated that chlorine dioxide significantly (p < 0.001) reduce and eliminated bacteria found on the surface of pads. For example, the soft surface of shoulder pads from a university averaged 2.7 × 103 recoverable bacteria colonies before chlorine dioxide treatment and 1.3 × 102 recoverable colonies after treatment. In addition, the gas was capable of penetrating the mesh surface layer and killing bacteria in the underlying foam pad layers. Here, 7 × 103 to 4.5 × 103 laboratory applied S. aureus colonies were recovered from underlying layers before treatment and 0 colonies were present after treatment. Both naturally occurring bacteria and S. aureus were susceptible to the treatment process

  19. 76 FR 35023 - National Institute of Justice Protective Helmet Standards Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice Protective Helmet Standards Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of the NIJ Protective Helmet Standards...

  20. 40° image intensifier tubes in an integrated helmet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, Herbert; Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Svedevall, B.

    1993-12-01

    EUROCOPTER has been under contract to the French and German ministries of defence for five years to develop the TIGER, a second generation anti-tank helicopter. A piloting thermal imager has been installed on a steerable platform in the helicopter nose in order to achieve the possibility of flying round the clock. In addition to this sensor, which is sensitive at a wavelength of 10 micrometers , the German side has proposed using an Integrated Helmet System in the PAH 2. This helmet, manufactured by GEC-Marconi Avionics, incorporates two cathode ray tubes (CRT) and two image intensifier tubes which allow the pilot to use an additional sensor in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The electronic part will be built by Teldix. EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND has received the first demonstrator of this helmet for testing in the EUROCOPTER Visionics Laboratory. Later, the C-prototype will be integrated into a BK 117 helicopter (AVT Avionik Versuchstrager). This new helmet has a field of view of 40 degree(s), and exit pupil of 15 mm and improved possibilities of adjusting the optical part. Laboratory tests have been carried out to test important parameters like optical resolution under low light level conditions, field of view, eye relief or exit pupil. The CRT channels have been tested for resolution, distortion, vignetting and homogeneity. The requirements and the properties of the helmet, test procedures and the results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  1. The Cognitive Pilot Helmet: enabling pilot-aware smart avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Thomas; Melzer, James E.; Robbins, Steve J.

    2009-05-01

    We hypothesize that human-aware helmet display systems can drastically improve situation awareness (SA), reduce workload, and become the cognitive gateway to two-way human-systems information. We designed a ruggedized prototype helmet liner that was fitted with active electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and pulse oxymetry sensor. This liner was integrated into a helmet that was fitted with a binocular SR-100A helmet mounted display. We modified the SR-100A to include dual-eye tracking capability. The resulting system is able to pick up physiological signals from the wearer in real-time for cognitive state characterization by the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS). We conducted a preliminary test of the cognitive state estimation system in a simulated close-air-support task in the laboratory and found that workload throughout the mission could be gauged using physiological parameters. Cognitively-linked helmet systems can increase situation awareness by metering the amount of information based on available cognitive bandwidth and eventually, we feel that they will be able to provide anticipatory information to the user by means of cognitive intent recognition. Considerable design challenges lie ahead to create robust models of cognitive state characterization and intent recognition. However, the rewards of such efforts could be systems that allow a dramatic increase in human decision making ability and productivity in dynamical complex situations such as air combat or surface warfare.

  2. Impact of a Comprehensive Safety Program on Bicycle Helmet Use among Middle-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Van Houten, Joy; Malenfant, J. E. Louis

    2007-01-01

    A bicycle helmet program was evaluated in three middle schools using a multiple baseline across schools design. Two of the three schools had histories of enforcement of helmet use. During baseline many students riding their bikes to and from school did not wear their helmets or wore them incorrectly. A program that consisted of peer data…

  3. Using Social Marketing to Increase the Use of Helmets among Bicyclists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n = 15) as…

  4. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322 Surface-supplied helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at...

  5. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  7. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  8. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  9. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  11. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  12. Motorcycle Helmets: The Economic Burden of an Incomplete Helmet Law to Medical Care in the State of Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Averbukh, Leon; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Goel, Alex; Leslie, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    The lack of a mandatory motorcycle helmet law leads to increased injury severity and increased health care costs. This study presents a financial model to estimate how the lack of a mandatory helmet law impacts the cost of health care in the state of Connecticut. The average cost to treat a helmeted rider and a nonhelmeted rider was $3,112 and $5,746 respectively (cost adjusted for year 2014). The total hospital treatment cost in the state of Connecticut from 2003 through 2012 was $73,106,197, with $51,508,804 attributed to nonhelmeted riders and $21,597,393 attributed to helmeted riders. The total Medicaid cost to the state of Connecticut for treating nonhelmeted patients was $18,277,317. This model demonstrates that the lack of a mandatory helmet law increases overall health care costs to the state of Connecticut, and provides a framework by which hospital costs can be reduced to contribute to the economic stability of health care economics in the state. PMID:26506676

  13. Angles of entry of ultraviolet radiation into welding helmets.

    PubMed

    Tenkate, T S; Collins, M J

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the angles of entry of ultraviolet (UV) radiation into welding helmets, a UV detector was placed in the eye socket of a head form that was then fitted with a range of welding helmets. The head form was exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation from various orientations, and the amount of infiltration was measured. Radiation was found to be reflected from the filter plate and into the detector (eye) after entering through (1) an opening between the edge of the shield and the side of the face, and (2) an opening between the top edge of the shield and the top of the head. These results have significance for UV exposure when welding is performed in highly reflective and enclosed situations, and for the design of welding helmets.

  14. Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Shitzer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A modular liquid-cooled helmet liner made of eight form-fitting neoprene patches was constructed. The liner was integrated into the sweatband of an Army SPH-4 helicopter aircrew helmet. This assembly was tested on four subjects seated in a hot (47 C), humid (40%) environment. Results indicate a marked reduction in the rate of increase of physiological body functions. Rectal temperature, weight loss, heart rate, and strain indices are all reduced to approximately 50% of uncooled levels. The cooling liner removed from 10% to 30% of total metabolic heat produced. This study also demonstrated the technical feasilibity of using a cooling liner in conjunction with a standard hard helmet. Potential applications of the cooling liner in thermally stressful environments are numerous, notably for helicopter and other aircrews.

  15. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  16. Helmet-mounted display (day/night)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, Gerald S.; Yona, Zvi

    1996-06-01

    A dangerous situation is created when the pilot looks inside the cockpit for instrument information when flying combat and low altitude missions. While looking at instruments, a pilot cannot be performing situation analysis; yet not looking at instruments runs such risks as flying into the ground, particularly in low visibility conditions or in relatively featureless terrain where visual cues for altitude and attitude are inadequate or deceptive. The AN/AVS-7 HMD solves this problem for night flight for both helicopters and fixed wing aircraft which must operate in a 'nap of the earth' flight regime. The display unit mounts on the AN/AVS-6 night vision goggles and provides symbology overlaid on the pilot's outside view; cockpit instrument information is thus provided through the goggles. The pilot is immediately aware of changes in either his surroundings or the instrument readings. This minimizes the risk of critical information being missed in one area while the pilot is looking in the other. The 'day' HMD version of the AN/AVS-7 display now carries these advantages into daytime flights. This display unit operates in conditions from full sunlight to dusk, provides the same symbology as the night display, and connects to the night display interface with no aircraft modification. The day HMD mounts to the helmet using the attachment points previously reserved for the night vision goggles. This display improves the safety of daytime operations by keeping the eyes 'out of the cockpit' in difficult situations such as those presented during landings, cargo lifting and flight utilizing terrain masking. It offers the possibility of a less stressful way of familiarizing the pilot with the symbology and of the dynamic relationships it has to the aircraft and background motions. This familiarization is now accomplished during night flights using night vision goggles. The 'day' HMD is also a useful maintenance aid, easing the ground crew's checkout of the aircraft systems

  17. Low-cost monochrome CRT helmet display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of the cathode ray tube (CRT) helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost monochrome display incorporating see-through optics. The HMD was also to be integrable with a variety of image generation systems and suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers and night vision goggles (NVG) training applications. A final goal for the HMD was to provide a full field of regard (FOR) using a head-tracker system. The resultant HMD design included two 1 inch CRTs used with a simple optical design of beam splitters and spherical mirrors. The design provides for approximately 50% transmission and reflectance capabilities for observing the 30 degree(s) vertical X 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view visual image from a graphic image generator system. This design provides for a theoretical maximum of 10.8% of the CRT image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for an average out-the-window scene have yielded 12 to 13 Foot Lamberts with the capability of providing approximately 130 Foot Lamberts. Invoking a software 'own ship' mask to 'blackout' the visual image, the user can monitor 'in-cockpit' instrumentation utilizing the see- through characteristics of the optics. The CRTs are operated at a TV line rate with a modulation transfer function (MTF) of approximately 65%. The small beam spot size and the high MTF provide for an enhanced image display. The display electronics are designed to provide a monochrome video picture based on an RS170 video input.

  18. Minimally Invasive Suturectomy and Postoperative Helmet Therapy : Advantages and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sangjoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226853

  19. Advanced helmet tracking technology developments for naval aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindle, James H.

    1996-06-01

    There is a critical need across the Services to improve the effectiveness of aircrew within the crewstation by capitalizing on the natural psycho-motor skills of the pilot through the use of a variety of helmet-mounted visual display and control techniques. This has resulted in considerable interest and significant ongoing research and development efforts on the part of the Navy, as well as the Army and the Air Force, in the technology building blocks associated with this area, such as advanced head position sensing or head tracking technologies, helmet- mounted display optics and electronics, and advanced night vision or image intensification technologies.

  20. Teenagers' attitudes towards bicycle helmets three years after the introduction of mandatory wearing.

    PubMed Central

    Finch, C. F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND SETTING: To address helmet wearing by 13-17 year olds this study posed the following research questions: 'Do education programs continue to be necessary even after the community wearing rate has increased?' and 'Are helmet laws more effective in encouraging wearing among certain age groups?' Victoria was the first place in the world to introduce bicycle helmet legislation. Experiences in Victoria therefore provide a good model for the introduction of similar legislation in other areas. This study is the first to examine teenagers' attitudes towards helmet wearing after the introduction of compulsory helmet wearing legislation. METHODS: A survey of 1240 year 9 and year 10 students, aged 13-17 years, from 14 secondary schools in the outer south eastern suburbs of Melbourne, was conducted in September 1993. Information about bicycle use, helmet wearing, and attitudes towards helmets was obtained by a self report questionnaire. RESULTS: Bicycles are a popular form of wheeled recreation/self transport among teenagers. 65% of teenagers reported that they owned a helmet but only one third wore a helmet the last time they rode a bicycle. Fewer than 25% of students always wore a helmet when they rode a bicycle, despite compulsory helmet wearing legislation. Major factors leading to teenagers not wanting to wear a helmet were appearance and comfort. Both safety considerations and parental pressures were factors that influenced a teenager to wear a helmet. CONCLUSIONS: The major areas that need to be addressed are low helmet wearing rates; the low priority given to safety issues compared with comfort and peer acceptance; an ignorance of the need for helmets in all riding situations; and a perception that the legislation would not be enforced. PMID:9346076

  1. Using baseline and formative evaluation data to inform the Uganda Helmet Vaccine Initiative.

    PubMed

    Roehler, Douglas R; Naumann, Rebecca B; Mutatina, Boniface; Nakitto, Mable; Mwanje, Barbara; Brondum, Lotte; Blanchard, Claire; Baldwin, Grant T; Dellinger, Ann M

    2013-12-01

    Motorcycles are an important form of transportation in Uganda, and are involved in more road traffic injuries than any other vehicle. The majority of motorcycles in Uganda are used as motorcycle taxis, better known locally as boda bodas. Research shows that a motorcycle helmet is effective at reducing a rider's risk of death and head injury. As part of the Uganda Helmet Vaccine Initiative (UHVI), researchers collected baseline and formative evaluation data on boda boda operators' helmet attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to inform UHVI activities. Researchers collected data on motorcycle helmet-related attitudes and beliefs through focus group discussions and structured roadside interviews, and researchers conducted roadside observations to collect data on helmet-wearing behaviors. Of the 12,189 motorcycle operators and passengers observed during roadside observations, 30.8% of drivers and <1% of passengers were wearing helmets. The most commonly reported helmet-wearing barriers from the focus group discussions and structured roadside interviews were: (1) 'Helmet is uncomfortable', (2) 'Helmet is too hot', (3) 'Helmet is too expensive', and (4) 'Helmet is of low quality'. Researchers incorporated findings from the formative research into the UHVI campaign to increase motorcycle helmet use. Radio messages addressing helmet comfort and cost were widely aired throughout Kampala, Uganda. In addition, campaign staff held nine boda boda operator workshops, covering approximately 900 operators, in which the facilitator addressed barriers and facilitators to helmet use. Each workshop participant received a high-quality tropical motorcycle helmet. UHVI will continue to use a data-driven approach to future campaign activities. PMID:24722741

  2. Low-cost helmet-mounted camera/display system for field testing teleoperator tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Robert E.; Ikehara, Curtis S.; Merritt, John O.

    1992-06-01

    A low cost helmet-mounted stereoscopic color viewing system designed for field testing teleoperator tasks is described. A stereo camera pair was mounted on a helmet to allow testing of a helmet-mounted display with real time video input. The display consisted of a pair of LCD color monitors viewed through a modified Wheatstone mirror system. The components were arranged on a stable platform that was attached to a hard plastic helmet. The helmet weight (9.5 pounds) was supported by a modified backpack. This backpack also contained support electronics and batteries. Design, construction, and evaluation tests of this viewing system are discussed.

  3. The postmodernity of football hooliganism.

    PubMed

    King, A

    1997-12-01

    By using a 'cultural' definition of 'postmodernism' (derived from Jameson and Martin) in which postmodernism is regarded as the transgression of modern boundaries, this article traces the emergence of postmodern aspects to violent male fandom at football games since the 1960s. It is argued that at games, male fans have created imaginary masculine and national boundaries by which they have affirmed their identities but that in fighting they have sought to breach these boundaries in postmodern fashion. PMID:9421956

  4. Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle riders and passengers at a tertiary care hospital in north-western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chalya, Phillipo L; Ngayomela, Isidori H; Mabula, Joseph B; Mbelenge, Nkinda; Dass, Ramesh M; Chandika, Alphonce; Gilyoma, Japhet M; Kapesa, Anthony; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2014-10-01

    Motorcycle helmets have been reported to reduce the risk of death and head injuries following motorcycle accidents. The aim of this descriptive prospective study was to determine the injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists and passengers at a tertiary hospital in north-western Tanzania. A total of 654 patients involved in the motorcycle accident were studied. Of these, 468 (71.6%) were motorcyclists (riders) and the remaining 186 (28.4%) were passengers. The median age of patients at presentation was 26 years. Male outnumbered females by a ratio of 4.5: 1. Helmet use was reported in 312 (47.7%) patients. Non- helmeted patients were young compared with helmeted patients and this was statistically significant (p = 0.021). The rate of helmet use was significantly higher among motorcyclists than among passengers (p = 0.004). History of alcohol consumption prior to the accident was reported in 212 (32.4%) patients. The rate of helmet use was significantly low among alcohol consumers compared with non-alcohol consumers (p = 0.011). Lack of helmet use was significantly associated with abnormal head Computed Tomography scans, admission to the Intensive care unit, severe trauma, and worse traumatic brain injury severity (p < 0.001). Helmet use was significantly associated with shorter period of hospitalization and reduced mortality rate (p < 0.001). Motorcycle helmet use is still low in this part of Tanzania and this poses a great impact on injury outcome among motorcycle injury patients. This observation calls for action to implement more widespread injury prevention and helmet safety education and advocacy. PMID:26891517

  5. An investigation of the NOCSAE linear impactor test method based on in vivo measures of head impact acceleration in American football.

    PubMed

    Gwin, Joseph T; Chu, Jeffery J; Diamond, Solomon G; Halstead, P David; Crisco, Joseph J; Greenwald, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The performance characteristics of football helmets are currently evaluated by simulating head impacts in the laboratory using a linear drop test method. To encourage development of helmets designed to protect against concussion, the National Operating Committee for Standards in Athletic Equipment recently proposed a new headgear testing methodology with the goal of more closely simulating in vivo head impacts. This proposed test methodology involves an impactor striking a helmeted headform, which is attached to a nonrigid neck. The purpose of the present study was to compare headform accelerations recorded according to the current (n=30) and proposed (n=54) laboratory test methodologies to head accelerations recorded in the field during play. In-helmet systems of six single-axis accelerometers were worn by the Dartmouth College men's football team during the 2005 and 2006 seasons (n=20,733 impacts; 40 players). The impulse response characteristics of a subset of laboratory test impacts (n=27) were compared with the impulse response characteristics of a matched sample of in vivo head accelerations (n=24). Second- and third-order underdamped, conventional, continuous-time process models were developed for each impact. These models were used to characterize the linear head/headform accelerations for each impact based on frequency domain parameters. Headform linear accelerations generated according to the proposed test method were less similar to in vivo head accelerations than headform accelerations generated by the current linear drop test method. The nonrigid neck currently utilized was not developed to simulate sport-related direct head impacts and appears to be a source of the discrepancy between frequency characteristics of in vivo and laboratory head/headform accelerations. In vivo impacts occurred 37% more frequently on helmet regions, which are tested in the proposed standard than on helmet regions tested currently. This increase was largely due to the

  6. Low-cost color LCD helmet display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost color display incorporating see-through optics. A full field-of-regard visual presentation was to be provided through the use of a head-tracker system and the HMD was to be suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers. The color imaging devices selected for the project are commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The LCDs are 3.0 inch (diagonal) thin film transistor (TFT) types using a delta format for the red, green, blue (RGB) matrix. Fiber optic light panels mounted behind the LCDs provide a cool light source of greater than 3400 foot-lamberts (ft-L). Approximately 3 percent of the applied light source is emitted by the LCD image source. The video displayed is in a 3:4 format representing a 30 degree(s) vertical by 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) visual image from a graphic image generation system and is controlled in a full field of regard based on positional information from a head-tracker system. The optical elements of the HMD are designed as an exit pupil forming, see-through system and require the eye to be in a 15 mm volume for viewing the scene. The beam splitting function of the optics allows the user to see through the optics for reading cockpit instrumentation, while viewing outside the cockpit reveals the out-the-window (OTW) scene. The optic design allows for the IFOV to be displayed through a set of field lens, relay lens, folding mirror, beam splitter and spherical mirror system. The beam splitters and spherical mirrors for both optical paths are coated for approximately 50 percent transmission and reflectance. This approach, combined with the losses through the rest of the optical path, provides a theoretical maximum of 10.9 percent of the LCD image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for a full white scene have measured at approximately 11 ft-L.

  7. Identifying psychological and socio-economic factors affecting motorcycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Haqverdi, Mahdi Quchaniyan; Seyedabrishami, Seyedehsan; Groeger, John A

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of motorcyclist fatalities in traffic accidents of Iran are due to head injuries, but helmet use is low, despite it being a legal requirement. This study used face-to-face interviews to investigate the factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle riders in Mashhad city, the second largest city in Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data reduction and identification of consistent features of the data. Ordered and multinomial logit analyses were used to quantify the influences on helmet use and non-use. The data show that 47% of the sample used a helmet, but a substantial proportion of these did not wear their helmet properly. In addition, 5% of motorcyclists believed that helmets reduced their safety. Norms, attitudes toward helmet use, risky traffic behavior and awareness of traffic rules were found to be the key determinants of helmet use, but perceptions of enforcement lacked influence. Duration of daily motorcycle trips, riding experience and type of job also affected helmet use. Results indicate that motorcyclist training, safety courses for offending motorcyclists and social programs to improve social norms and attitudes regarding helmet use are warranted, as are more effective law enforcement techniques, in order to increase proper use of helmets in Iranian motorcyclists. In addition, special safety courses should be considered for motorcyclists who have committed traffic violations. PMID:26410724

  8. The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

  9. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. PMID:25039407

  10. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear.

  11. Helmet-Mounted Display Symbology and Stabilization Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, sensor, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information and to view sensor images while looking off boresight.

  12. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  13. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed a cumulative duration of 4.0 milliseconds. S5.2Penetration. When a penetration test is conducted... test procedures. Before subjecting a helmet to the testing sequence specified in S7., prepare it... force during testing. S6.3.2 In testing as specified in S7.1 and S7.2, place the retention system in...

  14. An active noise reduction system for aircrew helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, P. D.; Rawlinson, D.; Pelc, S. F.; Dorey, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    An active noise reduction system was developed for use in aircrew flying helmets in which the acoustic noise field inside the ear defender is detected using a miniature microphone and an antiphase signal is fed back to a communications telephone within the ear defender. Performance of the active noise reduction system in a laboratory trial simulating flight conditions is shown to be satisfactory.

  15. Mandatory helmet legislation and the print media in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Ngo, Anh D; Khuong, Tuan A; Dao, Huong L; Hoang, Hanh T M; Trinh, Hang T; Nguyen, Lien T N; Nguyen, Phong H

    2009-07-01

    With motorcycle ownership high and rising in Viet Nam, and motorcycle riders vulnerable to both fatal and non-fatal injury, the re-introduction of mandatory helmet legislation in 2007 has been a priority for the Vietnamese government. The paper uses a qualitative analysis of web-based versions of the eight most popular newspapers in Viet Nam to track reporting over four phases of the implementation of the legislation, identifying codes and constructing the dominant themes of the media coverage. The study documents the justification and promotion of the legislation, and the mechanisms for preparing for its implementation at a national and local level, developing solutions and encouraging the replication of successful strategies. It records opposition and obstacles to helmet use, and concerns raised around the quality of helmets purchased. In return, the press notes the response of the market in innovative solutions to these problems. With the successful implementation of the legislation, the functions of the print media in promulgating and promoting the legislation, together with the reporting of ongoing resistance to the process, serve to enable a dialogue between the State and population around expressed concerns. In highlighting quality control of helmets as a key issue, the media have identified a potential ongoing role in monitoring the state's initiative in reducing the road toll from traumatic brain injury in motorcyclists. PMID:19540968

  16. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  17. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  18. Biomechanical correlates of symptomatic and asymptomatic neurophysiological impairment in high school football.

    PubMed

    Breedlove, Evan L; Robinson, Meghan; Talavage, Thomas M; Morigaki, Katherine E; Yoruk, Umit; O'Keefe, Kyle; King, Jeff; Leverenz, Larry J; Gilger, Jeffrey W; Nauman, Eric A

    2012-04-30

    Concussion is a growing public health issue in the United States, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the chief long-term concern linked to repeated concussions. Recently, attention has shifted toward subconcussive blows and the role they may play in the development of CTE. We recruited a cohort of high school football players for two seasons of observation. Acceleration sensors were placed in the helmets, and all contact activity was monitored. Pre-season computer-based neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tests were also obtained in order to assess cognitive and neurophysiological health. In-season follow-up scans were then obtained both from individuals who had sustained a clinically-diagnosed concussion and those who had not. These changes were then related through stepwise regression to history of blows recorded throughout the football season up to the date of the scan. In addition to those subjects who had sustained a concussion, a substantial portion of our cohort who did not sustain concussions showed significant neurophysiological changes. Stepwise regression indicated significant relationships between the number of blows sustained by a subject and the ensuing neurophysiological change. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that the effects of repetitive blows to the head are cumulative and that repeated exposure to subconcussive blows is connected to pathologically altered neurophysiology.

  19. Personality and Performance in Intercollegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…

  20. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  1. Emotional Energy among College Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.; And Others

    Emotional energy levels of football players from a Division I college (large enrollment) and a Division II college (small enrollment) were assessed. The 20-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to measure varsity football players' emotional energy (anxiety) level. The 25 Division I and 36 Division II athletes were initially tested 96…

  2. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  3. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of Face-Mask Removal Tools in Inducing Helmet Movement

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Armstrong, Charles W.; Rankin, James M.; Rogers, Burton

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of specific face-mask removal tools during football helmet face-mask retraction using 3-dimensional (3-D) video. Design and Setting: Four different tools were used: the anvil pruner (AP), polyvinyl chloride pipe cutters (PVC), Face Mask (FM) Extractor (FME), and Trainer's Angel (TA). Subjects retracted a face mask once with each tool. Subjects: Eleven certified athletic trainers served as subjects and were recruited from among local sports medicine professionals. Measurements: We analyzed a sample of movement by 3-D techniques during the retraction process. Movement of the head in 3 planes and time to retract the face mask were also assessed. All results were analyzed with a simple repeated-measures one-way multivariate analysis of variance. An overall efficiency score was calculated for each tool. Results: The AP allowed subjects to perform the face-mask removal task the fastest. Face mask removal with the AP was significantly faster than with the PVC and TA and significantly faster with the TA than the PVC. The PVC and AP created significantly more movement than the FME and TA when planes were combined. No significant differences were noted among tools for flexion-extension, rotation, or lateral flexion. The AP had an efficiency score of 14; FME, 15; TA, 18; and PVC, 35. Conclusions: The subjects performed the face-mask removal task in the least amount of time with the AP. They completed the task with the least amount of combined movement using the FME. The AP and FME had nearly identical overall efficiency scores for movement and time. PMID:12937432

  4. The applied physiology of American football.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R

    2008-09-01

    American football is the most popular sport in the United States. Its popularity is likely related to the intense, fast-paced, physical style of play. The importance of strength and conditioning to success in football has been long understood. In fact, the strength and conditioning profession in North America can take its roots from American football. However, only recently has scientific study confirmed the positive relationships between strength, speed, and power to success in this sport. Although strength and conditioning are integral to every American football program, the collaboration with sport scientists has not been as fruitful. Only limited studies are available examining the physiological effects of actual competition and physiological adaptations or maladaptations during a season of competition. Most studies on American football have primarily focused on physical performance characteristics of these athletes and how various training paradigms can be used to improve performance.

  5. The American Football Uniform: Uncompensable Heat Stress and Hyperthermic Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Johnson, Evan C.; Casa, Douglas J.; Ganio, Matthew S.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Yamamoto, Linda M.; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Emmanuel, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: In hot environments, the American football uniform predisposes athletes to exertional heat exhaustion or exercise-induced hyperthermia at the threshold for heat stroke (rectal temperature [Tre] > 39°C). Objective: To evaluate the differential effects of 2 American football uniform configurations on exercise, thermal, cardiovascular, hematologic, and perceptual responses in a hot, humid environment. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men with more than 3 years of competitive experience as football linemen (age  =  23.8 ± 4.3 years, height  =  183.9 ± 6.3 cm, mass  =  117.41 ± 12.59 kg, body fat  =  30.1% ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): Participants completed 3 controlled exercise protocols consisting of repetitive box lifting (lifting, carrying, and depositing a 20.4-kg box at a rate of 10 lifts per minute for 10 minutes), seated recovery (10 minutes), and up to 60 minutes of treadmill walking. They wore one of the following: a partial uniform (PART) that included the National Football League (NFL) uniform without a helmet and shoulder pads; a full uniform (FULL) that included the full NFL uniform; or control clothing (CON) that included socks, sneakers, and shorts. Exercise, meals, and hydration status were controlled. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed sweat rate, Tre, heart rate, blood pressure, treadmill exercise time, perceptual measurements, plasma volume, plasma lactate, plasma glucose, plasma osmolality, body mass, and fat mass. Results: During 19 of 30 experiments, participants halted exercise as a result of volitional exhaustion. Mean sweat rate, Tre, heart rate, and treadmill exercise time during the CON condition were different from those measures during the PART (P range, .04–.001; d range, 0.42–0.92) and FULL (P range, .04–.003; d range, 1.04–1.17) conditions; no differences were detected for perceptual measurements, plasma

  6. Factors associated with bicycle-helmet use among 8-16 years aged Turkish children: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Secginli, Selda; Cosansu, Gulhan; Nahcivan, Nursen O

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the rates of helmet and to examine variables related to bicycle helmet use in a sample of 8-16 year old Turkish children. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 1180 students who self-identified as cyclists and 1128 parents or guardians in two state primary schools in two urban municipalities in the northern part of Istanbul, Turkey. Results showed that self-reported helmet use was found prevalent in 4.4% of the children. The most cited reasons for not wearing a helmet were: 'don't own one', 'helmets are uncool', and 'uncomfortable'. Significant differences between helmet users and non-users correlated to gender, age, owning a bicycle helmet, wearing a friend's bicycle helmet and parents or guardian's bicycle helmet use while riding. Only three variables--helmet ownership (OR = 10.028, 95% CI 5.08, 19.79), parents' helmet use (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.22, 5.66) and friends' helmet use (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.07, 0.37) emerged as significant predictors of the likelihood of helmet use. The relatively low helmet use prevalence points to an urgent need for a multipronged campaign, including strategies such as raising awareness, educating primarly parents and friends, and distributing bicycle helmets for free or at a reduced cost. PMID:24107078

  7. Performance effects of mounting a helmet-mounted display on the ANVIS mount of the HGU-56P helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Martin, John S.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Army, under the auspices of the Air Warrior Product Office, is developing a modular helmet-mounted display (HMD) for four aircraft series within its helicopter fleet. A design consideration is mounting the HMDs to the HGU- 56P Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS) mount. This particular mount is being considered, presumably due to its inherent cost savings, as the mount is already part of the helmet. Mounting the HMD in this position may have consequences for the daylight performance of these HMDs, as well as increasing the forward weight of the HMD. The latter would have consequences for helmet weight and center-of-mass biodynamic issues. Calculations were made of the increased luminance needed as a consequence of mounting the HMD in front of an HGU-56P tinted visor as opposed to mounting it behind the visor. By mounting in front of the helmet's visor, the HMD's light output will be filtered as light coming from the outside world. Special consideration then would have to be given to the HMD's light source selection process, as not to select a source that would differentially reduce luminance by a mounted visor (e.g., laser protection visors) compared to the ambient light in the aviator's field-of-view.

  8. Motorcyclists, full-face helmets and neck injuries: can you take the helmet off safely, and if so, how?

    PubMed Central

    Branfoot, T

    1994-01-01

    Injured motorcyclists may have a damaged and unstable cervical spine (C-spine). This paper looks at whether a helmet can be safely removed, how and when should this be done? The literature is reviewed and the recommendations of the Trauma Working party of the Joint Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee are presented. PMID:7921566

  9. Controlled Laboratory Comparison Study of Motion With Football Equipment in a Destabilized Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; DiPaola, Matthew J.; DiPaola, Christian P.; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Conrad, Bryan P.; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that there are better alternatives to log rolling patients with unstable spinal injuries, although this method is still commonly used for placing patients onto a spine board. No previous studies have examined transfer maneuvers involving an injured football player with equipment in place onto a spine board. Purpose To test 3 different transfer maneuvers of an injured football player onto a spine board to determine which method most effectively minimizes spinal motion in an injured cervical spine model. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Five whole, lightly embalmed cadavers were fitted with shoulder pads and helmets and tested both before and after global instability was surgically created at C5-C6. An electromagnetic motion analysis device was used to assess the amount of angular and linear motion with sensors placed above and below the injured segment during transfer. Spine-boarding techniques evaluated were the log roll, the lift and slide, and the 8-person lift. Results The 8-person lift technique resulted in the least amount of angular and linear motion for all planes tested as compared with the lift-and-slide and log-roll techniques. This reached statistical significance for lateral bending (P = .031) and medial-lateral translation (P = .030) when compared with the log-roll maneuver. The lift-and-slide technique was significantly more effective at reducing motion than the log roll for axial rotation (P = .029) and lateral bending (P = .006). Conclusion The log roll resulted in the most motion at an unstable cervical injury as compared with the other 2 spine-boarding techniques examined. The 8-person lift and lift-and-slide techniques may both be more effective than the log roll at reducing unwanted cervical spine motion when spine boarding an injured football player. Reduction of such motion is critical in the prevention of iatrogenic injury. PMID:26535397

  10. Exploring the economics of motorcycle helmet laws--implications for low and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hyder, A A; Waters, H; Phillips, T; Rehwinkel, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews economic evaluations of motorcycle helmet interventions in preventing injuries. A comprehensive literature review focusing on the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use, and on mandatory helmet laws and their enforcement was done. When helmet laws were lifted between 1976-80, 48 states within the U.S.A. experienced a cost of $342,047 per excess fatality of annual net savings. Helmet laws in the USA had a benefit-cost ratio of 1.33 to 5.07. Taiwan witnessed a 14% decline in motorcycle fatalities and a 22% reduction of head injury fatalities with the introduction of a helmet law. In Thailand, where 70-90% of all crashes involve motorcycle, after enforcement of a helmet law, helmet-use increased five-fold, the number of injured motorcyclists decreased by 33.5%, head injuries decreased by 41.4%, and deaths decreased by 20.8%. There is considerable evidence that mandatory helmet laws with enforcement alleviate the burden of traffic injuries greatly. For low and middle-income countries with high rates of motorcycle injuries, enforced, mandatory motorcycle helmet laws are potentially one of the most cost-effective interventions available.

  11. Evolution of bicycle helmet use and its determinants in France: 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Thélot, Bertrand; Beck, François

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to analyse helmet use in France, as a voluntary behaviour rather than a legal requirement, promoted by public awareness campaigns. It aims to investigate the determinants of helmet wearing and to explore its evolution from 2000 to 2010. The analysis relies on data from a series of general population surveys called "Health Barometers": 2000 (n=13,163), 2005 (n=25,651) and 2010 (n=8573). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with helmet use and time trends. Nearly half of the 15-75 year olds surveyed reported that they rode a bicycle, and among these cyclists, 22.0% reported that they wore a helmet on their last ride. Further analysis by gender reveals that twice as many men than women wore helmets. Over the last decade, helmet use among cyclists has clearly increased, from 7.3% in 2000 to 22.0% in 2010, whereas the influence of social and economic factors, such as unemployment and wage disparities, appears to have decreased. Several determinants of bicycle helmet use were highlighted. To improve the effectiveness of further public information campaigns on helmet use, the key target groups should include women, under 25 year olds and people living in urban areas. Promoting the wearing of helmets among families should also be enhanced, given the higher rate of helmet use by parents as well as children.

  12. Evolution of bicycle helmet use and its determinants in France: 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Thélot, Bertrand; Beck, François

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to analyse helmet use in France, as a voluntary behaviour rather than a legal requirement, promoted by public awareness campaigns. It aims to investigate the determinants of helmet wearing and to explore its evolution from 2000 to 2010. The analysis relies on data from a series of general population surveys called "Health Barometers": 2000 (n=13,163), 2005 (n=25,651) and 2010 (n=8573). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with helmet use and time trends. Nearly half of the 15-75 year olds surveyed reported that they rode a bicycle, and among these cyclists, 22.0% reported that they wore a helmet on their last ride. Further analysis by gender reveals that twice as many men than women wore helmets. Over the last decade, helmet use among cyclists has clearly increased, from 7.3% in 2000 to 22.0% in 2010, whereas the influence of social and economic factors, such as unemployment and wage disparities, appears to have decreased. Several determinants of bicycle helmet use were highlighted. To improve the effectiveness of further public information campaigns on helmet use, the key target groups should include women, under 25 year olds and people living in urban areas. Promoting the wearing of helmets among families should also be enhanced, given the higher rate of helmet use by parents as well as children. PMID:24041598

  13. Effectiveness of headgear in football

    PubMed Central

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Wonnacott, M; Dvorak, J; Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has an effect on head impact responses. Methods: Controlled laboratory tests were conducted with a human volunteer and surrogate head/neck system. The impact attenuation of three commercial headgears during ball impact speeds of 6–30 m/s and in head to head contact with a closing speed of 2–5 m/s was quantified. The human subject, instrumented to measure linear and angular head accelerations, was exposed to low severity impacts during heading in the unprotected and protected states. High severity heading contact and head to head impacts were studied with a biofidelic surrogate headform instrumented to measure linear and angular head responses. Subject and surrogate responses were compared with published injury assessment functions associated with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Results: For ball impacts, none of the headgear provided attenuation over the full range of impact speeds. Head responses with or without headgear were not significantly different (p>0.05) and remained well below levels associated with MTBI. In head to head impact tests the headgear provided an overall 33% reduction in impact response. Conclusion: The football headgear models tested did not provide benefit during ball impact. This is probably because of the large amount of ball deformation relative to headband thickness. However, the headgear provided measurable benefit during head to head impacts. PMID:16046355

  14. Research pilots at NASA Dryden tested a prototype helmet during the summer and fall of 2002. The obj

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Research pilots from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., tested a prototype two-part helmet. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  15. Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on a NASA Dryden pilot. F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on pilot Craig Bomben at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  16. Head impact exposure in youth football: elementary school ages 9-12 years and the effect of practice structure.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Bryan R; Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-12-01

    Head impact exposure in youth football has not been well-documented, despite children under the age of 14 accounting for 70% of all football players in the United States. The objective of this study was to quantify the head impact exposure of youth football players, age 9-12, for all practices and games over the course of single season. A total of 50 players (age = 11.0 ± 1.1 years) on three teams were equipped with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays, which monitored each impact players sustained during practices and games. During the season, 11,978 impacts were recorded for this age group. Players averaged 240 ± 147 impacts for the season with linear and rotational 95th percentile magnitudes of 43 ± 7 g and 2034 ± 361 rad/s(2). Overall, practice and game sessions involved similar impact frequencies and magnitudes. One of the three teams however, had substantially fewer impacts per practice and lower 95th percentile magnitudes in practices due to a concerted effort to limit contact in practices. The same team also participated in fewer practices, further reducing the number of impacts each player experienced in practice. Head impact exposures in games showed no statistical difference. While the acceleration magnitudes among 9-12 year old players tended to be lower than those reported for older players, some recorded high magnitude impacts were similar to those seen at the high school and college level. Head impact exposure in youth football may be appreciably reduced by limiting contact in practices. Further research is required to assess whether such a reduction in head impact exposure will result in a reduction in concussion incidence.

  17. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists.

  18. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists. PMID:24499339

  19. Effects of lasers on helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Douglas L.; Kang, Robert N.

    1999-07-01

    The use of Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD) and lasers is becoming widespread throughout the world. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Helmet-Mounted Sensory Technologies (HMST) program is currently studying the effects incorporating the various laser eye protection (LEP) technologies into HMD technologies. LEP technologies currently available are absorptive organic dyes or reflective filters such as holograms or dielectric stacks. Because of the overall reduction in light transmittance and selective spectral filtering characteristics of various LEP technologies, compatibility with HMD technologies, and, ultimately, aircrew acceptance must be addressed. This paper will discuss some of the HMST requirements needed to perform adequate LEP and maintain HMD performance. This paper will also include a review of different approaches being studied to meet those requirements.

  20. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....2Penetration. When a penetration test is conducted in accordance with S7.2, the striker shall not contact the.... S6. Preliminary test procedures. Before subjecting a helmet to the testing sequence specified in S7... force during testing. S6.3.2 In testing as specified in S7.1 and S7.2, place the retention system in...

  1. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....2Penetration. When a penetration test is conducted in accordance with S7.2, the striker shall not contact the.... Preliminary test procedures. Before subjecting a helmet to the testing sequence specified in S7., prepare it... force during testing. S6.3.2 In testing as specified in S7.1 and S7.2, place the retention system in...

  2. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....2Penetration. When a penetration test is conducted in accordance with S7.2, the striker shall not contact the.... S6. Preliminary test procedures. Before subjecting a helmet to the testing sequence specified in S7... force during testing. S6.3.2 In testing as specified in S7.1 and S7.2, place the retention system in...

  3. Does Promoting Bicycle-Helmet Wearing Reduce Childhood Head Injuries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Celine; Vaez, Marjan; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to assess the impact of a community-based bicycle-helmet program aimed at children aged 5-12 years (about 140,000). A quasi-experimental design, including a control group, was used. Sex- and age-group-based changes in the risk of bicycle-related head injury leading to hospitalisation were measured, using rate…

  4. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

    2000-05-01

    From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

  5. Safety of flight testing for advanced fighter helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, Robert T.; Brown, Randall W.; Wiley, Larry L.

    1995-05-01

    The magnitude of requirements, specifications, testing, and liability associated with producing an item for military use has, no doubt, caused many potential helmet vendors to stay away from the military customer. This is a dilemma for the military as well as the vendors. This paper is an attempt to educate people on the requirements for one aspect of advanced helmet development. That aspect is the Safety-of-Flight requirement. Safety-of-Flight encompasses every aspect of flight to include preflight and post flight. Emergency egress, high-voltage containment, helmet fit, donning and doffing, windblast protection and other aspects of protection during ejection, comfort, aural protection, and compatibility with life support equipment are a few of the items that must be evaluated prior to flying in a multi-million dollar fighter. This paper will highlight the types of testing required with a short explanation of why this testing is necessary as well as what must be accomplished in order to pass the stated requirement.

  6. NIV-Helmet in Severe Hypoxemic Acute Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Joana; Nunes, P.; Silvestre, C.; Abadesso, C.; Loureiro, H.; Almeida, H.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a method to be applied in acute respiratory failure, given the possibility of avoiding tracheal intubation and conventional ventilation. A previous healthy 5-month-old boy developed low-grade intermittent fever, flu-like symptoms, and dry cough for 3 days. On admission, he showed severe respiratory distress with SpO2/FiO2 ratio of 94. Subsequent evaluation identified an RSV infection complicated with an increase of inflammatory parameters (reactive C protein 15 mg/dL). Within the first hour after NIV-helmet CPAP SpO2/FiO2 ratio increased to 157. This sustained improvement allowed the continuing of this strategy. After 102 h, he was disconnected from the helmet CPAP device. The NIV use in severe hypoxemic acute respiratory failure should be carefully monitored as the absence of clinical improvement has a predictive value in the need to resume to intubation and mechanical ventilation. We emphasize that SpO2/FiO2 ratio is a valuable monitoring instrument. Helmet interface use represents a more comfortable alternative for providing ventilatory support, particularly to small infants, which constitute a sensitive group within pediatric patients. PMID:26000189

  7. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.

    2015-05-01

    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  8. Smart helmet: Monitoring brain, cardiac and respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    von Rosenberg, Wilhelm; Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the assessment of the injuries following a road-traffic accident involving motorcyclists is absolutely crucial, particularly in the events with head trauma. Standard apparatus for monitoring cardiac activity is usually attached to the limbs or the torso, while the brain function is routinely measured with a separate unit connected to the head-mounted sensors. In stark contrast to these, we propose an integrated system which incorporates the two functionalities inside an ordinary motorcycle helmet. Multiple fabric electrodes were mounted inside the helmet at positions featuring good contact with the skin at different sections of the head. The experimental results demonstrate that the R-peaks (and therefore the heart rate) can be reliably extracted from potentials measured with electrodes on the mastoids and the lower jaw, while the electrodes on the forehead enable the observation of neural signals. We conclude that various vital sings and brain activity can be readily recorded from the inside of a helmet in a comfortable and inconspicuous way, requiring only a negligible setup effort. PMID:26736636

  9. Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts.

    PubMed

    Cripton, Peter A; Dressler, Daniel M; Stuart, Cameron A; Dennison, Christopher R; Richards, Darrin

    2014-09-01

    Cycling is a popular form of recreation and method of commuting with clear health benefits. However, cycling is not without risk. In Canada, cycling injuries are more common than in any other summer sport; and according to the US National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, 52,000 cyclists were injured in the US in 2010. Head injuries account for approximately two-thirds of hospital admissions and three-quarters of fatal injuries among injured cyclists. In many jurisdictions and across all age levels, helmets have been adopted to mitigate risk of serious head injuries among cyclists and the majority of epidemiological literature suggests that helmets effectively reduce risk of injury. Critics have raised questions over the actual efficacy of helmets by pointing to weaknesses in existing helmet epidemiology including selection bias and lack of appropriate control for the type of impact sustained by the cyclist and the severity of the head impact. These criticisms demonstrate the difficulty in conducting epidemiology studies that will be regarded as definitive and the need for complementary biomechanical studies where confounding factors can be adequately controlled. In the bicycle helmet context, there is a paucity of biomechanical data comparing helmeted to unhelmeted head impacts and, to our knowledge, there is no data of this type available with contemporary helmets. In this research, our objective was to perform biomechanical testing of paired helmeted and unhelmeted head impacts using a validated anthropomorphic test headform and a range of drop heights between 0.5m and 3.0m, while measuring headform acceleration and Head Injury Criterion (HIC). In the 2m (6.3m/s) drops, the middle of our drop height range, the helmet reduced peak accelerations from 824g (unhelmeted) to 181g (helmeted) and HIC was reduced from 9667 (unhelmeted) to 1250 (helmeted). At realistic impact speeds of 5.4m/s (1.5m drop) and 6.3m/s (2.0m drop), bicycle helmets changed the

  10. Evaluation of the protective capacity of baseball helmets for concussive impacts.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Karton, Clara; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D; Bailes, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how four different types of baseball helmets perform for baseball impacts when performance was measured using variables associated with concussion. A helmeted Hybrid III headform was impacted by a baseball, and linear and rotational acceleration as well as maximum principal strain were measured for each impact condition. The method was successful in distinguishing differences in design characteristics between the baseball helmets. The results indicated that there is a high risk of concussive injury from being hit by a ball regardless of helmet worn.

  11. Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Laura; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-01-01

    Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: "I Can Control Risk", "It Does Not Feel Right" and "Accidents Happen". Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the relationship between risk perception, protective knowledge, attitudes, decision-making and behavior. Whilst this complexity is largely due to the involvement of interspecies relationships through which safety, risk and trust are distributed; our findings about harnessing the potential of barriers could be extended to other high risk activities. PMID:26479375

  12. Evaluation of the protective capacity of baseball helmets for concussive impacts.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Karton, Clara; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D; Bailes, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how four different types of baseball helmets perform for baseball impacts when performance was measured using variables associated with concussion. A helmeted Hybrid III headform was impacted by a baseball, and linear and rotational acceleration as well as maximum principal strain were measured for each impact condition. The method was successful in distinguishing differences in design characteristics between the baseball helmets. The results indicated that there is a high risk of concussive injury from being hit by a ball regardless of helmet worn. PMID:25855861

  13. Critical testing for helmet-mounted displays: a tracking system accuracy test for the joint helmet mounted cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Adam P.

    2012-06-01

    Helmet mounted displays have not been supported with adequate methods and materials to validate and verify the performance of the underlying tracking systems when tested in a simulated or operational environment. Like most electronic systems on aircraft, HMDs evolve over the lifecycle of the system due to requirements changes or diminishing manufacturing sources. Hardware and software bugs are often introduced as the design evolves and it is necessary to revalidate a systems performance attributes over the course of these design changes. An on-aircraft test has been developed and refined to address this testing gap for the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) on F-16 aircraft. This test can be readily ported to other aircraft systems which employ the JHMCS, and has already been ported to the F-18. Additionally, this test method could provide an added value in the testing of any HMD that requires accurate cueing, whether used on fixed or rotary wing aircraft.

  14. The Cheerleader and the Football Player.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Malati

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  15. Pursuit and Evasion Strategies in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, James

    1995-01-01

    Explores strategies in the situation of a runner trying to evade a tackler on a football field. Enables the student to test intuitive strategies in a familiar situation using simple graphical and numerical methods or direct experimentation. (JRH)

  16. Science and Gaelic football: a review.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Doran, D

    2001-03-01

    This review focuses on Gaelic football and scientific reports of the characteristics of its players and the demands of the game. Anthropometric characteristics vary according to positional role, but top players display high muscularity and good all-round fitness at the peak of the competitive season. Match analysis indicates that exercise intensity is roughly equivalent to that for professional soccer. Average heart rates are approximately 160 beats x min(-1) during competitive matches, and average oxygen consumption is about 72% of maximum. Metabolic fatigue in active muscles is unlikely. Conventional biomechanical and electromyographic techniques are useful in gaining insight into individual games skills. Inadequate attention has been given to injury prevention and to psychological aspects of the game. Although possessing unique characteristics, Gaelic football has many similarities with other football codes, especially Australian Rules football where the ball is played by both hands and feet and where tackling is permitted.

  17. Some Tentative Plans for Football on TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Tentative football televising agreements between the National Collegiate Athletics Association and four television broadcasting companies, unconfirmed by contract pending a Supreme Court antitrust ruling concerning network and cable television companies, are outlined. (MSE)

  18. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  19. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  20. An efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor for the Gamma Knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Li, X. Allen; Yu, Cedric X.

    2000-03-01

    It is essential to have accurate measurements of the 4 mm helmet output factor in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia patients using the Gamma Knife. Because of the small collimator size and the sharp dose gradient at the beam focus, this measurement is generally tedious and difficult. We have developed an efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor using regular radiographic films. The helmet output factor was measured by exposing a single Kodak XV film in the standard Leksell spherical phantom using the 18 mm helmet with 30-40 of its plug collimators replaced by the 4 mm plug collimators. The 4 mm helmet output factor was measured to be 0.876 ± 0.009. This is in excellent agreement with our EGS4 Monte Carlo simulated value of 0.876 ± 0.005. This helmet output factor value also agrees with more tedious TLD, diode and radiochromic film measurements that were each obtained using two separate measurements with the 18 mm helmet and the 4 mm helmet respectively. The 4 mm helmet output factor measured by the diode was 0.884 ± 0.016, and the TLD measurement was 0.890 ± 0.020. The radiochromic film measured value was 0.870 ± 0.018. Because a single-exposure measurement was performed instead of a double-exposure measurement, most of the systematic errors that appeared in the double-exposure measurements due to experimental setup variations were cancelled out. Consequently, the 4 mm helmet output factor is more precisely determined by the single-exposure approach. Therefore, routine measurement and quality assurance of the 4 mm helmet output factor of the Gamma Knife could be efficiently carried out using the proposed single-exposure technique.

  1. Neck motion in the high school football player. Observations and suggestions for diminishing stresses on the neck.

    PubMed

    Pearl, A J; Mayer, P W

    1979-01-01

    In a group of 40 high school athletes (height: 166.37 to 189.57 cm, average, 174.40 cm; neck circumference: 35.56 to 41.91 cm, average, 39.12 cm), the neck motions were studied in flexion and extension, clinically, radiographically, and cineoradiographically. Flexion ranged from 34 to 84 degrees (average 72 degrees) and extension from 21 to 64 degrees (average 45 degrees) without helmet and shoulder pads. In well-fitting equipment flexion ranged from 36 to 86 degrees (average 73 degrees) and extension from 12 to 56 degrees(average 34 degrees). No correlation was determined between the size of the athlete's neck and the range of motion. The size of the athlete's neck was important in the determination of maximum stresses in the neck. The helmets impinged on the shoulder pads or interscapular region; this impingement diminished tension on the anterior portion of the cervical spine in extension. The face masks impinged on the shoulder pads in flexion of the neck; this impingement diminished stress on the posterior musculature. Proper fitting equipment, conditioning neck exercises, and changes in the rules of the game so that abuse of the head and neck is not encouraged are some of the aspects that may reduce the risk of injury to the cervical region in football players.

  2. More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161841.html More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease: Study Researchers track ... say they can show that brain inflammation from football head trauma may lead to the development of ...

  3. Spectrum of acute clinical characteristics of diagnosed concussions in college athletes wearing instrumented helmets

    PubMed Central

    Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Duma, Stefan M.; Brolinson, P. Gunnar; Rowson, Steven; Flashman, Laura A.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Greenwald, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Object Concussive head injuries have received much attention in the medical and public arenas, as concerns have been raised about the potential short- and long-term consequences of injuries sustained in sports and other activities. While many student athletes have required evaluation after concussion, the exact definition of concussion has varied among disciplines and over time. The authors used data gathered as part of a multiinstitutional longitudinal study of the biomechanics of head impacts in helmeted collegiate athletes to characterize what signs, symptoms, and clinical histories were used to designate players as having sustained concussions. Methods Players on 3 college football teams and 4 ice hockey teams (male and female) wore helmets instrumented with Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) technology during practices and games over 2–4 seasons of play. Preseason clinical screening batteries assessed baseline cognition and reported symptoms. If a concussion was diagnosed by the team medical staff, basic descriptive information was collected at presentation, and concussed players were reevaluated serially. The specific symptoms or findings associated with the diagnosis of acute concussion, relation to specific impact events, timing of symptom onset and diagnosis, and recorded biomechanical parameters were analyzed. Results Data were collected from 450 athletes with 486,594 recorded head impacts. Forty-eight separate concussions were diagnosed in 44 individual players. Mental clouding, headache, and dizziness were the most common presenting symptoms. Thirty-one diagnosed cases were associated with an identified impact event; in 17 cases no specific impact event was identified. Onset of symptoms was immediate in 24 players, delayed in 11, and unspecified in 13. In 8 cases the diagnosis was made immediately after a head impact, but in most cases the diagnosis was delayed (median 17 hours). One diagnosed concussion involved a 30-second loss of consciousness; all other

  4. The Helmet Fit Index--An intelligent tool for fit assessment and design customisation.

    PubMed

    Ellena, Thierry; Subic, Aleksandar; Mustafa, Helmy; Pang, Toh Yen

    2016-07-01

    Helmet safety benefits are reduced if the headgear is poorly fitted on the wearer's head. At present, there are no industry standards available to assess objectively how a specific protective helmet fits a particular person. A proper fit is typically defined as a small and uniform distance between the helmet liner and the wearer's head shape, with a broad coverage of the head area. This paper presents a novel method to investigate and compare fitting accuracy of helmets based on 3D anthropometry, reverse engineering techniques and computational analysis. The Helmet Fit Index (HFI) that provides a fit score on a scale from 0 (excessively poor fit) to 100 (perfect fit) was compared with subjective fit assessments of surveyed cyclists. Results in this study showed that quantitative (HFI) and qualitative (participants' feelings) data were related when comparing three commercially available bicycle helmets. Findings also demonstrated that females and Asian people have lower fit scores than males and Caucasians, respectively. The HFI could provide detailed understanding of helmet efficiency regarding fit and could be used during helmet design and development phases.

  5. Preventing Mental Retardation through Use of Bicycle Helmets. ARC Q&A #101-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about preventing mental retardation through use of bicycle helmets. Questions and answers address the following topics: the importance of bicycle helmets; the number of bike riders injured or killed each year in bicycle crashes (about 1,000 killed, over 500,000 people…

  6. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  7. In defence of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation: response to Hooper and Spicer.

    PubMed

    Biegler, Paul; Johnson, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    We invoke a triple rationale to rebut Hooper and Spicer's argument against mandatory helmet laws. First, we use the laws of physics and empirical studies to show how bicycle helmets afford substantial protection to the user. We show that Hooper and Spicer erroneously downplay helmet utility and that, as a result, their attack on the utilitarian argument for mandatory helmet laws is weakened. Next, we refute their claim that helmet legislation comprises unjustified paternalism. We show the healthcare costs of bareheaded riding to pose significant third party harms. It follows, we argue, that a utilitarian case for helmet laws can be sustained by appeal to Mill's Harm Principle. Finally, we reject Hooper and Spicer's claim that helmet laws unjustly penalise cyclists for their own health-affecting behaviour. Rather, we show their argument to suffer by disanalogy with medical cases where injustice may be more evident, for example, denial of bypass surgery to smokers. We conclude that mandatory helmet laws offer substantial utility and are entirely defensible within the framework of a liberal democracy. PMID:23760577

  8. Aircrew helmet design and manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadogan, David P.; George, Alan E.; Winkler, Edward R.

    1993-12-01

    With the development of helmet mounted displays (HMD) and night vision systems (NVS) for use in military and civil aviation roles, new methods of helmet development need to be explored. The helmet must be designed to provide the user with the most lightweight, form fitting system, while meeting other system performance requirements. This can be achieved through a complete analysis of the system requirements. One such technique for systems analysis, a quality function deployment (QFD) matrix, is explored for this purpose. The advanced helmet development process for developing aircrew helmets includes the utilization of several emerging technologies such as laser scanning, computer aided design (CAD), computer generated patterns from 3-D surfaces, laser cutting of patterns and components, and rapid prototyping (stereolithography). Advanced anthropometry methods for helmet development are also available for use. Besides the application of advanced technologies to be used in the development of helmet assemblies, methods of mass reduction are also discussed. The use of these advanced technologies will minimize errors in the development cycle of the helmet and molds, and should enhance system performance while reducing development time and cost.

  9. The protective effect of a helmet in three bicycle accidents--A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Fahlstedt, Madelen; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein

    2016-06-01

    There is some controversy regarding the effectiveness of helmets in preventing head injuries among cyclists. Epidemiological, experimental and computer simulation studies have suggested that helmets do indeed have a protective effect, whereas other studies based on epidemiological data have argued that there is no evidence that the helmet protects the brain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a helmet in single bicycle accident reconstructions using detailed finite element simulations. Strain in the brain tissue, which is associated with brain injuries, was reduced by up to 43% for the accident cases studied when a helmet was included. This resulted in a reduction of the risk of concussion of up to 54%. The stress to the skull bone went from fracture level of 80 MPa down to 13-16 MPa when a helmet was included and the skull fracture risk was reduced by up to 98% based on linear acceleration. Even with a 10% increased riding velocity for the helmeted impacts, to take into account possible increased risk taking, the risk of concussion was still reduced by up to 46% when compared with the unhelmeted impacts with original velocity. The results of this study show that the brain injury risk and risk of skull fracture could have been reduced in these three cases if a helmet had been worn. PMID:26974030

  10. The effect of a helmet on cognitive performance is, at worst, marginal: a controlled laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Cornelis P; Walker, Ian; Brühwiler, Paul A; Rossi, René M

    2014-05-01

    The present study looked at the effect of a helmet on cognitive performance under demanding conditions, so that small effects would become more detectible. Nineteen participants underwent 30 min of continuous visual vigilance, tracking, and auditory vigilance (VTT + AVT), while seated in a warm environment (27.2 (±0.6) °C, humidity 41 (±1)%, and 0.5 (±0.1) m s(-1) wind speed). The participants wore a helmet in one session and no helmet in the other, in random order. Comfort and temperature perception were measured at the end of each session. Helmet-wearing was associated with reduced comfort (p = 0.001) and increased temperature perception (p < 0.001), compared to not wearing a helmet. Just one out of nine cognitive parameters showed a significant effect of helmet-wearing (p = .032), disappearing in a post-hoc comparison. These results resolve previous disparate studies to suggest that, although helmets can be uncomfortable, any effect of wearing a helmet on cognitive performance is at worst marginal.

  11. Increasing Bicycle Helmet Use in Michigan: A School-Based Intervention Pilot Program. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patricia K.

    In Michigan, a school-based bicycle helmet intervention program has been developed to increase the prevalence of helmet use among middle/junior high school students. The intervention involved approximately 3,100 students and their parents. The school-based intervention component of the project is the focus of this report. A two-tier intervention…

  12. Prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle users in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kauky, Cosmas George; Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Urio, Loveness John; Abade, Ahmed Mohammed; Mghamba, Janneth Maridadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists as one of the preventive measures for road traffic injuries. Methods A cross sectional observational survey was conducted in the 3 Districts (Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke) that make Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. A standardized line-listing form and checklist were used to record the drivers and passengers use of helmet as observed by study investigators. Data for helmet use was collected on one weekday and one weekend day. Time for observation was during the rush hour in the morning, noon and evening. Then data were entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 analysis Results A total of 7,678 motorcycle drivers and 4,328 passengers observed in this study. Drivers were almost male (98.8%) and 73.2% of all passengers were males. The prevalence use of helmet use among motorcyclist's riders was 82.1% and among passengers was 22.5%. Proportion of helmet use in drivers and passengers observed were relatively similar during weekday and weekend day and time of observation. Conclusion This study showed the relative high helmet use among motorcyclist riders though very low in passengers. This study recommends increased community awareness on helmet use among passengers and enforcement and revival of road safety laws of passengers and motorcyclists on helmet use. PMID:26309470

  13. The prevalence of motorcycle helmet use from serial observations in three Mexican cities.

    PubMed

    Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa; Chandran, Aruna; Híjar, Martha; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Motorcycle use as a functional and recreational means of transportation is increasing in Mexico; the associated mortality rate has also increased. Appropriate helmet use can reduce a motorcyclist's risk of death or serious injury. This study quantified the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use in three Mexican cities (Cuernavaca, Guadalajara-Zapopan, and León) within the context of several ongoing road safety initiatives. Four rounds of roadside observations were conducted between November 2010 and April 2012. The overall prevalence of helmet use was 73.8% among all users; helmet use was much lower among females (55.3%). Drivers tended to use helmets more frequently than passengers (76.3% vs. 51.6%). The prevalence was higher in León (85.9%, 95% CI = 84.8-87.0) than Cuernavaca (71.5%, 95% CI = 69.3-73.6) and Guadalajara-Zapopan (62.7%, 95% CI = 61.1-64.2). Helmet use decreased in León (p = 0.003) but increased in Guadalajara-Zapopan (p = 0.000) during this period. Motorcycle helmet use could be improved in all three cities. Since motorcycle use is increasing, interventions targeting motorcycle users and greater enforcement of helmet use are necessary to reduce crashes and non-fatal and fatal injuries. PMID:25084823

  14. The prevalence of motorcycle helmet use from serial observations in three Mexican cities.

    PubMed

    Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa; Chandran, Aruna; Híjar, Martha; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Motorcycle use as a functional and recreational means of transportation is increasing in Mexico; the associated mortality rate has also increased. Appropriate helmet use can reduce a motorcyclist's risk of death or serious injury. This study quantified the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use in three Mexican cities (Cuernavaca, Guadalajara-Zapopan, and León) within the context of several ongoing road safety initiatives. Four rounds of roadside observations were conducted between November 2010 and April 2012. The overall prevalence of helmet use was 73.8% among all users; helmet use was much lower among females (55.3%). Drivers tended to use helmets more frequently than passengers (76.3% vs. 51.6%). The prevalence was higher in León (85.9%, 95% CI = 84.8-87.0) than Cuernavaca (71.5%, 95% CI = 69.3-73.6) and Guadalajara-Zapopan (62.7%, 95% CI = 61.1-64.2). Helmet use decreased in León (p = 0.003) but increased in Guadalajara-Zapopan (p = 0.000) during this period. Motorcycle helmet use could be improved in all three cities. Since motorcycle use is increasing, interventions targeting motorcycle users and greater enforcement of helmet use are necessary to reduce crashes and non-fatal and fatal injuries.

  15. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presenting as a Pathologic Fracture in a 12-Year-Old Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Welk, Aaron B.; Norman W., Kettner

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this report is to describe a case of an aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as a pathologic fracture in a young athlete. Case report A 12-year-old patient presented to a chiropractic teaching clinic with a 1-week history of posterior neck pain and stiffness following a helmet-to-helmet collision in football practice. Cervical spine radiographs were taken. Lateral view radiograph demonstrated a pathologic fracture through a lytic, expansive lesion in the posterior arch of C7 with mild subluxation of the C7/T1 apophyseal joints and angulation of the C7/T1 disk space. Based upon these findings, additional diagnostic imaging was ordered. Findings on advanced imaging studies included the following: On computed tomography, the C7 lesion showed medullary destruction, cortical thinning and expansion, and a horizontally oriented fracture through the spinous and lamina. Magnetic resonance imaging studies for sagittal T2 and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed fluid/fluid levels in the C7 spinous and peripheral enhancement with contrast. Outcome The patient was referred to a local hospital for treatment. The lesion was treated with resection of the posterior arch, and an aneurysmal bone cyst was confirmed histologically. The patient developed a kyphotic deformity at the site of resection and cervical instability. A subsequent fusion was performed. Conclusion Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare lesions. In this case, the initial traumatic history masked the underlying pathology. Although rare, pathologic fracture should be considered in cases of vertebral fracture in young patients. PMID:24711787

  16. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  17. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  18. Tips to Increase Girls' Participation in Flag Football Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…

  19. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  20. Paternalism & Its Discontents: Motorcycle Helmet Laws, Libertarian Values, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists’ advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856

  1. Head Impact Exposure Sustained by Football Players on Days of Diagnosed Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Greenwald, Richard M.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M.; Broglio, Steven P.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Mihalik, Jason P.; Anderson, Scott; Schnebel, Brock; Brolinson, P. Gunnar; Collins, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study compares the frequency and severity of head impacts sustained by football players on days with and without diagnosed concussion and to identify the sensitivity and specificity of single impact severity measures to diagnosed injury. Methods 1,208 players from eight collegiate and six high school football teams wore instrumented helmets to measure head impacts during all team sessions, of which 95 players were diagnosed with concussion. Eight players sustained two injuries and one three, providing 105 injury cases. Measures of head kinematics (peak linear and rotational acceleration, Gadd Severity Index (GSI), Head Injury Criteria (HIC15), change in head velocity (Δv)) and the number of head impacts sustained by individual players were compared between days with and without diagnosed concussion. Receiver operator characteristic curves were generated to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of each kinematic measure to diagnosed concussion using only those impacts that directly preceded diagnosis. Results Players sustained a higher frequency of impacts and impacts with more severe kinematic properties on days of diagnosed concussion than on days without diagnosed concussion. Forty-five injury cases were immediately diagnosed following head impact. For these cases, peak linear acceleration and HIC15 were most sensitive to immediately diagnosed concussion (AUC = 0.983). Peak rotational acceleration was less sensitive to diagnosed injury than all other kinematic measures (p = 0.01) which are derived from linear acceleration (peak linear, HIC15, GSI, and Δv). Conclusions Players sustain more impacts and impacts of higher severity on days of diagnosed concussion than on days without diagnosed concussion. Additionally, of historical measures of impact severity, those associated with peak linear acceleration are the best predictors of immediately diagnosed concussion. PMID:23135363

  2. Helmet use among Alaskan children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Christopher W.; Muensterer, Oliver J.; Sacco, Frank; Safford, Shawn D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Off-road motorized vehicle crashes are a common source of trauma among Alaska children. Injury morbidity is worse in Alaska Native children than non-Native children, but the reasons are unclear. Objective To evaluate the differences in helmet use between the Native and the non-Native children, and to assess the impact of helmet use on injury patterns and outcomes. Design This retrospective cohort study identified patients aged 17 or younger admitted after all-terrain vehicle, snowmobile or motorbike injury between 2001 and 2011 from the Alaska Trauma Registry. Helmeted and non-helmeted patients were compared with respect to demographics, central nervous system (CNS) injury and the overall risk of death or permanent disability. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of helmet use and the effects of ethnicity and helmet use on outcomes. Results Of the 921 injured children, 51% were Alaska Native and 49% were non-Native. Helmet use was lower among Native versus non-Native patients on unadjusted comparison (24% vs. 71%) and multivariable logistic regression (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.11–0.27, p<0.0001). Prevalence of CNS injury was higher among Native children (39.7% vs. 30.4%, p=0.016). However, on logistic regression with adjustment for helmet use, Native ethnicity was not a significant predictor of CNS injury (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.68–1.68, p=0.78), whereas helmet use was strongly protective against CNS injury (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18–0.44, p<0.0001) as well as death or permanent disability (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.67, p=0.006). Conclusions Helmet use is lower among Alaska Native children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes. These ethnic disparities in helmet use contribute to higher rates of CNS injury among Native children. Helmet use significantly improves overall outcome. Helmet promotion efforts should be expanded, especially in Native communities. PMID:25317382

  3. Facial fractures in Gaelic football and hurling.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S M; Condon, K C; O'Connor, T P

    1995-01-01

    A one year, retrospective, epidemiological study of all facial fractures, sustained whilst playing the GAA sports of football and hurling, treated in the Cork Regional Hospital was undertaken. The results have been analysed and compared to a similar study performed in this unit in 1975. Of 332 patients treated for facial fractures, 110 (33%) were injured whilst playing sport and 47% of these occurred when playing Gaelic football or hurling (52 injuries in all). Eighty per cent of Gaelic football and hurling patients required operative treatment. All surgery was performed under general anaesthetic. The numbers of hurling fractures have more than halved since 1975-76. This coincides with an increase in the numbers hurling, an increase in the use of protective headgear and vastly improved coaching. This study demonstrates that improved safety can be achieved without diluting sporting enjoyment.

  4. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  5. Development and manufacture of visor for helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David H.; McNelly, Gregg; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The manufacturing design and process development for the Visor for the JHMCS (Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System) are discussed. The JHMCS system is a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system currently flying on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18 aircraft. The Visor manufacturing processes are essential to both system performance and economy. The Visor functions both as the system optical combiner and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The Visor material is optical polycarbonate. For a military HMD system, the mechanical and environmental properties of the Visor are as necessary as the optical properties. The visor must meet stringent dimensional requirements to assure adequate system optical performance. Injection molding can provide dimensional fidelity to the requirements, if done properly. Concurrent design of the visor and the tool (i.e., the injection mold) is essential. The concurrent design necessarily considers manufacturing operations and the use environment of the Visor. Computer modeling of the molding process is a necessary input to the mold design. With proper attention to product design and tool development, it is possible to improve upon published standard dimensional tolerances for molded polycarbonate articles.

  6. Quick-disconnect harness system for helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapu, P. T.; Aulds, M. J.; Fuchs, Steven P.; McCormick, David M.

    1992-10-01

    We have designed a pilot's harness-mounted, high voltage quick-disconnect connectors with 62 pins, to transmit voltages up to 13.5 kV and video signals with 70 MHz bandwidth, for a binocular helmet-mounted display system. It connects and disconnects with power off, and disconnects 'hot' without pilot intervention and without producing external sparks or exposing hot embers to the explosive cockpit environment. We have implemented a procedure in which the high voltage pins disconnect inside a hermetically-sealed unit before the physical separation of the connector. The 'hot' separation triggers a crowbar circuit in the high voltage power supplies for additional protection. Conductor locations and shields are designed to reduce capacitance in the circuit and avoid crosstalk among adjacent circuits. The quick- disconnect connector and wiring harness are human-engineered to ensure pilot safety and mobility. The connector backshell is equipped with two hybrid video amplifiers to improve the clarity of the video signals. Shielded wires and coaxial cables are molded as a multi-layered ribbon for maximum flexibility between the pilot's harness and helmet. Stiff cabling is provided between the quick-disconnect connector and the aircraft console to control behavior during seat ejection. The components of the system have been successfully tested for safety, performance, ergonomic considerations, and reliability.

  7. Bicycle helmet use and non-use - recently published research.

    PubMed

    Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2012-05-25

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.

  8. Eye Tracker Development On The Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Richard M.; Thomas, Melvin L.; Wetzel, Paul A.

    1989-09-01

    To achieve the full potential of an area-of-interest (A0I) display requires that a high resolution area be accurately aligned with the direction of gaze. Two methods of eye position measurement with the Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display (FOHMD) have been developed and are described. This paper describes requirements necessary for successful eye tracking in aircraft simulators and introduces two approaches to monitoring eye position. In order to measure eye position over a wide field of view with sufficient accuracy, the oculometer must be able to measure various types of eye movements and also provide sufficient information to distinguish between eye movements and associated artifacts such as eye blinks and any anomalies introduced by spurious reflections or movement of the oculometer optics relative to the eye. In addition, the device must take into account variations in pupil size caused by changes in scene brightness and distinguish between pupil image displacements caused by actual eye movements or helmet slip. Under development are two oculometers that monitor both the center of the pupillary image and the corneal reflection and which possess both high temporal and spatial resolution.

  9. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  10. Integrated helmet mounted display concepts for air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted in a dome simulator to evaluate several Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) formats developed as part of the NASA High Alpha Technology Program (HATP). The display formats conveyed energy management, spatial orientation, and weapons management information. The HMD format was compared to a generic Heads Up Display (HUD) typical of current operational fighter aircraft. Pilots were tasked to spend as much time in a weapon solution as possible, to have the correct weapon selected for the envelope they were in, and to avoid the adversary's weapon envelope as much as possible. Several different displays were tested individually and simultaneously to see how separate display concepts coexisted. Objective results showed that the ability for the pilot to select the correct weapon for the envelope he was in increased by 50% in a moderate workload condition and 90% in a high workload condition with the HMD format. In the post-test comments pilots generally favored the helmet display formats over the HUD formats with a few instances where pilots preferred a simple numeric readout of the parameter. Short term exposure effects of the HMD on visual acuity were also measured and showed no advers results.

  11. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  12. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  13. A season of football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  14. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  15. The effect of an optimised helmet fit on neck load and neck pain during military helicopter flights.

    PubMed

    Van den Oord, Marieke H A H; Steinman, Yuval; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to improve the helmet fit of military helicopter aircrew members and evaluate its effect on the experienced helmet stability (helmet gliding), neck load, neck pain, hot spots (pressure points), irritation/distraction, and overall helmet comfort during night flights. A within-subject design was used over a three-month period that consisted of two consecutive interventions of optimising the fit of the aircrew's helmets: 1) a new helmet fit using a renewed protocol and 2) replacement of a thermoplastic inner liner with a viscoelastic foam inner liner. A total of 18 pilots and loadmasters rated the outcome measures using the Visual Analogue Scales immediately after their night flights, for three night flights in total per measurement period. The optimised helmet fit resulted in a significant decrease in the experienced helmet gliding, neck load and pressure points, a decrease trend in the experienced neck pain and irritation/distraction, and a significant increase in the experienced overall helmet comfort during flight. These results demonstrate the importance of achieving an optimised helmet fit for military helicopter aircrew and that an optimised helmet fit might have implications for both health and safety concerns.

  16. Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hides, Julie A.; Stanton, Warren R.; Mendis, M. Dilani; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M.; Sexton, Margot J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Australian football, lower limb injuries have had the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Previous studies have shown that football players with relatively more severe preseason and playing season hip, groin, and thigh injuries had a significantly smaller multifidus muscle compared with players with no lower limb injuries. Rehabilitation of the multifidus muscle, with restoration of its size and function, has been associated with decreased recurrence rates of episodic low back pain and decreased numbers of lower limb injuries in football players. Assessment of multifidus muscle size and function could potentially be incorporated into a model that could be used to predict injuries in football players. Purpose: To examine the robustness of multifidus muscle measurements as a predictor of lower limb injuries incurred by professional football players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 259 male elite football players at the start of the preseason and 261 players at the start of the playing season. Injury data were obtained from records collected by the Australian Football League (AFL) club staff during the preseason and the playing season. Results: Decreased size of the multifidus muscle at L5 consistently predicted injury in the preseason and playing season. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle and low back pain were significantly related to lower limb injuries in the preseason, and having no preferred kicking leg was related to season injuries. Seasonal change in the size of the multifidus muscle indicating a decrease in muscle mass was linked to injury. Sensitivity and specificity of the model were 60.6% and 84.9% for the preseason and 91.8% and 45.8% for the playing season, respectively. Conclusion: A model was developed for prediction of lower limb injuries in football players with potential utility for club medical staff. Of particular note is the finding that changes in muscle

  17. Incidence of injury in elite Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed

    Newell, M; Grant, S; Henry, A; Newell, J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to undertake a comprehensive prospective epidemiological study of injuries sustained by elite Gaelic Football players over one season. The pattern of injury is strikingly similar across all teams with 47% of all injuries occurring in the final quarter of games and training. Injuries to the lower limb, particularly the hamstrings muscles accounted for the majority of injuries. 65% of players were unable to participate fully in Gaelic Football activity for between one and three weeks as a result of injury. The high incidence of injury especially hamstrings injuries in the latter stages of training and games warrants further investigation.

  18. A multidimensional approach to the generation of helmets' design criteria: a preliminar study.

    PubMed

    Alemany, S; Olaso, J; Nacher, B; Gil, M; Hernández, A; Pizá, M; Solves, C

    2012-01-01

    The design and development process of helmets incorporates systematically design criteria related to safety to accomplish European and local standards for the commercialization. However, there are few studies focused on user's comfort and adaptation. Present study tackles a multidimensional approach to gain better understanding of the interaction between helmet and user to generate design criteria for the internal helmet surface. Morphological characteristics of the target population, pressure distribution over head and subjective perception of fitting and discomfort are the factors considered to establish the criteria that assure a proper fit. Ten men corresponding to helmet size M and usual drivers of motorbike wore two helmet models in three sizes (S, M and L). The head shape of participants was acquired using the head scanner of I-Ware laboratory and an instrumented pad was used to measure pressure in five head regions. After wearing the helmet, users filled in a perception questionnaire about fitting, comfort and usability considering the five regions. Users' fitting perception provided the relation between pressure levels and the comfort felt in the five regions. This study constitutes a first approach to a new methodology to generate criteria to improve the design of helmets under a multidimensional approach. PMID:22317339

  19. Aircrew helmet protection against potential cerebral concussion in low-magnitude impacts.

    PubMed

    Norman, R W; Bishop, P J; Pierrynowski, M R; Pezzack, J C

    1979-06-01

    The response of the Gentex DH-151 (contact type) and Gentex 411 (suspension type) aircrew helmets to low-magnitude impacts, such as those sometimes encountered during cockpit buffeting, in ejection, and in parachute landings, was studied to augment the data base on helmet performance. The helmets, mounted on a Hodgson headform, were dropped on the crown and rear at impact velocities up to 4.97 m/s. Acceleration time histories were tape recorded and digitized and Gadd Severity Indices (GSI), among others, were calculated from the resultant acceleration curve. Both helmets kept the GSI below predicted concussion thresholds at 4.97 m/s and were considered to perform well on initial impacts. On second impacts, the GSI rose considerably because the shell and liner of the DH-151 cracked and the suspension of the "141" stretched during the first blow. Improvement of the multiple impact performance of both helmets appears desirable, although the suspension helmet performed slightly better than the contact helmet with respect to the criterion used. PMID:475701

  20. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. PMID:26998593

  1. A multidimensional approach to the generation of helmets' design criteria: a preliminar study.

    PubMed

    Alemany, S; Olaso, J; Nacher, B; Gil, M; Hernández, A; Pizá, M; Solves, C

    2012-01-01

    The design and development process of helmets incorporates systematically design criteria related to safety to accomplish European and local standards for the commercialization. However, there are few studies focused on user's comfort and adaptation. Present study tackles a multidimensional approach to gain better understanding of the interaction between helmet and user to generate design criteria for the internal helmet surface. Morphological characteristics of the target population, pressure distribution over head and subjective perception of fitting and discomfort are the factors considered to establish the criteria that assure a proper fit. Ten men corresponding to helmet size M and usual drivers of motorbike wore two helmet models in three sizes (S, M and L). The head shape of participants was acquired using the head scanner of I-Ware laboratory and an instrumented pad was used to measure pressure in five head regions. After wearing the helmet, users filled in a perception questionnaire about fitting, comfort and usability considering the five regions. Users' fitting perception provided the relation between pressure levels and the comfort felt in the five regions. This study constitutes a first approach to a new methodology to generate criteria to improve the design of helmets under a multidimensional approach.

  2. Effectiveness of Bicycle Safety Helmets in Preventing Facial Injuries in Road Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Rebecca; Otte, Dietmar; Müller, Christian; Petri, Maximilian; Gaulke, Ralph; Krettek, Christian; Brand, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing head injuries is well- documented. Recent studies differ regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing facial injuries, especially those of the mid-face and the mandible. Objectives The present study was conducted to determine the protective effect of a bicycle helmet in preventing mid-face and mandibular fractures. Patients and Methods Data from an accident research unit were analyzed to collect technical collision details (relative collision speed, type of collision, collision partner, and use of a helmet) and clinical data (type of fracture). Results Between 1999 and 2011, 5,350 bicycle crashes were included in the study. Of these, 175 (3.3%) had fractures of the mid-face or mandible. In total, 228 mid-face or mandibular fractures were identified. A significant correlation was found between age and relative collision speed, and the incidence of a fracture. While no significant correlation was found between the use of a helmet and the incidence of mid-facial fractures, the use of a helmet was correlated with a significantly increased incidence of mandibular fractures. Conclusions Higher age of cyclists and increasing speed of the accident opponent significantly increase the likelihood of sustaining facial fractures. The use of bicycle helmets does not significantly reduce the incidence of mid-facial fractures, while being correlated with an even increased incidence of mandibular fractures. PMID:27800459

  3. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  4. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  5. Mechanical properties of the triceps surae: differences between football and non-football players.

    PubMed

    Faria, Aurélio; Gabriel, Ronaldo; Abrantes, João; Wood, Paola; Moreira, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae between professional, junior, and non-football players. Fifty-nine men participated in this study. The mechanical properties of the right legs' triceps surae were measured in vivo using a free oscillation technique; no significant differences existed between the groups. The mean results for musculo-articular stiffness, damping coefficient, and damping ratio were as follows: professional football players (21523 N· m⁻¹, 330.8 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.201); junior football players (21063 N · m⁻¹, 274.4 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.173); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). When analysed according to position, the results were as follows: defender (21447 N · m⁻¹, 308.6 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.189); midfielder (20762 N · m⁻¹, 250.7 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.157); winger (21322 N · m⁻¹, 335.1 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.212); forward (22085 N · m⁻¹, 416.2 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.254); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). Thus, football training, football games, and the position played had no effect on triceps surae mechanical properties. These results may be attributed to opposing adaptations between different types of training that are usually implemented in football. Alternatively, the minimum strain amplitude and/or frequency threshold of the triceps surae required to trigger adaptations of mechanical properties might not be achieved by football players with football training and matches.

  6. The prevalence and effective factors of crash helmet usage among motorcyclists in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Javanmardi, Kazem; Sarikhani, Yaser; Mahjoor, Kourosh; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Khabaz Shirazi, Mohammad; Akbari, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Crash helmet plays an important role in protecting the deriver's head during crashes and reduces the rate of severe injuries and fatalities. Although it has been proved that wearing the crash helmet can save the deriver’s life by around 42%; previous studies showed that the rate of wearing crash helmet has not been acceptable in Iran. Due to the huge number of motorcyclists on the roads in Iran, the use of crash helmet is an important area of research. The aim of this study was to assess the factors that could possibly relate to or affect the use of crash helmet by the motorcyclists. Methods: This is an observational study on 414 motorcyclists in Shiraz, Southern Iran. All participants completed a questioner containing demographic features, crash helmet use, motorcycle license, and the reasons for using motorcycles. Results: All the participants were males and aged from16 to 64 years with mean age 27±9.28. The results of logistic regression model revealed that only the drivers who had motorcycle license (OR=2.73, C.I: 1.40-7.24), employed the motorcycle for reasons other than pleasure (OR=3.18, C.I: 1.42-7.37) and been driving for 10 or more years (OR=1.92 95% C.I: 1.12-3.30) had greater rate of wearing crash helmet. Interestingly, educational levels, age, and other demographical variables had no relationship with crash helmet usage. Conclusions: It is believed that in order to increase the rate of crash helmet use, it is necessary to enact obligatory requirement for driving license by motorcyclists and increase the legal age for motorcycle driving. PMID:26353927

  7. Science and football: a review of applied research in the football codes.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Gilbourne, David

    2003-09-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a growth in research directly related to football. Although most of this research is focused on soccer (association football), there has been a steady increase in publications related to the other football codes. There is evidence of more systematic training and selection influencing the anthropometric profiles of players who compete at the highest level. Fitness is being optimized to cope with match demands while accommodating the need for specific requirements of positional roles. There is evidence of work rate being higher in contemporary football games than in previous decades, with consequences for training and dietary practices. Notation analysis of actions during matches is now used regularly to provide detailed objective feedback on performance to players and coaches. Training regimens are designed for game-specific purposes where possible. Sports psychologists working in a football context have a more eclectic body of knowledge to draw from. In the professional soccer clubs, the rewards associated with a successful investment in youth academies have helped to focus attention on talent identification and development models. It is a challenge to those specializing in science and football to contribute to the success of such schemes.

  8. Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Laura; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Epidemiological research details a high rate of horse-related injury, despite technical countermeasures being widely available and largely affordable. Whilst barriers to engaging in preventative behavior such as helmet-use have been identified, less attention has been given to enabling factors. These factors could contribute to the design of more effective injury prevention interventions. To identify barriers as well as enablers in an Australian context, we explored how riders discussed helmet use amongst one another in an online setting. Our analysis revealed that social relations heavily influenced safety behavior. In particular, we identified three attitudes that affected helmet use: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Abstract Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the

  9. Using PEACE to target helmet legislation involving nonmotorized wheeled sports in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ruth Whelan, K

    2007-01-01

    Current Canadian helmet bylaws focus mainly on bicycle helmet use. In this way, law makers are ignoring head injuries associated with other wheeled sports. Cycling, in-line skating, skateboarding, and scootering can all cause serious injury to participants if proper protective gear is not worn. Legislation has been shown to work in promoting helmet use and decreasing injuries. Nurses, using theory and research to guide practice, can be key players in advocating for healthy public policies and amendments to provincial legislation. Nurses have the opportunity to play an active leadership role that can be guided by PEACE, a philosophy that encompasses praxis, empowerment, awareness, cooperation, and evolvement.

  10. An Instrumented Mouthguard for Measuring Linear and Angular Head Impact Kinematics in American Football

    PubMed Central

    Camarillo, David B.; Shull, Pete B.; Mattson, James; Shultz, Rebecca; Garza, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel instrumented mouthguard as a research device for measuring head impact kinematics. To evaluate kinematic accuracy, laboratory impact testing was performed at sites on the helmet and facemask for determining how closely instrumented mouthguard data matched data from an anthropomorphic test device. Laboratory testing results showed that peak linear acceleration (r2 = 0.96), peak angular acceleration (r2 = 0.89), and peak angular velocity (r2 = 0.98) measurements were highly correlated between the instrumented mouthguard and anthropomorphic test device. Normalized root-mean-square errors for impact time traces were 9.9 ± 4.4% for linear acceleration, 9.7 ± 7.0% for angular acceleration, and 10.4 ± 9.9% for angular velocity. This study demonstrates the potential of an instrumented mouthguard as a research tool for measuring in vivo impacts, which could help uncover the link between head impact kinematics and brain injury in American football. PMID:23604848

  11. Field-based measures of head impacts in high school football athletes

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, Steven P; Eckner, James T; Kutcher, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent technological advances have allowed the in-vivo measurement of impacts sustained to the head during helmeted sports. These measurements are of interest to researchers and clinicians for their potential to understand both the underlying mechanics of concussive injuries and the potential for real-time injury diagnostics. Following an overview of impact biomechanics, this review will evaluate the following: in-vivo technology being used in American football players; impact frequencies and magnitudes; and the biomechanical threshold for concussion. Recent findings The average high school athlete sustains over 650 impacts in a season, and the level at which concussion occurs is approximately 100 g and 5500 rad/s/s. Summary High school athletes sustain a significant number of head impacts each year. The impacts are similar in both volume and magnitude when compared with collegiate athletes. The magnitude of impact that results in concussion is also the same at both levels of play, although the collegiate athlete may have a higher injury tolerance. PMID:23042253

  12. Rotational head kinematics in football impacts: an injury risk function for concussion.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Greenwald, Richard M; Crisco, Joseph J; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has suggested a possible link between sports-related concussions and neurodegenerative processes, highlighting the importance of developing methods to accurately quantify head impact tolerance. The use of kinematic parameters of the head to predict brain injury has been suggested because they are indicative of the inertial response of the brain. The objective of this study is to characterize the rotational kinematics of the head associated with concussive impacts using a large head acceleration dataset collected from human subjects. The helmets of 335 football players were instrumented with accelerometer arrays that measured head acceleration following head impacts sustained during play, resulting in data for 300,977 sub-concussive and 57 concussive head impacts. The average sub-concussive impact had a rotational acceleration of 1230 rad/s(2) and a rotational velocity of 5.5 rad/s, while the average concussive impact had a rotational acceleration of 5022 rad/s(2) and a rotational velocity of 22.3 rad/s. An injury risk curve was developed and a nominal injury value of 6383 rad/s(2) associated with 28.3 rad/s represents 50% risk of concussion. These data provide an increased understanding of the biomechanics associated with concussion and they provide critical insight into injury mechanisms, human tolerance to mechanical stimuli, and injury prevention techniques.

  13. An instrumented mouthguard for measuring linear and angular head impact kinematics in American football.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, David B; Shull, Pete B; Mattson, James; Shultz, Rebecca; Garza, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel instrumented mouthguard as a research device for measuring head impact kinematics. To evaluate kinematic accuracy, laboratory impact testing was performed at sites on the helmet and facemask for determining how closely instrumented mouthguard data matched data from an anthropomorphic test device. Laboratory testing results showed that peak linear acceleration (r (2) = 0.96), peak angular acceleration (r (2) = 0.89), and peak angular velocity (r (2) = 0.98) measurements were highly correlated between the instrumented mouthguard and anthropomorphic test device. Normalized root-mean-square errors for impact time traces were 9.9 ± 4.4% for linear acceleration, 9.7 ± 7.0% for angular acceleration, and 10.4 ± 9.9% for angular velocity. This study demonstrates the potential of an instrumented mouthguard as a research tool for measuring in vivo impacts, which could help uncover the link between head impact kinematics and brain injury in American football.

  14. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, Michele

    2005-02-15

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints.

  15. There's a Football Revival Goin' On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Craig T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how within the last 2 years, several historically Black colleges (Benedict College, Allen University, Edward Waters College, Paul Quinn College, Lincoln University, Stillman College) have dusted the cobwebs off their football programs, most of which had been dormant for decades. The result has been increasing enrollment, income, and…

  16. High School Football Injury Surveillance Studies, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.

    This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…

  17. Football--A Motivator for Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogill, Julie; Parr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors visited with the Arsenal Double Club Coordinator, Scott an amateur footballer, and a career teacher who is able to bring his considerable experience and administrative skill to the project. The authors were delighted to realise that they were talking to a teacher committed to what is first and foremost an educational…

  18. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, J P

    1985-01-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries. Images p71-a PMID:4027497

  19. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  20. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  1. The Metamorphosis of a Football Stadium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Have, Pieter J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…

  2. Modern Apprenticeships in English Professional Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Des; Olsson, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will examine the two year modern apprenticeship undertaken by trainees in the English professional football industry. Design/methodology/approach: Representatives of seven clubs were interviewed in the summer of 2005; all of them were responsible for youth development in their club. These interviews were the first of what will…

  3. Applications of the Scorpion color helmet-mounted cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atac, Robert

    2010-04-01

    The innovative technology utilized in the Scorpion HMCS has broken several product and price barriers which now allow it to be used in both traditional and non-traditional applications. In particular, its bright color display provides a new dimension for informational content and vastly improved situational awareness. Users are just beginning to explore the ways that color can be used in an HMD projection display. Scorpion has also broken through price and installation cost barriers allowing, for the first time, its use on platforms that could otherwise never have afforded a helmet mounted display. Scorpion HMCS units are currently being used for both traditional cueing as well as unique new applications in both airborne and maritime platforms. These applications are further described as well as other potential roles for the Scorpion HMCS.

  4. Helmet-mounted sensor fusion ATR for the dismounted soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topiwala, Pankaj N.; Casasent, David

    2004-09-01

    Computer vision capabilities have long been available to advanced sensor systems such as those on aircraft, UAVs, helicopters, and ground scout vehicles; but to date, they have not been available to the dismounted soldier. This is understandable since the size/weight/cost metrics of carrying sensors and the image processing, interaction, and display capabilities, not to mention the power supply, have been prohibitive. But recent advances in uncooled IR sensors (up to QVGA), coupled with the steady advances in EO sensors (VGA+) and in microelectronics, are now making the prospect of computer vision for the foot soldier feasible for the first time. In this paper, we develop our initial approaches to all aspects of this problem: (a) sensor system integration, (b) image processing algorithms and initial hardware vision, and (c) display and interaction. As a prototype compute/display platform, we do initial development based on a lightweight commercial wearable computer and helmet-mounted display.

  5. Analysis of the Internal Ventilation for a Motorcycle Helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimolin, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    This work deals with a methodology for the numerical simulation of the inner ventilation of a motorcycle helmet, based on a thermo-fluid-dynamic model capable of describing evaporation-related heat transfer phenomena. The final purpose is the enhancment of the comfort of the rider and ultimately his safety. The fluid-dynamic problem concerns the modelization of the filtration of a flow over a porous medium, while the (decoupled) thermodynamic model is associated with the heat and sweat removal by means of the airflow. The latter is based on a set of evolution equations for the three scalar unknowns temperature, absolute humidity and sweat. Simulations on a sample 2D problem show the applicability of the methodology, highlighting the implicitly-defined free boundary separating the wet and dry regions as well as the zones where sweat accumulates.

  6. Finite element analysis for the evaluation of protective functions of helmets against ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, H P; Gong, S W

    2010-10-01

    The ballistic impact of a human head model protected by a Personnel Armor System Ground Troops Kevlar® helmet is analysed using the finite element method. The emphasis is to examine the effect of the interior cushioning system as a shock absorber in mitigating ballistic impact to the head. The simulations of the frontal and side impacts of the full metal jacket (FMJ) and fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) were carried out using LS-DYNA. It was found that the Kevlar® helmet with its interior nylon and leather strap was able to defeat both the FMJ and FSP without the projectiles penetrating the helmet. However, the head injuries caused by the FMJ impact can be fatal due to the high stiffness of the interior strap. The bulge section at the side of the Kevlar® helmet had more room for deformation that resulted in less serious head injuries.

  7. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. PMID:25958794

  8. The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J; Grzebieta, R H; Olivier, J

    2013-04-01

    There has been an ongoing debate in Australia and internationally regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury amongst cyclists in crashes involving motor vehicles, and to assess the impact of 'risky cycling behaviour' among helmeted and unhelmeted cyclists. This analysis involved a retrospective, case-control study using linked police-reported road crash, hospital admission and mortality data in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2001-2009. The study population was cyclist casualties who were involved in a collision with a motor vehicle. Cases were those that sustained a head injury and were admitted to hospital. Controls were those admitted to hospital who did not sustain a head injury, or those not admitted to hospital. Standard multiple variable logistic regression modelling was conducted, with multinomial outcomes of injury severity. There were 6745 cyclist collisions with motor vehicles where helmet use was known. Helmet use was associated with reduced risk of head injury in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles of up to 74%, and the more severe the injury considered, the greater the reduction. This was also found to be true for particular head injuries such as skull fractures, intracranial injury and open head wounds. Around one half of children and adolescents less than 19 years were not wearing a helmet, an issue that needs to be addressed in light of the demonstrated effectiveness of helmets. Non-helmeted cyclists were more likely to display risky riding behaviour, however, were less likely to cycle in risky areas; the net result of which was that they were more likely to be involved in more severe crashes. PMID:23377086

  9. Bicycle Helmet Laws are Associated with a Lower Fatality Rate from Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, William P.; Lee, Lois K.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Mannix, Rebekah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Study design We conducted a cross sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates per age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit (< 0.08% vs. ≥ 0.08%), and household income. Results A total of 1,612 bicycle-related fatalities were sustained by children <16 years old. There were no statistical differences in median household income, the proportion of states with elderly licensure laws, or the proportion of states with a blood alcohol limit of > 0.08 between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted rates of fatalities were lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs. 2.5/1,000,000; p= 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, states with mandatory helmet laws continued to be associated with a lower rate of fatalities (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.70, 0.98). Conclusions Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities among child bicyclists involved in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:23706604

  10. Helmet regulation in Vietnam: impact on health, equity and medical impoverishment

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Zachary; Staples, John A; Mock, Charles; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Nugent, Rachel; Verguet, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Vietnam's 2007 comprehensive motorcycle helmet policy increased helmet use from about 30% of riders to about 93%. We aimed to simulate the effect that this legislation might have on: (a) road traffic deaths and non-fatal injuries, (b) individuals’ direct acute care injury treatment costs, (c) individuals’ income losses from missed work and (d) individuals’ protection against medical impoverishment. Methods and findings We used published secondary data from the literature to perform a retrospective extended cost-effectiveness analysis simulation study of the policy. Our model indicates that in the year following its introduction a helmet policy employing standard helmets likely prevented approximately 2200 deaths and 29 000 head injuries, saved individuals US$18 million in acute care costs and averted US$31 million in income losses. From a societal perspective, such a comprehensive helmet policy would have saved $11 000 per averted death or $830 per averted non-fatal injury. In terms of financial risk protection, traffic injury is so expensive to treat that any injury averted would necessarily entail a case of catastrophic health expenditure averted. Conclusions The high costs associated with traffic injury suggest that helmet legislation can decrease the burden of out-of-pocket payments and reduced injuries decrease the need for access to and coverage for treatment, allowing the government and individuals to spend resources elsewhere. These findings suggest that comprehensive motorcycle helmet policies should be adopted by low-income and middle-income countries where motorcycles are pervasive yet helmet use is less common. PMID:26728008

  11. The Effects of Molding Helmet Therapy on Spring-Mediated Cranial Vault Remodeling for Sagittal Craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jordan W; Haas, Jacqueline A; Mitchell, Brianne T; Storm, Philip B; Bartlett, Scott P; Heuer, Gregory G; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-09-01

    There is no clear consensus for the optimal treatment of sagittal craniosynostosis; however, recent studies suggest that improved neurocognitive outcomes may be obtained when surgical intervention imparts active cranial expansion or remodeling and is performed before 6 months of age. The authors consider spring-mediated cranioplasty (SMC) to optimally address these imperatives, and this is an investigation of how helmet orthoses before or after SMC affect aesthetic outcomes.The authors retrospectively evaluated patients treated with SMC and adjunct helmeting for sagittal synostosis. Patients were stratified into 4 cohorts based on helmet usage: preop, postop, both, and neither. The cephalic index (CI) was used to assess head shape changes and outcomes. Twenty-six patients met inclusion criteria: 6 (23%) had preop, 11 (42%) had postop, 4 (15%) had preop and postop, and 5 (19%) had no helmeting. Average age at surgery was 3.6 months. Overall, CI improved from a mean 69.8 to 77.9 during an average 7-month course of care. Mean preoperative change in CI showed greater improvement with preop helmet (1.3) versus not (0.0), (P = 0.029), despite similar initial CI in these cohorts (70.4 and 69.6 respectively, P = 0.69). Nonetheless, all patient cohorts regardless of helmeting status achieved similar final CIs (range 76.4-80.4; P = 0.72).In summary, preoperative molding helmet therapy leads to improved CI at the time of spring-mediated cranioplasty. However, this benefit does not necessarily translate into overall improved CI after surgery and in follow-up, calling into question the benefits of molding helmet therapy in this setting. PMID:27607110

  12. Evaluation of thermal and evaporative resistances in cricket helmets using a sweating manikin.

    PubMed

    Pang, Toh Yen; Subic, Aleksandar; Takla, Monir

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to establish an approach for measuring the dry and evaporative heat dissipation cricket helmets. A range of cricket helmets has been tested using a sweating manikin within a controlled climatic chamber. The thermal manikin experiments were conducted in two stages, namely the (i) dry test and (ii) wet test. The ambient air temperature for the dry tests was controlled to ~ 23 °C, and the mean skin temperatures averaged ~ 35 °C. The thermal insulation value measured for the manikin with helmet ensemble ranged from 1.0 to 1.2 clo. The results showed that among the five cricket helmets, the Masuri helmet offered slightly more thermal insulation while the Elite helmet offered the least. However, under the dry laboratory conditions and with minimal air movement (air velocity = 0.08 ± 0.01 ms(-1)), small differences exist between the thermal resistance values for the tested helmets. The wet tests were conducted in an isothermal condition, with an ambient and skin mean temperatures averaged ~ 35 °C, the evaporative resistance, Ret, varied between 36 and 60 m(2) Pa W(-1). These large variations in evaporative heat dissipation values are due to the presence of a thick layer of comfort lining in certain helmet designs. This finding suggests that the type and design of padding may influence the rate of evaporative heat dissipation from the head and face; hence the type of material and thickness of the padding is critical for the effectiveness of evaporative heat loss and comfort of the wearer. Issues for further investigations in field trials are discussed.

  13. Smart army helmet: a glance in what soldier helmets can become in the near future by integrating present technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Carlos A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, technologies like improved reality systems, sensing systems and communication systems, are moving forward with a high rate. This situation is very convenient for military groups that are trying to access modern technologies. According to that, it is very feasible to propose the development of electronic devices that increase the possibilities for soldiers to be alive during an armed conflict, providing them with information that can bring strategic benefits on the combat field, which is the main goal of this research. Therefore, it is proposed in this paper the early design stages of a smart army helmet, focusing in their low cost production; however, all the electronics stages specified here are proposed as prototypes.

  14. Helmet Use and Associated Factors among Thai Motorcyclists during Songkran Festival

    PubMed Central

    Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686

  15. Dynamic Characterization of Motorcycle Helmets: Modelling and Coupling with the Human Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WILLINGER, R.; BAUMGARTNER, D.; GUIMBERTEAU, T.

    2000-08-01

    Research into the protection of the human head calls for accurate modelling of both the protection system and the head. This study proposes a model incorporating both lumped parameters of the helmet and the head and their coupling during impact. The mechanical characteristics of the shell and of the helmet liner are determined by modal analysis and dynamic compression tests respectively. The coupling of these two components of the helmet is explored using numerical optimization methods based on impact tests which are also used to validate the model. A new dummy head, developed in a previous study and capable of simulating the relative brain-skull displacement was used in the parametric study of the helmet to optimize the density of the polystyrene liner. The ultimate purpose of the study is to devise methods of evaluating the protective aspects of the helmet and then to provide less-expensive methods for optimizing new products on the basis of biomechanical criteria. So far, the study has shown that the optimum density of the liner can be determined not only empirically but also theoretically. It has also shown that optimum helmet parameters depend on the mechanical properties of the dummy head used.

  16. Survey results for integrated helmet and display sighting system fitting issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Braithwaite, Malcolm G.; Isaak, Melissa L.; Stelle, Jessica A.; Adams, Mark S.

    2003-09-01

    The Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS), employed in the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache helicopter, is used to present pilotage and targeting imagery and symbology. Therefore, in addition to the standard comfort and protection requirements of a helmet system, the IHADSS must provide a stable optical alignment. Fielded in the early 1980's, the IHADSS is still the Army's only integrated helmet-mounted display (HMD). In an attempt to perform both the standard protective role of a helmet and to serve as a mounting platform for an optical sight, the IHADSS had to make certain design compromises that have resulted in some user satisfaction issues. A joint survey of U.S. and U.K. AH-64 aviators was conducted to identify and quantify these issues. Survey findings indicated that while a majority of aviators found the quality, comfort and satisfaction of fit to be acceptable, a significant proportion of aviators have encountered problems associated with obtaining proper helmet size, availability of replacement components, and substantial variation in fitting expertise. Results of this survey can assist in ongoing and future HMD helmet system designs.

  17. Helmet use and associated factors among Thai motorcyclists during Songkran festival.

    PubMed

    Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686

  18. Impact of a theory based intervention to increase bicycle helmet use in low income children

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, S. G.; Becker, H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective—While community interventions to increase bicycle helmet use have increased markedly, few of these studies are theoretically based. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships among PRECEDE model predictors and self reported helmet use among 407 fourth graders from nine low income, non-urban schools. Setting—Low income schools, with high minority populations in eight non-metropolitan Central Texas counties were chosen. Methods—Schools were randomly assigned in a repeated measures design to either classroom only, parent-child, or control groups. School nurses were educated by the researchers to present a head injury prevention program in all but the experimental schools. Researchers made contact by phone with the parents of children in the parent-child group. Results and conclusions—Participation in either of the educational interventions, followed by belief that helmets protect your head (a predisposing factor), and participation in the parent intervention condition, added significant unique variance to the prediction of helmet use after helmet ownership is accounted. These four variables, taken together, account for 72% of the variance in predicting bicycle helmet use. PMID:9666367

  19. Aerodynamics of cyclist posture, bicycle and helmet characteristics in time trial stage.

    PubMed

    Chabroux, Vincent; Barelle, Caroline; Favier, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist's upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.

  20. Expertise and decision-making in American football.

    PubMed

    Woods, Adam J; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases. PMID:26217294

  1. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-05-01

    A class demonstration and cooperative learning activity in which the ideal gas law is applied to determine the volume of a football is described. The mass of an air-filled football is recorded at two or more pressures, and students are asked to use these data to solve problems involving the volume, pressure, and mass of the football and the molecular weight of the gas in the ball. Several sample questions are included.

  2. Expertise and decision-making in American football

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Adam J.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F(2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases. PMID:26217294

  3. Travelling Fellowship Program for Football Medicine; Report on an Experience

    PubMed Central

    Seifbarghi, Tohid; Hashemi, Akram; Halabchi, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Football medicine has developed in the world in recent years. AFC Medical Committee, established the idea of football medicine travelling fellowship two years ago and provided high-level healthcare services to football players in Asian countries. This is a report on my one month experience in a travelling fellowship program for football medicine which is attempting to tell the reader about the interesting event that I experienced. This course has been held between Jan 15 to Feb 10, 2012 in 3 Asian countries: Qatar, Thailand and Malysia. The experience provided me with the valuable suggestions for future travelling fellowship periods. PMID:23012644

  4. Hardware Improvements To The Helmet Mounted Projector On The Visual Display Research Tool (VDRT) At The Naval Training Systems Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Richard; Murray, Paul M.

    1989-09-01

    The Visual Pisplay Research Tool includes a helmet mounted projector for the display of flight simulation Area-of-Interest imagery on a 10 foot radius dome. The imagery is transmitted to the helmet using two coherent fibre optic ribbons. Some improvements have been made to the fibre optic system and to the helmet fit. The imagery is head and eye slaved and the concepts for image positioning and stabilisation are described.

  5. Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; Van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; IJzerman, Maarten J; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of helmet therapy for positional skull deformation compared with the natural course of the condition in infants aged 5-6 months. Design Pragmatic, single blinded, randomised controlled trial (HEADS, HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) nested in a prospective cohort study. Setting 29 paediatric physiotherapy practices; helmet therapy was administered at four specialised centres. Participants 84 infants aged 5 to 6 months with moderate to severe skull deformation, who were born after 36 weeks of gestation and had no muscular torticollis, craniosynostosis, or dysmorphic features. Participants were randomly assigned to helmet therapy (n=42) or to natural course of the condition (n=42) according to a randomisation plan with blocks of eight. Interventions Six months of helmet therapy compared with the natural course of skull deformation. In both trial arms parents were asked to avoid any (additional) treatment for the skull deformation. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in skull shape from baseline to 24 months of age assessed using plagiocephalometry (anthropometric measurement instrument). Change scores for plagiocephaly (oblique diameter difference index) and brachycephaly (cranioproportional index) were each included in an analysis of covariance, using baseline values as the covariate. Secondary outcomes were ear deviation, facial asymmetry, occipital lift, and motor development in the infant, quality of life (infant and parent measures), and parental satisfaction and anxiety. Baseline measurements were performed in infants aged between 5 and 6 months, with follow-up measurements at 8, 12, and 24 months. Primary outcome assessment at 24 months was blinded. Results The change score for both plagiocephaly and brachycephaly was equal between the helmet therapy and natural course groups, with a mean difference of −0.2 (95% confidence interval −1.6 to 1.2, P=0.80) and 0.2 (−1.7 to 2.2, P=0

  6. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes.

  7. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury.

  8. Aerodynamic analysis of a tumbling American football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Daniel Edmundson

    In this study, the aerodynamic effects on an American football are characterized, especially in a tumbling, or end-over-end, motion as seen in a typical kickoff or field goal attempt. The objective of this study is to establish aerodynamic coefficients for the dynamic motion of a tumbling American football. A subsonic wind tunnel was used to recreate a range of air velocities that, when coupled with rotation rates and differing laces orientations, would provide a test bed for aerodynamic drag, side, and lift coefficient analysis. Test results quantify effect of back-spin and top-spin on lift force. Results show that the presence of laces imposes a side force in the opposite direction of the laces orientation. A secondary system was installed to visualize air flow around the tumbling ball and record high-speed video of wake patterns, as a qualitative check of measured force directions.

  9. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    PubMed

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  10. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes. PMID:26561768

  11. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. PMID:24225523

  12. Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mehri; Saeed, Mazloomy Mahmoodabad Seyed; Ali, Morowatisharifabad Mohammad; Haidar, Nadrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on predictors of helmet use behaviour, using variables based on the theory of planned behaviour model among the employed motorcycle riders in Yazd-Iran, in an attempt to identify influential factors that may be addressed through intervention efforts. In 2007, a cluster random sample of 130 employed motorcycle riders in the city of Yazd in central Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, intention along with helmet use behaviour). Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. The statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multiple regression. Based on the results, 56 out of all the respondents (43.1%) had history of accident by motorcycle. Of these motorcycle riders only 10.7% were wearing their helmet at the time of their accident. Intention and perceived behavioural control showed a significant relationship with helmet use behaviour and perceived behaviour control was the strongest predictor of helmet use intention, followed by subjective norms, and attitude. It was found that that helmet use rate among motorcycle riders was very low. The findings of present study provide a preliminary support for the TPB model as an effective framework for examining helmet use in motorcycle riders. Understanding motorcycle rider's thoughts, feelings and beliefs about helmet use behaviour can assist intervention specialists to develop and implement effective programs in order to promote helmet use among motorcycle riders.

  13. Helmet use among users of the Citi Bike bicycle-sharing program: a pilot study in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Basch, Charles E

    2014-06-01

    The use of bicycle helmets to prevent or reduce serious head injuries is well established. However, it is unclear how to effectively promote helmet use, particularly in the context of bicycle-sharing programs. The need to determine rates of helmet use specifically among users of bicycle-sharing programs and understand if certain characteristics, such as time of day, affect helmet use, is imperative if effective promotion and/or legislative efforts addressing helmet use are to be developed. We estimated the prevalence of helmet use among a sample of Citi Bike program users in New York City. A total of 1,054 cyclists were observed over 44 h and across the 22 busiest Citi Bike locations. Overall, 85.3% (95% CI 82.2, 88.4%) of the cyclists observed did not wear a helmet. Rates of helmet non-use were also consistent whether cyclists were entering or leaving the docking station, among cyclists using the Citi Bikes earlier versus later in the day, and among cyclists using the Citi Bikes on weekends versus weekdays. Improved understanding about factors that facilitate and hinder helmet use is needed to help reduce head injury risk among users of bicycle sharing programs.

  14. Sport injuries in Donegal Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed

    El-Gohary, Y; Roarty, A; O'Rourke, P

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.

  15. Brain Changes Seen in Kids After One Season of Football

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. They also were provided helmets embedded with sensors that measure the severity of every hit to ... researchers reviewed video recordings to verify that the sensors had accurately recorded each hit. None of the ...

  16. Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO2 rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure. PMID:23680299

  17. Profile of Position Movement Demands in Elite Junior Australian Rules Footballers

    PubMed Central

    Veale, James P.; Pearce, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the positional movement patterns in elite junior Australian Football (AF). Thirty players (17.1 ± 0.9 years) participating in this study were tracked over seven home games of the regular 2006 Victorian junior (Under 18) league season. Using lapsed-time video analysis, each position for an entire match was videotaped on three separate occasions over the course of the season. Data analysed included the number of individual efforts, duration and frequency of efforts; distance and percentage time for the classifications of standing, walking jogging, running and sprinting. Results showed that the midfield position travelled the greatest distance (4173 ± 238 m per quarter; p < 0.05; ES = .94) whilst the full forward/full back travelled the least (2605 ± 348 m per quarter, p < 0.05, ES = 1.21). For all positions, walking or jogging accounted for the greatest number of efforts (45-55%), conversely running and sprinting accounted for 5-13% of match efforts. The majority of efforts across all classifications were between 0-3.99 s. The data from this study provides further evidence that AF is an intermittent sport characterised by high intensity movements separated by low intensity movements at a ratio of one high intensity effort every 12-40 s. However, careful interpretation of the data is required when training junior AF players for specific positions, given the specific group studied. Key points Training for Australian Football should incorporate repeated sprint bouts rather than long continuous running that reflect the characteristics of the sport. Specialised positional training (involving distances and repetitions) can be prescribed to prepare junior athletes for specialist roles in senior level Australian Football. Differences between elite junior and senior Australian football provides further evidence to coaches that junior athletes should not be trained as adults. PMID:24149993

  18. Manufacturing development of visor for binocular helmet mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David; Edwards, Timothy; Larkin, Eric; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert; Sowden, Tom

    2007-09-01

    The HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) visor is a sophisticated article. It is both the optical combiner for the display and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The visor must have dimensional and optical tolerances commensurate with precision optics; and mechanical properties sufficient for a ballistic shield. Optimized processes and tooling are necessary in order to manufacture a functional visor. This paper describes the manufacturing development of the visor for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HMD. The analytical and experimental basis for the tool and manufacturing process development are described; as well as the metrological and testing methods to verify the visor design and function. The requirements for the F-35 JSF visor are a generation beyond those for the HMD visor which currently flies on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18. The need for greater precision is manifest in the requirements for the tooling and molding process for the visor. The visor is injection-molded optical polycarbonate, selected for its combination of optical, mechanical and environmental properties. Proper design and manufacture of the tool - the mold - is essential. Design of the manufacturing tooling is an iterative process between visor design, mold design, mechanical modeling and polymer-flow modeling. Iterative design and manufacture enable the mold designer to define a polymer shrinkage factor more precise than derived from modeling or recommended by the resin supplier.

  19. Helmet-mounted displays for unmanned aerial vehicle control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morphew, M. Ephimia; Shively, Jay R.; Casey, Daniel

    2004-09-01

    An experiment was performed to assess the effect of using a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) versus a conventional computer monitor and joystick to perform an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor operator target search task. Eight subjects were evaluated on objective performance measures including their target detection accuracy and responses, in addition to subjective measures including workload, fatigue, situational awareness, and simulator sickness in both experimental conditions. Subjects were flown through a virtual world and asked to identify objects as targets, non-targets, or distractors. Results for objective measures indicated no difference in the operators' ability to accurately classify targets and non-targets. The subjects' ability to place the cursor on a target of interset (targeting accuracy), was, however, significantly better in the computer monitor condition than the HMD. The distance at which subjects could classify an object's identity was also significantly better in the computer monitor condition. Subjective measures showed no overall differences for sel-reported fatigue, workload, and situational awareness. A significant disadvantage, however, was found for the HMD with respect to self-reported nausea, disorientation, and oculomotor strain. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the incorporation of HMDs into UAV ground control station operations.

  20. Near field magnetic communications for helmet-mounted display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Mark; Sailer, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Helmet-mounted displays need a data feed that is typically provided by a cable or RF wireless data link to an external computer. In defense applications these solutions are problematic: a cable gets in the way and restricts use and emergency egress, while an RF wireless link can be detected at some distance giving away position and is susceptible to jamming. What is required is an alternative wireless technology that is low power, extremely localized and difficult to detect or jam. Near field magnetic communications is one possible alternative to RF communications that may fulfill these needs. This technology uses a time varying magnetic field to carry information, and is only useable over small distances of order six feet. This is expected to have significant advantages for particular applications: notably power requirements and security compared with RF wireless links. The power stored in a magnetic field falls off as 1/r6, compared with 1/r2 for RF, which means that all the power is localized around the transmitter. By having a physically small communications region around each platform or user, a large bandwidth can be guaranteed by allowing the reuse of the frequency spectrum outside the immediate vicinity. It also confers security on the data-link, as the signal is undetectable beyond the short range of the system.

  1. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  2. Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries, 1977-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    Football injuries which resulted in permanent spinal cord injury are reported in this survey, part of a concerted effort by individuals and research organizations to reduce the steady increase of football head and neck injuries since the late 1950s. In addition to the reporting of injuries, this document describes steps taken to eliminate the…

  3. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  4. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  5. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  6. A Personality Profile of Southeastern Conference Football Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittenbach, Richard F.; Eller, Ben F.

    Despite the importance of officiating, there is little information available on how major college football officials view their sport, themselves, and their role as officials. Southeastern Conference (SEC) football officials (N=39) responded to a survey packet consisting of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and a four-page profile of…

  7. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  8. Science and football: evaluating the influence of science on performance.

    PubMed

    Drust, B; Green, M

    2013-01-01

    The scientific study of football has its origins in the early research completed in the 1970's. Since these early efforts the available scientific knowledge base related to football has developed substantially. The ability of this scientific information to influence practice in the day-to-day activity of football organisations, especially elite teams, has been largely taken for granted. The close examination of this impact can lead to more uncertainty regarding the usefulness of the scientific data to the sport. Few articles are available that have attempted to critique the link between science and football practice. As such, the aims of this article are 2-fold; (i) to examine the historical background to "science and football" and to analyse the influence of sports science research on the current practice of coaches and practitioners within the sport and (ii) to identify potential ways to increase the influence of scientific research on practice in the "real world".

  9. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. PMID:18175508

  10. Cold-Water Immersion for Hyperthermic Humans Wearing American Football Uniforms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Swartz, Erik E.; Long, Blaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Context Current treatment recommendations for American football players with exertional heatstroke are to remove clothing and equipment and immerse the body in cold water. It is unknown if wearing a full American football uniform during cold-water immersion (CWI) impairs rectal temperature (Trec) cooling or exacerbates hypothermic afterdrop. Objective To determine the time to cool Trec from 39.5°C to 38.0°C while participants wore a full American football uniform or control uniform during CWI and to determine the uniform's effect on Trec recovery postimmersion. Design Crossover study. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 18 hydrated, physically active, unacclimated men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 178.8 ± 6.8 cm, mass = 82.3 ± 12.6 kg, body fat = 13% ± 4%, body surface area = 2.0 ± 0.2 m2). Intervention(s) Participants wore the control uniform (undergarments, shorts, crew socks, tennis shoes) or full uniform (control plus T-shirt; tennis shoes; jersey; game pants; padding over knees, thighs, and tailbone; helmet; and shoulder pads). They exercised (temperature approximately 40°C, relative humidity approximately 35%) until Trec reached 39.5°C. They removed their T-shirts and shoes and were then immersed in water (approximately 10°C) while wearing each uniform configuration; time to cool Trec to 38.0°C (in minutes) was recorded. We measured Trec (°C) every 5 minutes for 30 minutes after immersion. Main Outcome Measure(s) Time to cool from 39.5°C to 38.0°C and Trec. Results The Trec cooled to 38.0°C in 6.19 ± 2.02 minutes in full uniform and 8.49 ± 4.78 minutes in control uniform (t17 = −2.1, P = .03; effect size = 0.48) corresponding to cooling rates of 0.28°C·min−1 ± 0.12°C·min−1 in full uniform and 0.23°C·min−1 ± 0.11°C·min−1 in control uniform (t17 = 1.6, P = .07, effect size = 0.44). The Trec postimmersion recovery did not differ between conditions over time (F1,17 = 0.6, P = .59). Conclusions We

  11. VISTA/NF-16D programmable helmet-mounted display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alexander A.

    1997-06-01

    The VISTA/NV-16D is currently the newest in-flight simulator in the USAF inventory. This unique research aircraft will be fitted with the GEC-Marconi Avionics Programmable Display System. This equipment provides the capability to rapidly develop display concepts on both helmet-mounted display and head up displays in a dynamic flight test environment. The equipment provided includes an enhanced Viper II Helmet Mounted Display fitted to the HGU-86/P helmet. Display drive is provided by a very capable graphics generation system which also provides display drive to the standard F-16 Head Up Display. The system provides real time reprogrammable stroke and stroke on raster symbology on the HUD and on the HMD. The system is initially configured with monocular Stroke only HMD drive, but growth to dual HMD, stroke on video and binocular HMDs is available. The Honeywell Advanced Metal Tolerant Helmet Tracker System is integrated within the HMD Programmable Display System providing very accurate helmet orientation information to the graphics generator which is used for the display of space stabilized symbology when required. A fail safe backup display generator provides reversionary display on the HUD. This paper provides a detailed description of this equipment and also address some of the design techniques involved in developing this high performance system.

  12. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2015-06-01

    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.

  13. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; P<0.001) and of middle facial injury (OR, 1.97; P<0.001) as compared to helmet users. In the case of lower facial injury, however, only a slightly increased risk (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67-3.00, P=0.36) was observed. The abovementioned results can be attributed to the fact that a helmet covers the head and forehead but cannot cover the lower face. However, helmets having a chin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury. PMID:26217559

  14. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; P<0.001) and of middle facial injury (OR, 1.97; P<0.001) as compared to helmet users. In the case of lower facial injury, however, only a slightly increased risk (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67-3.00, P=0.36) was observed. The abovementioned results can be attributed to the fact that a helmet covers the head and forehead but cannot cover the lower face. However, helmets having a chin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury.

  15. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; P<0.001) and of middle facial injury (OR, 1.97; P<0.001) as compared to helmet users. In the case of lower facial injury, however, only a slightly increased risk (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67-3.00, P=0.36) was observed. The abovementioned results can be attributed to the fact that a helmet covers the head and forehead but cannot cover the lower face. However, helmets having a chin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury. PMID:26217559

  16. Dynamic response due to behind helmet blunt trauma measured with a human head surrogate.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Christopher J; Mathis, James T; Scott, Nikki; Bigger, Rory P; Mackiewicz, James

    2014-01-01

    A Human Head Surrogate has been developed for use in behind helmet blunt trauma experiments. This human head surrogate fills the void between Post-Mortem Human Subject testing (with biofidelity but handling restrictions) and commercial ballistic head forms (with no biofidelity but ease of use). This unique human head surrogate is based on refreshed human craniums and surrogate materials representing human head soft tissues such as the skin, dura, and brain. A methodology for refreshing the craniums is developed and verified through material testing. A test methodology utilizing these unique human head surrogates is also developed and then demonstrated in a series of experiments in which non-perforating ballistic impact of combat helmets is performed with and without supplemental ceramic appliques for protecting against larger caliber threats. Sensors embedded in the human head surrogates allow for direct measurement of intracranial pressure, cranial strain, and head and helmet acceleration. Over seventy (70) fully instrumented experiments have been executed using this unique surrogate. Examples of the data collected are presented. Based on these series of tests, the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Human Head Surrogate has demonstrated great potential for providing insights in to injury mechanics resulting from non-perforating ballistic impact on combat helmets, and directly supports behind helmet blunt trauma studies.

  17. Dynamic Response Due to Behind Helmet Blunt Trauma Measured with a Human Head Surrogate

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Christopher J.; Mathis, James T.; Scott, Nikki; Bigger, Rory P.; MacKiewicz, James

    2014-01-01

    A Human Head Surrogate has been developed for use in behind helmet blunt trauma experiments. This human head surrogate fills the void between Post-Mortem Human Subject testing (with biofidelity but handling restrictions) and commercial ballistic head forms (with no biofidelity but ease of use). This unique human head surrogate is based on refreshed human craniums and surrogate materials representing human head soft tissues such as the skin, dura, and brain. A methodology for refreshing the craniums is developed and verified through material testing. A test methodology utilizing these unique human head surrogates is also developed and then demonstrated in a series of experiments in which non-perforating ballistic impact of combat helmets is performed with and without supplemental ceramic appliques for protecting against larger caliber threats. Sensors embedded in the human head surrogates allow for direct measurement of intracranial pressure, cranial strain, and head and helmet acceleration. Over seventy (70) fully instrumented experiments have been executed using this unique surrogate. Examples of the data collected are presented. Based on these series of tests, the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Human Head Surrogate has demonstrated great potential for providing insights in to injury mechanics resulting from non-perforating ballistic impact on combat helmets, and directly supports behind helmet blunt trauma studies. PMID:24688303

  18. The effects of a 4-year program promoting bicycle helmet use among children in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Farley, C; Haddad, S; Brown, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 4-year program of bicycle helmet promotion that targeted elementary school children in one region of Quebec. The program revolved primarily around persuasive communication and community organization, combining standard educational activities and activities to facilitate helmet acquisition and use. METHODS. Helmet use was compared between more than 8000 young cyclists in municipalities exposed or not exposed to the program. Factors influencing helmet use were controlled through the use of multivariate analyses. RESULTS. Helmet use increased from 1.3% before program implementation to 33% in 1993. The program was clearly effective in most cycling circumstances and for various groups of children. However, the benefits of the program were unequally distributed; the program was one third as effective in poorer municipalities as in "average-rich" ones. CONCLUSIONS. This community-based program that combined various types of activities appeared to be effective. New intervention models are needed to ensure an equitable distribution of benefits. PMID:8561241

  19. Hockey STAR: A Methodology for Assessing the Biomechanical Performance of Hockey Helmets.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Bethany; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing the protective capabilities of helmets is one of several methods of reducing brain injury risk in sports. This paper presents the experimental and analytical development of a hockey helmet evaluation methodology. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) formula combines head impact exposure with brain injury probability over the broad range of 227 head impacts that a hockey player is likely to experience during one season. These impact exposure data are mapped to laboratory testing parameters using a series of 12 impact conditions comprised of three energy levels and four head impact locations, which include centric and non-centric directions of force. Injury risk is determined using a multivariate injury risk function that incorporates both linear and rotational head acceleration measurements. All testing parameters are presented along with exemplar helmet test data. The Hockey STAR methodology provides a scientific framework for manufacturers to optimize hockey helmet design for injury risk reduction, as well as providing consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of hockey helmets. PMID:25822907

  20. A computational study of influence of helmet padding materials on the human brain under ballistic impacts.

    PubMed

    Salimi Jazi, Mehdi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Azarmi, Fardad; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    The results of a computational study of a helmeted human head are presented in this paper. The focus of the work is to study the effects of helmet pad materials on the level of acceleration, inflicted pressure and shear stress in a human brain model subjected to a ballistic impact. Four different closed cell foam materials, made of expanded polystyrene and expanded polypropylene, are examined for the padding material. It is assumed that bullets cannot penetrate the helmet shell. Finite element modelling of the helmet, padding system, head and head components is used for this dynamic nonlinear analysis. Appropriate contacts and conditions are applied between the different components of the head, as well as between the head and the pads, and the pads and the helmet. Based on the results of simulations in this work, it is concluded that the stiffness of the foam has a prominent role in reducing the level of the transferred load to the brain. A pad that is less stiff is more efficient in absorbing the impact energy and reducing the sudden acceleration of the head and consequently lowers the brain injury level. Using the pad with the least stiffness, the influence of the angle of impacts as well as the locations of the ballistic strike is studied.

  1. Head Position in the MEG Helmet Affects the Sensitivity to Anterior Sources

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E

    2013-01-01

    Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people’s heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential “invisibility” of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position (“front” vs. “back”) secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the “visibility” of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks. PMID:16012659

  2. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p < 0.05). The football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  3. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Tesr Lines...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Test Lines...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Test Lines...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  7. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  8. Bikes, helmets, and public health: decision-making when goods collide.

    PubMed

    Bateman-House, Alison

    2014-06-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods.

  9. Bikes, Helmets, and Public Health: Decision-Making When Goods Collide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods. PMID:24825196

  10. Acoustic sensors in the helmet detect voice and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed body-contacting acoustic sensors that detect diverse physiological sounds such as heartbeats and breaths, high quality speech, and activity. These sensors use an acoustic impedance-matching gel contained in a soft, compliant pad to enhance the body borne sounds, yet significantly repel airborne noises due to an acoustic impedance mismatch. The signals from such a sensor can be used as a microphone with embedded physiology, or a dedicated digital signal processor can process packetized data to separate physiological parameters from voice, and log parameter trends for performance surveillance. Acoustic sensors were placed inside soldier helmets to monitor voice, physiology, activity, and situational awareness clues such as bullet shockwaves from sniper activity and explosions. The sensors were also incorporated into firefighter breathing masks, neck and wrist straps, and other protective equipment. Heart rate, breath rate, blood pressure, voice and activity can be derived from these sensors (reports at www.arl.army.mil/acoustics). Having numerous sensors at various locations provides a means for array processing to reduce motion artifacts, calculate pulse transit time for passive blood pressure measurement, and the origin of blunt/penetrating traumas such as ballistic wounding. These types of sensors give us the ability to monitor soldiers and civilian emergency first-responders in demanding environments, and provide vital signs information to assess their health status and how that person is interacting with the environment and mission at hand. The Objective Force Warrior, Scorpion, Land Warrior, Warrior Medic, and other military and civilian programs can potentially benefit from these sensors.

  11. Flight instruments and helmet-mounted SWIR imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tim; Green, John; Jacobson, Mickey; Grabski, Greg

    2011-06-01

    Night vision technology has experienced significant advances in the last two decades. Night vision goggles (NVGs) based on gallium arsenide (GaAs) continues to raise the bar for alternative technologies. Resolution, gain, sensitivity have all improved; the image quality through these devices is nothing less than incredible. Panoramic NVGs and enhanced NVGs are examples of recent advances that increase the warfighter capabilities. Even with these advances, alternative night vision devices such as solid-state indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) focal plane arrays are under development for helmet-mounted imaging systems. The InGaAs imaging system offers advantages over the existing NVGs. Two key advantages are; (1) the new system produces digital image data, and (2) the new system is sensitive to energy in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectrum. While it is tempting to contrast the performance of these digital systems to the existing NVGs, the advantage of different spectral detection bands leads to the conclusion that the technologies are less competitive and more synergistic. It is likely, by the end of the decade, pilots within a cockpit will use multi-band devices. As such, flight decks will need to be compatible with both NVGs and SWIR imaging systems. Insertion of NVGs in aircraft during the late 70's and early 80's resulted in many "lessons learned" concerning instrument compatibility with NVGs. These "lessons learned" ultimately resulted in specifications such as MIL-L-85762A and MIL-STD-3009. These specifications are now used throughout industry to produce NVG-compatible illuminated instruments and displays for both military and civilian applications. Inserting a SWIR imaging device in a cockpit will require similar consideration. A project evaluating flight deck instrument compatibility with SWIR devices is currently ongoing; aspects of this evaluation are described in this paper. This project is sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL).

  12. FIFA's approach to doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, J; Graf‐Baumann, T; D'Hooghe, M; Kirkendall, D; Taennler, H; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives FIFA's anti‐doping strategy relies on education and prevention. A worldwide network of physicians guarantees doping control procedures that are straightforward and leave no place for cheating. FIFA actively acknowledges its responsibility to protect players from harm and ensure equal chances for all competitors by stringent doping control regulations, data collection of positive samples, support of research, and collaboration with other organisations. This article aims to outline FIFA's approach to doping in football. Method Description of FIFA's doping control regulations and procedures, statistical analysis of FIFA database on doping control, and comparison with data obtained by WADA accredited laboratories as for 2004. Results Data on positive doping samples per substance and confederation/nation documented at the FIFA medical office from 1994 to 2005 are provided. According to the FIFA database, the incidence of positive cases over the past 11 years was 0.12%, with about 0.42% in 2004 (based on the assumption of 20 750 samples per year) and 0.37% in 2005. Especially important in this regard is the extremely low incidence of the true performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids and stimulants. However, there is a need for more consistent data collection and cross checks among international anti‐doping agencies as well as for further studies on specific substances, methods, and procedures. With regard to general health impairments in players, FIFA suggests that principles of occupational medicine should be considered and treatment with banned substances for purely medical reasons should be permitted to enable players to carry out their profession. At the same time, a firm stand has to be taken against suppression of symptoms by medication with the aim of meeting the ever increasing demands on football players. Conclusion Incidence of doping in football seems to be low, but much closer collaboration and further

  13. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions. PMID:26284680

  14. The physiological demands of Gaelic football.

    PubMed

    Florida-James, G; Reilly, T

    1995-03-01

    Match-lay demands of Gaelic football and fitness profiles were assessed at club competitive level. English Gaelic football club championship players (n = 11) were assessed for anthropometry, leg strength and time to exhaustion on a treadmill run. A similar test battery was administered to a reference group of University competitive soccer players (n = 12). Heart rate was recorded during match-play using radio telemetry and blood lactate concentrations were determined at half-time and after full-time. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the Gaelic and soccer players in: body mass (70.7 +/- 10.3 vs 76.6 +/- 10.3 kg); height (176 +/- 5.9 vs 177.7 +/- 6.4 cm); leg to trunk ratio (0.53 +/- 0.01 vs 0.54 +/- 0.03); adiposity (12.2 +/- 2.1 vs 13.5 +/- 3.2% body fat); mean somatotype (2.8 - 4.3-2.0 vs 2.4-4.2-2.4); leg strength measures; and performance on the treadmill. The percentage muscle mass values were lower for the Gaelic players compared to the soccer players (41.9 +/- 5.4 vs 47.3 +/- 5.2%; p > 0.005). For the Gaelic and soccer players, respectively, mean heart rate recorded during each half of match-play were (157 +/- 10 and 158 +/- 12 beats/min) and (164 +/- 10 and 157 +/- 11 beats/min), whilst blood lactates measured at the end of each half, were (4.3 +/- 1 and 3.4 +/- 1.6 mmol/l) and (4.4 +/- 1.2 and 4.5 +/- 2.1 mmol/l). Gaelic footballers at English club championship level seem to exhibit similar fitness profiles, and are subject to broadly similar physiological demands as University-level competitive soccer players.

  15. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions.

  16. A fatal accident on the football field.

    PubMed

    Varga, M; Takács, P

    1990-12-01

    A 21-year old centre forward died after a collision with the opposing goalkeeper during a football match. The centre forward fell to the ground on his back and the goalkeeper fell on top of him, his knee hitting the centre forward hard in the chest and neck. There was no obvious foul and the referee did not award a penalty. The ambulance arrived too late to save the player's life. The medicolegal autopsy revealed a severe contusion of the larynx and rupture of thyroid cartilage, which resulted in hemorrhage and caused death by suffocation.

  17. Chondral Rib Fractures in Professional American Football

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Timothy R.; Deimel, Jay F.; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S.; Beaulieu, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. Purpose: To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians’ experiences. Results: Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Clinical Relevance: Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of

  18. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws.

  19. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  20. Analysis and Design of Phase Change Thermal Control for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Spacesuit Helmet Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.

    2010-01-01

    LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.

  1. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    PubMed Central

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  2. Nutrition and Gaelic football: review, recommendations, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted.

  3. Validation of concussion risk curves for collegiate football players derived from HITS data.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Rowson, Steven; Daniel, Ray W; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-01

    For several years, Virginia Tech and other schools have measured the frequency and severity of head impacts sustained by collegiate American football players in real time using the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System of helmet-mounted accelerometers. In this study, data from 37,128 head impacts collected at Virginia Tech during games from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed. Peak head acceleration exceeded 100 g in 516 impacts, and the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) exceeded 200 in 468 impacts. Four instrumented players in the dataset sustained a concussion. These data were used to develop risk curves for concussion as a function of peak head acceleration and HIC. The validity of this biomechanical approach was assessed using epidemiological data on concussion incidence from other sources. Two specific aspects of concussion incidence were addressed: the variation by player position, and the frequency of repeat concussions. The HIT System data indicated that linemen sustained the highest overall number of head impacts, while skill positions sustained a higher number of more severe head impacts (peak acceleration > 100 g or HIC > 200). When weighted using injury risk curves, the HIT System data predicted a higher incidence of concussion in skill positions compared to linemen at rates that were in strong agreement with the epidemiological literature (Pearson's r = 0.72-0.87). The predicted rates of repeat concussions (21-39% over one season and 33-50% over five seasons) were somewhat higher than the ranges reported in the epidemiological literature. These analyses demonstrate that simple biomechanical parameters that can be measured by the HIT System possess a high level of power for predicting concussion.

  4. Management of concussion in the professional football player.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Elizabeth M; Hanks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is no other sport that has come under greater scrutiny surrounding the incidence and treatment of concussion than football, and there is no other professional sports league that has experienced more intense focus of its handling of concussions than the National Football League (NFL). The NFL has received significant criticism of their management of concussion in players from both the popular press and the medical community. However, those working with active NFL players have changed their assessment and treatment of these injuries as the knowledge of concussions has evolved over time. We review the current approach to the management of concussions in the professional football player.

  5. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  6. Gaze location prediction for broadcast football video.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qin; Agrafiotis, Dimitris; Achim, Alin M; Bull, David R

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of the human visual system decreases dramatically with increasing distance from the fixation location in a video frame. Accurate prediction of a viewer's gaze location has the potential to improve bit allocation, rate control, error resilience, and quality evaluation in video compression. Commercially, delivery of football video content is of great interest because of the very high number of consumers. In this paper, we propose a gaze location prediction system for high definition broadcast football video. The proposed system uses knowledge about the context, extracted through analysis of a gaze tracking study that we performed, to build a suitable prior map. We further classify the complex context into different categories through shot classification thus allowing our model to prelearn the task pertinence of each object category and build the prior map automatically. We thus avoid the limitation of assigning the viewers a specific task, allowing our gaze prediction system to work under free-viewing conditions. Bayesian integration of bottom-up features and top-down priors is finally applied to predict the gaze locations. Results show that the prediction performance of the proposed model is better than that of other top-down models that we adapted to this context. PMID:23996558

  7. Comanche Helmet-Mounted Display Heading-Tape Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, Terry; Dowell, Susan; Atencio, Adolph

    2006-01-01

    The Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMRDEC) conducted a simulation to assess the performance associated with a Contact Analog, world-referenced heading tape as implemented on the Comanche Helmet Integrated Display Sight System (HIDSS) when compared with a Compressed heading tape similar to that specified by the former Military Standard (MIL-STD) 1295. Six experienced pilots flew three modified Aeronautical Design Standards (ADS)-33 maneuvers (Hover Turn, Bob-up, Transient Turn) and a precision traffic pattern in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Analysis of the pilot objective performance data and subjective handling qualities ratings (HQRs) showed the following: Compressed symbology in the Velocity Stabilization (VelStab) flight mode generally produced the most precise performances over Contact Analog symbology with respect to the heading, altitude, position, and time criteria specified for the maneuvers tested. VelStab outperformed the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) on all maneuvers achieving desired performance on most maneuvers for both symbol sets. Performance in the AFCS mode was generally desirable to adequate for heading and altitude and did not meet adequate standards for hover position and time for the Hover Turn and Bob-up maneuvers. VelStab and AFCS performance were nearly the same for the Transient Turn. Pilot comments concerning the Contact Analog heading-tape implementation were generally unfavorable in spite of the achieved levels of performance. HQRs showed Compressed symbology in the VelStab flight mode produced the lowest mean HQR, encompassing mixed ratings of satisfactory handling and needing improvement. All other symbology/flight-mode combinations yielded higher HQRs, which characterized opinions that deficiencies in aircraft handling due to HMD symbology would need improvement. Contact Analog heading tape and other symbology require improvement, especially when operating in the AFCS mode. NASA-TLX rated Compressed symbology

  8. Methodology to determine skull bone and brain responses from ballistic helmet-to-head contact loading using experiments and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Pintar, Frank A; Philippens, Mat M G M; Zhang, JiangYue; Yoganandan, Narayan

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain helmet-to-head contact forces from experiments, use a human head finite element model to determine regional responses, and compare outputs to skull fracture and brain injury thresholds. Tests were conducted using two types of helmets (A and B) fitted to a head-form. Seven load cells were used on the head-form back face to measure helmet-to-head contact forces. Projectiles were fired in frontal, left, right, and rear directions. Three tests were conducted with each helmet in each direction. Individual and summated force- and impulse-histories were obtained. Force-histories were inputted to the human head-helmet finite element model. Pulse durations were approximately 4 ms. One-third force and impulse were from the central load cell. 0.2% strain and 40 MPa stress limits were not exceeded for helmet-A. For helmet-B, strains exceeded in left, right, and rear; pressures exceeded in bilateral directions; volume of elements exceeding 0.2% strains correlated with the central load cell forces. For helmet-A, volumes exceeding brain pressure threshold were: 5-93%. All elements crossed the pressure limit for helmet-B. For both helmets, no brain elements exceeded peak principal strain limit. These findings advance our understanding of skull and brain biomechanics from helmet-head contact forces.

  9. Methodology to determine skull bone and brain responses from ballistic helmet-to-head contact loading using experiments and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Pintar, Frank A; Philippens, Mat M G M; Zhang, JiangYue; Yoganandan, Narayan

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain helmet-to-head contact forces from experiments, use a human head finite element model to determine regional responses, and compare outputs to skull fracture and brain injury thresholds. Tests were conducted using two types of helmets (A and B) fitted to a head-form. Seven load cells were used on the head-form back face to measure helmet-to-head contact forces. Projectiles were fired in frontal, left, right, and rear directions. Three tests were conducted with each helmet in each direction. Individual and summated force- and impulse-histories were obtained. Force-histories were inputted to the human head-helmet finite element model. Pulse durations were approximately 4 ms. One-third force and impulse were from the central load cell. 0.2% strain and 40 MPa stress limits were not exceeded for helmet-A. For helmet-B, strains exceeded in left, right, and rear; pressures exceeded in bilateral directions; volume of elements exceeding 0.2% strains correlated with the central load cell forces. For helmet-A, volumes exceeding brain pressure threshold were: 5-93%. All elements crossed the pressure limit for helmet-B. For both helmets, no brain elements exceeded peak principal strain limit. These findings advance our understanding of skull and brain biomechanics from helmet-head contact forces. PMID:23791942

  10. A Novel Method for Quantifying Helmeted Field of View of a Spacesuit - And What It Means for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2010-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmet design, and in particular spacesuit design, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. Historically, suited field of view has been evaluated either qualitatively in parallel with design or quantitatively using various test methods and protocols. As such, oftentimes legacy suit field of view information is either ambiguous for lack of supporting data or contradictory to other field of view tests performed with different subjects and test methods. This paper serves to document a new field of view testing method that is more reliable and repeatable than its predecessors. It borrows heavily from standard ophthalmologic field of vision tests such as the Goldmann kinetic perimetry test, but is designed specifically for evaluating field of view of a spacesuit helmet. In this test, four suits utilizing three different helmet designs were tested for field of view. Not only do these tests provide more reliable field of view data for legacy and prototype helmet designs, they also provide insight into how helmet design impacts field of view and what this means for the Constellation Project spacesuit helmet, which must meet stringent field of view requirements that are more generous to the crewmember than legacy designs.

  11. Angular Impact Mitigation System for Bicycle Helmets to Reduce Head Acceleration and Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M.; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p < 0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p < 0.001), and a 22% to 32% reduction in neck loading (p < 0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

  12. Outcome analysis after helmet therapy using 3D photogrammetry in patients with deformational plagiocephaly: the role of root mean square.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet.

  13. Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p<0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p<0.001), and a 22-32% reduction in neck loading (p<0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required.

  14. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197.322 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322...

  15. Blast-Induced Pressure Fields Beneath a Military Helmet for Non-Lethal Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, David; Schwer, Douglas; Young, Theodore; Levine, Jeffrey; Dionne, Jean-Philippe; Makris, Aris; Hubler, Graham

    2008-11-01

    Coordinated experiments and numerical simulations investigated the pressure field surrounding a head with a helmet subjected to a blast wave typical of injurious but non-lethal threats. Experiments were conducted with C4 explosive charges ranging from 0.75 kg to 5 kg, and two anthropomorphic test mannequins (Hybrid III) located 3 m from the explosive. Experimental diagnostics included pressure sensors mounted at selected locations around each mannequin's head and in the free-field. Numerical modeling was done using a two-step approach. First, the blast and ground reflection were computed using a multi-component, reacting flow model. Second, the results were used to specify the boundary conditions for a three-dimensional unsteady simulation of the head-helmet complex subjected to a blast wave. The helmet was shown to provide protection against primary blast injury both in computations and experiments. The simulations indicate that pressure waves entering the gap between the helmet and head focus on the side of the head away from the blast and produce pressures comparable to that experienced on unprotected surfaces subjected to the blast.

  16. Use of a rugby helmet brace for postoperative treatment of muscular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Naotake; Kim, Wook-Cheol; Hosokawa, Motoo; Yoshida, Takashi; Mouri, Hisashi; Oka, Yoshinobu; Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Nakase, Masashi; Nishida, Atsushi; Kusakabe, Torao; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2011-10-05

    Prior to 1992, our postoperative management for congenital muscular torticollis consisted of either plaster cast immobilization or no immobilization, depending on the patient's age and the degree of contracture. However, some patients required further surgery and developed complications. In 1992, we produced rugby helmet braces for postoperative management. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical results of the previous postoperative management with the results achieved using rugby helmet braces. Twenty-five children aged younger than 6 years underwent caudal partial resection of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Twelve children aged 6 years and older underwent cranial tenotomy. These 37 patients were divided into 2 groups: no immobilization or plaster immobilization (group A; n=19) and rugby helmet braces (group B; n=18). Canale's method was used for evaluation of clinical results. In group A, the results were good in 12 patients, fair in 4, and poor in 3, whereas all 18 patients in group B had good results. Two patients in group A required further surgery, and complications were observed in 5 patients. In group B, alopecia areata was observed in 1 patient.The rugby helmet brace is easy to put on and remove, providing good retention and allowing for physiotherapy. It provides a useful method of postoperative management for congenital muscular torticollis.

  17. A New Method for Breath Capture Inside a Space Suit Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filburn, Tom; Dolder, Craig; Tufano, Brett; Paul, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    This project investigates methods to capture an astronaut's exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) before it becomes diluted with the high volumetric oxygen flow present within a space suit. Typical expired breath contains CO2 partial pressures (pCO2) in the range of 20-35 mm Hg. This research investigates methods to capture the concentrated CO2 gas stream prior to its dilution with the low pCO2 ventilation flow. Specifically this research is looking at potential designs for a collection cup for use inside the space suit helmet. The collection cup concept is not the same as a breathing mask typical of that worn by firefighters and pilots. It is well known that most members of the astronaut corps view a mask as a serious deficiency in any space suit helmet design. Instead, the collection cup is a non-contact device that will be designed using a detailed Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of the ventilation flow environment within the helmet. The CFD code, Fluent, provides modeling of the various gas species (CO2, water vapor, and oxygen (O2)) as they pass through a helmet. This same model will be used to numerically evaluate several different collection cup designs for this same CO2 segregation effort. A new test rig will be built to test the results of the CFD analyses and validate the collection cup designs. This paper outlines the initial results and future plans of this work.

  18. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  19. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  1. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  2. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  4. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  5. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  7. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  9. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  11. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  12. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  13. Motorcycle-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries: Helmet Use and Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, Mathias Ogbonna Nnanna; Bankole, Olufemi Babatola; Fente, Beleudanyo Gbalipre

    2015-01-01

    Summary. With increasing use of motorcycle as means of transport in developing countries, traumatic brain injuries from motorcycle crashes have been increasing. The only single gadget that protects riders from traumatic brain injury is crash helmet. Objective. The objectives were to determine the treatment outcome among traumatic brain injury patients from motorcycle crashes and the rate of helmet use among them. Methods. It was a prospective, cross-sectional study of motorcycle-related traumatic brain injury patients managed in our center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were managed using our unit protocol for traumatic brain injuries. Data for the study were collected in accident and emergency, intensive care unit, wards, and outpatient clinic. The data were analyzed using Environmental Performance Index (EPI) info 7 software. Results. Ninety-six patients were studied. There were 87 males. Drivers were 65. Only one patient wore helmet. Majority of them were between 20 and 40 years. Fifty-three patients had mild head injuries. Favorable outcome among them was 84.35% while mortality was 12.5%. Severity of the injury affected the outcome significantly. Conclusion. Our study showed that the helmet use by motorcycle riders was close to zero despite the existing laws making its use compulsory in Nigeria. The outcome was related to severity of injuries. PMID:26317112

  14. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football. PMID:27547675

  15. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  16. Safer Heads Prevail with New High School Football Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... 27, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Concussions are a major risk for high school football ... NeuroTrauma Research Lab at University of Michigan. A concussion is a blow delivered to the head with ...

  17. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    In a recent paper in TPT, DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of an NFL football. We focus on the rate of pressure recovery that occurs when a cold football (either wet or dry) is returned to the warm locker room environment where the pressure was initially measured. Both studies stem from the so-called NFL "Deflategate" controversy in which footballs that initially met a minimum internal pressure requirement were rechecked at halftime of the AFC Championship game, and in some cases were reported to have fallen below the minimum pressure requirement. The question is whether the pressure changes were due to environmental exposure or rather to some air being released from the balls, or both.

  18. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football.

  19. Experimental biomechanical study of head injuries in lateral falls with skateboard helmet.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Herbst, Brian; Strickland, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common in sports accidents. Helmets are generally known to provide protection to the head. However, the effectiveness of helmets in mitigating a TBI may be compromised due to the impact location and impact speed. Although it is known that the helmet decreases the linear head accelerations and the resulting head injury potential, to the best of our knowledge, limited research effort has been devoted to the study of the biomechanics of TBI in side impact conditions. The present work is designed to delineate the biomechanics of TBI in a fall impacting the parietal/temporal regions. A standing Hybrid III male dummy with pedestrian pelvis was used. The dummy was placed on a swinging platform for the fall simulation. The drop was achieved by stopping the platform with a block. The platform was swung from a predetermined height and stopped to allow the free fall of the dummy. The test was conducted with and without a skate board helmet. The impact on the dummy’s head was in the parietal and temporal regions. The head impact speed with the floor was approximately 24 kph (6.7 m/sec) The dummy was instrumented with tri-axial linear and tri-axial angular head accelerometers to measure the biomechanical injury responses. Results from three tests were compared. The linear head CG acceleration, Head Injury Criteria (HIC) and angular head accelerations were compared. Results suggest that the helmet reduced the linear head acceleration, HIC and angular head acceleration compared to the impact without a helmet. Although the linear head accelerations and HIC were reduced, the angular head accelerations even with the helmet were above nearly all proposed rotational head injury threshold in the literature. The higher angular head accelerations indicate a higher probability of concussion, acute subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injuries. The present study is an additional step to better understand the biomechanics of TBI and the role of protective

  20. Bicycle helmet use and bicycling-related injury among young Canadians: an equity analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cycling is a major activity for adolescents in Canada and potential differences exist in bicycling-related risk and experience of injury by population subgroup. The overall aim of this study was to inform health equity interventions by profiling stratified analytic methods and identifying potential inequities associated with bicycle-related injury and the use of bicycle helmets among Canadian youth. The two objectives of this study were: (1) To examine national patterns in bicycle ridership and also bicycle helmet use among Canadian youth in a stratified analysis by potentially vulnerable population subgroups, and (2) To examine bicycling-related injury in the same population subgroups of Canadian youth in order to identify possible health inequities. Methods Data for this study were obtained from the 6th cycle (2009/10) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, which is a general health survey that was completed by 26,078 students in grades 6–10 from 436 Canadian schools. Based on survey responses, we determined point prevalence for bicycle ridership, bicycle helmet use and relative risks for bicycling-related injury. Results Three quarters of all respondents were bicycle riders (n=19,410). Independent factors associated with bicycle ridership among students include being male, being a younger student, being more affluent, and being a resident of a small town. Among bicycle riders, 43% (95%CI ± 0.6%) reported never wearing and 32% (± 0.6%) inconsistently wearing a helmet. Only 26% (± 0.5%) of students reported always wearing a bicycle helmet. Helmets were less frequently used among older students and there were also important patterns by sex, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Adjusting for all other demographic characteristics, boys reported 2.02-fold increase (95% CI: 1.61 to 1.90) and new immigrants a 1.35-fold increase (95%CI: 1.00 to1.82) in the relative risk of bicycling-related injury in the past 12 months

  1. Helmet use and cervical spine injury: a review of motorcycle, moped, and bicycle accidents at a level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Kristopher G; Murad, Gregory J A

    2014-08-01

    Helmet use in two-wheeled vehicle accidents is widely reported to decrease the rates of death and traumatic brain injury. Previous reports suggest that there exists a trade off with helmet use consisting of an increased risk of cervical spine injuries. Recently, a review of a national trauma database demonstrated the opposite, with reduction in cervical spinal cord injuries in motorcycle crashes (MCC). In 2000, the State of Florida repealed its mandatory helmet law to make helmet use optional for individuals older than 21 with $10,000 of health insurance coverage. To better ascertain the risks of cervical spine injury with non-helmet use in all two-wheeled vehicles, we analyzed the University of Florida level one trauma center experience. We reviewed the Traumatic injury database over a five-year period (January 1, 2005, to July 1, 2010) for all patients involved in two-wheeled vehicle accidents. Patients were stratified according to vehicle type (motorcycle, scooter, and bicycle), helmet use, and the presence or absence of a cervical spine injury. Outcomes were compared for injury severity, cervical spine injury, cervical spinal cord injury, and presence of cervical spine injuries requiring surgery. Population means were compared using paired t-test. A total of 1331 patients were identified: 995 involved in motorcycle accidents, 87 involved in low-powered scooter accidents, and 249 involved in bicycle accidents. Helmet use was variable between each group. One hundred thirty-five total cervical spine injuries were identified. No evidence was found to suggest an increased risk of cervical spine injury or increased severity of cervical spine injury with helmet use. This fact, in combination with our previous findings, suggest that the law's age and insurance exemption should be revoked and a universal helmet law be reinstated in the state of Florida. PMID:24661125

  2. Hidden power law patterns in the top European football leagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Silveira, Eliza

    2013-11-01

    Because sports are stylized combat, sports may follow power laws similar to those found for wars, individual clashes, and acts of terrorism. We show this fact for football (soccer) by adjusting power laws that show a close relationship between rank and points won by the clubs participating in the latest seasons of the top fifteen European football leagues. In addition, we use Shannon entropy for gauging league competitive balance. As a result, we are able to rank the leagues according to competitiveness.

  3. The physiological demands of Gaelic football.

    PubMed Central

    Florida-James, G; Reilly, T

    1995-01-01

    Match-lay demands of Gaelic football and fitness profiles were assessed at club competitive level. English Gaelic football club championship players (n = 11) were assessed for anthropometry, leg strength and time to exhaustion on a treadmill run. A similar test battery was administered to a reference group of University competitive soccer players (n = 12). Heart rate was recorded during match-play using radio telemetry and blood lactate concentrations were determined at half-time and after full-time. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the Gaelic and soccer players in: body mass (70.7 +/- 10.3 vs 76.6 +/- 10.3 kg); height (176 +/- 5.9 vs 177.7 +/- 6.4 cm); leg to trunk ratio (0.53 +/- 0.01 vs 0.54 +/- 0.03); adiposity (12.2 +/- 2.1 vs 13.5 +/- 3.2% body fat); mean somatotype (2.8 - 4.3-2.0 vs 2.4-4.2-2.4); leg strength measures; and performance on the treadmill. The percentage muscle mass values were lower for the Gaelic players compared to the soccer players (41.9 +/- 5.4 vs 47.3 +/- 5.2%; p > 0.005). For the Gaelic and soccer players, respectively, mean heart rate recorded during each half of match-play were (157 +/- 10 and 158 +/- 12 beats/min) and (164 +/- 10 and 157 +/- 11 beats/min), whilst blood lactates measured at the end of each half, were (4.3 +/- 1 and 3.4 +/- 1.6 mmol/l) and (4.4 +/- 1.2 and 4.5 +/- 2.1 mmol/l). Gaelic footballers at English club championship level seem to exhibit similar fitness profiles, and are subject to broadly similar physiological demands as University-level competitive soccer players. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5&6 PMID:7788217

  4. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  5. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  6. Home advantage in the Australian Football League.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Stephen R

    2005-04-01

    The results of this study on home advantage in Australian rules football demonstrate that individual clubs have different home advantages. Traditional measures of home advantage as applied to whole competitions such as percentage of games won, and alternative measures such as average margin of victory for the home team, are calculated. Problems with these measures are discussed. Individual home advantages for each team are obtained using a linear model fitted to individual match margins; the resultant home advantages are analysed, and variations and possible causes or groupings of home advantage are proposed. It is shown that some models allowing different home advantages for different clubs are a significant improvement over previous models assuming a common home advantage. The results show a strong isolation effect, with non-Victorian teams having large home advantages, and lend support to the conclusion that crowd effects and ground familiarity are a major determinant of home advantage.

  7. Medicolegal aspects of doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Graf‐Baumann, T

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase inhibitors for male pattern baldness in the face of the classification of finasteride as a forbidden masking agent; and lastly, the increasing use of recreational drugs and its social and legal implications in positive cases. PMID:16799105

  8. "Upbuilding Examples" for Adults Close to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wivestad, Stein M.

    2013-01-01

    Both in formal situations (as school teachers, football trainers, etc.) and in many, often unpredictable informal situations (both inside and outside institutions)--adults come close to children. Whether we intend it or not, we continually give them examples of what it is to live as a human being, and thereby we have a pedagogical responsibility.…

  9. It May Be Time to Punt on Your Favorite Football Fare

    MedlinePlus

    ... May Be Time to Punt on Your Favorite Football Fare Nutrition expert says tailgating standards aren't ... flowing beer may be the norm at many football or tailgate parties, but the American Heart Association ( ...

  10. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  11. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  12. Integration, development, and qualification of the helmet-mounted sight and display on the Rooivalk Attack Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Timothy K.; Van Zyl, Petrus H.; Cross, Trevor

    2001-08-01

    The Rooivalk Attack Helicopter is designed and manufactured by Denel Aviation of South Africa, and in service with the South African Air Force. The Helmet Mounted Sight and Display (HMSD) hardware is manufactured by Sextant Avionique of France. The HMSD symbology is developed by Denel Aviation and is specific to the weapons and roles of the aircraft. The HMSD has visor projected NVG and PNVS images, and Flight and Weapon Symbology incorporating head slaved weapon aiming, helmet-to-helmet cueing, and helmet to main sight cueing. The NVG/PNVS image selection and main image controls are incorporated in the flight controls. The paper gives an overview of the aircraft visionic design and describes the integration process. The development of the displayed flight and weapon symbols is discussed. Aeronautical Design Standard 33E was chosen as a basis for the qualification process, and the development of the qualification criteria and the flight testing program are discussed.

  13. Anti-fog composition. [for prevention of fogging on surfaces such as space helmet visors and windshields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, H. D.; Carmin, D. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An anti-fog composition is described for the prevention of fogging on surfaces such as space helmet visors, spacecraft windows, and windshields. It is composed of a surface active agent, water, and an oil time extender.

  14. Severe and Catastrophic Neck Injuries Resulting from Tackle Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torg, Joseph S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Use of the spring-loaded blocking and tackling devices should be discontinued due to severe neck injuries resulting from their use; employment of the head and helmet as the primary assault weapon in blocking, tackling, and head butting should be condemned for the same reason. (MJB)

  15. Artificial turf football fields: environmental and mutagenicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Schilirò, Tiziana; Traversi, Deborah; Degan, Raffaella; Pignata, Cristina; Alessandria, Luca; Scozia, Dario; Bono, Roberto; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The public has recently raised concerns regarding potential human health and environmental risks associated with tire crumb constituents in the artificial turf of football fields. The aim of the present study was to develop an environmental analysis drawing a comparison between artificial turf football fields and urban areas relative to concentrations of particles (PM10 and PM2.5) and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic hydrocarbons (BTXs), and mutagenicity of organic extracts from PM10 and PM2.5. No significant differences were found between PM10 concentrations at an urban site and on a turf football field, both during warm and in cold seasons, either with or without on-field activity. PM2.5 concentrations were significantly greater at the urban site in the cold season as was the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10. BTXs were significantly greater at urban sites than on turf football fields on both on warm and cold days. The ratio of toluene to benzene (T/B ratio) was always comparable with that of normal urban conditions. The concentration of PAHs on the monitored football fields was comparable with urban levels during the two different sampling periods, and the contribution of PAHs released from the granular material was negligible. PM10 organic extract mutagenicity for artificial turf football fields was greater, whereas PM2.5 organic extract mutagenicity was lower, compared with the urban site studied. However, both organic extract mutagenicity values were comparable with the organic extract mutagenicity reported in the literature for urban sites. On the basis of environmental monitoring, artificial turf football fields present no more exposure risks than the rest of the city.

  16. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  17. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  18. An integrated helmet and neck support (iHANS) for racing car drivers: a biomechanical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Newman, James A; Withnall, Christopher; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-10-01

    A new form of head and neck protection for racing car drivers is examined. The concept is one whereby the helmet portion of the system is attached, by way of a quick release clamp, to a collar-like platform which is supported on the driver's shoulders. The collar, which encircles the back and sides of the driver's neck, is held in place by way of the on-board restraint belts. The interior of the helmet portion of the assembly is large enough to provide adequate volitional head motion. The overall objective of the design is to remove the helmet from the wearer's head and thereby to mitigate the deleterious features of helmet wearing such as neck fatigue, poor ventilation and aerodynamic buffeting. Just as importantly, by transferring the weight of the helmet and all attendant reaction forces associated with inertial and impact loads to the shoulder complex (instead of to the neck), reduced head and neck injury probability should be achievable. This paper describes the concept development and the evolution of various prototype designs. Prototypes have been evaluated on track and sled tested in accordance with contemporary head neck restraint systems practice. Also discussed is a series of direct impact tests. In addition, low mass high velocity ballistic tests have been conducted and are reviewed herein. It is concluded that this new concept indeed does address most of the drawbacks of the customary helmet and that it generally can reduce the probability of head and neck injury. PMID:23625570

  19. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. PMID:26496484

  20. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws. PMID:23106188

  1. Operational utility evaluation of helmet-mounted trackers and displays (HMT/Ds)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Randall W.; Franck, Douglas L.

    1998-08-01

    Current Air Force aircraft, such as the F-15 and F-16, and future aircraft, have a need to leverage improving technologies such as helmet-mounted trackers and displays (HMT/Ds) to maintain superior air combat capability in future conflicts. HMT/Ds can allow the pilot to point weapons and to quickly slew sensors at short visual range targets in either an air-to-air or air-to-ground environment. Flight and weapons parameters commonly displayed on ahead-up display can be provided on HMT/Ds, allowing the pilot to remain 'head out' of the cockpit for longer time periods while maintaining better situational awareness. If the hMT/D systems are designed and then tested early, the result can then be used to transfer technology, and reduce risk, for follow-on programs such as the Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System.

  2. Further measurements of the acoustic performance of a variant of the MK 4 helmet earmuff assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogger, M. K.; Wood, S. A.; Lucas, S. H.

    1981-11-01

    Acoustic tests of the attenuation, frequency response and total harmonic distortion of experimental earmuff assemblies intended as alternatives to the B2 production shells fitted to the Mk 4 flight helmet are reported. The experimental earmuff (melamine shells with flanges) dough molded compound without flanges (Mk 4 alternative assemblies) and B2 production shells (Mk 4 helmet) were tested. Attenuation was calculated from insertion loss, i.e., the difference in db between the unoccluded and occluded spectra. Objective tests, using an artificial ear, and semiobjective tests, using 15 short haired, clean shaven subjects were performed. The A-weighted level of the sound field was 99 db(A), lasting for 15 min, the equivalent of 84 db(A) for 8 hr. The experimental earmuff is superior to the other designs.

  3. Evaluation of ejection safety for the joint helmet-mounted cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, James M.; Kirk, William K.

    1999-07-01

    Aircrew safety is paramount in the design of a helmet-mounted display (HMD). For the tactical aircrew, ensuring a successful ejection presents significant design challenges. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) Integrated Product Team (IPT) has been evaluating Vision Systems International's HMD design for aircrew protection in this environment. The JHMCS IPT has developed a set of test objectives in concert with acquisition reform to demonstrate ejection compatibility of the JHMCS. This testing series will be discussed, and will include windblast, ejection tower, and sled and in-flight ejection testing, findings and design impacts. JHMCS performance parameters evaluated include structural integrity, facial and head protection, neck tensile loads, ejection seat and crew equipment compatibility, and mechanical functionality. The design environment for the JHMCS currently is both small and large, male and female aircrew withstanding a successful 450-knot ejection in any of four current USAF & USN tactical aircraft platforms.

  4. Effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Nelson, W T; Hettinger, L J; Cunningham, J A; Brickman, B J; Haas, M W; McKinley, R L

    1998-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance. Visual targets were presented on either a wide field-of-view dome display or a helmet-mounted display and were accompanied by either localized, nonlocalized, or no auditory information. The addition of localized auditory information resulted in significant increases in target detection performance and significant reductions in workload ratings as compared with conditions in which auditory information was either nonlocalized or absent. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of participants' head motions revealed that the addition of localized auditory information resulted in extremely efficient and consistent search strategies. Implications for the development and design of multisensory virtual environments are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of spatial auditory displays to augment visual information presented in helmet-mounted displays, thereby leading to increases in performance efficiency, reductions in physical and mental workload, and enhanced spatial awareness of objects in the environment.

  5. Study for verification testing of the helmet-mounted display in the Japanese Experimental Module.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, I; Yamamoto, I; Kato, H; Inokuchi, S; Nemoto, M

    2000-02-01

    Our purpose is to propose a research and development project in the field of telemedicine. The proposed Multimedia Telemedicine Experiment for Extra-Vehicular Activity will entail experiments designed to support astronaut health management during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Experiments will have relevant applications to the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) operated by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) for the International Space Station (ISS). In essence, this is a proposal for verification testing of the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD), which enables astronauts to verify their own blood pressures and electrocardiograms, and to view a display of instructions from the ground station and listings of work procedures. Specifically, HMD is a device designed to project images and data inside the astronaut's helmet. We consider this R&D proposal to be one of the most suitable projects under consideration in response to NASDA's open invitation calling for medical experiments to be conducted on JEM.

  6. Psychophysical Research in Development of a Fiber-optic Helmet Mounted Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Longridge, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display (FOHMD) was conceived as an innovative solution to existing flight simulator display deficiencies. An initial (breadboard) version of the system was fabricated to permit experimentation which would help define design requirements for a more refined engineering prototype. A series of visual/human factors studies are being conducted at the USAF Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) Operations Training Division, Williams AFB, Arizona to determine the optimum fit of human observer operating characteristics and fiber optic helmet mounted display technology. Pilot performance within a variety of high resolution insert/binocular overlap combinations is being assessed in two classes of environment. The first two of four studies planned incorporate an air-to-air combat environment, whereas the second two studies will use a low level environment with air to ground weapons delivery.

  7. Helmet of a laminate construction of polycarbonate and polysulfone polymeric material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J. (Inventor); Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An article of laminate construction is disclosed which is comprised of an underlayer of polycarbonate polymer material to which is applied a chemically resistant outer layer of polysulfone. The layers which are joined by compression-heat molding, are molded to form the shape of a body protective shell such as a space helmet comprising a shell of polycarbonate, polysulfone laminate construction attached at its open end to a sealing ring adapted for connection to a space suit. The front portion of the shell provides a transparent visor for the helmet. An outer visor of polycarbonate polysulfone laminate construction is pivotally mounted to the sealing ring for covering the transparent visor portion of the shell during extravehicular activities. The polycarbonate under layer of the outer visor is coated on its inner surface with a vacuum deposit of gold to provide additional thermal radiation resistance.

  8. Science of rugby league football: a review.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning

  9. Alcohol consumption, helmet use and head trauma in cycling collisions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Chiara; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Cycling, being easy, inexpensive and healthy, is becoming one of the most popular means of transport. Cyclists, however, are among the most vulnerable road users in traffic collisions. The aims of this study were to establish which cyclist and cycling accident characteristics are associated with alcohol consumption and helmet use in Germany and to identify risk factors related to head trauma sustained in cycling accidents. The source used for the present analysis was the database of the German in-depth accident study (GIDAS). All cyclists who had been involved in a road accident between 2000 and 2010 and submitted to an alcohol test were selected. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate various aspects: alcohol consumption, helmet use, head trauma, and cyclist/accident characteristics. Female riders were less likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.08-0.66); cyclists who did not wear a helmet were more likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.08-5.38); cyclists who were not responsible for the collision were less likely to have consumed alcohol than those who were partially responsible for the accident (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61). Cyclists involved in collisions with another vehicle, motorised or not, had a lower risk of suffering a head injury compared with those involved in single-vehicle accidents (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62, and OR=0.08, 95% CI: 0.03-0.22, respectively). The prevention or limiting of alcohol consumption among cyclists and the corresponding testing of cyclists must be improved. Training initiatives on helmet protection should be encouraged. PMID:24448470

  10. Helmet-mounted display technology on the VISTA NF-16D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underhill, Gregory P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Markman, Steve

    1997-06-01

    Wright Laboratory's Variable-Stability In-Flight Simulator Test Aircraft (VISTA) NF-16D is the newest in-flight simulator in the USAF inventory. A unique research aircraft, it will perform a multitude of missions: to develop and evaluate flight characteristics of new aircraft that have not yet flown, and perform research in the areas of flying qualities, flight control design, pilot-vehicle interface, weapons and avionics integration, and to train new test pilots. The VISTA upgrade will enhance the simulation fidelity and research capabilities by adding a programmable helmet-mounted display (HMD) and head-up display (HUD) in the front cockpit. The programmable HMD consists of a GEC- Marconi Avionics Viper II Helmet-Mounted Optics Module integrated with a modified Helmet Integrated Systems Limited HGU-86/P helmet, the Honeywell Advanced Metal Tolerant tracker, and a GEC-Mounted Tolerant tracker, and a GEC- Marconi Avionics Programmable Display Generator. This system will provide a real-time programmable HUD and monocular stroke capable HMD in the front cockpit. The HMD system is designed for growth to stroke-on-video, binocular capability. This paper examines some of issues associated with current HMD development, and explains the value of rapid prototyping or 'quick-look' flight testing on the VISTA NF-16D. A brief overview of the VISTA NF-16D and the hardware and software modifications made to incorporate the programmable display system is give, as well as a review of several key decisions that were made in the programmable display system implementation. The system's capabilities and what they mean to potential users and designers are presented, particularly for pilot-vehicle interface research.

  11. Lightweight high-brightness helmet-mounted head-up display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Mathieu; North, Thibault; Bourquin, Stéphane; Kilcher, Lucio

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact binocular head-up display for integration in a motorcycle helmet. A 2D MEMS-mirror reflecting laser beams enables the formation of a bright image superimposed on the user vision by means of retinal scanning. A 3d-printed prototype including the required optical components is presented and characterized. It fits the morphology of most users thanks to several degrees of freedom accessible to the user for fine-tuning.

  12. Joint helmet-mounted cueing system accuracy testing using celestial references

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marticello, Daniel N., Jr.; Spillman, Mark S.

    1999-07-01

    The Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) incorporates a man-mounted, ejection-compatible helmet-mounted display system, with the capability to cue and verify cueing of high off-axis sensors and weapons, on U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy single-seat and two-seat fighter aircraft. Program requirements call for the JHMCS to meet a certain level of pointing accuracy. Pointing accuracy is defined as how close the JHMCS computed line of sight (LOS) is to the actual LOS of the pilot. In order to test the pointing accuracy of JHMCS throughout the pilot's range of motion, truth data had to be established sat various azimuths and elevations. Surveyed ground locations do not provide the ability to test at different helmet elevations. Airborne targets do not provide the measurement precision needed to validate system accuracy. Therefore, celestial bodies (stars), whose locations are precisely known for a given time and date at a specific location, will serve as truth data for LOS accuracy testing. This paper addresses the theory, planning, and status of JHMCS accuracy testing utilizing celestial bodies as reference points.

  13. Virtual MEG Helmet: Computer Simulation of an Approach to Neuromagnetic Field Sampling.

    PubMed

    Medvedovsky, Mordekhay; Nenonen, Jukka; Koptelova, Alexandra; Butorina, Anna; Paetau, Ritva; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Ahonen, Antti; Simola, Juha; Gazit, Tomer; Taulu, Samu

    2016-03-01

    Head movements during an MEG recording are commonly considered an obstacle. In this computer simulation study, we introduce an approach, the virtual MEG helmet (VMH), which employs the head movements for data quality improvement. With a VMH, a denser MEG helmet is constructed by adding new sensors corresponding to different head positions. Based on the Shannon's theory of communication, we calculated the total information as a figure of merit for comparing the actual 306-sensor Elekta Neuromag helmet to several types of the VMH. As source models, we used simulated randomly distributed source current (RDSC), simulated auditory and somatosensory evoked fields. Using the RDSC model with the simulation of 360 recorded events, the total information (bits/sample) was 989 for the most informative single head position and up to 1272 for the VMH (addition of 28.6%). Using simulated AEFs, the additional contribution of a VMH was 12.6% and using simulated SEF only 1.1%. For the distributed and bilateral sources, a VMH can provide a more informative sampling of the neuromagnetic field during the same recording time than measuring the MEG from one head position. VMH can, in some situations, improve source localization of the neuromagnetic fields related to the normal and pathological brain activity. This should be investigated further employing real MEG recordings.

  14. Helmet mounted display supporting helicopter missions during en route flight and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueken, Thomas; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Schmerwitz, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Degraded visual environment is still a major problem for helicopter pilots especially during approach and landing. Particularly with regard to the landing phase, pilot's eyes must be directed outward in order to find visual cues as indicators for drift estimation. If lateral speed exceeds the limits it can damage the airframe or in extreme cases lead to a rollover. Since poor visibility can contribute to a loss of situation awareness and spatial disorientation, it is crucial to intuitively provide the pilot with the essential visual information he needs for a safe landing. With continuous technology advancement helmet-mounted displays (HMD) will soon become a spreading technology, because look through capability is an enabler to offer monitoring the outside view while presenting flight phase depending symbologies on the helmet display. Besides presenting primary flight information, additional information for obstacle accentuation or terrain visualization can be displayed on the visor. Virtual conformal elements like 3D pathway depiction or a 3D landing zone representation can help the pilot to maintain control until touchdown even during poor visual conditions. This paper describes first investigations in terms of both en route and landing symbology presented on a helmet mounted display system in the scope of helicopter flight trials with DLR's flying helicopter simulator ACT/FHS.

  15. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the EMU 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) No. 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 water entered the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet resulting in the termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) approximately 1-hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5-L of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronauts hearing, vision and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based TT and E (Test, Tear-down and Evaluation) of the affected EMU hardware components led to the determination that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator function which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Filter Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  16. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  17. Helmets and Mouth Guards: The Role of Personal Equipment in Preventing Sport-Related Concussions

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Baugh, Christine M.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Every year, millions of athletes in the United States experience concussions. With athletes at all levels of play getting bigger, faster, and stronger, it has been suggested that newer technologies may provide an opportunity to reduce the risk and severity of these all too frequent injuries. Although helmets have been shown to decrease the rate of catastrophic head injuries, and mouth guards have decreased the risk of dental and oral injuries, the protective effect of helmets and mouth guards on concussions has not been conclusively demonstrated. In this review, the current literature pertaining to the effect that equipment has on concussions is evaluated. Understanding the role that this equipment plays in preventing concussions is complicated by many factors, such as selection bias in non-randomized studies, variations in playing style, and risk compensation in sports with mandatory protective equipment. At this point, there is little evidence supporting the use of specific helmets or mouth guards to prevent concussions outside of specific sports such as cycling, skiing, and snowboarding. Improving coach and player education about proper concussion management, encouraging neck strengthening exercises, and minimizing high-risk impacts may provide a more fruitful avenue to reduce concussions in sports. PMID:21074089

  18. SYMPATHETIC FILAMENT ERUPTIONS FROM A BIPOLAR HELMET STREAMER IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jiayan; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Bo

    2012-01-20

    On 2005 August 5, two solar filaments erupted successively from different confined arcades underlying a common overarching multiple-arcade bipolar helmet streamer. We present detailed observations of these two events and identify them as sympathetic filament eruptions. The first (F1) is a small active-region filament located near the outskirts of the streamer arcade. It underwent a nonradial eruption, initially moving in the interior of the streamer arcade and resulting in an over-and-out coronal mass ejection. The second filament (F2), a larger quiescent one far away from F1, was clearly disturbed during the F1 eruption. It then underwent a very slow eruption and finally disappeared completely and permanently. Because two belt-shaped diffuse dimmings formed along the footprints of the streamer arcade in the first eruption and persisted throughout the complete disappearance of F2, the eruption series are interpreted as sympathetic: the simple expansion of the common streamer arcade forced by the F1 eruption weakened magnetic flux overlying F2 and thus led to its slow eruption, with the dimming formation indicating their physical connection. Our observations suggest that multiple-arcade bipolar helmet-streamer configurations are appropriate to producing sympathetic eruptions. Combined with the recent observations of unipolar-streamer sympathetic events, it appears that a multiple-arcade unipolar or bipolar helmet streamer can serve as a common magnetic configuration for sympathetic eruptions.

  19. Hearing Health in Agricultural Aviation Pilots from Cindacta II Wearing Earplugs and a Helmet.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Ribas, Angela; Spanhol, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Agricultural aviation pilots, exposed daily to intense vibration and noise, are likely to develop noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of audiograms consistent with NIHL in agricultural aviation pilots who use earplugs and helmets. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional cohort and observational study. The data were taken from the medical records and audiograms of 94 pilots. Results NIHL was identified in 9.5% of individuals with hearing loss by audiograms at 3,000, 4,000, or 6,000 Hz. Normal audiograms were observed in 46.8% of pilots surveyed. Bilateral hearing loss was more frequent than unilateral hearing loss, occurring in 64.8% of cases. Conclusion Although there was a low incidence of audiograms compatible with NIHL in the records of the pilots examined, the disorder still occurs despite the doubled use of individual hearing protection equipment (helmets and earplugs) for agricultural aviation pilots. Nevertheless, even with the use of earplugs and helmets as noise protectors, the data showed that agricultural pilots suffer inner ear damage caused by occupational noise. Prevention and periodic audiologic evaluations must be conducted in noise-exposed occupational groups.

  20. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics. PMID:27391273