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Sample records for adult football helmet

  1. Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157538.html Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection: Report Lab ... and laboratory ratings don't indicate whether a football helmet is better at protecting high school players ...

  2. External Foam Layers to Football Helmets Reduce Head Impact Severity

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2014-01-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport. PMID:25157327

  3. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport. PMID:25157327

  4. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    PubMed

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions. PMID:26867124

  5. Towards reducing impact-induced brain injury: lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads.

    PubMed

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J; Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterise the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the head injury criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry and material stiffness. We find that (1) the football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily relevant impact scenarios; (2) optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy and (3) thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Although we considered only the isolated response of pad materials, not entire helmet systems, our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be reduced. PMID:23244512

  6. Development of the STAR evaluation system for football helmets: integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2011-08-01

    In contrast to the publicly available data on the safety of automobiles, consumers have no analytical mechanism to evaluate the protective performance of football helmets. The objective of this article is to fill this void by introducing a new equation that can be used to evaluate helmet performance by integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) equation relates on-field impact exposure to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four impact locations and six impact energy levels. Using 62,974 head acceleration data points collected from football players, the number of impacts experienced for one full season was translated to 24 drop test configurations. A new injury risk function was developed from 32 measured concussions and associated exposure data to assess risk of concussion for each impact. Finally, the data from all 24 drop tests is combined into one number using the STAR formula that incorporates the predicted exposure and injury risk for one player for one full season of practices and games. The new STAR evaluation equation will provide consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of football helmets. PMID:21553135

  7. A headform for testing helmet and mouthguard sensors that measure head impact severity in football players.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Bonin, Stephanie J

    2014-09-01

    A headform is needed to validate and compare helmet- and mouthguard-based sensors that measure the severity and direction of football head impacts. Our goal was to quantify the dynamic response of a mandibular load-sensing headform (MLSH) and to compare its performance and repeatability to an unmodified Hybrid III headform. Linear impactors in two independent laboratories were used to strike each headform at six locations at 5.5 m/s and at two locations at 3.6 and 7.4 m/s. Impact severity was quantified using peak linear acceleration (PLA) and peak angular acceleration (PAA), and direction was quantified using the azimuth and elevation of the PLA. Repeatability was quantified using coefficients of variation (COV) and standard deviations (SD). Across all impacts, PLA was 1.6±1.8 g higher in the MLSH than in the Hybrid III (p=0.002), but there were no differences in PAA (p=0.25), azimuth (p=0.43) and elevation (p=0.11). Both headforms exhibited excellent or acceptable repeatability for PLA (HIII:COV=2.1±0.8%, MLSH:COV=2.0±1.2%, p=0.98), but site-specific repeatability ranging from excellent to poor for PAA (HIII:COV=7.2±4.0%, MLSH:COV=8.3±5.8%, p=0.58). Direction SD were generally <1° and did not vary between headforms. Overall, both headforms are similarly suitable for validating PLA in sensors that measure head impact severity in football players, however their utility for validating sensor PAA values varies with impact location. PMID:24920257

  8. The Influence of Various Factors on High School Football Helmet Face Mask Removal: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Cappaert, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Most research on face mask removal has been performed on unused equipment. Objective: To identify and compare factors that influence the condition of helmet components and their relationship to face mask removal. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting: Five athletic equipment reconditioning/recertification facilities. Participants: 2584 helmets from 46 high school football teams representing 5 geographic regions. Intervention(s): Helmet characteristics (brand, model, hardware components) were recorded. Helmets were mounted and face mask removal was attempted using a cordless screwdriver. The 2004 season profiles and weather histories were obtained for each high school. Main Outcome Measure(s): Success and failure (including reason) for removal of 4 screws from the face mask were noted. Failure rates among regions, teams, reconditioning year, and screw color (type) were compared. Weather histories were compared. We conducted a discriminant analysis to determine if weather variables, region, helmet brand and model, reconditioning year, and screw color could predict successful face mask removal. Metallurgic analysis of screw samples was performed. Results: All screws were successfully removed from 2165 (84%) helmets. At least 1 screw could not be removed from 419 (16%) helmets. Significant differences were found for mean screw failure per helmet among the 5 regions, with the Midwest having the lowest failure rate (0.08 ± 0.38) and the Southern (0.33 ± 0.72), the highest. Differences were found in screw failure rates among the 46 teams (F1,45 = 9.4, P < .01). Helmets with the longest interval since last reconditioning (3 years) had the highest failure rate, 0.47 ± 0.93. Differences in success rates were found among 4 screw types (χ21,4 = 647, P < .01), with silver screws having the lowest percentage of failures (3.4%). A discriminant analysis (Λ = .932, χ214,n=2584 = 175.34, P < .001) revealed screw type to be the strongest predictor of

  9. The Association of the Type of Football Helmet and Mouth Guard With the Incidence of Sport Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy; Brooks, Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Rasmussen, Jessica; McCrea, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately 40,000 Sport Related Concussions (SRC) occur annually in high school football in the US. Football helmet and mouth guard manufacturers cite laboratory research to claim that their models will absorb and lessen impact forces associated with SRC greater than their competitors models. Therefore, players who utilize their equipment may reduce the likelihood they will sustain a SRC. However, there are limited prospective data detailing how specific types of football helmets and mouth guards affect the incidence and severity of SRC in players actually participating in high school football. The objective of this study is to determine which types of football helmets and mouth guards are associated with the incidence and severity of SRC in high school football players. Methods: This prospective study collected data at 36 public and private high schools in Wisconsin during the 2012 high school football season. A convenience sample of N = 1,332 football players (grades 9 - 12, age: 15.9 + 1.8 yrs) enrolled in the study. During the pre-season, subjects completed a demographic questionnaire. Athletic Trainers (ATCs) at each high school recorded the incidence and severity (days lost) of SRC throughout the season. Chi-square tests were used to compare the incidence of SRC in players with their non-injured peers. SRC severity (median days lost, IQR) was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Relative risks [RR, 95% CI] were calculated for variables with significant tests (p <.05). Results: Two hundred fifty-one (19%) reported at least one SRC within the last 6 years while 171 (13%) reported SRC within the previous 12 months. The helmets worn by the players were manufactured by Riddell (52%), Schutt (35%) and Xenith (13%) and were purchased in 2011-2012 (39%), 2009-2010 (33%), 2002-2008 (28%). Mouth guards worn by players included generic models provided by the school (61%) and specialized mouth guards (39%) custom fitted by a dental professional or

  10. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  11. Association Between Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Helmet Use Among Motorcycle Riders

    PubMed Central

    Safiri, Saeid; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Hashemi, Fatemeh; Amiri, Shahrokh; Raza, Owais; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of helmets plays a major role in preventing injuries or decreasing injury severity among motorcycle riders. Use of helmets may depend on personal factors such as psychological factors. Objectives The aim of this study was to independently assess the association between helmet use among motorcycle riders and ADHD scores, with controlling the accident history and was taken more sensitive measures if helmet use was different between motorcycle riders, according to their ADHD scores. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 205 motorcycle riders referred to Kerman Referral Injury Hospital after a motorcycle traffic accident. Friends and family members possessing motorcycles who visited the patient in this facility were included in our sample. The Persian version of the Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) self-report (screening version) was used in order to screen for adult ADHD. CAARS scores were compared between those who usually used helmets and those who did not. Results Univariable analysis showed the mean of the age variable was significantly higher in the helmeted group, 26.94 ± 7.72 vs. 23.08 ± 7.7.32, (P < 0.001). The majority of the non-helmeted group was single (P < 0.001). Subjects with secondary educational level were more often in the helmeted group (P = 0.007). Daily and weekly driving hours were higher in the non-helmeted group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). Most of the subjects in the helmeted group had a driving license in comparison with the other group (P < 0.001). There was not a significant association between SES and having hyperactive children and helmet use (P = 0.159). In all ADHD subscales, a significant association was found and scores were higher in the non-helmeted group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, multivariable analysis did not confirm the association of the ADHD screening score with helmet use. Conclusions The result of this study did not find an independent association between ADHD and helmet use. PMID

  12. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  13. Helmet feedport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kothe, E. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    A helmet design is described which encapsules the head of the wearer, is capable of being pressurized and provides a means for gaining internal access for the purpose of eating. A mechanically actuated valve that combines the purging of carbon dioxide and feeding operations by a simple movement of a mechanical lever obviates problems that are attendant in the type of feed and purge ports previously incorporated in pressurized helmets.

  14. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  15. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  16. Helmet blastometer

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J

    2015-03-24

    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  17. A computational simulation study of the influence of helmet wearing on head injury risk in adult cyclists.

    PubMed

    McNally, D S; Whitehead, S

    2013-11-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of cycle helmets has relied either on simplified experiments or complex statistical analysis of patient cohorts or populations. This study directly assesses the effectiveness of cycle helmets over a range of accident scenarios, from basic loss of control to vehicle impact, using computational modelling. Simulations were performed using dynamics modelling software (MADYMO) and models of a 50% Hybrid III dummy, a hybrid cross bicycle and a car. Loss of control was simulated by a sudden turn of the handlebars and striking a curb, side and rear-on impacts by a car were also simulated. Simulations were run over a representative range of cycle speeds (2.0-14.0 m s(-1)) and vehicle speeds (4.5-17.9 m s(-1)). Bicycle helmets were found to be effective in reducing the severity of head injuries sustained in common accidents. They reduced the risk of an AIS>3 injury, in cases with head impacts, by an average of 40%. In accidents that would cause up to moderate (AIS=2) injuries to a non-helmeted rider, helmets eliminated the risk of injury. Helmets were also found to be effective in preventing fatal head injuries in some instances. The effectiveness of helmets was demonstrated over the entire range of cycle speeds studied, up to and including 14 m s(-1). There was no evidence that helmet wearing increased the risk of neck injury, indeed helmets were found to be protective of neck injuries in many cases. Similarly, helmets were found to offer an increase in protection even when an increase in cycle speed due to risk compensation was taken into consideration. PMID:24005027

  18. The inertial and geometrical properties of helmets.

    PubMed

    Njus, G O; Liu, Y K; Nye, T A

    1984-10-01

    The center of gravity (CG) and the principal mass moments of inertia about the CG of Army aviator, American football, and bicycle helmets were experimentally determined by a variation of the classic differential weighing and torsional pendulum techniques. In the course of these experiments, an innovative method for three-dimensional (3D) digitization was found. An electronic caliper, which measured length, was used with a computer algorithm to achieve 3D digitization. The results of the above measurements show that the weight of the helmet and the distances from the CG to the orthogonal coordinate axes intercepts with the outer shell surface were highly correlated with its principal mass moments of inertia. A set of regression equations was derived on theoretical considerations and served to unify the experimentally obtained data. Our results indicate that the principal mass moments of inertia of helmets vary linearly with its mass but nonlinearly with size and shape. For a helmet, given its weight and certain geometrical distances, the regression equations estimate the principal mass moments of inertia to within 5% of its experimentally-determined values. For the helmets studied in this series, a modified linear-regression relationship between the principal mass moments of inertia and its mass was found. This result is reasonable because the mass distribution of the current generation of helmets are set primarily by the head size and secondarily by helmet size, shape, and materials. PMID:6513769

  19. An Update on Football Deaths and Catastrophic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    1986-01-01

    The latest figures (1985) indicate a continued decline in football deaths and catastrophic injuries, which is credited to a ban on spearing and to a helmet standard. Guidelines for prevention of fatalities and injuries are listed. (Author/MT)

  20. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the effect of previously recognized socioeconomic negative predictors that are not readily changed by intervention. Subjects were classified by age, sex, location, riding surface, type of bicycle, child bicycle seat use, child bicycle trailer use, and helmet use by companions. Overall helmet use was 24 percent; infants and toddlers had the highest rate of helmet use at 61 percent, followed by adults at 26 percent and school-aged children at 17 percent. The strongest predictor of helmet use in all age categories was the presence of a helmeted companion. Adult helmet use was also positively predicted by riding in the street and by riding a racing-type bicycle. The use of a city-type bicycle negatively predicted helmet use. For non-adults, female sex and the use of a child seat or trailer were positive predictors. Fostering peer pressure to increase helmet use may be an effective yet relatively inexpensive way to achieve the goal of widespread use of bicycle helmets. PMID:8153282

  1. The Effects of Helmet Weight on Hybrid III Head and Neck Responses by Comparing Unhelmeted and Helmeted Impacts.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; McCarthy, Joe; King, Albert I

    2016-10-01

    Most studies on football helmet performance focus on lowering head acceleration-related parameters to reduce concussions. This has resulted in an increase in helmet size and mass. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of helmet mass on head and upper neck responses. Two independent test series were conducted. In test series one, 90 pendulum impact tests were conducted with four different headform and helmet conditions: unhelmeted Hybrid III headform, Hybrid III headform with a football helmet shell, Hybrid III headform with helmet shell and facemask, and Hybrid III headform with the helmet and facemask with mass added to the shell (n = 90). The Hybrid III neck was used for all the conditions. For all the configurations combined, the shell only, shell and facemask, and weighted helmet conditions resulted in 36%, 43%, and 44% lower resultant head accelerations (p < 0.0001), respectively, when compared to the unhelmeted condition. Head delta-V reductions were 1.1%, 4.5%, and 4.4%, respectively. In contrast, the helmeted conditions resulted in 26%, 41%, and 49% higher resultant neck forces (p < 0.0001), respectively. The increased neck forces were dominated by neck tension. In test series two, testing was conducted with a pneumatic linear impactor (n = 178). Fourteen different helmet makes and models illustrate the same trend. The increased neck forces provide a possible explanation as to why there has not been a corresponding reduction in concussion rates despite improvements in helmets ability to reduce head accelerations. PMID:27456840

  2. Rugby football.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  3. Children and cycle helmets -- the case against.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M

    1996-03-01

    Much of the literature on child cycling accidents appears to blame the child as a victim, as though children's activities of playing and travelling were somehow wrong and that children are at fault when an adult drives a car over them. This adult-centred approach then leads to the idea that children should protect themselves with helmets, and that they are to blame if they are injured. However, adults who continue to hold the fantasy that helmets might be of value should know that the British Standard for cycle helmets protects only in a vertical fall of 1 m -- certainly not motor vehicle crashes. Thicker motor cycle helmets would give better protection but, of course, are heavier (and therefore unsaleable). Yet even with compulsory wearing helmets, more motor cyclists still die of head injuries than pedal cyclists. In the Newcastle study, five times as many child pedestrians died of road accidents as child cyclists. Convinced helmeteers should recommend all children playing or travelling in the streets to wear helmets (presumably heavy motor-cycle helmets). Slightly more sceptical proponents might prefer half of them -- in a randomized controlled trial. Car driving appears to have as serious health consequences as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and to be as addictive (McCarthy 1992). Helmets are similar to filters in cigarettes -- they give the illusion of safety to both consumer and producer of the product, but the illusion is fatal. Yet, for their cardiovascular and mental health, children should have the freedom to cycle in safety around where they live. A profound change in the habits of adults is needed, rather than suits of armour for children. PMID:8820015

  4. Four Quarters of Football Helmet Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... debe participar en el juego y recibir una evaluación de jugador. La salud a largo plazo del ... REACONDICIONAMIENTO Y REMPLAZO CUIDADO Y MANTENIMIENTO PARA MÁS INFORMACIÓN VISITE >> http://www.cdc.gov/concussion/HeadsUp/spanish/ ...

  5. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  6. Bike Racing Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  7. Liquid cooled helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, William (Inventor); Williams, Bill A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Liquid cooled helmet comprising a cap of flexible material adapted to fit the head of a person, cooling panels mounted inside the cap forming passageways for carrying a liquid coolant, the panels being positioned to engage the cranium and neck of a person wearing the helmet, inlet and outlet lines communicating with the passageways, and releasable straps for securing the helmet about the neck of the wearer.

  8. Fire fighter helmet ventilation analysis.

    PubMed

    Reischl, U

    1986-09-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests was conducted on selected fire fighter helmets to identify design factors which affect helmet ventilation at various air velocities and head orientation angles. Biomedical heat flux transducers were mounted on the surface of an electrically heated mannequin head to monitor convective heat loss. Under the experimental conditions, specific helmet design features were identified which can contribute to improved helmet ventilation and thus improve body metabolic heat loss. Attention to helmet design and helmet suspension systems is recommended to reduce fire fighter heat stress. PMID:3766398

  9. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  10. Football Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Paul R.

    1972-01-01

    The probabilities of certain English football teams winning different playoffs are determined. In each case, a mathematical model is fitted to the observed data, assumptions are verified, and the calculations performed. (LS)

  11. Injury Control Recommendations for Bicycle Helmets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents guidelines for organizations planning head injury prevention programs for bicyclists. The guidelines examine the magnitude of the problem and potential impact of helmet use, characteristics of helmets, barriers to increasing helmet use, and approaches to increasing helmet use. Bicycle helmet legislation and community educational campaigns…

  12. Risk compensation and bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ross Owen; Fyhri, Aslak; Sagberg, Fridulv

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated risk compensation by cyclists in response to bicycle helmet wearing by observing changes in cycling behavior, reported experience of risk, and a possible objective measure of experienced risk. The suitability of heart rate variability (HRV) as an objective measure of experienced risk was assessed beforehand by recording HRV measures in nine participants watching a thriller film. We observed a significant decrease in HRV in line with expected increases in psychological challenge presented by the film. HRV was then used along with cycling pace and self-reported risk in a field experiment in which 35 cyclist volunteers cycled 0.4 km downhill, once with and once without a helmet. Routine helmet users reported higher experienced risk and cycled slower when they did not wear their helmet in the experiment than when they did wear their helmet, although there was no corresponding change in HRV. For cyclists not accustomed to helmets, there were no changes in speed, perceived risk, or any other measures when cycling with versus without a helmet. The findings are consistent with the notion that those who use helmets routinely perceive reduced risk when wearing a helmet, and compensate by cycling faster. They thus give some support to those urging caution in the use of helmet laws. PMID:21418079

  13. Protective capability of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, N J

    1990-01-01

    Cycle helmets that meet UK and US standards have been tested. The mechanisms of energy absorption for frontal and side impacts have been analysed. A good helmet should protect the wearer for impacts up to 15 mph into a rigid flat surface. PMID:2350670

  14. Improved Helmet-Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.; Weiss, Fred R.; Eck, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide foamed into lightweight padding material for use in helmets. Exhibits increased resistance to ignition, combustion, and impact, and it outgasses less. Foam satisfies offgassing and toxicity requirements of NASA/JSC criteria (NHB80601B). Helmets containing this improved padding material used by firefighters, police, offshore drilling technicians, construction workers, miners, and race-car drivers.

  15. Wireless nanosensors for monitoring concussion of football players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  16. How to Rescue American Football

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  17. How to Rescue American Football.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  18. Lightweight Helmet For Eye/Balance Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcstravick, M. Catherine; Proctor, David R.; Wood, Scott J.

    1988-01-01

    Lightweight helmet serves as mounting platform for stimulus and sensor modules in experiments on role of vestibulo-ocular reflex in motion sickness and space-adaptation syndrome. Fitted liner and five inflatable air bladders stabilize helmet with respect to subject's head. Personal bite board attached to chin-bar assembly makes hard palate in subject's mouth serve as final position reference for helmet.

  19. Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

  20. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  1. Parenting influences on bicycle helmet rules and estimations of children's helmet use.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Brinson, Margaret Kay; Ross, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the potential relationship between parenting variables and estimations of children's bicycle helmet use. Parents (N = 121) completed surveys asking about parental monitoring and questions about their bicycle habits and attitudes, as well as their expectations for their children to wear a helmet and their estimation of how often their children wear a helmet. Parents reported stronger helmet rules for their children who are beginning cyclists rather than experienced cyclists, and rules for experienced cyclists were more strongly endorsed among parents who reported more parental monitoring as well. Parents who wear helmets themselves endorsed stronger helmet rules for their experienced riders, compared to parents who do not wear helmets. Parents without helmet rules reported more peer pressure in that they were more likely to agree that their friends do not make their kids wear helmets and that their child's friends do not wear helmets. In addition, believing other parents do not wear helmets and believing one's child's friends do not wear helmets were both associated with a lower likelihood that their children wear a helmet. This appears to be the first study linking perceptions of parental peer pressure with helmet rules and use. For public health reasons, it is imperative to examine parental factors that may establish children's helmet wearing. PMID:24684079

  2. Investigating Helmet Promotion for Cyclists: Results from a Randomised Study with Observation of Behaviour, Using a Semi-Automatic Video System

    PubMed Central

    Constant, Aymery; Messiah, Antoine; Felonneau, Marie-Line; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. Methods We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18–75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of “helmet only”, “helmet and information” or “information only”, and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. Results Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the “helmet only” group (OR = 7.73 [2.09–28.5]) and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. Conclusion Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure. PMID:22355384

  3. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  4. Emotional reactions to cycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Fyhri, Aslak; Phillips, Ross O

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the safety benefits of bicycle helmets are limited by risk compensation. The current article tests if previous helmet use influences the response to helmets as a safety intervention. This was investigated in a field experiment where pace and psychophysiological load were measured. We found that after having removed their helmets, routine helmet users cycled more slowly and demonstrated increased psychophysiological load. However, for non-users there was no significant change in either cycling behaviour or psychophysiological load. We discuss the implications of these results for a hypothesis of risk compensation in response to helmet use. We also show that heart rate variability is a promising measure of psychophysiological load in real-world cycling, at least in situations where there is limited physical demand. PMID:22975366

  5. Emergency space-suit helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. A. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A frusto-conically shaped distensible component is described which inflates to encircle a portion of the wearer's head and carries a collapsible member which automatically extends over the remaining portion of the head. A pulley arrangement secured between the walls of the distensible component automatically extends and retracts the collapsible member. When deflated, the unit is carried on the back of the wearer so as to provide an automatic emergency space suit helmet.

  6. Raster graphic helmet-mounted display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamon, William S.; Moran, Susanna I.

    1990-01-01

    A design of a helmet mounted display system is presented, including a design specification and development plan for the selected design approach. The requirements for the helmet mounted display system and a survey of applicable technologies are presented. Three helmet display concepts are then described which utilize lasers, liquid crystal display's (LCD's), and subminiature cathode ray tubes (CRT's), respectively. The laser approach is further developed in a design specification and a development plan.

  7. Football with three ‘halves’: A qualitative exploratory study of the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010

    PubMed Central

    ZA, Kaufman; MA, Clark; ST, McGarvey

    2015-01-01

    The “football3” model refers to a restructuring of traditional football/soccer rules to bring social and developmental benefits to participating youth and their communities. The model incorporates three “halves”: pre-game discussion, football match, and post-game discussion. This study was carried out to shed light on the experiences of youth and adults with the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010. As an official 2010 FIFA World Cup event, the festival assembled 32 mixed-sex delegations of youth for cultural activities and a football tournament. The study's aim was to inform the model's future design and implementation. Twenty interviews, two focus group discussions, and participant observation were conducted. Findings highlight positive experiences with the model regarding cultural exchange and relationship building, Fair Play and social values, and gender integration. Challenges pertain to misunderstanding of the football3 model, tournament atmosphere, and skill level differences. Recommendations centre on systematically formulating desired outcomes, formalizing a curriculum and training plan, piloting football3 in a range of settings over an extended period of time, and emphasizing monitoring and evaluation to assess the model's effectiveness and impact. Future piloting and research should inform the potential scale-up of the model. PMID:27064214

  8. [Where are all the Viking helmets?].

    PubMed

    Wester, K

    2001-06-30

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this article describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry, burial customs, and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. Only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the wide-spread misunderstanding that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed. The archaeological profession must partly bear the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding. PMID:11875899

  9. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    PubMed

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession. PMID:11063116

  10. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P <.001) than in players who wore a generic mouth guard. The rate of SRC was also higher (HR = 1.96 [95% CI, 1.40–2.73], P <.001) in players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months (15.1% of the 259 players [95% CI, 11.0%–20.1%]) than in players without a previous SRC (8.2% of the 2028 players [95% CI, 7.1%–9.5%]). Conclusion Incidence of SRC was similar

  11. The biomechanics of concussion in unhelmeted football players in Australia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A; Fréchède, Bertrand; Pierré, Paul-André; Ferry, Edouard; Barthels, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concussion is a prevalent brain injury in sport and the wider community. Despite this, little research has been conducted investigating the dynamics of impacts to the unprotected human head and injury causation in vivo, in particular the roles of linear and angular head acceleration. Setting Professional contact football in Australia. Participants Adult male professional Australian rules football players participating in 30 games randomly selected from 103 games. Cases selected based on an observable head impact, no observable symptoms (eg, loss-of-consciousness and convulsions), no on-field medical management and no injury recorded at the time. Primary and secondary outcome measures A data set for no-injury head impact cases comprising head impact locations and head impact dynamic parameters estimated through rigid body simulations using the MAthematical DYnamic MOdels (MADYMO) human facet model. This data set was compared to previously reported concussion case data. Results Qualitative analysis showed that the head was more vulnerable to lateral impacts. Logistic regression analyses of head acceleration and velocity components revealed that angular acceleration of the head in the coronal plane had the strongest association with concussion; tentative tolerance levels of 1747 rad/s2 and 2296 rad/s2 were reported for a 50% and 75% likelihood of concussion, respectively. The mean maximum resultant angular accelerations for the concussion and no-injury cases were 7951 rad/s2 (SD 3562 rad/s2) and 4300 rad/s2 (SD 3657 rad/s2), respectively. Linear acceleration is currently used in the assessment of helmets and padded headgear. The 50% and 75% likelihood of concussion values for resultant linear head acceleration in this study were 65.1 and 88.5 g, respectively. Conclusions As hypothesised by Holbourn over 70 years ago, angular acceleration plays an important role in the pathomechanics of concussion, which has major ramifications in terms of

  12. Head Position and Football Equipment Influence Cervical Spinal-Cord Space During Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Ryan T; Mattacola, Carl G; Sitler, Michael R; Maldjian, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of head position and football equipment (ie, helmet and shoulder pads) on cervical spinal cord space in individuals lying supine on a spine board. DESIGN AND SETTING: The independent variables were head position (0-cm, 2-cm, and 4-cm occiput elevation with no helmet and shoulder pads and with helmet and shoulder pads) and cervical spine level (C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7). The 3 dependent variables were sagittal space available for the cord (SAC) (mm), sagittal spinal-cord diameter (mm), and cervical-thoracic angle ( degrees ), determined via magnetic resonance imaging. SUBJECTS: Twelve men (age = 24.3 +/- 2.1 years; height = 181.1 +/- 5.7 cm; weight = 93.9 +/- 3.6 kg). MEASUREMENTS: Sagittal space available for the cord was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The spinal-canal diameter was measured as the shortest distance from the vertebral body to the spinolaminar line at each of the spinal levels. Each measurement was taken 3 times, and the 3 measurements were averaged. RESULTS: Sagittal space available for the cord was significantly greater (P <.01) for 0-cm (mean = 5.50 mm) than for 2-cm (mean = 4.86 mm) and 4-cm (mean = 5.07 mm) occiput elevation. SAC was also significantly greater (P <.01) for the equipment condition (mean = 5.34 mm) than for the 2-cm and 4-cm elevation levels. No significant difference (P =.093) in SAC existed between 0-cm elevation and the equipment condition. CONCLUSIONS: The helmet and shoulder pads should be left on during spine-board immobilization of the injured football player. Similarly, during spine-board immobilization of an individual without football helmet and shoulder pads, the head should be maintained at 0 cm of occiput elevation. Sagittal spinal-cord space is optimized in both of these conditions. PMID:12937433

  13. Implementation of an all-ages mandatory helmet policy for ice skating.

    PubMed

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Fenerty, Lynne; Wheadon-Hore, Kathie; Walling, Simon; Cusimano, Michael D; Clarke, David B

    2015-12-01

    Ice skaters sustain a significant number of head injuries each winter. We are the first to implement an all-ages helmet policy at a university-based Canadian arena. We report our experience from a cross-sectional observational study as well as the policy's consequences on helmet use and skating participation. Educational programming was provided prior to policy implementation. Observations of helmet use, falls and skater demographics were conducted prior to education/implementation and after policy implementation. The number of skaters observed was essentially unchanged by the policy; 361 skaters were observed pre-implementation, while 358 were observed post-implementation during the same number of observation-hours. Pre-implementation, helmet use ranged from 97% among children under 12 to 10% among adults; post-implementation use in all skaters was 99%. Falls were observed among all age groups, with preponderance among those aged 4-12. An all-ages helmet policy was successful both in achieving helmet use among all skaters and in maintaining participation rates. PMID:25681515

  14. Protecting Helmets And Visors From Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Dawn, Frederic

    1991-01-01

    Thin layer of polysulfone on polycarbonate safety helmets and visors protects them from attack by chemicals. Useful in industrial safety helmets. Highly resistant to creep under tension load. Retains dimensional stability when exposed to moisture. Does not adversely affect optical properties of polycarbonate visors. Configuration varied to accommodate such special requirements as high impact strength or protection against moving particles and debris.

  15. Helmet system broadcasts electroencephalograms of wearer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westbrook, R. M.; Zuccaro, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    EEG monitoring system consisting of nonirritating sponge-type electrodes, amplifiers, and a battery-powered wireless transmitter, all mounted in the subjects helmet, obtains electroencephalograms /EEGs/ of pilots and astronauts performing tasks under stress. After a quick initial fitting, the helmet can be removed and replaced without adjustments.

  16. Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Attewell, R G; Glase, K; McFadden, M

    2001-05-01

    Bicycle helmet efficacy was quantified using a formal meta-analytic approach based on peer-reviewed studies. Only those studies with individual injury and helmet use data were included. Based on studies from several countries published in the period 1987-1998, the summary odds ratio estimate for efficacy is 0.40 (95% confidence interval 0.29, 0.55) for head injury, 0.42 (0.26, 0.67) for brain injury, 0.53 (0.39, 0.73) for facial injury and 0.27 (0.10, 0.71) for fatal injury. This indicates a statistically significant protective effect of helmets. Three studies provided neck injury results that were unfavourable to helmets with a summary estimate of 1.36 (1.00, 1.86), but this result may not be applicable to the lighter helmets currently in use. In conclusion, the evidence is clear that bicycle helmets prevent serious injury and even death. Despite this, the use of helmets is sub-optimal. Helmet use for all riders should be further encouraged to the extent that it is uniformly accepted and analogous to the use of seat belts by motor vehicle occupants. PMID:11235796

  17. Tackling in Youth Football.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. PMID:26498638

  18. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR=28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r=0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use. PMID:24119233

  19. Parental knowledge and children's use of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jill D; Harper, Mark A; Pardi, Lisa A; Christopher, Norman C

    2003-10-01

    Helmet use protects against head injury. Our objective was to assess whether parental knowledge of helmet safety is associated with helmet use in children, and whether a relationship exists between helmet ownership and other safety behaviors. Three hundred forty-one surveys were distributed to parents of third through fifth graders; 97% of parents believed that a helmet confers protection; 49% of parents reported that their child owns a helmet. Of the helmet owners, 27% reported that the child wears it more than 75% of the time. Seat belt usage was associated with helmet ownership (p=0.02) and frequency of wearing a helmet (p=0.04). Although parents are aware of the benefits, a barrier between helmet ownership and usage exists. PMID:14601915

  20. Helmet-based physiological signal monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Sung; Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Haet Bit; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-02-01

    A helmet-based system that was able to monitor the drowsiness of a soldier was developed. The helmet system monitored the electrocardiogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram (alpha waves) without constraints. Six dry electrodes were mounted at five locations on the helmet: both temporal sides, forehead region and upper and lower jaw strips. The electrodes were connected to an amplifier that transferred signals to a laptop computer via Bluetooth wireless communication. The system was validated by comparing the signal quality with conventional recording methods. Data were acquired from three healthy male volunteers for 12 min twice a day whilst they were sitting in a chair wearing the sensor-installed helmet. Experimental results showed that physiological signals for the helmet user were measured with acceptable quality without any intrusions on physical activities. The helmet system discriminated between the alert and drowsiness states by detecting blinking and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters extracted from ECG. Blinking duration and eye reopening time were increased during the sleepiness state compared to the alert state. Also, positive peak values of the sleepiness state were much higher, and the negative peaks were much lower than that of the alert state. The LF/HF ratio also decreased during drowsiness. This study shows the feasibility for using this helmet system: the subjects' health status and mental states could be monitored without constraints whilst they were working. PMID:19002707

  1. Anomalous Cases of Astronaut Helmet Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  2. Motorcycle helmets: What about their coating?

    PubMed

    Schnegg, Michaël; Massonnet, Geneviève; Gueissaz, Line

    2015-07-01

    In traffic accidents involving motorcycles, paint traces can be transferred from the rider's helmet or smeared onto its surface. These traces are usually in the form of chips or smears and are frequently collected for comparison purposes. This research investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of the coatings found on motorcycles helmets. An evaluation of the similarities between helmet and automotive coating systems was also performed.Twenty-seven helmet coatings from 15 different brands and 22 models were considered. One sample per helmet was collected and observed using optical microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was then used and seven replicate measurements per layer were carried out to study the variability of each coating system (intravariability). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were also performed on the infrared spectra of the clearcoats and basecoats of the data set. The most common systems were composed of two or three layers, consistently involving a clearcoat and basecoat. The coating systems of helmets with composite shells systematically contained a minimum of three layers. FTIR spectroscopy results showed that acrylic urethane and alkyd urethane were the most frequent binders used for clearcoats and basecoats. A high proportion of the coatings were differentiated (more than 95%) based on microscopic examinations. The chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings allowed the differentiation of all but one pair of helmets of the same brand, model and color. Chemometrics (PCA and HCA) corroborated classification based on visual comparisons of the spectra and allowed the study of the whole data set at once (i.e., all spectra of the same layer). Thus, the intravariability of each helmet and its proximity to the others (intervariability) could be more readily assessed. It was also possible to determine the most discriminative chemical variables based on the study of the PCA loadings. Chemometrics

  3. Cyclists' helmet usage and characteristics in central and southern Malawi: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, John D; Honermann, Brian J; Roffenbender, Jason S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, bicycle helmet usage in southern and central Malawi. This study was across-sectional observation of public behaviour. The urban and rural roadways in southern and central Malawi were studied during the dry season. In total, 1900 bicyclists were observed along the roadways of southern and central Malawi over a four-day period. Observer ascertainment of cyclists' helmet status, approximate age, sex and bicycle operator or passenger status were measured. Of the 1900 cyclists observed, no cyclist was identified as wearing a helmet (exact 95% CI: 0.0-0.2%). There was no variation by age, sex or operator/passenger status. Nearly, 91.5% of observed cyclists were males and 87.7% were operating the bicycle. The sizeable majority of male cyclists were classified as young adults from adolescence to 25 years old (47.2%) or adults over age 25 (44.9%); 7.9% of male cyclists were pre-adolescent. Passengers were more likely to be female than operators (39.1% versus 4.2%), though, even for passengers, a higher proportion were males than females (p < 0.001). In Malawi, helmet usage is so rare as to be non-existent. This suggests an opportunity for significant improvement. Based on the observed cyclists' characteristics, interventions should be targeted to adult and young adult males. PMID:22394127

  4. Helmets or not? Use science correctly.

    PubMed

    Trégouët, Paul

    2015-08-01

    In a recent article, Hooper and Spicer make several arguments against legislation that would mandate the use of bicycle helmets. While they present reasonable objections to the utilitarian as well as the justice defence of such legislation, their review of the empirical evidence contains inaccuracies, omissions and a bias in the selection of empirical data. While there are legitimate reasons to argue against mandating helmet legislation, these arguments should still be based on clinically and scientifically sound evidence. PMID:23760575

  5. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  6. High magnitude head impacts experienced during youth football practices.

    PubMed

    Young, Tyler; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the risk of concussion in the 3.5 million youth athletes who participate in organized football leagues in the United States each year, practice structure can be modified to decrease impact frequency and magnitude. The objective of this study is to identify activities that result in high magnitude head impacts in youth football players during practice. The HIT System was used to record the head acceleration magnitude, impact location on the helmet, and time of each impact for each game and practice players participated in. These data were used to quantify the head impact exposure associated with players between the ages of 9 and 11 years. Video footage recorded during each practice and game session was used to identify the activity associated with any impact above 45 g. The incidence rate of high magnitude impacts in various activities were compared by normalizing by the amount of time associated with each activity. It was determined that scrimmages accounted for 0.094 impacts greater than 45 g per minute in practices while contact drills contributed to 0.102 impacts greater than 45 g per minute during practices. The results of this study indicate future youth football practice modifications should focus on both scrimmages and contact drills. PMID:25405410

  7. Ski patrollers: Reluctant role models for helmet use

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T.; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. Design A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. Questions addressed helmet use rates; prior TBI experiences; perceptions of helmet risks and benefits; and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Subjects Ninety-three ski patrollers participated. Main Outcome Self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Results Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15–32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84–96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86–98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29–49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7–25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14–29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27–25.42); and belief that role modeling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29–12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were 8 times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03–0.58). Conclusions Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programs should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modeling as a professional responsibility. PMID:19225971

  8. Simulation-based assessment for construction helmets.

    PubMed

    Long, James; Yang, James; Lei, Zhipeng; Liang, Daan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a concerted effort for greater job safety in all industries. Personnel protective equipment (PPE) has been developed to help mitigate the risk of injury to humans that might be exposed to hazardous situations. The human head is the most vulnerable to impact as a moderate magnitude can cause serious injury or death. That is why industries have required the use of an industrial hard hat or helmet. There have only been a few articles published to date that are focused on the risk of head injury when wearing an industrial helmet. A full understanding of the effectiveness of construction helmets on reducing injury is lacking. This paper presents a simulation-based method to determine the threshold at which a human will sustain injury when wearing a construction helmet and assesses the risk of injury for wearers of construction helmets or hard hats. Advanced finite element, or FE, models were developed to study the impact on construction helmets. The FE model consists of two parts: the helmet and the human models. The human model consists of a brain, enclosed by a skull and an outer layer of skin. The level and probability of injury to the head was determined using both the head injury criterion (HIC) and tolerance limits set by Deck and Willinger. The HIC has been widely used to assess the likelihood of head injury in vehicles. The tolerance levels proposed by Deck and Willinger are more suited for finite element models but lack wide-scale validation. Different cases of impact were studied using LSTC's LS-DYNA. PMID:23495784

  9. Taking a Bike Ride? Don't Forget Your Helmet

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers at the Cleveland Clinic. When buying a bicycle helmet, look for a U.S. Consumer Product Safety ... They will be more likely to use it. Bicycle helmets can also be worn when in-line ...

  10. Attenuation of noise by motorcycle safety helmets.

    PubMed

    Młyński, Rafał; Kozłowski, Emil; Zera, Jan

    2009-01-01

    For workers such as police motorcyclists or couriers, traffic and engine noise reaching the ears is an important factor contributing to the overall condition of their work. This noise can be reduced with motorcycle helmets. In this study, insertion loss of motorcycle helmets was measured with the microphone-in-real-ear technique and sound attenuation with the real-ear-at-threshold method. Results for 3 Nolan helmets show essentially no protection against external noise in the frequency range <250 Hz. In the frequency range >500 Hz, attenuation increases linearly at a rate of 8-9 dB per octave, to ~30 dB at 8 kHz. Lack of attenuation in the low-frequency range may cause annoying effects. In addition, high attenuation in the high-frequency range may decrease intelligibility of speech signals for a rider in a helmet. Attenuation measured in this study does not take into account noise generated by turbulent wind around the helmet. Thus, the measured values of attenuation represent a motorcycle rider's best conditions of hearing. PMID:19744370

  11. Statistics of football dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, R. S.; Malacarne, L. C.; Anteneodo, C.

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by q-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

  12. Impact attenuation properties of new and used lacrosse helmets.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Thomas G; Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Dodge, Thomas M; Nauman, Eric A

    2015-11-01

    The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) has developed impact attenuation thresholds that protective helmets worn in sport must meet to be commercially available in an attempt to prevent injury. It remains unknown how normal helmet use in athletic activity alters the force attenuation ability of lacrosse helmets. We tested 3 new and 3 randomly selected used helmets from 2 popular lacrosse models (Cascade Pro7, Cascade CPXR). All used helmets had been worn for 3 collegiate seasons prior to testing and had never been refurbished. Helmets were drop-tested using 3 prescribed impact velocities at 6 locations according to the NOCSAE lacrosse helmet standard, and we compared the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) scores between new and used helmets using a repeated measure ANOVA with location as the repeated variable and data separated by impact velocity. All 12 helmets passed the NOCSAE GSI threshold for all testing conditions; however 1 used helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test. We found a significant main effect for helmet age at the low (F5,50=2.98, P=.02), medium (F5,50=3.71, P=.006), and high (F5,50=2.70, P=.03) velocities. We suspect that helmet use can degrade materials under some conditions, but improve performance in others due to changes in helmet composition from use. The clinical implications of the differences in GSI scores noted remain unclear. Because one helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test, used helmets should be regularly inspected for cracks or other signs of mechanical fatigue that may weaken helmet integrity. PMID:26429768

  13. Nonuse of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: a proportional mortality, case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Navindra; Coleman, Emily; Zwolakowski, Dorothy; Lauwers, Bert; Cass, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of helmets at preventing cycling fatalities, a leading cause of death among young adults worldwide, is controversial, and safety regulations for cycling vary by jurisdiction. We sought to determine whether nonuse of helmets is associated with an increased risk of fatal head injury. Methods: We used a case–control design involving 129 fatalities using data from a coroner’s review of cycling deaths in Ontario, Canada, between 2006 and 2010. We defined cases as cyclists who died as a result of head injuries; we defined controls as cyclists who died as a result of other injuries. The exposure variable was nonuse of a bicycle helmet. Results: Not wearing a helmet while cycling was associated with an increased risk of dying as a result of sustaining a head injury (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–7.3). We saw the same relationship when we excluded people younger than 18 years from the analysis (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.5) and when we used a more stringent case definition (i.e., only a head injury with no other substantial injuries; adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2–10.2). Interpretation: Not wearing a helmet while cycling is associated with an increased risk of sustaining a fatal head injury. Policy changes and educational programs that increase the use of helmets while cycling may prevent deaths. PMID:23071369

  14. Finite element modelling of equestrian helmet impacts exposes the need to address rotational kinematics in future helmet designs.

    PubMed

    Forero Rueda, M A; Cui, L; Gilchrist, M D

    2011-12-01

    Jockey head injuries, especially concussions, are common in horse racing. Current helmets do help to reduce the severity and incidences of head injury, but the high concussion incidence rates suggest that there may be scope to improve the performance of equestrian helmets. Finite element simulations in ABAQUS/Explicit were used to model a realistic helmet model during standard helmeted rigid headform impacts and helmeted head model University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model (UCDBTM) impacts. Current helmet standards for impact determine helmet performance based solely on linear acceleration. Brain injury-related values (stress and strain) from the UCDBTM showed that a performance improvement based on linear acceleration does not imply the same improvement in head injury-related brain tissue loads. It is recommended that angular kinematics be considered in future equestrian helmet standards, as angular acceleration was seen to correlate with stress and strain in the brain. PMID:20665294

  15. Motorcycle Helmet Laws: A Case Study of Consumer Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardis, Rachel; Lefkowitz, Camille

    1987-01-01

    The study examines societal losses from 1976 federal legislation on state motorcycle helmet laws. Comprehensive state helmet laws would have had cost-benefit ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.18. The fact that 31 states did not have comprehensive helmet laws in 1981 raises questions concerning whether society should intervene on behalf of consumers.…

  16. The impact absorption characteristics of cricket batting helmets.

    PubMed

    Stretch, R A

    2000-12-01

    To determine whether the helmets currently used by cricket batsmen offer sufficient protection against impacts of a cricket ball, the impact absorption characteristics of six helmets were measured using the drop test at an impact velocity equivalent to a cricket ball with a release speed of 160 km x h(-1) (44.4 m x s(-1)). An accelerometer transducer attached to a 5.0 kg striker was dropped from a height of 3.14 m onto the batting helmets to measure the impact characteristics at the three different impact sites: right temple, forehead and back of the helmet. These data were further expressed as a percentage above (-) or below (+) the recommended safety standard of 300 g. The results indicate that the force absorption characteristics of the helmets showed inter- and intra-helmet variations, with 14 of the 18 impact sites (66.7%) assessed meeting the recommended safety standards. Helmets 1, 2 and 4 succeeded in meeting the safety standards at all impact sites; helmets 5 and 6 both failed at the back and forehead, while helmet 3 failed at all impact sites. These differences were due to the structure and composition of the inner protective layer of the helmets. The helmets that succeeded in meeting the standards were made with a moulded polystyrene insert, a heat-formed ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) insert, or EVA with a relatively high density that allows a minimal amount of movement of the helmet at ball impact. PMID:11138985

  17. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties. PMID:22327159

  18. Changing the Culture: Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  19. Laboratory Validation of Two Wearable Sensor Systems for Measuring Head Impact Severity in Football Players.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Bonin, Stephanie J

    2016-04-01

    Wearable sensors can measure head impact frequency and magnitude in football players. Our goal was to quantify the impact detection rate and validity of the direction and peak kinematics of two wearable sensors: a helmet system (HITS) and a mouthguard system (X2). Using a linear impactor, modified Hybrid-III headform and one helmet model, we conducted 16 impacts for each system at 12 helmet sites and 5 speeds (3.6-11.2 m/s) (N = 896 tests). Peak linear and angular accelerations (PLA, PAA), head injury criteria (HIC) and impact directions from each device were compared to reference sensors in the headform. Both sensors detected ~96% of impacts. Median angular errors for impact directions were 34° for HITS and 16° for X2. PLA, PAA and HIC were simultaneously valid at 2 sites for HITS (side, oblique) and one site for X2 (side). At least one kinematic parameter was valid at 2 and 7 other sites for HITS and X2 respectively. Median relative errors for PLA were 7% for HITS and -7% for X2. Although sensor validity may differ for other helmets and headforms, our analyses show that data generated by these two sensors need careful interpretation. PMID:26268586

  20. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Head-Down Contact and Spearing in Tackle Football

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Clarke, Kenneth S.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Torg, Joseph S.; Weis, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations that decrease the risk of cervical spine fractures and dislocations in football players. Background: Axial loading of the cervical spine resulting from head-down contact is the primary cause of spinal cord injuries. Keeping the head up and initiating contact with the shoulder or chest decreases the risk of these injuries. The 1976 rule changes resulted in a dramatic decrease in catastrophic cervical spine injuries. However, the helmet-contact rules are rarely enforced and head-down contact still occurs frequently. Our recommendations are directed toward decreasing the incidence of head-down contact. Recommendations: Educate players, coaches, and officials that unintentional and intentional head-down contact can result in catastrophic injuries. Increase the time tacklers, ball carriers, and blockers spend practicing correct contact techniques. Improve the enforcement and understanding of the existing helmet-contact penalties. PMID:15085218

  1. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. PMID:27448519

  2. Helmet use among cyclists in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Zagnit, Emily A; Rajan, Sonali; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Charles E

    2014-10-01

    Lack of helmet use while bicycling can have deleterious effects on health. Despite evidence that helmets can greatly reduce the risk of head injury, the prevalence of helmet use among riders, including those in urban bicycle-share programs, has been shown to be very low. Building upon the authors' previous work, this study's aim was to assess prevalence of helmet use among cyclists riding on widely used New York City (NYC) bike lanes. Across a 2-month period, cyclists were filmed in five NYC locations with bike lanes. Filming took place at two separate time periods (recreation and commute) at each location. Helmet use was coded for each cyclist. A total of 1,921 riders were observed across 10 h. Overall, half (50.0 %) of all riders were observed wearing a helmet. Rates of using a helmet were consistent across all five locations. In addition, only 21.7 % of Citi Bike users and 15.3 % of other bicycle rentals were observed wearing helmets while cycling. The prevalence of helmet use was significantly higher among males than females (z = 4.48, p < .001). Cyclists observed during the recreational time period were also less likely than those observed during the commuting time period to be wearing a helmet (z = 7.17, p < .001). The results of this study contribute to the growing literature about cyclist helmet use in urban areas. PMID:24532308

  3. Eurofighter helmet-mounted display: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Stephen J.; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the Eurofighter/Typhoon combat aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the design solutions, as well as details of the development program status. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth applications.

  4. Children and cycle helmets: the case for.

    PubMed

    Sibert, J R

    1996-03-01

    The question of cycle helmets for children should be an easy one for society to decide upon. There is good experimental evidence from case control studies that they help prevent injuries (Thompson, Rivara & Thompson 1989; Spaite et al. 1991; McDermott et al. 1993; Malmaris et al. 1994; Thomas et al. 1994). Commonsense also suggests that they should be effective. So why has there been so much controversy? I suggest that there are three reasons for this. Many cyclists feel that their cycling is part of their personal freedom. They also feel that cycling, with the exercise that it gives, is healthy. Therefore, anything that cyclists see as discouraging people from taking exercise and enjoying personal freedom is wrong. Many cyclists view helmets as a major discouragement to cycling and therefore something to be opposed. There is also the mis-apprehension that each injury needs one preventive solution. Therefore, anyone who is for helmets is against bicycle lanes and separation of bicycles from traffic. This is not the case with other injuries that children receive. For instance, no one would seriously suggest that just because a house has a smoke alarm that there should be no flame-resistant upholstery. Neither would anyone seriously suggest that just because one has traffic calming there should be no additional work carried out against drivers who consume too much alcohol. There is also the mistaken belief that any injury control solution should be completely effective. No one expects seat belts to completely stop injuries to car passengers, so why should be expect helmets to completely prevent cycle injuries. We have personal experience in the difficulties experienced during cycle helmet campaigns in our work in Wales. We used cycle helmets as our first campaign in our Safe Child Penarth initiative (Kemp, Gibbs & Silbert 1994). However, every time we published a piece in the local paper we had letters from Penarth cyclists saying that helmets were unnecessary. These

  5. Equilibrium and Stability of Coronal Helmet Streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, Vyacheslav Sergeevich

    1997-05-01

    Equilibrium states and stability of partially open magentic field structures in the solar corona are studied. Soft X-ray observations of the birth and evolution of a giant coronal helmet streamer suggest that the energy source responsible for the X-ray manifestation of the structure is most probably located in the lower corona. The downward heat flux is the indication that a significant part of the source's energy is transported to the top of the structure and converted there to a disposable form. It is shown that by applying the thermodynamic equilibrium model of the corona to the two-dimensional X-ray data it is possible to reconstruct the three-dimensional form of the coronal helmet. The general significance of the projective geometry effects for the observation of the solar corona is discussed. The hypothesis of thermal pressure increase as the cause of the observed helmet expansion is verified numerically. It is shown that in the solar corona a relatively small variations of the pressure distribution in the closed field region can cause huge variations in the geometry of a coronal helmet streamer. Numerical simulations of the morphology and energy accumulation in helmet-like structures subject to photospheric shear motion show that the magnetic field surrounding a partially open structure can inhibit catastrophic expansion of the structure as its energy grows. Stability of a coronal streamer in the framework of the neutral current sheet model is studied theoretically. It is shown that effects of viscosity and the finite Larmor radius dominate effects of inertial fluid motion in the tearing mode instability of a neutral current sheet. Two new regimes of the instability are discovered. It is proven that in the solar corona the rates of growth of the neutral current sheet instability are much smaller than previously believed. Implications of the obtained results are discussed.

  6. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries. PMID:23531977

  7. A History of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

  8. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  9. College Football Games and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  10. Joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS) helmet qualification testing requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orf, Garry W.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) program will provide capability to cue high off-boresight (HOBS) weapons to the operator's line of sight and to confirm weapon sensor LOS for the US Air Force and US Navy (USN) aircrew. This capability will ensure the USAF and USN pilots a first shot opportunity. The JHMCS incorporates an ejection-compatible helmet-mounted display system that will be installed on F- 15, F-16, F/A-18, and F-22 aircraft. The JHMCS includes a flight helmet with display optics, miniature cathode ray tube, magnetic receiver unit, miniature camera, automatic brightness control sensor, and microcontroller. The flight helmet for JHMCS is based on the new lightweight HGU-55A/P. This paper describes the requirements for the helmet qualification tests including: windblast, ejection tower, hanging harness, centrifuge, mass properties, energy attenuation and penetration resistance, noise attenuation, visor characteristics, compatibility demonstration, sled/in- flight ejection, water survival, standard conditions and environment. The test objective, success criteria, equipment configuration, and data collection requirements for each test is discussed.

  11. The health impact of mandatory bicycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Piet

    2012-05-01

    This article seeks to answer the question whether mandatory bicycle helmet laws deliver a net societal health benefit. The question is addressed using a simple model. The model recognizes a single health benefit--reduced head injuries--and a single health cost-increased morbidity due to foregone exercise from reduced cycling. Using estimates suggested in the literature on the effectiveness of helmets, the health benefits of cycling, head injury rates, and reductions in cycling leads to the following conclusions. In jurisdictions where cycling is safe, a helmet law is likely to have a large unintended negative health impact. In jurisdictions where cycling is relatively unsafe, helmets will do little to make it safer and a helmet law, under relatively extreme assumptions, may make a small positive contribution to net societal health. The model serves to focus the mandatory bicycle helmet law debate on overall health. PMID:22462680

  12. Is helmet use beneficial to motorcyclists?

    PubMed

    Wagle, V G; Perkins, C; Vallera, A

    1993-01-01

    This study included 83 motorcyclists, helmeted and nonhelmeted, involved in crashes. All these patients were flown to a major trauma center in the Northeast (Hartford Hospital, Connecticut) directly from the scene by a helicopter ambulance service (LifeStar). The study showed that the majority of these patients were male and under the age of 30 years. Twenty-seven had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit. Sixty-nine percent were nonhelmeted and, statistically, a significant number in this category had a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or under. Cervical spine injuries were discovered in only six patients. Nine of the ten patients declared dead on arrival (DOA) were nonhelmeted. We conclude that helmets provide protection and certainly do not increase the incidence of cervical spine injuries. PMID:8437177

  13. Advanced rotorcraft helmet display sighting system optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynal, Francois; Chen, Muh-Fa

    2002-08-01

    Kaiser Electronics' Advanced Rotorcraft Helmet Display Sighting System is a Biocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) for Rotary Wing Aviators. Advanced Rotorcraft HMDs requires low head supported weight, low center of mass offsets, low peripheral obstructions of the visual field, large exit pupils, large eye relief, wide field of view (FOV), high resolution, low luning, sun light readability with high contrast and low prismatic deviations. Compliance with these safety, user acceptance and optical performance requirements is challenging. The optical design presented in this paper provides an excellent balance of these different and conflicting requirements. The Advanced Rotorcraft HMD optical design is a pupil forming off axis catadioptric system that incorporates a transmissive SXGA Active Matrix liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD), an LED array backlight and a diopter adjustment mechanism.

  14. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  15. A multifunctional helmet for noninvasive neuromonitoring.

    PubMed

    Litscher, G

    1998-04-01

    Simultaneous and continuous recording and processing of different noninvasive neuromonitoring parameters were carried out, including spontaneous and evoked bioelectrical brain activities obtained by new "active electrodes," transcranial Doppler sonographic measurements using robotic probes, a multiscan principle for three-dimensional transcranial Doppler imaging, and recording of near-infrared spectroscopic data. The recording and processing were carried out over periods of some hours with a new recording technique integrated in a helmet construction. PMID:9559771

  16. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  17. Simulation and flight trials of a simple helmet-mounted sight system incorporating an optical helmet tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Steven J.

    1999-07-01

    British Aerospace (BAe) have been involved in a number of Helmet Mounted Display programs over some twenty years. The continuing trials around the globe are indicative of the growing interest in Helmet Mounted Displays and recognition that today's Helmet Systems technology is becoming 'fit for purpose.' In 1997 BAe initiated a series of Simulation and Flight Trials of the latest Helmet System Technology for combat fixed wing aircraft. The focus of the R&D is to evaluate the Helmet System as an integrated part of the aircraft weapon system by establishing quantitative measures of operational performance. The comparison between different levels of sophistication of both aircraft integration and helmet capability in terms of the resultant operational performance will provide hard evidence to ensure that appropriate levels of Helmet System technology are matched to different platform capability. The basis of the 1997 trial was an assessment of the operational effectiveness of a simple Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS) system in short range air-to-air combat applicable to high off-boresight missiles such as ASRAAM and was carried out in a BAe Hawk 200 against Hawk target aircraft. Although Helmet Mounted Sights have been flight-tested in the past, the available information has generally been limited to the integration aspects and a qualitative assessment of the technology and less attention was paid towards a quantification of the system operational effectiveness. The 1997 program produced a strong foundation for assessing the cost-benefit of various capabilities of Helmet System planned for subsequent trials. The Flight Trial aircraft incorporated the Pilkington Optronics-Kentron GuardianTM Helmet Mounted Sight System and of particular interest, the Helmet System included the latest Optical Helmet Tracking System technology. The trials included an assessment of the Helmet System technology and specifically, the integration aspects and performance of the Optical Helmet

  18. Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alerting Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Proposed helicopter helmet mounted displays will be used to alert the pilot to a variety of conditions, from threats to equipment problems. The present research was performed under the NASA Safe All-weather Flight Operations Research (SAFOR) program supported by a joint Army/NASA research agreement. The purpose of the research was to examine ways to optimize the alerting effectiveness of helmet display symbology. The research used two approaches to increasing the effectiveness of alerts. One was to increase the ability of the alert to attract attention by using the entire display surface. The other was to include information about the required response in the alert itself. The investigation was conducted using the NASA Ames Research Center's six-degree-of-freedom vertical motion simulator (VMS) with a rotorcraft cockpit. Helmet display symbology was based on the AH-64's pilot night vision system (PNVS), cruise mode symbology. A standardized mission was developed, that consisted of 11 legs. The mission included four tasks, which allowed variation in the frequency of alerts. The general trend in the data points to a small benefit from both the full-screen alert and the partial information alert.

  19. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  20. Advanced helmet vision system (AHVS) integrated night vision helmet mounted display (HMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Todd W.; Atac, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Gentex Corporation, under contract to Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 4.0T), designed the Advanced Helmet Vision System to provide aircrew with 24-hour, visor-projected binocular night vision and HMD capability. AHVS integrates numerous key technologies, including high brightness Light Emitting Diode (LED)-based digital light engines, advanced lightweight optical materials and manufacturing processes, and innovations in graphics processing software. This paper reviews the current status of miniaturization and integration with the latest two-part Gentex modular helmet, highlights the lessons learned from previous AHVS phases, and discusses plans for qualification and flight testing.

  1. Measurement of Impact Acceleration: Mouthpiece Accelerometer Versus Helmet Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michael; Halstead, P. David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Barlow, David

    2007-01-01

    Context: Instrumented helmets have been used to estimate impact acceleration imparted to the head during helmet impacts. These instrumented helmets may not accurately measure the actual amount of acceleration experienced by the head due to factors such as helmet-to-head fit. Objective: To determine if an accelerometer attached to a mouthpiece (MP) provides a more accurate representation of headform center of gravity (HFCOG) acceleration during impact than does an accelerometer attached to a helmet fitted on the headform. Design: Single-factor research design in which the independent variable was accelerometer position (HFCOG, helmet, MP) and the dependent variables were g and Severity Index (SI). Setting: Independent impact research laboratory. Intervention(s): The helmeted headform was dropped (n = 168) using a National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) drop system from the standard heights and impact sites according to NOCSAE test standards. Peak g and SI were measured for each accelerometer position during impact. Main Outcome Measures: Upon impact, the peak g and SI were recorded for each accelerometer location. Results: Strong relationships were noted for HFCOG and MP measures, and significant differences were seen between HFCOG and helmet g measures and HFCOG and helmet SI measures. No statistically significant differences were noted between HFCOG and MP g and SI measures. Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between HFCOG and MP measures but not between HFCOG and helmet measures. Conclusions: Upon impact, MP acceleration (g) and SI measurements were closely related to and more accurate in measuring HFCOG g and SI than helmet measurements. The MP accelerometer is a valid method for measuring head acceleration. PMID:17597937

  2. Racial Discrimination in College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jones A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study investigating racial discrimination in college football. In particular, the study focuses on the concept of stacking, which is the disproportional allocation of players to central and noncentral team positions based on race or ethnicity. (RKM)

  3. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  4. One-piece transparent shell improves design of helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Okane, J. H.

    1966-01-01

    One-piece transparent helmet shell made of polycarbonate is equipped with a helmet protection pad, a visor assembly, a communications skull cap, and an emergency oxygen supply. This design offers improvements over previous designs in weight, visual field, comfort and protection.

  5. Adaptive sensor array algorithm for structural health monitoring of helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Wu, Nan; Sun, Kai; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-04-01

    The adaptive neural network is a standard technique used in nonlinear system estimation and learning applications for dynamic models. In this paper, we introduced an adaptive sensor fusion algorithm for a helmet structure health monitoring system. The helmet structure health monitoring system is used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull. Installed inside the helmet system, there is an optical fiber pressure sensors array. After implementing the adaptive estimation algorithm into helmet system, a dynamic model for the sensor array has been developed. The dynamic response characteristics of the sensor network are estimated from the pressure data by applying an adaptive control algorithm using artificial neural network. With the estimated parameters and position data from the dynamic model, the pressure distribution of the whole helmet can be calculated following the Bazier Surface interpolation method. The distribution pattern inside the helmet will be very helpful for improving helmet design to provide better protection to soldiers from head injuries.

  6. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011). Two... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the...

  7. The Effect of Bicycle Helmet Legislation on Bicycling Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darren; Rutner, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    A number of states passed legislation in the 1990s requiring youths to wear helmets when riding bicycles. The effect of this legislation on bicycling fatalities is examined by subjecting data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System to a panel analysis, using a control-group methodology. A helmet law reduces fatalities by about 15 percent in…

  8. Helmet-Mounted Visual Display For Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony M.

    1990-01-01

    Helmet-mounted visual display system provides pilot with broad range of visual information for flight simulation. Offers nearly unlimited field of regard. Optical fibers transmit wide-angle images in response to motions of head. Two "pancake" lenses mounted on lightweight helmet. Cable of optical fibers carries images to each lens. "Light-valve" projectors deliver computer-generated binocular images to cables.

  9. Helmet CPAP versus Oxygen Therapy in Hypoxemic Acute Respiratory Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuwen; Luo, Yan; Li, Yun; Zhou, Luqian; Zhu, Zhe; Chen, Yitai; Huang, Yuxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) remains unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to critically review studies that investigated the effect of helmet CPAP on gas exchange, mortality, and intubation rate in comparison with standard oxygen therapy. Materials and Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by searching the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, OVID, and CBM databases, and the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. Studies that enrolled adults with hARF who were treated with helmet CPAP and measured at least one of the following parameters were included: gas exchange, intubation rate, in-hospital mortality rate. Results Four studies with 377 subjects met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Compared to the standard oxygen therapy, helmet CPAP significantly increased the PaO2/FiO2 [weighted mean difference (WMD)=73.40, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 43.92 to 102.87, p<0.00001], and decreased the arterial carbon dioxide levels (WMD=-1.92, 95% CI: -3.21 to -0.63, p=0.003), intubation rate [relative risk (RR)=0.21, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.40, p<0.00001], and in-hospital mortality rate (RR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.50, p=0.0004). Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest that helmet CPAP improves oxygenation and reduces mortality and intubation rates in hARF. However, the significant clinical and statistical heterogeneity of the literature implies that large RCTs are needed to determine the role of helmet CPAP in different hypoxemic ARF populations. PMID:27189288

  10. Use of external orthotic helmet therapy in positional plagiocephaly.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joyce P K; Mallitt, Kylie-Ann; Jacobson, Erica; Reddy, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Positional plagiocephaly is the most common type of cranial asymmetry affecting infants. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in treating positional plagiocephaly in infants under the age of 1year. This retrospective review was conducted in an Australian paediatric hospital and included 171 patients recruited from outpatient clinics. Only 30 patients had positional plagiocephaly scores recorded at first and final consultations while 39 patients had diagonal measurements recorded at both visits. The mean age was 7.38months at initial consultation with a mean follow-up duration of 5.85months. Those who had helmet therapy had a significantly greater reduction in diagonal difference than those who did not use helmets (p=0.011). Therefore, there may be a role for helmet therapy in the treatment of severe positional plagiocephaly. PMID:26947339

  11. A system for quantifying the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Reid, J; Wang, E L

    2000-08-01

    This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998. PMID:11036573

  12. Qualification of the scorpion helmet cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atac, Robert; Bugno, Tony

    2011-06-01

    Gentex Corporation won the Helmet Mounted Integrated Targeting (HMIT) contract with the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve in May 2010 along with Raytheon Technical Services Corporation as the prime contractor. The HMIT program involves qualification and installation of the Scorpion HMCS Color HMD in both the A-10C and F-16C Block 30 aircraft types. Qualification tests include all aspects from ejection safety, to NVG and pilot compatibility as well as performance testing. This paper will review the qualification testing results and program status along with any lessons learned.

  13. 'Thoroughly Good Football': Teachers and the Origins of Elementary School Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerrigan, Colm

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of elementary school soccer (football), addressing topics such as: the role of public schools in organized soccer, soccer in elementary schools, the first schoolboy soccer association, South London Schools' Football Association, the London Schools' Football Association, and the English Schools' Football Association. (CMK)

  14. Middle School Students and Bicycle Helmet Use: Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Morissette, Brenda; Noland, Virginia; McDermott, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding bicycle helmet use. Surveys indicated that most rode bicycles but did not use helmets, despite understanding their protective capabilities, because of poor peer support and helmet design. There was a positive relationship between helmet ownership and use. Most…

  15. Promoting Use of Bicycle Helmets among Children: A School and Community-Based Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A community-wide and preschool bicycle helmet program was developed to educate the public about the importance of helmets for children and to offer helmets at reduced prices. Results of the project showed that education efforts in conjunction with an incentive component led to increases in the purchasing of helmets. (SM)

  16. Disruption of Helmet Streamers by Current Emergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, W. P.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamic response of a coronal helmet streamer to the emergence from below of a current with its magnetic field in a direction opposite to the overlying streamer field. Once the emerging current moves into the closed region of the streamer, a current sheet forms between the emerging field and the streamer field, because the preexisting field and the newly emerging field have opposite polarities. Thus magnetic reconnection will occur at the flanks of the emerged structure where the current density is maximum. If the emerging current is large enough, the energy contained in the current and the reconnection will promptly disrupt the streamer. If the emerging current is small, the streamer will experience a stage of slow evolution. In this stage, slow magnetic reconnection occurring at the flanks of the emerged structure leads to the degeneration of the emerged current to a neutral point. Above this point, a new magnetic bubble will form. The resulting configuration resembles an inverse-polarity prominence. Depending on the initial input energy of the current, the resulting structure will either remain in situ, forming a quasi-static structure, or move upward, forming a coronal transient similar to coronal jets. The numerical method used in this paper can be used to construct helmet streamers containing a detached magnetic structure in their closed field region. The quasi-static solution may serve as a preevent corona for studying coronal mass ejection initiation.

  17. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  18. What Research Tells the Coach About Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Roderick R.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…

  19. Human factor requirements of helmet trackers for HMDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Gary L.; Havig, Paul R.; Post, David L.; Reis, George A.; Simpson, Matthew A.

    2003-09-01

    A helmet tracker is a critical element in the path that delivers targeting and other sensor data to the user of a helmet-mounted display (HMD) in a military aircraft. The original purpose of an HMD was to serve as a helmet-mounted sight and provide a means to fully utilize the capabilities of off-boresight munitions. Recently, the role of the HMD has evolved from being strictly a targeting tool to providing detailed flight path and situation awareness information. These changes, however, have placed even greater value on the visual information that is transferred through the helmet tracker to the HMD. Specifically, the timeliness and accuracy of the information, which is of critical importance when the HMD is used as a targeting aid, is of even greater importance when the HMD is used to display flight reference information. This is especially relevant since it has been proposed to build new military aircraft without a physical head-up display (HUD) and display HUD information virtually with an HMD. In this paper, we review the current state of helmet tracker technology with respect to use in military aviation. We also identify the parameters of helmet trackers that offer the greatest risk when using an HMD to provide information beyond targeting data to the user. Finally, we discuss the human factors limitations of helmet tracker systems for delivering both targeting and flight reference information to a military pilot.

  20. Heat loss variations of full-face motorcycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, C P; Brühwiler, P A

    2009-03-01

    Heat loss of 27 full-face motorcycle helmets was studied using a thermal manikin headform. The headform was electrically heated and positioned at the exit of a wind tunnel, so that the air stream flowed onto its front side. All helmets were measured in three sessions in which all the vents were opened or closed consecutively in random order. Average heat loss was calculated from a steady state period, under controlled environmental conditions of 22+/-0.05 degrees C, 50+/-1% RH and 50.4+/-1.1 km h(-1) (14.0+/-0.3 ms(-1)) wind speed. The results show large variations in heat loss among the different helmets, ranging from 0 to 4 W for the scalp section of the headform and 8 to 18 W for the face section of the headform. Opening all the vents showed an increase in heat loss of more than 1 W (2 W) for four (two) helmets in the scalp section and six (one) helmets in the face section. These levels of heat transfer have been shown to be the thresholds for human sensitivity in scalp and face sections. Furthermore, helmet construction features which could be identified as important for heat loss of motorcycle helmets were identified. PMID:18452890

  1. Kicking the Football?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  2. Airway Preparation Techniques for the Cervical Spine-Injured Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Richard; Luchies, Carl; Bazuin, Doug; Farrell, Robert N.

    1995-01-01

    Athletic health care professionals have been concerned about how to optimize the emergency care the cervical spine-injured football player receives on the field. Much of the discussion has centered on how to best expose and prepare the airway for rescue breathing in the quickest and safest manner possible. This study compared the time required and the extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine during three traditional and one new airway exposure and preparation technique. Twelve subjects wearing football helmets and shoulder pads were exposed to multiple trials of airway exposure via face mask repositioning using a manual screwdriver, power screwdriver, and the Trainer's Angel cutting device. Subjects also underwent airway preparation using the pocket mask insertion technique. Cervical spine motion was measured in two dimensions using an optoelectronic motion analysis system. Time and qualitative assessment were obtained through videotape analysis. Significant differences were found between the techniques with respect to time and cervical spine motion. The pocket mask allowed quicker activation of rescue breathing than the other three traditional techniques. There was no significant difference in the amount of extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine between the pocket mask, manual screwdriver, and power screwdriver techniques. The Trainer's Angel induced significantly more motion than the other three techniques in each of the four motions measured. Changes in traditional protocols used to treat cervical spine-injured football players on the field are recommended based on these data. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2. PMID:16558339

  3. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072

  4. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072

  5. Optimization of injury prevention outreach for helmet safety.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christy; Drake, Christiana; Dang, Michelle; Le-Hinds, Nho

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention initiatives are an effective strategy to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality, but resource constraints can limit hospital-based prevention programs' capacity for carrying out such initiatives. Partnerships that leverage hospital leadership roles and promote collaborative outreach may provide a less resource-intensive means to expand prevention program capacity. One hospital piloted a collaborative helmet safety initiative, partnering with a nursing school and a local school district. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the resulting student nurse-administered school helmet safety program in improving use, knowledge, and attitudes toward helmets among school-age children. PMID:24828777

  6. Archaeometallurgical characterization of the earliest European metal helmets

    PubMed Central

    Mödlinger, Marianne; Piccardo, Paolo; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Kovács, Imre; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Zoltán; Káli, György; Szilágyi, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Archaeometric analyses on conical and decorated cap helmets from the Bronze Age are presented. The helmets are dated to the 14–12th century BC according to associated finds in hoards. Alloy composition, material structure and manufacturing processes are determined and shed light on the earliest development of weaponry production in Central and Eastern Europe. Analyses were carried out using light and dark field microscopy, SEM–EDXS, PIXE, TOF-ND and PGAA. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process, the differences between the cap of the helmets and their knobs (i.e. alloy composition) and the joining technique of the two parts. PMID:26523114

  7. Factors associated with bicycle helmet use among young adolescents in a multinational sample

    PubMed Central

    Klein, K; Thompson, D; Scheidt, P; Overpeck, M; Gross, L; the, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors associated with variation in bicycle helmet use by youth of different industrialized countries. Design: A multinational cross sectional nationally representative survey of health behaviors including symptoms, risk taking, school setting, and family context. Setting: School based survey of 26 countries. Subjects: School students, ages 11, 13, and 15 years totaling 112 843. Outcome measures: Reported frequency of bicycle helmet use among bicycle riders. Results: Reported helmet use varied greatly by country from 39.2% to 1.9%, with 12 countries reporting less than 10% of the bicycle riders as frequent helmet users and 14 countries more than 10%. Reported helmet use was highest at 11 years and decreased as children's age increased. Use was positively associated with other healthy behaviors, with parental involvement, and with per capita gross domestic product of the country. It is negatively associated with risk taking behaviors. Countries reported to have interventions promoting helmet use, exemplified by helmet giveaway programmes, had greater frequency of reported helmet use than those without programmes. Conclusions: Bicycle helmet use among young adolescents varies greatly between countries; however, helmet use does not reach 50% in any country. Age is the most significant individual factor associated with helmet for helmet using countries. The observation that some helmet promotion programmes are reported for countries with relatively higher student helmet use and no programmes reported for the lowest helmet use countries, suggests the possibility of a relation and the need for objective evaluation of programme effectiveness. PMID:16203837

  8. A history of helmet mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James

    2015-05-01

    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  9. 21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. Effect of legislation on the use of bicycle helmets

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, John C.; Beattie, Tricia L.; Culligan, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Background About 50 Canadian children and adolescents die each year from bicycle-related injuries, and 75% of all bicycle-related deaths are due to head injuries. Although the use of helmets can reduce the risk of head injury by 85%, the rate of voluntary helmet use continues to be low in many North American jurisdictions. We measured compliance before, during and after 1997, when legislation making the use of helmets mandatory for cyclists was enacted in Nova Scotia. Methods In the summers and autumns of 1995 through 1999, trained observers who had a direct view of oncoming bicycle traffic recorded helmet use, sex and age group of cyclists in Halifax on arterial, residential and recreational roads. Sampling was done during peak traffic times of sunny days. We abstracted data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database on bicycle-related injuries treated during the same period at the Emergency Department of the IWK Health Centre, Halifax. Results The rate of helmet use rose dramatically after legislation was enacted, from 36% in 1995 and 38% in 1996, to 75% in 1997, 86% in 1998 and 84% in 1999. The proportion of injured cyclists with head injuries in 1998/99 was half that in 1995/96 (7/443 [1.6%] v. 15/416 [3.6%]) (p = 0.06). Police carried out regular education and enforcement. There were no helmet-promoting mass media education campaigns after 1997. Interpretation: Rates of helmet use rose rapidly following the introduction of legislation mandating the use of helmets while bicycling. The increased rates were sustained for 2 years afterward, with regular education and enforcement by police. PMID:11898937

  11. Using social marketing to increase the use of helmets among bicyclists.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Timothy D; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n=15) as peer agents. These agents provided bicycle helmet information and asked fellow bicyclists to sign a pledge card to wear a helmet. They gave a coupon for a free helmet to those who pledged to wear a helmet. The authors received a total of 379 pledge cards and distributed 259 helmets. Bicycle helmet use rose from a baseline mean of 27.6% to a mean of 49.3% by the last week of the intervention. PMID:16050328

  12. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurjewicz, Laryssa; Berndt, Anita

    2007-03-15

    The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm{sup 3} thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm{sup 2}) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements.

  13. Measuring compliance with Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport. PMID:22849321

  14. Head impact exposure in youth football: high school ages 14 to 18 years and cumulative impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Golman, Adam J; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-12-01

    Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact exposure in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact exposure was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact exposure metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative exposure for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative exposure. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted exposure based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact exposure of

  15. The Assessment of Airway Maneuvers and Interventions in University Canadian Football, Ice Hockey, and Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, J. Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Baylis, Penny-Jane; Troutman, Tracy; Aljufaili, Mahmood; Correa, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Managing an airway in an unconscious athlete is a lifesaving skill that may be made more difficult by the recent changes in protective equipment. Different airway maneuvers and techniques may be required to help ventilate an unconscious athlete who is wearing full protective equipment. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of different airway maneuvers with football, ice hockey, and soccer players wearing full protective equipment. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University sports medicine clinic. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 146 university varsity athletes, consisting of 62 football, 45 ice hockey, and 39 soccer players. Intervention(s): Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three investigators then evaluated the effectiveness of different bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation techniques in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while inline cervical spine immobilization was maintained. Main Outcome Measure(s): The effectiveness of 1-person BVM ventilation (1-BVM), 2-person BVM ventilation (2-BVM), and inline immobilization and ventilation (IIV) was judged by each investigator for each athlete using a 4-point rating scale. Results: All forms of ventilation were least difficult in soccer players and most difficult in football players. When compared with 1-BVM, both 2-BVM and IIV were deemed more effective by all investigators for all athletes. Interference from the helmet and stabilizer were common reasons for difficult ventilation in football and ice hockey players. Conclusions: Sports medicine professionals should practice and be comfortable with different ventilation techniques for athletes wearing full equipment. The use of a new ventilation technique, termed inline immobilization and ventilation, may be beneficial, especially when the number of responders is limited. PMID:21391796

  16. Effect of an aerodynamic helmet on head temperature, core temperature, and cycling power compared with a traditional helmet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua F; Brown, Skyler R; Lange, Andrew P; Brothers, R Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Nonvented "aerodynamic helmets" reduce wind resistance but may increase head (Th) and gastrointestinal (Tgi) temperature and reduce performance when worn in hot conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that Th and Tgi would be greater during low-intensity cycling (LIC) in the heat while wearing an aero helmet (AERO) vs. a traditional vented racing helmet (REG). This study also tested the hypothesis that Th, Tgi, and finish time would be greater, and power output would be reduced during a self-paced time trial in the heat with AERO vs. REG. Ten highly trained heat-acclimated endurance athletes conducted LIC (50% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LIC) and a high-intensity 12-km self-paced time trial (12-km TT) on a cycle ergometer in 39° C on 2 different days (AERO and REG), separated by >48 hours. During LIC, Th was higher at minute 7.5 and all time points thereafter in AERO vs. REG (p < 0.05). Similarly, during the 12-km TT, Th was higher at minutes 12.5, 15, and 17.5 in AERO vs. REG (p < 0.05). Heart rate (HR) and Tgi increased during LIC and during 12-km TT (both p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction (helmet × time) existed for HR or Tgi at either intensity (all p > 0.05). No group differences existed for finish time or power output during the 12-km TT (both p > 0.05). In conclusion, Th becomes elevated during cycling in the heat with an aero helmet compared with a traditional vented racing helmet during LIC and high-intensity cycling, yet Tgi and HR responses are similar irrespective of helmet type and Th. Furthermore, the higher Th that develops when an aero helmet is worn during cycling in the heat does not affect power output or cycling performance during short-duration high-intensity events. PMID:23539083

  17. Role of helmet in the mechanics of shock wave propagation under blast loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Ganpule, S; Gu, L; Alai, A; Chandra, N

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of helmets in extenuating the primary shock waves generated by the explosions of improvised explosive devices is not clearly understood. In this work, the role of helmet on the overpressurisation and impulse experienced by the head were examined. The shock wave-head interactions were studied under three different cases: (i) unprotected head, (ii) head with helmet but with varying head-helmet gaps and (iii) head covered with helmet and tightly fitting foam pads. The intensification effect was discussed by examining the shock wave flow pattern and verified with experiments. A helmet with a better protection against shock wave is suggested. PMID:21806412

  18. Disinfection of football protective equipment using chlorine dioxide produced by the ICA TriNova system

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Anthony L; DuBois, John D; Tenney, Joel D

    2009-01-01

    Backround Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks have occurred in individuals engaged in athletic activities such as wrestling and football. Potential disease reduction interventions include the reduction or elimination of bacteria on common use items such as equipment. Chlorine dioxide has a long history of use as a disinfectant. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of novel portable chlorine dioxide generation devices to eliminate bacteria contamination of helmets and pads used by individuals engaged in football. Methods In field studies, the number of bacteria associated with heavily used football helmets and shoulder pads was determined before and after overnight treatment with chlorine dioxide gas. Bacteria were recovered using cotton swabs and plated onto trypticase soy agar plates. In laboratory studies, Staphylococcus aureus was applied directly to pads. The penetration of bacteria into the pads was determined by inoculating agar plates with portions of the pads taken from the different layers of padding. The ability to eliminate bacteria on the pad surface and underlying foam layers after treatment with chlorine dioxide was also determined. Results Rates of recovery of bacteria after treatment clearly demonstrated that chlorine dioxide significantly (p < 0.001) reduce and eliminated bacteria found on the surface of pads. For example, the soft surface of shoulder pads from a university averaged 2.7 × 103 recoverable bacteria colonies before chlorine dioxide treatment and 1.3 × 102 recoverable colonies after treatment. In addition, the gas was capable of penetrating the mesh surface layer and killing bacteria in the underlying foam pad layers. Here, 7 × 103 to 4.5 × 103 laboratory applied S. aureus colonies were recovered from underlying layers before treatment and 0 colonies were present after treatment. Both naturally occurring bacteria and S. aureus were susceptible to the treatment process

  19. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds. PMID:27077273

  20. Helmet slippage during visual tracking: the effect of voluntary head movements.

    PubMed

    Neary, C; Bate, I J; Heller, L F; Williams, M

    1993-07-01

    The influence of visual tracking on head movement and on the head/helmet system was investigated for two different helmets (a motorcycle helmet and a flying helmet) under static laboratory conditions. Subjects visually refixated between pairs of illuminated targets located at various horizontal (up to 160 degrees) and vertical (up to 90 degrees) distances apart while head position and helmet slippage were measured in azimuth, pitch, roll, X, Y, and Z using a double magnetic coil system. Results showed that for both helmets, root mean square (RMS) head movement increased with refixation distance, especially in the main axis of refixation, and that RMS helmet slippage can be a function of RMS head motion. Further, large individual differences in the degree of head motion were found. These findings may have implications for designers and investigators of helmet-mounted avionics. PMID:8357316

  1. 40° image intensifier tubes in an integrated helmet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, Herbert; Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Svedevall, B.

    1993-12-01

    EUROCOPTER has been under contract to the French and German ministries of defence for five years to develop the TIGER, a second generation anti-tank helicopter. A piloting thermal imager has been installed on a steerable platform in the helicopter nose in order to achieve the possibility of flying round the clock. In addition to this sensor, which is sensitive at a wavelength of 10 micrometers , the German side has proposed using an Integrated Helmet System in the PAH 2. This helmet, manufactured by GEC-Marconi Avionics, incorporates two cathode ray tubes (CRT) and two image intensifier tubes which allow the pilot to use an additional sensor in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The electronic part will be built by Teldix. EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND has received the first demonstrator of this helmet for testing in the EUROCOPTER Visionics Laboratory. Later, the C-prototype will be integrated into a BK 117 helicopter (AVT Avionik Versuchstrager). This new helmet has a field of view of 40 degree(s), and exit pupil of 15 mm and improved possibilities of adjusting the optical part. Laboratory tests have been carried out to test important parameters like optical resolution under low light level conditions, field of view, eye relief or exit pupil. The CRT channels have been tested for resolution, distortion, vignetting and homogeneity. The requirements and the properties of the helmet, test procedures and the results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  2. The Cognitive Pilot Helmet: enabling pilot-aware smart avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Thomas; Melzer, James E.; Robbins, Steve J.

    2009-05-01

    We hypothesize that human-aware helmet display systems can drastically improve situation awareness (SA), reduce workload, and become the cognitive gateway to two-way human-systems information. We designed a ruggedized prototype helmet liner that was fitted with active electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and pulse oxymetry sensor. This liner was integrated into a helmet that was fitted with a binocular SR-100A helmet mounted display. We modified the SR-100A to include dual-eye tracking capability. The resulting system is able to pick up physiological signals from the wearer in real-time for cognitive state characterization by the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS). We conducted a preliminary test of the cognitive state estimation system in a simulated close-air-support task in the laboratory and found that workload throughout the mission could be gauged using physiological parameters. Cognitively-linked helmet systems can increase situation awareness by metering the amount of information based on available cognitive bandwidth and eventually, we feel that they will be able to provide anticipatory information to the user by means of cognitive intent recognition. Considerable design challenges lie ahead to create robust models of cognitive state characterization and intent recognition. However, the rewards of such efforts could be systems that allow a dramatic increase in human decision making ability and productivity in dynamical complex situations such as air combat or surface warfare.

  3. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  4. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  6. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  8. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  9. Using Social Marketing to Increase the Use of Helmets among Bicyclists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n = 15) as…

  10. Impact of a Comprehensive Safety Program on Bicycle Helmet Use among Middle-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Van Houten, Joy; Malenfant, J. E. Louis

    2007-01-01

    A bicycle helmet program was evaluated in three middle schools using a multiple baseline across schools design. Two of the three schools had histories of enforcement of helmet use. During baseline many students riding their bikes to and from school did not wear their helmets or wore them incorrectly. A program that consisted of peer data…

  11. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  12. Angles of entry of ultraviolet radiation into welding helmets.

    PubMed

    Tenkate, T S; Collins, M J

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the angles of entry of ultraviolet (UV) radiation into welding helmets, a UV detector was placed in the eye socket of a head form that was then fitted with a range of welding helmets. The head form was exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation from various orientations, and the amount of infiltration was measured. Radiation was found to be reflected from the filter plate and into the detector (eye) after entering through (1) an opening between the edge of the shield and the side of the face, and (2) an opening between the top edge of the shield and the top of the head. These results have significance for UV exposure when welding is performed in highly reflective and enclosed situations, and for the design of welding helmets. PMID:9018838

  13. Measuring tactical behaviour in football.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, J; Maçãs, V

    2012-05-01

    The present study explored how football players' dynamic positional data can be used to assess tactical behaviour by measuring movement patterns and inter-player coordination. A pre post-test design was used to assess the effects of a 13-week constructivist and cognitivist training program by measuring behaviour in a 5 × 5 football small-sided game, played on a 60 × 40 m outdoor natural turf pitch. Data was captured at 5 Hz by GPS devices (SPI Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) and analysed with non-linear signal processing methods. Approximate entropy values were lower in post-test situations suggesting that these time series became more regular with increasing expertise in football. Relative phase post-test values showed frequent periods with a clear trend to moving in anti-phase, as measured by players' distance to the centre of the team. These advances may open new research topics under the tactical scope and allow narrowing the gap between sports sciences and sports coaching. PMID:22377947

  14. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  15. Effects of bicycle helmet laws on children's injuries.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Sara; Chatterji, Pinka

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states and localities in the USA have enacted bicycle helmet laws. We estimate the effects of these laws on injuries requiring emergency department treatment. Using hospital-level panel data and triple difference models, we find helmet laws are associated with reductions in bicycle-related head injuries among children. However, laws also are associated with decreases in non-head cycling injuries, as well as increases in head injuries from other wheeled sports. Thus, the observed reduction in bicycle-related head injuries may be due to reductions in bicycle riding induced by the laws. PMID:24115375

  16. Advanced helmet tracking technology developments for naval aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindle, James H.

    1996-06-01

    There is a critical need across the Services to improve the effectiveness of aircrew within the crewstation by capitalizing on the natural psycho-motor skills of the pilot through the use of a variety of helmet-mounted visual display and control techniques. This has resulted in considerable interest and significant ongoing research and development efforts on the part of the Navy, as well as the Army and the Air Force, in the technology building blocks associated with this area, such as advanced head position sensing or head tracking technologies, helmet- mounted display optics and electronics, and advanced night vision or image intensification technologies.

  17. Minimally Invasive Suturectomy and Postoperative Helmet Therapy : Advantages and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sangjoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226853

  18. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  19. Personality and Performance in Intercollegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…

  20. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  1. Teenagers' attitudes towards bicycle helmets three years after the introduction of mandatory wearing.

    PubMed Central

    Finch, C. F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND SETTING: To address helmet wearing by 13-17 year olds this study posed the following research questions: 'Do education programs continue to be necessary even after the community wearing rate has increased?' and 'Are helmet laws more effective in encouraging wearing among certain age groups?' Victoria was the first place in the world to introduce bicycle helmet legislation. Experiences in Victoria therefore provide a good model for the introduction of similar legislation in other areas. This study is the first to examine teenagers' attitudes towards helmet wearing after the introduction of compulsory helmet wearing legislation. METHODS: A survey of 1240 year 9 and year 10 students, aged 13-17 years, from 14 secondary schools in the outer south eastern suburbs of Melbourne, was conducted in September 1993. Information about bicycle use, helmet wearing, and attitudes towards helmets was obtained by a self report questionnaire. RESULTS: Bicycles are a popular form of wheeled recreation/self transport among teenagers. 65% of teenagers reported that they owned a helmet but only one third wore a helmet the last time they rode a bicycle. Fewer than 25% of students always wore a helmet when they rode a bicycle, despite compulsory helmet wearing legislation. Major factors leading to teenagers not wanting to wear a helmet were appearance and comfort. Both safety considerations and parental pressures were factors that influenced a teenager to wear a helmet. CONCLUSIONS: The major areas that need to be addressed are low helmet wearing rates; the low priority given to safety issues compared with comfort and peer acceptance; an ignorance of the need for helmets in all riding situations; and a perception that the legislation would not be enforced. PMID:9346076

  2. Traumatic brain injury risk while parachuting: comparison of the personnel armor system for ground troops helmet and the advanced combat helmet.

    PubMed

    Ivins, Brian J; Crowley, John S; Johnson, Jeffrey; Warden, Deborah L; Schwab, Karen A

    2008-12-01

    Military paratroopers are inherently at risk for a variety of injuries when they jump, including traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). U.S. Army paratroopers rely on their ballistic helmets for protection against TBIs when jumping. Currently, two different helmets are available to Army paratroopers, that is, the personnel armor system for ground troops helmet and the advanced combat helmet. This study compared the incidence of self-reported, jump-related TBIs in a small sample of paratroopers (N = 585) using each type of helmet. Data were obtained from surveys of soldiers at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The overall relative risk of sustaining a TBI while jumping was 2.3 times (95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.3) higher for personnel armor system for ground troops helmet users. Most of the increase in risk was accounted for by the most-minor TBIs (American Academy of Neurology grade 1 or 2 concussion). PMID:19149333

  3. The drag force on an American football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Robert G.; Moore, Gary

    2003-08-01

    We have measured the drag coefficient on an American football oriented so that its major axis is pointed directly into the wind. The football was suspended from the top of a wind tunnel by bicycle spokes attached to small bearings. The results are similar to the drag coefficients reported by Rouse (1946) for the case of an ellipsoid with major diameter/minor diameter similar to the length/diameter for the football. The drag coefficient for a spinning football is slightly lower than that for a nonspinning football. Both are in the range of 0.05-0.06, about half the value assumed by Brancazio (1985), about one-third that reported by Rae and Streit (2002) and far smaller than that reported by Cunningham and Dowell (1976).

  4. Complete rupture of the pancreas after a kick into the abdomen during a football match

    PubMed Central

    Papalampros, Alexandros; Fard-Aghaie, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Tina; Oldhafer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic injury is uncommon, accounting for less than 7% of penetrating and 5% of blunt abdominal trauma. Blunt isolated pancreatic trauma in football has been rarely described in the literature and its diagnosis, detection and treatment still remains a challenge. We report a case of a young adult with an isolated complete rupture of the pancreatic body due to a blunt abdominal trauma during a football game. In order to preserve the pancreas and therefore retain function, we performed a terminolateral pancreaticojejunostomy. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. The diagnosis of isolated injuries of the pancreas in blunt abdominal trauma can be difficult and challenging and due to the nature of the game physicians should be highly alerted when dealing with football players sustaining abdominal trauma. PMID:24891482

  5. Complete rupture of the pancreas after a kick into the abdomen during a football match.

    PubMed

    Papalampros, Alexandros; Fard-Aghaie, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Tina; Oldhafer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic injury is uncommon, accounting for less than 7% of penetrating and 5% of blunt abdominal trauma. Blunt isolated pancreatic trauma in football has been rarely described in the literature and its diagnosis, detection and treatment still remains a challenge. We report a case of a young adult with an isolated complete rupture of the pancreatic body due to a blunt abdominal trauma during a football game. In order to preserve the pancreas and therefore retain function, we performed a terminolateral pancreaticojejunostomy. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. The diagnosis of isolated injuries of the pancreas in blunt abdominal trauma can be difficult and challenging and due to the nature of the game physicians should be highly alerted when dealing with football players sustaining abdominal trauma. PMID:24891482

  6. Low-cost helmet-mounted camera/display system for field testing teleoperator tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Robert E.; Ikehara, Curtis S.; Merritt, John O.

    1992-06-01

    A low cost helmet-mounted stereoscopic color viewing system designed for field testing teleoperator tasks is described. A stereo camera pair was mounted on a helmet to allow testing of a helmet-mounted display with real time video input. The display consisted of a pair of LCD color monitors viewed through a modified Wheatstone mirror system. The components were arranged on a stable platform that was attached to a hard plastic helmet. The helmet weight (9.5 pounds) was supported by a modified backpack. This backpack also contained support electronics and batteries. Design, construction, and evaluation tests of this viewing system are discussed.

  7. The American Football Uniform: Uncompensable Heat Stress and Hyperthermic Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Johnson, Evan C.; Casa, Douglas J.; Ganio, Matthew S.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Yamamoto, Linda M.; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Emmanuel, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: In hot environments, the American football uniform predisposes athletes to exertional heat exhaustion or exercise-induced hyperthermia at the threshold for heat stroke (rectal temperature [Tre] > 39°C). Objective: To evaluate the differential effects of 2 American football uniform configurations on exercise, thermal, cardiovascular, hematologic, and perceptual responses in a hot, humid environment. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men with more than 3 years of competitive experience as football linemen (age  =  23.8 ± 4.3 years, height  =  183.9 ± 6.3 cm, mass  =  117.41 ± 12.59 kg, body fat  =  30.1% ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): Participants completed 3 controlled exercise protocols consisting of repetitive box lifting (lifting, carrying, and depositing a 20.4-kg box at a rate of 10 lifts per minute for 10 minutes), seated recovery (10 minutes), and up to 60 minutes of treadmill walking. They wore one of the following: a partial uniform (PART) that included the National Football League (NFL) uniform without a helmet and shoulder pads; a full uniform (FULL) that included the full NFL uniform; or control clothing (CON) that included socks, sneakers, and shorts. Exercise, meals, and hydration status were controlled. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed sweat rate, Tre, heart rate, blood pressure, treadmill exercise time, perceptual measurements, plasma volume, plasma lactate, plasma glucose, plasma osmolality, body mass, and fat mass. Results: During 19 of 30 experiments, participants halted exercise as a result of volitional exhaustion. Mean sweat rate, Tre, heart rate, and treadmill exercise time during the CON condition were different from those measures during the PART (P range, .04–.001; d range, 0.42–0.92) and FULL (P range, .04–.003; d range, 1.04–1.17) conditions; no differences were detected for perceptual measurements, plasma

  8. From childhood to senior professional football: elite youth players' engagement in non-football activities.

    PubMed

    Haugaasen, Mathias; Toering, Tynke; Jordet, Geir

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Despite the large amount of research available on how engagement in football practice relates to future performance level among football players, similar information about the contribution of non-football activities is scarce. Based on data from 745 elite youth players this study aimed to identify the characteristics and contribution of diverse participation towards elite youth and senior professional status. The data were collected using a retrospective questionnaire where the players reported the amount of time spent in other sports than football, in addition to their perceived contribution of different non-football activities for developing football skills. The accumulated hours of time spent in other sports of players who had obtained a senior professional contract were compared to non-professional players, using multilevel modelling (n = 558), while a t-test compared the activity ratings to each other. No significant differences were identified between professional and non-professional players' engagement history, but overall, the players rated sports similar to football to be significantly more relevant for developing football skills than other sports. The results suggests that spending time in non-football activities did not contribute to present differences in performance attainment in football, but also that potential advantages of such activities may be related to their characteristics. PMID:25357261

  9. Low-cost color LCD helmet display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost color display incorporating see-through optics. A full field-of-regard visual presentation was to be provided through the use of a head-tracker system and the HMD was to be suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers. The color imaging devices selected for the project are commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The LCDs are 3.0 inch (diagonal) thin film transistor (TFT) types using a delta format for the red, green, blue (RGB) matrix. Fiber optic light panels mounted behind the LCDs provide a cool light source of greater than 3400 foot-lamberts (ft-L). Approximately 3 percent of the applied light source is emitted by the LCD image source. The video displayed is in a 3:4 format representing a 30 degree(s) vertical by 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) visual image from a graphic image generation system and is controlled in a full field of regard based on positional information from a head-tracker system. The optical elements of the HMD are designed as an exit pupil forming, see-through system and require the eye to be in a 15 mm volume for viewing the scene. The beam splitting function of the optics allows the user to see through the optics for reading cockpit instrumentation, while viewing outside the cockpit reveals the out-the-window (OTW) scene. The optic design allows for the IFOV to be displayed through a set of field lens, relay lens, folding mirror, beam splitter and spherical mirror system. The beam splitters and spherical mirrors for both optical paths are coated for approximately 50 percent transmission and reflectance. This approach, combined with the losses through the rest of the optical path, provides a theoretical maximum of 10.9 percent of the LCD image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for a full white scene have measured at approximately 11 ft-L.

  10. Identifying psychological and socio-economic factors affecting motorcycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Haqverdi, Mahdi Quchaniyan; Seyedabrishami, Seyedehsan; Groeger, John A

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of motorcyclist fatalities in traffic accidents of Iran are due to head injuries, but helmet use is low, despite it being a legal requirement. This study used face-to-face interviews to investigate the factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle riders in Mashhad city, the second largest city in Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data reduction and identification of consistent features of the data. Ordered and multinomial logit analyses were used to quantify the influences on helmet use and non-use. The data show that 47% of the sample used a helmet, but a substantial proportion of these did not wear their helmet properly. In addition, 5% of motorcyclists believed that helmets reduced their safety. Norms, attitudes toward helmet use, risky traffic behavior and awareness of traffic rules were found to be the key determinants of helmet use, but perceptions of enforcement lacked influence. Duration of daily motorcycle trips, riding experience and type of job also affected helmet use. Results indicate that motorcyclist training, safety courses for offending motorcyclists and social programs to improve social norms and attitudes regarding helmet use are warranted, as are more effective law enforcement techniques, in order to increase proper use of helmets in Iranian motorcyclists. In addition, special safety courses should be considered for motorcyclists who have committed traffic violations. PMID:26410724

  11. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. PMID:25039407

  12. Controlled Laboratory Comparison Study of Motion With Football Equipment in a Destabilized Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; DiPaola, Matthew J.; DiPaola, Christian P.; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Conrad, Bryan P.; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that there are better alternatives to log rolling patients with unstable spinal injuries, although this method is still commonly used for placing patients onto a spine board. No previous studies have examined transfer maneuvers involving an injured football player with equipment in place onto a spine board. Purpose To test 3 different transfer maneuvers of an injured football player onto a spine board to determine which method most effectively minimizes spinal motion in an injured cervical spine model. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Five whole, lightly embalmed cadavers were fitted with shoulder pads and helmets and tested both before and after global instability was surgically created at C5-C6. An electromagnetic motion analysis device was used to assess the amount of angular and linear motion with sensors placed above and below the injured segment during transfer. Spine-boarding techniques evaluated were the log roll, the lift and slide, and the 8-person lift. Results The 8-person lift technique resulted in the least amount of angular and linear motion for all planes tested as compared with the lift-and-slide and log-roll techniques. This reached statistical significance for lateral bending (P = .031) and medial-lateral translation (P = .030) when compared with the log-roll maneuver. The lift-and-slide technique was significantly more effective at reducing motion than the log roll for axial rotation (P = .029) and lateral bending (P = .006). Conclusion The log roll resulted in the most motion at an unstable cervical injury as compared with the other 2 spine-boarding techniques examined. The 8-person lift and lift-and-slide techniques may both be more effective than the log roll at reducing unwanted cervical spine motion when spine boarding an injured football player. Reduction of such motion is critical in the prevention of iatrogenic injury. PMID:26535397

  13. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  14. Oronasal mask versus helmet in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Lara; Mega, Chiara; Vaschetto, Rosanna; Bellone, Andrea; Scala, Raffaele; Cosentini, Roberto; Musti, Muriel; Del Forno, Manuela; Grassi, Mario; Fasano, Luca; Navalesi, Paolo; Nava, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    The choice of the interface for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a key factor in NIV success. We hypothesised that a new helmet specifically design to improve performance in hypercapnic patients would be clinically equivalent to a standard oronasal mask. In a multicentre, short-term, physiological, randomised trial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients facing an acute hypercapnic respiratory failure episode, we compared the changes in arterial blood gases (ABGs) and tolerance score obtained using the helmet or mask, and, as secondary end-points, dyspnoea, vital signs, early NIV discontinuation and rate of intubation. 80 patients were randomly assigned to receive NIV either with the helmet (n=39) or mask (n=41), using an intensive care unit ventilator. Compared with baseline, in the first 6 h, NIV improved ABGs, dyspnoea and respiratory rate (p<0.05) in both groups. Changes in ABGs and discomfort were similar with the two groups, while dyspnoea decreased more (p<0.005) using the mask. The rate of intubation and the need for interface change during the whole period of NIV were very low and not different between groups. The new helmet may be a valid alternative to a mask in improving ABGs and achieving a good tolerance during an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. PMID:25504992

  15. Mandatory helmet legislation and the print media in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Ngo, Anh D; Khuong, Tuan A; Dao, Huong L; Hoang, Hanh T M; Trinh, Hang T; Nguyen, Lien T N; Nguyen, Phong H

    2009-07-01

    With motorcycle ownership high and rising in Viet Nam, and motorcycle riders vulnerable to both fatal and non-fatal injury, the re-introduction of mandatory helmet legislation in 2007 has been a priority for the Vietnamese government. The paper uses a qualitative analysis of web-based versions of the eight most popular newspapers in Viet Nam to track reporting over four phases of the implementation of the legislation, identifying codes and constructing the dominant themes of the media coverage. The study documents the justification and promotion of the legislation, and the mechanisms for preparing for its implementation at a national and local level, developing solutions and encouraging the replication of successful strategies. It records opposition and obstacles to helmet use, and concerns raised around the quality of helmets purchased. In return, the press notes the response of the market in innovative solutions to these problems. With the successful implementation of the legislation, the functions of the print media in promulgating and promoting the legislation, together with the reporting of ongoing resistance to the process, serve to enable a dialogue between the State and population around expressed concerns. In highlighting quality control of helmets as a key issue, the media have identified a potential ongoing role in monitoring the state's initiative in reducing the road toll from traumatic brain injury in motorcyclists. PMID:19540968

  16. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. 571.218 Section 571.218 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards §...

  17. Comfortable, lightweight safety helmet holds radio transmitter, receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, N. D.

    1964-01-01

    For two-way radio communication where safety gear is required, a lightweight helmet with few protrusions has been designed. The electronics components and power supply are mounted between the inner and outer shells, and resilient padding is used for the lining.

  18. Helmet-Mounted Display Symbology and Stabilization Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, sensor, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information and to view sensor images while looking off boresight.

  19. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.218 Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. S1. Scope. This standard... destroy it and replace it.” (4) Any additional relevant safety information should be applied at the...

  20. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  1. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... procedures for better enforcement of the performance requirements. \\9\\ 73 FR 57297, Docket NHTSA-2008-0157... performance requirements for motorcycle helmets to reduce traumatic brain injury and other types of head... the 1997 Levels 2. Motorcyclist Head Injuries 3. NHTSA's Comprehensive Motorcycle Safety Plan and...

  2. Effectiveness of headgear in football

    PubMed Central

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Wonnacott, M; Dvorak, J; Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has an effect on head impact responses. Methods: Controlled laboratory tests were conducted with a human volunteer and surrogate head/neck system. The impact attenuation of three commercial headgears during ball impact speeds of 6–30 m/s and in head to head contact with a closing speed of 2–5 m/s was quantified. The human subject, instrumented to measure linear and angular head accelerations, was exposed to low severity impacts during heading in the unprotected and protected states. High severity heading contact and head to head impacts were studied with a biofidelic surrogate headform instrumented to measure linear and angular head responses. Subject and surrogate responses were compared with published injury assessment functions associated with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Results: For ball impacts, none of the headgear provided attenuation over the full range of impact speeds. Head responses with or without headgear were not significantly different (p>0.05) and remained well below levels associated with MTBI. In head to head impact tests the headgear provided an overall 33% reduction in impact response. Conclusion: The football headgear models tested did not provide benefit during ball impact. This is probably because of the large amount of ball deformation relative to headband thickness. However, the headgear provided measurable benefit during head to head impacts. PMID:16046355

  3. Evaluation of evaporative heat transfer characteristics of helmets.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Holmér, I

    1997-05-01

    The prime purpose of a safety helmet is to protect against occupational hazards. However, thermal comfort is one important ergonomics requirement for a helmet to be accepted by its wearer. To design and manufacture a thermally comfortable helmet, a method for testing and evaluating the thermal properties is essential. Research has long focused on the evaluation of dry heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation). Evaporative heat transfer was not much addressed. In order to analyze the wet heat transfer (evaporation) component, a sweating thermal head manikin has been used. In this study the method has been further improved by constructing a new sweating head manikin. The surface of the head manikin is divided into five zones which can provide more detailed information about the environmental effects on the heat transfer from the head when a helmet is worn. Water supply (simulated sweating) is also improved by use of an electronic pumping system which provides a steady and adjustable flow rate of water to the head manikin. Experiments were conducted within a climatic chamber with this improved method under different test conditions: the ambient temperature and the head manikin surface temperature are set at the same level: 34 +/- 0.5 degrees C; two levels of head surface wettedness: 0.44 and 1.0; two levels of ambient humidity: 30% and 60%; and two levels of wind speed: 0.4 m/s and 1.0 m/s. Seven different helmets were used in the experiments. The results showed that the improved method revealed more detailed information about the evaporative heat transfer; it is easier to use and control; less error is involved with the measurement. PMID:9230523

  4. The polygenic profile of Russian football players.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Emiliya S; Borisova, Alyona V; Mustafina, Leysan J; Arkhipova, Alina A; Gabbasov, Rashid T; Druzhevskaya, Anastasiya M; Astratenkova, Irina V; Ahmetov, Ildus I

    2014-01-01

    Research concerned with predictors of talent in football has highlighted a number of potentially important and partially inherited measures such as body size, anaerobic power, aerobic capacity, agility, psychological profile, game intelligence and susceptibility to injuries. Genotyping for performance-associated DNA polymorphisms at an early age could be useful in predicting later success in football. The aim of the study was to investigate individually and in combination the association of common gene polymorphisms with football player's status. A total of 246 Russian football players and 872 controls were genotyped for 8 gene polymorphisms, which were previously reported to be associated with athlete status. Four alleles (ACE D, ACTN3 Arg577, PPARA rs4253778 C and UCP2 55Val) were first identified, showing discrete associations with football player's status. Next, we determined the total genotype score (TGS, from the accumulated combination of the 4 polymorphisms, with a maximum value of 100 for the theoretically optimal polygenic score) in athletes and controls. The mean TGS was significantly higher in football players (52.0 (17.6) vs. 41.3 (15.5); P < 0.0001) than in controls. These data suggest that the likelihood of becoming a football player depends on the carriage of a high number of "favourable" gene variants. PMID:24784145

  5. [Almaty club "KAIRAT" young football players' health].

    PubMed

    Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved. PMID:24214593

  6. Factors associated with bicycle-helmet use among 8-16 years aged Turkish children: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Secginli, Selda; Cosansu, Gulhan; Nahcivan, Nursen O

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the rates of helmet and to examine variables related to bicycle helmet use in a sample of 8-16 year old Turkish children. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 1180 students who self-identified as cyclists and 1128 parents or guardians in two state primary schools in two urban municipalities in the northern part of Istanbul, Turkey. Results showed that self-reported helmet use was found prevalent in 4.4% of the children. The most cited reasons for not wearing a helmet were: 'don't own one', 'helmets are uncool', and 'uncomfortable'. Significant differences between helmet users and non-users correlated to gender, age, owning a bicycle helmet, wearing a friend's bicycle helmet and parents or guardian's bicycle helmet use while riding. Only three variables--helmet ownership (OR = 10.028, 95% CI 5.08, 19.79), parents' helmet use (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.22, 5.66) and friends' helmet use (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.07, 0.37) emerged as significant predictors of the likelihood of helmet use. The relatively low helmet use prevalence points to an urgent need for a multipronged campaign, including strategies such as raising awareness, educating primarly parents and friends, and distributing bicycle helmets for free or at a reduced cost. PMID:24107078

  7. Motorcyclists, full-face helmets and neck injuries: can you take the helmet off safely, and if so, how?

    PubMed Central

    Branfoot, T

    1994-01-01

    Injured motorcyclists may have a damaged and unstable cervical spine (C-spine). This paper looks at whether a helmet can be safely removed, how and when should this be done? The literature is reviewed and the recommendations of the Trauma Working party of the Joint Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee are presented. PMID:7921566

  8. Evolution of bicycle helmet use and its determinants in France: 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Thélot, Bertrand; Beck, François

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to analyse helmet use in France, as a voluntary behaviour rather than a legal requirement, promoted by public awareness campaigns. It aims to investigate the determinants of helmet wearing and to explore its evolution from 2000 to 2010. The analysis relies on data from a series of general population surveys called "Health Barometers": 2000 (n=13,163), 2005 (n=25,651) and 2010 (n=8573). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with helmet use and time trends. Nearly half of the 15-75 year olds surveyed reported that they rode a bicycle, and among these cyclists, 22.0% reported that they wore a helmet on their last ride. Further analysis by gender reveals that twice as many men than women wore helmets. Over the last decade, helmet use among cyclists has clearly increased, from 7.3% in 2000 to 22.0% in 2010, whereas the influence of social and economic factors, such as unemployment and wage disparities, appears to have decreased. Several determinants of bicycle helmet use were highlighted. To improve the effectiveness of further public information campaigns on helmet use, the key target groups should include women, under 25 year olds and people living in urban areas. Promoting the wearing of helmets among families should also be enhanced, given the higher rate of helmet use by parents as well as children. PMID:24041598

  9. A proposal for the mandatory inclusion of helmets with new children's bicycles.

    PubMed

    Dannenberg, A L; Vernick, J S

    1993-05-01

    To reduce bicycle-related head injuries in children, we propose new regulations be established that mandate the inclusion of approved helmets with the sale of all new children's bicycles. Currently, purchasing a helmet is a separate economic decision that acts as a barrier to helmet ownership and use. The inclusion of a helmet with the bicycle would markedly increase helmet ownership. The increased demand would reduce the manufacturing cost per helmet, so the cost of the bicycle with the helmet would be lower than the current retail price of the two separately. This proposal could potentially be implemented by federal or state legislation, a Consumer Product Safety Commission regulation, or voluntary adoption of a practice or standard by bicycle manufacturers. Increased helmet ownership is necessary but not sufficient to raise helmet use rates. The increased ownership generated by this proposal, complemented by enhanced educational, promotional, and legal interventions, is probably the most practical and cost-effective public health strategy available to increase helmet usage and prevent bicycle-related head injuries in children. PMID:8484441

  10. Hazard Analysis. Football: Activity and Related Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    Data on football injuries acquired from surveillance sources and in-depth investigations are presented. Results of the study are summarized by descriptions of the accident sequence, diagnosis of the injury, and specific equipment involved in the injury. (JD)

  11. Pursuit and Evasion Strategies in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, James

    1995-01-01

    Explores strategies in the situation of a runner trying to evade a tackler on a football field. Enables the student to test intuitive strategies in a familiar situation using simple graphical and numerical methods or direct experimentation. (JRH)

  12. The Cheerleader and the Football Player.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Malati

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  13. Some Tentative Plans for Football on TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Tentative football televising agreements between the National Collegiate Athletics Association and four television broadcasting companies, unconfirmed by contract pending a Supreme Court antitrust ruling concerning network and cable television companies, are outlined. (MSE)

  14. Research pilots at NASA Dryden tested a prototype helmet during the summer and fall of 2002. The obj

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Research pilots from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., tested a prototype two-part helmet. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  15. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  16. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  17. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists. PMID:24499339

  18. Does Promoting Bicycle-Helmet Wearing Reduce Childhood Head Injuries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Celine; Vaez, Marjan; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to assess the impact of a community-based bicycle-helmet program aimed at children aged 5-12 years (about 140,000). A quasi-experimental design, including a control group, was used. Sex- and age-group-based changes in the risk of bicycle-related head injury leading to hospitalisation were measured, using rate…

  19. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... medium headform. A helmet with a manufacturer's designated discrete size or size range which exceeds 71/2... (136.1 kg), the outer surface of which consists of a steel plate with minimum thickness of 1 inch (2.5... Test headform size Weight range 1—lb kg) Small 7.6-8.0 (3.4-3.6) Medium 10.8-11.2 (4.9-5.1) Large...

  20. Cockpit to helmet optical wireless link: prototype hardware demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, M. A.; White, H. J.; Aldridge, N. B.; Lam, J.; Atkinson, R.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress in developing a wireless optical link between the fuselage of a cockpit and an aviation helmet. Such a link is desired to replace the physical umbilical cable existing in current cockpit systems, for reasons of potential bandwidth, immunity to EM interference, and freedom from physical constraints within the cockpit. The link concept consists of multiple transmitters embedded in the cockpit fuselage, each sending video (or symbology) data out in a cone of light over free space, which is detected by an array of receivers positioned on the helmet - the data is then sent to the eyepieces or visor of the pilot (after any intermediate processing). The design is such that one of these links is always maintained throughout possible movement of the head. In a recent proof-of-principle demonstration we showed uncompressed, 100 Mbps video data streamed live from the fuselage of a cockpit simulator to an angled cluster of silicon-based receivers mounted on the helmet, via a pair of ~1 Watt free-space lasers operating at 810 nm. Fast Ethernet media converters were used here for convenience and cost. The bespoke optical and electrical link components were developed in close collaboration with suppliers. The system performance arises from: the high dynamic range of the receivers (up to 25 dB), which are equipped with optical antennae to magnify the optical gain; the high power of the lasers; and the switching electronics used to control the signal path on the helmet. Future potential improvements to the technology are discussed, with an indication of wireless link requirements for relevant BAE Systems applications.

  1. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

    2000-05-01

    From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

  2. Utilizing computed tomography scans for analysis of motorcycle helmets in real-world crashes - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Kathryn L; Moreno, Daniel P; Tan, Joshua; Gabler, Hampton C; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, there were more than 5,000 motorcycle crash fatalities in the United States. Many states have motorcycle helmet laws that are meant to protect riders during a crash. After recruiting motorcycle occupants injured in crashes, a protocol was established to scan three different types of motorcycle helmets commonly worn (cap, ¾ shield, and full face shield) using a computed tomography (CT) scanner. The protocol developed was for a GE 64 slice PET/CT Discovery VCT scanner with axial images from anterior to posterior helmet acquired in helical mode. It had 512x512 resolution and the full face and ¾ face shield helmets were scanned with greater voxels in the axial plane compared to the skull cap helmets. New helmets were scanned as exemplary images for comparison with helmets involved in motorcycle crashes. After CT scans were gathered, three-dimensional reconstructions were made to visualize scratches and impacts to the exterior of the helmets. Initial work was also conducted in analyzing interior components, and a trend was seen in decreased thickness between the interior foam and shell with sides of the exterior helmet thought to have contacted roadside barriers or the ground during motorcycle crashes. These helmet analysis methods have been established, and will be used to investigate multiple motorcycle crashes in conjunction with occupant injuries and direct head impacts to improve helmet design and the understanding of head injuries. This work also establishes the basis for development of finite element models of three of the most common helmet types. PMID:21525626

  3. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.

    2015-05-01

    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  4. Effectiveness of Collision-Involved Motorcycle Helmets in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wobrock, Jesse; Smith, Terry; Kasantikul, Vira; Whiting, William

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze variables present in selected motorcycle crashes involving helmeted riders to find the best injury predictors. The helmets used in this study were collected from motorcycle crashes in Thailand. Pertinent data were collected, a conventional helmet impact drop test apparatus was used to quantify the head impact forces, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed. The results indicate that the geometry of the object impacting the head and GSI were the best predictors for MAIS (R2=.875) while geometry of the object, liner thickness and impact energy were the best predictors for ISS (R2=.911). Analysis of motor vehicle crashes in the United States in the year 2001 reveals that motorcyclist fatalities increased 7.2%, from 2,862 fatalities in 2000 to 3,067 in 2001 [NHTSA 2002]. In 2001, 59,000 motorcyclists were injured, which represents an increase of 2.0% from 2000. These statistics are indicative of the risk that motorcycle riders face in the traffic environment and warrant the need for further research focusing on injury potential in motorcycle crashes. PMID:12941212

  5. CO2 and O2 concentrations in integral motorcycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Brühwiler, P A; Stämpfli, R; Huber, R; Camenzind, M

    2005-09-01

    Inhaling air which contains excess CO2 and/or is oxygen-deficient is known to present health risks and to diminish human cognitive abilities. The average CO2 concentrations relevant to a motorcyclist wearing an integral helmet were measured 20 years ago and found to be alarmingly large. The purpose of the present study was to examine gas concentrations typically inhaled by a motorcyclist. Average concentrations of CO2 near the upper lip for persons (n = 4) wearing integral motorcycle helmets were measured in the laboratory and the field to facilitate comparison to previous work, and similarly high average concentrations were found: above 2% when stationary, well below 1% for speeds of 50 km/h or more. Very good agreement was obtained between laboratory and field measurements. Detailed measurements of the time-dependent CO2 concentrations passing through a mouthpiece for mouth-breathing showed inhaled levels slightly over half of the corresponding average concentrations, including 1.3+/-0.3% at standstill, though higher concentrations (4% or more) were inhaled at the beginning of each breath. Opening the visor at standstill had on average no effect. At a speed of 50 km/h the inhaled CO2 concentration resembles that for a person without a helmet in still air, at about 0.2%. The oxygen deficiency is generally equal to the CO2 concentration, and could also contribute negatively to a motorcyclist's cognitive abilities. PMID:15893291

  6. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George

    1997-08-01

    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  7. Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts.

    PubMed

    Cripton, Peter A; Dressler, Daniel M; Stuart, Cameron A; Dennison, Christopher R; Richards, Darrin

    2014-09-01

    Cycling is a popular form of recreation and method of commuting with clear health benefits. However, cycling is not without risk. In Canada, cycling injuries are more common than in any other summer sport; and according to the US National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, 52,000 cyclists were injured in the US in 2010. Head injuries account for approximately two-thirds of hospital admissions and three-quarters of fatal injuries among injured cyclists. In many jurisdictions and across all age levels, helmets have been adopted to mitigate risk of serious head injuries among cyclists and the majority of epidemiological literature suggests that helmets effectively reduce risk of injury. Critics have raised questions over the actual efficacy of helmets by pointing to weaknesses in existing helmet epidemiology including selection bias and lack of appropriate control for the type of impact sustained by the cyclist and the severity of the head impact. These criticisms demonstrate the difficulty in conducting epidemiology studies that will be regarded as definitive and the need for complementary biomechanical studies where confounding factors can be adequately controlled. In the bicycle helmet context, there is a paucity of biomechanical data comparing helmeted to unhelmeted head impacts and, to our knowledge, there is no data of this type available with contemporary helmets. In this research, our objective was to perform biomechanical testing of paired helmeted and unhelmeted head impacts using a validated anthropomorphic test headform and a range of drop heights between 0.5m and 3.0m, while measuring headform acceleration and Head Injury Criterion (HIC). In the 2m (6.3m/s) drops, the middle of our drop height range, the helmet reduced peak accelerations from 824g (unhelmeted) to 181g (helmeted) and HIC was reduced from 9667 (unhelmeted) to 1250 (helmeted). At realistic impact speeds of 5.4m/s (1.5m drop) and 6.3m/s (2.0m drop), bicycle helmets changed the

  8. Cold Weather Can Spike Football Injuries, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158070.html Cold Weather Can Spike Football Injuries, Study Finds NFL concussions and ankle injuries ... most common injuries that occurred during two National Football League seasons between 2012 and 2014. Players had ...

  9. High School Football Players Suffer More Symptoms After Concussion

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158603.html High School Football Players Suffer More Symptoms After Concussion: Study Meanwhile, ... MONDAY, May 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- High school football players are more likely to suffer more symptoms ...

  10. [Craniocerebral trauma in fall from bicycles--what is the effect of a protective helmet?].

    PubMed

    Kelsch, G; Helber, M U; Ulrich, C

    1996-03-01

    A prospective study was performed to analyze the particular injuries of 76 cyclists who required in-patient treatment in our department in 1994. There were 50 male and 26 female cyclists, with a median age of 33 years (range: 4-87 years). The most frequent diagnosis, in 50% (n = 38), was head injury. The series included 63 cyclist (83%) who had not been wearing helmets, and 33 of these sustained a head injury; in the helmet group head injury was found in only 38% (5 out of 13). It is remarkable that more serious head injuries did not occur in the helmet group. In 24 of these 33 head-injured patients (73%) without helmets additional intra- and extracranial diagnoses were made: pathologic EEG in 18 patients (55%), skull fracture in 13 patients (39%), intracerebral haemorrhagic contusion in 4 patients (12%) and an increase in intracerebral pressure (edema) in 3 patients (9%). In contrast to these findings, only 2 of the 5 head-injured patients (40%) in the helmet group showed slight changes in the EEG. In our opinion the bicycle helmet can reduce the incidence and the grade severity of head injuries significantly, particularly as we had 2 deaths in the non-helmet group and none in the helmet group. The use of a bicycle helmet is therefore strongly advocated. PMID:8685726

  11. Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Laura; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-01-01

    Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: "I Can Control Risk", "It Does Not Feel Right" and "Accidents Happen". Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the relationship between risk perception, protective knowledge, attitudes, decision-making and behavior. Whilst this complexity is largely due to the involvement of interspecies relationships through which safety, risk and trust are distributed; our findings about harnessing the potential of barriers could be extended to other high risk activities. PMID:26479375

  12. Evaluation of the protective capacity of baseball helmets for concussive impacts.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Karton, Clara; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D; Bailes, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how four different types of baseball helmets perform for baseball impacts when performance was measured using variables associated with concussion. A helmeted Hybrid III headform was impacted by a baseball, and linear and rotational acceleration as well as maximum principal strain were measured for each impact condition. The method was successful in distinguishing differences in design characteristics between the baseball helmets. The results indicated that there is a high risk of concussive injury from being hit by a ball regardless of helmet worn. PMID:25855861

  13. Critical testing for helmet-mounted displays: a tracking system accuracy test for the joint helmet mounted cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Adam P.

    2012-06-01

    Helmet mounted displays have not been supported with adequate methods and materials to validate and verify the performance of the underlying tracking systems when tested in a simulated or operational environment. Like most electronic systems on aircraft, HMDs evolve over the lifecycle of the system due to requirements changes or diminishing manufacturing sources. Hardware and software bugs are often introduced as the design evolves and it is necessary to revalidate a systems performance attributes over the course of these design changes. An on-aircraft test has been developed and refined to address this testing gap for the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) on F-16 aircraft. This test can be readily ported to other aircraft systems which employ the JHMCS, and has already been ported to the F-18. Additionally, this test method could provide an added value in the testing of any HMD that requires accurate cueing, whether used on fixed or rotary wing aircraft.

  14. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  15. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  16. Tips to Increase Girls' Participation in Flag Football Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…

  17. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  18. The effect of football shoulder pads on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Coast, J Richard; Baronas, Jessica L; Morris, Colleen; Willeford, K Sean

    2005-12-01

    Restriction of expansion of the lungs or chest wall impedes inflation of the lungs during inhalation. Functional changes occurring during such restriction include reduced pulmonary and/or chest wall compliance, decreases in pulmonary function, and ultimately a decrease in exercise performance. Such restriction can be seen in several pathologic conditions such as scoliosis or obesity, as well as occupational situations such as the wearing of bullet-proof vests. This study investigated the hypothesis that tightened football shoulder pads produce decrements in pulmonary function similar to those shown in previous studies involving other external chest-wall restricting devices. In this study, 24 subjects, all members of a collegiate division IAA football team and used to wearing the pads, performed standard pulmonary function tests while wearing no pads (control, CTRL), wearing pads that were not secured (pads loose, PL) and while wearing pads secured "game-tight" (pads tight, PT). The data showed that both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0) were significantly decreased in the PT condition compared to either the CTRL or PL condition, with no changes in the FEV1.0/FVC ratio or peak expiratory flow rate. These results are consistent with a restrictive condition and support our hypothesis that tightened shoulder pads reduce pulmonary function. Further studies remain to be performed to determine whether these changes lead to decreased exercise performance and whether equipment modifications can be made to limit alterations in pulmonary function without decreasing the protective value of the pads. Key PointsThe shoulder pads used in American football extend to the xyphoid process and may provide a restriction to breathing. This was tested in the present study in 24 college-level football players with normal resting pulmonary function.The results showed that there was a decrease in FVC of approximately 150 ml and a similar

  19. Comparison of standard and nonstandard helmets and variants influencing the choice of helmets: A preliminary report of cross-sectional prospective analysis of 100 cases

    PubMed Central

    Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Ardalan, Ali; Nainei, Kourosh Holakouie; Sadeghi, Sadegh; Pahlevani, Mehrdad; Zarei, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature does not offer the rate of protection provided by different types of helmets used, especially as it applies to developing countries. We hypothesize that standard versus nonstandard types of helmets might differ in the rate of complications of head and neck trauma occurring in victims of motorcycle accidents. Here we report the rate of occurrence, the type of injuries and differences thereof in standard and nonstandard helmet bearers, and its relevance to protection from serious injury. Methods: The data were gathered from a data set of motorcycle accident victims admitted to the emergency department of Sina Hospital (Teheran/Iran). A cross-sectional study was designed for a 6-month period of time, June to December 2007. Variants analyzed included: demographics, types of helmets used, level of education of the victims (as in: being trained for using helmets and status of holding a valid driving license). The latter variants were evaluated for possibly influencing the outcome of the injured motorcyclists using either kind of helmets. Results: Among a total of 576 injured motorcyclists who had head, face, or neck injuries, 432 (75%) were using some kind of helmet. A total of 144 (25%) of the injured patients were admitted to the neurosurgical emergency service. There were 100 patients whose data sheets contained all variables which could be included in the pilot analysis of this cohort. Discussion: All 100 subjects were male patients with the age range of 32 ± 11 years. Twenty-five percent were using standard helmets at the time of accident, 43% had no cranio-facio-cervical injury except very mild skin abrasions, and 23% had facial injury, including skin lacerations needing sutures, two nasal bone fractures, and no maxillofacial damage. Among the patients using standard helmets, 44% had head injuries which needed to be taken care of (mostly nonoperatively), while 61% using nonstandard helmets had head trauma (P > 0.05). The other variables

  20. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presenting as a Pathologic Fracture in a 12-Year-Old Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Welk, Aaron B.; Norman W., Kettner

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this report is to describe a case of an aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as a pathologic fracture in a young athlete. Case report A 12-year-old patient presented to a chiropractic teaching clinic with a 1-week history of posterior neck pain and stiffness following a helmet-to-helmet collision in football practice. Cervical spine radiographs were taken. Lateral view radiograph demonstrated a pathologic fracture through a lytic, expansive lesion in the posterior arch of C7 with mild subluxation of the C7/T1 apophyseal joints and angulation of the C7/T1 disk space. Based upon these findings, additional diagnostic imaging was ordered. Findings on advanced imaging studies included the following: On computed tomography, the C7 lesion showed medullary destruction, cortical thinning and expansion, and a horizontally oriented fracture through the spinous and lamina. Magnetic resonance imaging studies for sagittal T2 and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed fluid/fluid levels in the C7 spinous and peripheral enhancement with contrast. Outcome The patient was referred to a local hospital for treatment. The lesion was treated with resection of the posterior arch, and an aneurysmal bone cyst was confirmed histologically. The patient developed a kyphotic deformity at the site of resection and cervical instability. A subsequent fusion was performed. Conclusion Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare lesions. In this case, the initial traumatic history masked the underlying pathology. Although rare, pathologic fracture should be considered in cases of vertebral fracture in young patients. PMID:24711787

  1. An efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor for the Gamma Knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Li, X. Allen; Yu, Cedric X.

    2000-03-01

    It is essential to have accurate measurements of the 4 mm helmet output factor in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia patients using the Gamma Knife. Because of the small collimator size and the sharp dose gradient at the beam focus, this measurement is generally tedious and difficult. We have developed an efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor using regular radiographic films. The helmet output factor was measured by exposing a single Kodak XV film in the standard Leksell spherical phantom using the 18 mm helmet with 30-40 of its plug collimators replaced by the 4 mm plug collimators. The 4 mm helmet output factor was measured to be 0.876 ± 0.009. This is in excellent agreement with our EGS4 Monte Carlo simulated value of 0.876 ± 0.005. This helmet output factor value also agrees with more tedious TLD, diode and radiochromic film measurements that were each obtained using two separate measurements with the 18 mm helmet and the 4 mm helmet respectively. The 4 mm helmet output factor measured by the diode was 0.884 ± 0.016, and the TLD measurement was 0.890 ± 0.020. The radiochromic film measured value was 0.870 ± 0.018. Because a single-exposure measurement was performed instead of a double-exposure measurement, most of the systematic errors that appeared in the double-exposure measurements due to experimental setup variations were cancelled out. Consequently, the 4 mm helmet output factor is more precisely determined by the single-exposure approach. Therefore, routine measurement and quality assurance of the 4 mm helmet output factor of the Gamma Knife could be efficiently carried out using the proposed single-exposure technique.

  2. Analysis of Body Mass Components in National Club Football Players in Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Slobodan; Todorovska, Lidija; Maleska, Vesela; Dejanova, Beti; Efremova, Ljudmila; Zivkovic, Vujica; Pluncevic-Gligoroska, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to analyze body composition in adult male football players and its changes during adulthood. Methods: Adult male football players (n=942, mean age 24.11 ±4.69y), all members of national competitive clubs from Macedonia were included in the study. The absolute and the relative body components were calculated: lean body mass (LBMkg), muscle mass (MMkg; MM%), bone mass (BMkg; BM%) and fat components (FMkg; FM%), using the anthropometric protocol by Matiegka. Results: Mean values of anthropometric measures for all included participants were as follows: height=178.39±6.11cm; weight=77.02±7.57; LBM=65.65±6.38; MM%=53.23±2.78; BM%=17.05±1.27; FM%=14.58±1.48. Descriptive statistics for these parameters was made for age specific groups. Conclusions: The results obtained could be used as reference values for adult football players in Republic of Macedonia. In the examined age span (18-35 years) a slight increase of absolute values of all three body components has been registered with advancing age. The most significant increase in the absolute values was registered for the muscle component, followed by the fat and bone components, respectively. Regarding the relative values (%), the muscle and the fat components showed an equally slight positive correlation with the age increase of 1 year, whilst the bone component decreased with advancing age. PMID:25568532

  3. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  4. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... attached to the facepiece to provide easy access to the external surface of the eyepiece for cleaning....

  5. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... attached to the facepiece to provide easy access to the external surface of the eyepiece for cleaning....

  6. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... attached to the facepiece to provide easy access to the external surface of the eyepiece for cleaning....

  7. Prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle users in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kauky, Cosmas George; Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Urio, Loveness John; Abade, Ahmed Mohammed; Mghamba, Janneth Maridadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists as one of the preventive measures for road traffic injuries. Methods A cross sectional observational survey was conducted in the 3 Districts (Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke) that make Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. A standardized line-listing form and checklist were used to record the drivers and passengers use of helmet as observed by study investigators. Data for helmet use was collected on one weekday and one weekend day. Time for observation was during the rush hour in the morning, noon and evening. Then data were entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 analysis Results A total of 7,678 motorcycle drivers and 4,328 passengers observed in this study. Drivers were almost male (98.8%) and 73.2% of all passengers were males. The prevalence use of helmet use among motorcyclist's riders was 82.1% and among passengers was 22.5%. Proportion of helmet use in drivers and passengers observed were relatively similar during weekday and weekend day and time of observation. Conclusion This study showed the relative high helmet use among motorcyclist riders though very low in passengers. This study recommends increased community awareness on helmet use among passengers and enforcement and revival of road safety laws of passengers and motorcyclists on helmet use. PMID:26309470

  8. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  10. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  11. The protective effect of a helmet in three bicycle accidents--A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Fahlstedt, Madelen; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein

    2016-06-01

    There is some controversy regarding the effectiveness of helmets in preventing head injuries among cyclists. Epidemiological, experimental and computer simulation studies have suggested that helmets do indeed have a protective effect, whereas other studies based on epidemiological data have argued that there is no evidence that the helmet protects the brain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a helmet in single bicycle accident reconstructions using detailed finite element simulations. Strain in the brain tissue, which is associated with brain injuries, was reduced by up to 43% for the accident cases studied when a helmet was included. This resulted in a reduction of the risk of concussion of up to 54%. The stress to the skull bone went from fracture level of 80 MPa down to 13-16 MPa when a helmet was included and the skull fracture risk was reduced by up to 98% based on linear acceleration. Even with a 10% increased riding velocity for the helmeted impacts, to take into account possible increased risk taking, the risk of concussion was still reduced by up to 46% when compared with the unhelmeted impacts with original velocity. The results of this study show that the brain injury risk and risk of skull fracture could have been reduced in these three cases if a helmet had been worn. PMID:26974030

  12. Aircrew helmet design and manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadogan, David P.; George, Alan E.; Winkler, Edward R.

    1993-12-01

    With the development of helmet mounted displays (HMD) and night vision systems (NVS) for use in military and civil aviation roles, new methods of helmet development need to be explored. The helmet must be designed to provide the user with the most lightweight, form fitting system, while meeting other system performance requirements. This can be achieved through a complete analysis of the system requirements. One such technique for systems analysis, a quality function deployment (QFD) matrix, is explored for this purpose. The advanced helmet development process for developing aircrew helmets includes the utilization of several emerging technologies such as laser scanning, computer aided design (CAD), computer generated patterns from 3-D surfaces, laser cutting of patterns and components, and rapid prototyping (stereolithography). Advanced anthropometry methods for helmet development are also available for use. Besides the application of advanced technologies to be used in the development of helmet assemblies, methods of mass reduction are also discussed. The use of these advanced technologies will minimize errors in the development cycle of the helmet and molds, and should enhance system performance while reducing development time and cost.

  13. The Helmet Fit Index--An intelligent tool for fit assessment and design customisation.

    PubMed

    Ellena, Thierry; Subic, Aleksandar; Mustafa, Helmy; Pang, Toh Yen

    2016-07-01

    Helmet safety benefits are reduced if the headgear is poorly fitted on the wearer's head. At present, there are no industry standards available to assess objectively how a specific protective helmet fits a particular person. A proper fit is typically defined as a small and uniform distance between the helmet liner and the wearer's head shape, with a broad coverage of the head area. This paper presents a novel method to investigate and compare fitting accuracy of helmets based on 3D anthropometry, reverse engineering techniques and computational analysis. The Helmet Fit Index (HFI) that provides a fit score on a scale from 0 (excessively poor fit) to 100 (perfect fit) was compared with subjective fit assessments of surveyed cyclists. Results in this study showed that quantitative (HFI) and qualitative (participants' feelings) data were related when comparing three commercially available bicycle helmets. Findings also demonstrated that females and Asian people have lower fit scores than males and Caucasians, respectively. The HFI could provide detailed understanding of helmet efficiency regarding fit and could be used during helmet design and development phases. PMID:26995049

  14. The effect of a helmet on cognitive performance is, at worst, marginal: a controlled laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Cornelis P; Walker, Ian; Brühwiler, Paul A; Rossi, René M

    2014-05-01

    The present study looked at the effect of a helmet on cognitive performance under demanding conditions, so that small effects would become more detectible. Nineteen participants underwent 30 min of continuous visual vigilance, tracking, and auditory vigilance (VTT + AVT), while seated in a warm environment (27.2 (±0.6) °C, humidity 41 (±1)%, and 0.5 (±0.1) m s(-1) wind speed). The participants wore a helmet in one session and no helmet in the other, in random order. Comfort and temperature perception were measured at the end of each session. Helmet-wearing was associated with reduced comfort (p = 0.001) and increased temperature perception (p < 0.001), compared to not wearing a helmet. Just one out of nine cognitive parameters showed a significant effect of helmet-wearing (p = .032), disappearing in a post-hoc comparison. These results resolve previous disparate studies to suggest that, although helmets can be uncomfortable, any effect of wearing a helmet on cognitive performance is at worst marginal. PMID:24157241

  15. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  18. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  19. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  1. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  2. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  3. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  4. Preventing Mental Retardation through Use of Bicycle Helmets. ARC Q&A #101-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about preventing mental retardation through use of bicycle helmets. Questions and answers address the following topics: the importance of bicycle helmets; the number of bike riders injured or killed each year in bicycle crashes (about 1,000 killed, over 500,000 people…

  5. Increasing Bicycle Helmet Use in Michigan: A School-Based Intervention Pilot Program. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patricia K.

    In Michigan, a school-based bicycle helmet intervention program has been developed to increase the prevalence of helmet use among middle/junior high school students. The intervention involved approximately 3,100 students and their parents. The school-based intervention component of the project is the focus of this report. A two-tier intervention…

  6. Effectiveness of a state law mandating use of bicycle helmets among children: an observational evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kanny, D; Schieber, R A; Pryor, V; Kresnow, M J

    2001-12-01

    In spring 1999, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a 1997 Florida law requiring helmet use by all bicyclists younger than age 16 years. Sixty-four counties in Florida had enacted the bicycle helmet-use law, while the other three counties had opted out. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors conducted unobtrusive observations at bicycle racks at public elementary schools statewide. Florida children riding bicycles in counties where the state helmet-use law was in place were twice as likely to wear helmets as children in counties without the law. In counties where the state law was in place, 16,907 (79%) of 21,313 riders observed wore a helmet, compared with only 148 (33%) of 450 riders in counties where no such law was in place (crude prevalence ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 2.1, 2.8). Helmet use by children of all racial groups exceeded 60% under the law. No significant difference in use by gender was found. These data support the positive influence of a law on bicycle helmet use among children. The data reinforce the Healthy People 2010 objective that all 50 states adopt such a law for children in order to increase helmet use and consequently reduce brain injury. PMID:11724725

  7. In defence of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation: response to Hooper and Spicer.

    PubMed

    Biegler, Paul; Johnson, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    We invoke a triple rationale to rebut Hooper and Spicer's argument against mandatory helmet laws. First, we use the laws of physics and empirical studies to show how bicycle helmets afford substantial protection to the user. We show that Hooper and Spicer erroneously downplay helmet utility and that, as a result, their attack on the utilitarian argument for mandatory helmet laws is weakened. Next, we refute their claim that helmet legislation comprises unjustified paternalism. We show the healthcare costs of bareheaded riding to pose significant third party harms. It follows, we argue, that a utilitarian case for helmet laws can be sustained by appeal to Mill's Harm Principle. Finally, we reject Hooper and Spicer's claim that helmet laws unjustly penalise cyclists for their own health-affecting behaviour. Rather, we show their argument to suffer by disanalogy with medical cases where injustice may be more evident, for example, denial of bypass surgery to smokers. We conclude that mandatory helmet laws offer substantial utility and are entirely defensible within the framework of a liberal democracy. PMID:23760577

  8. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes. PMID:26359844

  9. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  10. A season of football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  11. Paternalism & Its Discontents: Motorcycle Helmet Laws, Libertarian Values, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists’ advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856

  12. Strategies of a successful campaign to promote the use of equestrian helmets.

    PubMed Central

    Condie, C; Rivara, F P; Bergman, A B

    1993-01-01

    Although the risk of serious head injury for horse riders is higher than for most other sports, few equestrians regularly wear protective headgear. This study indicates that riders are well informed about the need for helmets and that the main reason for nonuse is inadequate helmet design. In particular, riders perceive that existing helmets are uncomfortable, expensive, and inappropriate for some riding styles. Based on these findings, the authors developed strategies to increase usage and incorporated them into a successful program. These strategies included working with manufacturers to develop a low-cost, versatile helmet; efficiently distributing educational literature among the horse riding community; and encouraging individual clubs and equestrian organizations to mandate a helmet policy. PMID:8434088

  13. Development and usage of helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.; Karavis, A.

    1990-10-01

    An account is given of RAE's comprehensive approach to enhancing the capabilities of fast-jets specifically in the air combat role by utilising helmet-mounted equipment. Ground rigs, simulators and aircraft were employed in the development of the devices and their integration with the weapons system. The paper concludes that although ground and simulator trials are a necessary prelude, airborne assessment is essential. By adopting this comprehensive approach to the problem, RAE have established a solid founthtion of experience, covering the design, flight clearance and use of these devices.

  14. Helmet-mounted sighting system: from development into squadron service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2001-08-01

    Helmet Mounted Sights providing basic off boresight designation/cueing capability and they represent the `entry point' for head mounted displays. When coupled to a missile with high off-boresight designation capability, such a system offers major benefits in the `within visual range' air combat environment. Such a system can also be used to `point' other sensors such as the radar or a targeting pod so that despite the modest display capability, even this simple system greatly enhances the lethality of the aircraft.

  15. The design of CY-1R night vision helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Chang, Benkang

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, the research intention and design principle of CY-1R night vision helmet are explained which fills the gaps in active-passive combined night vision field in our country. The structure, composition, mechanism and overall performance of the goggle are analyzed. It is a new type device consisting of laser illuminator system, special optical system and high performance low-level-light intensifier. Based on these characteristics, the sensitivity of the system is high and the image observed is very clear. Taking advantage of it, we can complete the military operation under any atrocious weather conditions.

  16. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  17. Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hides, Julie A.; Stanton, Warren R.; Mendis, M. Dilani; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M.; Sexton, Margot J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Australian football, lower limb injuries have had the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Previous studies have shown that football players with relatively more severe preseason and playing season hip, groin, and thigh injuries had a significantly smaller multifidus muscle compared with players with no lower limb injuries. Rehabilitation of the multifidus muscle, with restoration of its size and function, has been associated with decreased recurrence rates of episodic low back pain and decreased numbers of lower limb injuries in football players. Assessment of multifidus muscle size and function could potentially be incorporated into a model that could be used to predict injuries in football players. Purpose: To examine the robustness of multifidus muscle measurements as a predictor of lower limb injuries incurred by professional football players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 259 male elite football players at the start of the preseason and 261 players at the start of the playing season. Injury data were obtained from records collected by the Australian Football League (AFL) club staff during the preseason and the playing season. Results: Decreased size of the multifidus muscle at L5 consistently predicted injury in the preseason and playing season. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle and low back pain were significantly related to lower limb injuries in the preseason, and having no preferred kicking leg was related to season injuries. Seasonal change in the size of the multifidus muscle indicating a decrease in muscle mass was linked to injury. Sensitivity and specificity of the model were 60.6% and 84.9% for the preseason and 91.8% and 45.8% for the playing season, respectively. Conclusion: A model was developed for prediction of lower limb injuries in football players with potential utility for club medical staff. Of particular note is the finding that changes in muscle

  18. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  19. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  20. A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; p<0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. PMID:24316503

  1. Would You Let Your Child Play Football? Attitudes Toward Football Safety.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p < .05), and believed an athlete could suffer a higher number of concussions before becoming excessive (t = 2.06, p < .05). Findings suggest most individuals are comfortable with their children playing football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion. PMID:25671347

  2. Development and manufacture of visor for helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David H.; McNelly, Gregg; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The manufacturing design and process development for the Visor for the JHMCS (Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System) are discussed. The JHMCS system is a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system currently flying on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18 aircraft. The Visor manufacturing processes are essential to both system performance and economy. The Visor functions both as the system optical combiner and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The Visor material is optical polycarbonate. For a military HMD system, the mechanical and environmental properties of the Visor are as necessary as the optical properties. The visor must meet stringent dimensional requirements to assure adequate system optical performance. Injection molding can provide dimensional fidelity to the requirements, if done properly. Concurrent design of the visor and the tool (i.e., the injection mold) is essential. The concurrent design necessarily considers manufacturing operations and the use environment of the Visor. Computer modeling of the molding process is a necessary input to the mold design. With proper attention to product design and tool development, it is possible to improve upon published standard dimensional tolerances for molded polycarbonate articles.

  3. Integrated helmet mounted display concepts for air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted in a dome simulator to evaluate several Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) formats developed as part of the NASA High Alpha Technology Program (HATP). The display formats conveyed energy management, spatial orientation, and weapons management information. The HMD format was compared to a generic Heads Up Display (HUD) typical of current operational fighter aircraft. Pilots were tasked to spend as much time in a weapon solution as possible, to have the correct weapon selected for the envelope they were in, and to avoid the adversary's weapon envelope as much as possible. Several different displays were tested individually and simultaneously to see how separate display concepts coexisted. Objective results showed that the ability for the pilot to select the correct weapon for the envelope he was in increased by 50% in a moderate workload condition and 90% in a high workload condition with the HMD format. In the post-test comments pilots generally favored the helmet display formats over the HUD formats with a few instances where pilots preferred a simple numeric readout of the parameter. Short term exposure effects of the HMD on visual acuity were also measured and showed no advers results.

  4. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  5. Bicycle helmet use and non-use - recently published research.

    PubMed

    Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science. PMID:22632628

  6. Helmet use among Alaskan children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Christopher W.; Muensterer, Oliver J.; Sacco, Frank; Safford, Shawn D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Off-road motorized vehicle crashes are a common source of trauma among Alaska children. Injury morbidity is worse in Alaska Native children than non-Native children, but the reasons are unclear. Objective To evaluate the differences in helmet use between the Native and the non-Native children, and to assess the impact of helmet use on injury patterns and outcomes. Design This retrospective cohort study identified patients aged 17 or younger admitted after all-terrain vehicle, snowmobile or motorbike injury between 2001 and 2011 from the Alaska Trauma Registry. Helmeted and non-helmeted patients were compared with respect to demographics, central nervous system (CNS) injury and the overall risk of death or permanent disability. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of helmet use and the effects of ethnicity and helmet use on outcomes. Results Of the 921 injured children, 51% were Alaska Native and 49% were non-Native. Helmet use was lower among Native versus non-Native patients on unadjusted comparison (24% vs. 71%) and multivariable logistic regression (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.11–0.27, p<0.0001). Prevalence of CNS injury was higher among Native children (39.7% vs. 30.4%, p=0.016). However, on logistic regression with adjustment for helmet use, Native ethnicity was not a significant predictor of CNS injury (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.68–1.68, p=0.78), whereas helmet use was strongly protective against CNS injury (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18–0.44, p<0.0001) as well as death or permanent disability (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.67, p=0.006). Conclusions Helmet use is lower among Alaska Native children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes. These ethnic disparities in helmet use contribute to higher rates of CNS injury among Native children. Helmet use significantly improves overall outcome. Helmet promotion efforts should be expanded, especially in Native communities. PMID:25317382

  7. There's a Football Revival Goin' On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Craig T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how within the last 2 years, several historically Black colleges (Benedict College, Allen University, Edward Waters College, Paul Quinn College, Lincoln University, Stillman College) have dusted the cobwebs off their football programs, most of which had been dormant for decades. The result has been increasing enrollment, income, and…

  8. High School Football Injury Surveillance Studies, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.

    This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…

  9. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  10. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, Michele

    2005-02-15

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints.

  11. Modern Apprenticeships in English Professional Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Des; Olsson, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will examine the two year modern apprenticeship undertaken by trainees in the English professional football industry. Design/methodology/approach: Representatives of seven clubs were interviewed in the summer of 2005; all of them were responsible for youth development in their club. These interviews were the first of what will…

  12. Football--A Motivator for Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogill, Julie; Parr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors visited with the Arsenal Double Club Coordinator, Scott an amateur footballer, and a career teacher who is able to bring his considerable experience and administrative skill to the project. The authors were delighted to realise that they were talking to a teacher committed to what is first and foremost an educational…

  13. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, J P

    1985-01-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries. Images p71-a PMID:4027497

  14. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  15. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  16. The Metamorphosis of a Football Stadium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Have, Pieter J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…

  17. Aircrew helmet protection against potential cerebral concussion in low-magnitude impacts.

    PubMed

    Norman, R W; Bishop, P J; Pierrynowski, M R; Pezzack, J C

    1979-06-01

    The response of the Gentex DH-151 (contact type) and Gentex 411 (suspension type) aircrew helmets to low-magnitude impacts, such as those sometimes encountered during cockpit buffeting, in ejection, and in parachute landings, was studied to augment the data base on helmet performance. The helmets, mounted on a Hodgson headform, were dropped on the crown and rear at impact velocities up to 4.97 m/s. Acceleration time histories were tape recorded and digitized and Gadd Severity Indices (GSI), among others, were calculated from the resultant acceleration curve. Both helmets kept the GSI below predicted concussion thresholds at 4.97 m/s and were considered to perform well on initial impacts. On second impacts, the GSI rose considerably because the shell and liner of the DH-151 cracked and the suspension of the "141" stretched during the first blow. Improvement of the multiple impact performance of both helmets appears desirable, although the suspension helmet performed slightly better than the contact helmet with respect to the criterion used. PMID:475701

  18. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. PMID:26998593

  19. Bicycle helmet wearing in a sample of urban disadvantaged primary school children.

    PubMed

    Quirke, M B; McGilloway, S; Comiskey, C M; Wynne, C; O'Sullivan, K; Hollywood, E

    2013-04-01

    Bicycle helmet wearing is currently not legally enforced in Ireland and little is known about the self-reported practice amongst young children. The principal aim of this study was to assess self-reported helmet wearing amongst a sample (n = 314) of primary school children (aged 8-13 years) attending disadvantaged schools in Dublin. Approximately 86% of the sample owned a bike and provided a response to the question on helmet use. The findings indicate that helmet wearing is not a widespread practice (50.4%; 136/270 report never wearing helmets). As children get older, reported practice is also less likely with 67% (27/40) of 12/13 year-olds compared to 38% (31/81) of 8/9 year-olds reporting never wearing protective headgear. Regardless of age, more girls (61%; 82/135) than boys (39%; 52/135) indicated always/sometimes using helmets when cycling. Conversely, the findings show that (mandatory) seatbelt wearing is standard practice for the majority (93%; 252/270). The findings relating to helmet wearing add further to the debate around the mandatory introduction of protective headgear for cyclists. PMID:23691841

  20. The prevalence and effective factors of crash helmet usage among motorcyclists in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Javanmardi, Kazem; Sarikhani, Yaser; Mahjoor, Kourosh; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Khabaz Shirazi, Mohammad; Akbari, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Crash helmet plays an important role in protecting the deriver's head during crashes and reduces the rate of severe injuries and fatalities. Although it has been proved that wearing the crash helmet can save the deriver’s life by around 42%; previous studies showed that the rate of wearing crash helmet has not been acceptable in Iran. Due to the huge number of motorcyclists on the roads in Iran, the use of crash helmet is an important area of research. The aim of this study was to assess the factors that could possibly relate to or affect the use of crash helmet by the motorcyclists. Methods: This is an observational study on 414 motorcyclists in Shiraz, Southern Iran. All participants completed a questioner containing demographic features, crash helmet use, motorcycle license, and the reasons for using motorcycles. Results: All the participants were males and aged from16 to 64 years with mean age 27±9.28. The results of logistic regression model revealed that only the drivers who had motorcycle license (OR=2.73, C.I: 1.40-7.24), employed the motorcycle for reasons other than pleasure (OR=3.18, C.I: 1.42-7.37) and been driving for 10 or more years (OR=1.92 95% C.I: 1.12-3.30) had greater rate of wearing crash helmet. Interestingly, educational levels, age, and other demographical variables had no relationship with crash helmet usage. Conclusions: It is believed that in order to increase the rate of crash helmet use, it is necessary to enact obligatory requirement for driving license by motorcyclists and increase the legal age for motorcycle driving. PMID:26353927

  1. Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Laura; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Epidemiological research details a high rate of horse-related injury, despite technical countermeasures being widely available and largely affordable. Whilst barriers to engaging in preventative behavior such as helmet-use have been identified, less attention has been given to enabling factors. These factors could contribute to the design of more effective injury prevention interventions. To identify barriers as well as enablers in an Australian context, we explored how riders discussed helmet use amongst one another in an online setting. Our analysis revealed that social relations heavily influenced safety behavior. In particular, we identified three attitudes that affected helmet use: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Abstract Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the

  2. Expertise and decision-making in American football

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Adam J.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F(2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases. PMID:26217294

  3. Analysis of the Internal Ventilation for a Motorcycle Helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimolin, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    This work deals with a methodology for the numerical simulation of the inner ventilation of a motorcycle helmet, based on a thermo-fluid-dynamic model capable of describing evaporation-related heat transfer phenomena. The final purpose is the enhancment of the comfort of the rider and ultimately his safety. The fluid-dynamic problem concerns the modelization of the filtration of a flow over a porous medium, while the (decoupled) thermodynamic model is associated with the heat and sweat removal by means of the airflow. The latter is based on a set of evolution equations for the three scalar unknowns temperature, absolute humidity and sweat. Simulations on a sample 2D problem show the applicability of the methodology, highlighting the implicitly-defined free boundary separating the wet and dry regions as well as the zones where sweat accumulates.

  4. Digital Image Processing Overview For Helmet Mounted Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Michael J.

    1989-09-01

    Digital image processing provides a means to manipulate an image and presents a user with a variety of display formats that are not available in the analog image processing environment. When performed in real time and presented on a Helmet Mounted Display, system capability and flexibility are greatly enhanced. The information content of a display can be increased by the addition of real time insets and static windows from secondary sensor sources, near real time 3-D imaging from a single sensor can be achieved, graphical information can be added, and enhancement techniques can be employed. Such increased functionality is generating a considerable amount of interest in the military and commercial markets. This paper discusses some of these image processing techniques and their applications.

  5. Review and analysis of avionic helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Zhang, Xin; Shi, Guangwei; Qu, Hemeng; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Jianping

    2013-11-01

    With the development of new concepts and principles over the past century, helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) have been widely applied. This paper presents a review of avionic HMDs and shows some areas of active and intensive research. This review is focused on the optical design aspects and is divided into three sections to explore new optical design methods, which include an off-axis design, design with freeform optical surface, and design with holographic optical waveguide technology. Building on the fundamentals of optical design and engineering, the principles section primarily expounds on the five optical system parameters, which include weight, field of view, modulation transfer function, exit pupil size, and eye relief. We summarized the previous design works using new components to achieve compact and lightweight HMDs. Moreover, the paper presents a partial summary of the more notable experimental, prototype, fielded, and future HMD fixed-wing and rotary-wing programs.

  6. The Cobra helmet mounted display system for Gripen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jörgen; Blomqvist, Tommy

    2008-04-01

    Selected to meet the stringent requirements of the Gripen swing-role combat aircraft, the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System, has been integrated as a key component to the Gripen weapon delivery system. Saab Aerosystems has since 2003 together with BAE System been developing the Cobra HMD and in parallel integrating the system in Gripen for South Africa. Work is currently done to prepare other customer for the Cobra HMDS. This paper will highlight some technical challenges and experiences with integrating a HMDS in a small cockpit environment as in Gripen and present an overview of the Cobra HMD design and installation. Furthermore the paper will discuss the importance of having the pilots and users involved during the design phase and throughout the development.

  7. Travelling Fellowship Program for Football Medicine; Report on an Experience

    PubMed Central

    Seifbarghi, Tohid; Hashemi, Akram; Halabchi, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Football medicine has developed in the world in recent years. AFC Medical Committee, established the idea of football medicine travelling fellowship two years ago and provided high-level healthcare services to football players in Asian countries. This is a report on my one month experience in a travelling fellowship program for football medicine which is attempting to tell the reader about the interesting event that I experienced. This course has been held between Jan 15 to Feb 10, 2012 in 3 Asian countries: Qatar, Thailand and Malysia. The experience provided me with the valuable suggestions for future travelling fellowship periods. PMID:23012644

  8. Helmet-Cam: tool for assessing miners’ respirable dust exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cecala, A.B.; Reed, W.R.; Joy, G.J.; Westmoreland, S.C.; O’Brien, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Video technology coupled with datalogging exposure monitors have been used to evaluate worker exposure to different types of contaminants. However, previous application of this technology used a stationary video camera to record the worker’s activity while the worker wore some type of contaminant monitor. These techniques are not applicable to mobile workers in the mining industry because of their need to move around the operation while performing their duties. The Helmet-Cam is a recently developed exposure assessment tool that integrates a person-wearable video recorder with a datalogging dust monitor. These are worn by the miner in a backpack, safety belt or safety vest to identify areas or job tasks of elevated exposure. After a miner performs his or her job while wearing the unit, the video and dust exposure data files are downloaded to a computer and then merged together through a NIOSH-developed computer software program called Enhanced Video Analysis of Dust Exposure (EVADE). By providing synchronized playback of the merged video footage and dust exposure data, the EVADE software allows for the assessment and identification of key work areas and processes, as well as work tasks that significantly impact a worker’s personal respirable dust exposure. The Helmet-Cam technology has been tested at a number of metal/nonmetal mining operations and has proven to be a valuable assessment tool. Mining companies wishing to use this technique can purchase a commercially available video camera and an instantaneous dust monitor to obtain the necessary data, and the NIOSH-developed EVADE software will be available for download at no cost on the NIOSH website. PMID:26380529

  9. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. PMID:25958794

  10. 76 FR 22919 - Protective Helmet Standard Special Technical Committee Request for Proposals for Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Protective Helmet Standard Special Technical Committee Request for Proposals for Certification and Testing Expertise AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ. ACTION: Request for...

  11. Smart army helmet: a glance in what soldier helmets can become in the near future by integrating present technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Carlos A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, technologies like improved reality systems, sensing systems and communication systems, are moving forward with a high rate. This situation is very convenient for military groups that are trying to access modern technologies. According to that, it is very feasible to propose the development of electronic devices that increase the possibilities for soldiers to be alive during an armed conflict, providing them with information that can bring strategic benefits on the combat field, which is the main goal of this research. Therefore, it is proposed in this paper the early design stages of a smart army helmet, focusing in their low cost production; however, all the electronics stages specified here are proposed as prototypes.

  12. Helmet-mounted tracker and display (HMT/D) interfaces: developing a standardized helmet-vehicle interface (HVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocian, Dean F.

    1998-08-01

    The successful integration of technology and human factors meets its ultimate challenge in the area of military performance. Nowhere are the stakes so high and the competition so rigorous as in the arena of combat. This paper documents the attempt to define, develop, and test a 'standardized' interface for helmet-mounted tracker and displays as these systems begin to phase into the military inventory as standard equipment for USAF and USN fighter aircraft. The design that has been evolved is based upon active use and refinement in an environment that is as close to combat conditions, as resources permit. Many of the design ideas and lessons-learned covered in this paper came either directly or indirectly from pilots and support personnel of the USAF 422 Test and Evaluation Squadron located at Nellis AFB, NV.

  13. The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J; Grzebieta, R H; Olivier, J

    2013-04-01

    There has been an ongoing debate in Australia and internationally regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury amongst cyclists in crashes involving motor vehicles, and to assess the impact of 'risky cycling behaviour' among helmeted and unhelmeted cyclists. This analysis involved a retrospective, case-control study using linked police-reported road crash, hospital admission and mortality data in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2001-2009. The study population was cyclist casualties who were involved in a collision with a motor vehicle. Cases were those that sustained a head injury and were admitted to hospital. Controls were those admitted to hospital who did not sustain a head injury, or those not admitted to hospital. Standard multiple variable logistic regression modelling was conducted, with multinomial outcomes of injury severity. There were 6745 cyclist collisions with motor vehicles where helmet use was known. Helmet use was associated with reduced risk of head injury in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles of up to 74%, and the more severe the injury considered, the greater the reduction. This was also found to be true for particular head injuries such as skull fractures, intracranial injury and open head wounds. Around one half of children and adolescents less than 19 years were not wearing a helmet, an issue that needs to be addressed in light of the demonstrated effectiveness of helmets. Non-helmeted cyclists were more likely to display risky riding behaviour, however, were less likely to cycle in risky areas; the net result of which was that they were more likely to be involved in more severe crashes. PMID:23377086

  14. Bicycle Helmet Laws are Associated with a Lower Fatality Rate from Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, William P.; Lee, Lois K.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Mannix, Rebekah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Study design We conducted a cross sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates per age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit (< 0.08% vs. ≥ 0.08%), and household income. Results A total of 1,612 bicycle-related fatalities were sustained by children <16 years old. There were no statistical differences in median household income, the proportion of states with elderly licensure laws, or the proportion of states with a blood alcohol limit of > 0.08 between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted rates of fatalities were lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs. 2.5/1,000,000; p= 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, states with mandatory helmet laws continued to be associated with a lower rate of fatalities (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.70, 0.98). Conclusions Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities among child bicyclists involved in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:23706604

  15. The Effects of Molding Helmet Therapy on Spring-Mediated Cranial Vault Remodeling for Sagittal Craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jordan W; Haas, Jacqueline A; Mitchell, Brianne T; Storm, Philip B; Bartlett, Scott P; Heuer, Gregory G; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-09-01

    There is no clear consensus for the optimal treatment of sagittal craniosynostosis; however, recent studies suggest that improved neurocognitive outcomes may be obtained when surgical intervention imparts active cranial expansion or remodeling and is performed before 6 months of age. The authors consider spring-mediated cranioplasty (SMC) to optimally address these imperatives, and this is an investigation of how helmet orthoses before or after SMC affect aesthetic outcomes.The authors retrospectively evaluated patients treated with SMC and adjunct helmeting for sagittal synostosis. Patients were stratified into 4 cohorts based on helmet usage: preop, postop, both, and neither. The cephalic index (CI) was used to assess head shape changes and outcomes. Twenty-six patients met inclusion criteria: 6 (23%) had preop, 11 (42%) had postop, 4 (15%) had preop and postop, and 5 (19%) had no helmeting. Average age at surgery was 3.6 months. Overall, CI improved from a mean 69.8 to 77.9 during an average 7-month course of care. Mean preoperative change in CI showed greater improvement with preop helmet (1.3) versus not (0.0), (P = 0.029), despite similar initial CI in these cohorts (70.4 and 69.6 respectively, P = 0.69). Nonetheless, all patient cohorts regardless of helmeting status achieved similar final CIs (range 76.4-80.4; P = 0.72).In summary, preoperative molding helmet therapy leads to improved CI at the time of spring-mediated cranioplasty. However, this benefit does not necessarily translate into overall improved CI after surgery and in follow-up, calling into question the benefits of molding helmet therapy in this setting. PMID:27607110

  16. Helmet regulation in Vietnam: impact on health, equity and medical impoverishment

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Zachary; Staples, John A; Mock, Charles; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Nugent, Rachel; Verguet, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Vietnam's 2007 comprehensive motorcycle helmet policy increased helmet use from about 30% of riders to about 93%. We aimed to simulate the effect that this legislation might have on: (a) road traffic deaths and non-fatal injuries, (b) individuals’ direct acute care injury treatment costs, (c) individuals’ income losses from missed work and (d) individuals’ protection against medical impoverishment. Methods and findings We used published secondary data from the literature to perform a retrospective extended cost-effectiveness analysis simulation study of the policy. Our model indicates that in the year following its introduction a helmet policy employing standard helmets likely prevented approximately 2200 deaths and 29 000 head injuries, saved individuals US$18 million in acute care costs and averted US$31 million in income losses. From a societal perspective, such a comprehensive helmet policy would have saved $11 000 per averted death or $830 per averted non-fatal injury. In terms of financial risk protection, traffic injury is so expensive to treat that any injury averted would necessarily entail a case of catastrophic health expenditure averted. Conclusions The high costs associated with traffic injury suggest that helmet legislation can decrease the burden of out-of-pocket payments and reduced injuries decrease the need for access to and coverage for treatment, allowing the government and individuals to spend resources elsewhere. These findings suggest that comprehensive motorcycle helmet policies should be adopted by low-income and middle-income countries where motorcycles are pervasive yet helmet use is less common. PMID:26728008

  17. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. PMID:24225523

  18. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    PubMed

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity. PMID:11038132

  19. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes. PMID:26561768

  20. Football acne--an acneiform eruption.

    PubMed

    Farber, G A; Burks, J W; Hegre, A M; Brown, G R

    1977-09-01

    Football acne is a peculiar form of localized acneiform eruption of the chin that occurs in acne-prone individuals, as a result of the use of a protective chin strap under conditions of physical and emotional stress. Perhaps it is a locus minoris resistentiae phenomenon. The condition responds favorably to the removal of the chin strap and to the usual topical and systemic acne therapies. PMID:142615

  1. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  2. Annotated Football Bibliography. An Applied Project in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemence, William J., Jr.; Pitts, James Walter

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to assist physical education majors, especially those having a major interest in football and football coaching. The bibliography is limited to the areas of coaching techniques and philosophy, fundamentals, offense, defense, injuries, and conditioning at the high school and college level. These broader…

  3. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  4. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  5. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  6. Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries, 1977-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    Football injuries which resulted in permanent spinal cord injury are reported in this survey, part of a concerted effort by individuals and research organizations to reduce the steady increase of football head and neck injuries since the late 1950s. In addition to the reporting of injuries, this document describes steps taken to eliminate the…

  7. A Personality Profile of Southeastern Conference Football Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittenbach, Richard F.; Eller, Ben F.

    Despite the importance of officiating, there is little information available on how major college football officials view their sport, themselves, and their role as officials. Southeastern Conference (SEC) football officials (N=39) responded to a survey packet consisting of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and a four-page profile of…

  8. Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; Van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; IJzerman, Maarten J; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of helmet therapy for positional skull deformation compared with the natural course of the condition in infants aged 5-6 months. Design Pragmatic, single blinded, randomised controlled trial (HEADS, HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) nested in a prospective cohort study. Setting 29 paediatric physiotherapy practices; helmet therapy was administered at four specialised centres. Participants 84 infants aged 5 to 6 months with moderate to severe skull deformation, who were born after 36 weeks of gestation and had no muscular torticollis, craniosynostosis, or dysmorphic features. Participants were randomly assigned to helmet therapy (n=42) or to natural course of the condition (n=42) according to a randomisation plan with blocks of eight. Interventions Six months of helmet therapy compared with the natural course of skull deformation. In both trial arms parents were asked to avoid any (additional) treatment for the skull deformation. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in skull shape from baseline to 24 months of age assessed using plagiocephalometry (anthropometric measurement instrument). Change scores for plagiocephaly (oblique diameter difference index) and brachycephaly (cranioproportional index) were each included in an analysis of covariance, using baseline values as the covariate. Secondary outcomes were ear deviation, facial asymmetry, occipital lift, and motor development in the infant, quality of life (infant and parent measures), and parental satisfaction and anxiety. Baseline measurements were performed in infants aged between 5 and 6 months, with follow-up measurements at 8, 12, and 24 months. Primary outcome assessment at 24 months was blinded. Results The change score for both plagiocephaly and brachycephaly was equal between the helmet therapy and natural course groups, with a mean difference of −0.2 (95% confidence interval −1.6 to 1.2, P=0.80) and 0.2 (−1.7 to 2.2, P=0

  9. Facial protection conferred by cycle safety helmets: use of digitized image processing to develop a new nondestructive test.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M; Shepherd, J P

    1997-07-01

    Cycle safety helmets are designed to prevent head injury. Although most commercially available helmets conform to one of several national and international standards, individual designs differ widely, particularly in relation to face coverage. A method was developed to assess the potential for the differing designs to protect the face from injury. A nonimpact test was assessed, using digitized image-processing software (Digithurst Ltd.) to measure the shadow cast by a helmet rim under a collimated plane light source onto the face of a mannequin headform. Twelve helmet designs available internationally were tested and ranked with respect to the direct protection conferred (area of the face directly covered by the helmet) and indirect protection (area of the face shaded). The three highest-ranking helmets for direct protection (Rosebank Stackhat, Asphalt Warrior, and Lazer Voyager) also ranked the highest for indirect protection. These helmets were more inferiorly extended and were of a more bulky construction. It was concluded that the dimensions of cycle helmets in relation to face coverage are crucial in influencing the extent to which facial protection is conferred. International test standards need urgent revision to ensure that face coverage is optimized. Lower-face protection could be achieved through incorporation of a lower-face bar to cycle helmets. PMID:9253912

  10. Helmet Mounted Displays: Evaluation Of Impact On The Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, John A.; Goldstein, Robert; Dunham, Douglas N.

    1989-03-01

    The helmet mounted display (HMD) system is designed to facilitate the acquisition of visual information. Instead of requiring gaze shifts to the instrument panel or HUD, specifiable information is available at approximately 0° vertically, and displayed on the helmet visor. Are pilots able to make use of this information without extensive training? If having such information available reduces workload, how does the pilot use the "released" time? To answer these questions, we collected steady state evoked responses (SSEP) to the rapidly flickering display, and also evaluated aspects of visual search as reflected in head and eye movements and eye blinks, in simulated flight. Why these variables are of utility and how they may be used will be described in the context of an evaluation made by our laboratory of the Kaiser HMD system. This was performed for AAMRL/HEA at the McDonnell-Douglas flight simulation facility in St. Louis. Data were collected on B-1 pilots flying "ingress" and "refueling" missions. Although we observed SSEPs in the laboratory, and could record EEG in the electrically noisy simulator environment, several factors prevented a clear demonstration of SSEP under simulation conditions and thus precluded a test of the technique as an index of workload. Specifically, there was less than optimal intensity and waveform of the display, and perhaps most important, there was considerable variablity in the angle of regard of the display due to normal scanning under flight conditions. For purposes of oculographic analysis, the ingress condition was divided into segments associated with approaches to waypoints, threat avoidance, and post-threat periods. Use of the HMD reduced horizontal and vertical visual search activity under all conditions except threat avoidance and post-threat recovery. A second measure, frequency of conjoint occurrence of eye blinks and eye movements, also discriminated the HMD from the nonHMD conditions. Our results suggest that pilots

  11. Cold-Water Immersion for Hyperthermic Humans Wearing American Football Uniforms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Swartz, Erik E.; Long, Blaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Context Current treatment recommendations for American football players with exertional heatstroke are to remove clothing and equipment and immerse the body in cold water. It is unknown if wearing a full American football uniform during cold-water immersion (CWI) impairs rectal temperature (Trec) cooling or exacerbates hypothermic afterdrop. Objective To determine the time to cool Trec from 39.5°C to 38.0°C while participants wore a full American football uniform or control uniform during CWI and to determine the uniform's effect on Trec recovery postimmersion. Design Crossover study. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 18 hydrated, physically active, unacclimated men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 178.8 ± 6.8 cm, mass = 82.3 ± 12.6 kg, body fat = 13% ± 4%, body surface area = 2.0 ± 0.2 m2). Intervention(s) Participants wore the control uniform (undergarments, shorts, crew socks, tennis shoes) or full uniform (control plus T-shirt; tennis shoes; jersey; game pants; padding over knees, thighs, and tailbone; helmet; and shoulder pads). They exercised (temperature approximately 40°C, relative humidity approximately 35%) until Trec reached 39.5°C. They removed their T-shirts and shoes and were then immersed in water (approximately 10°C) while wearing each uniform configuration; time to cool Trec to 38.0°C (in minutes) was recorded. We measured Trec (°C) every 5 minutes for 30 minutes after immersion. Main Outcome Measure(s) Time to cool from 39.5°C to 38.0°C and Trec. Results The Trec cooled to 38.0°C in 6.19 ± 2.02 minutes in full uniform and 8.49 ± 4.78 minutes in control uniform (t17 = −2.1, P = .03; effect size = 0.48) corresponding to cooling rates of 0.28°C·min−1 ± 0.12°C·min−1 in full uniform and 0.23°C·min−1 ± 0.11°C·min−1 in control uniform (t17 = 1.6, P = .07, effect size = 0.44). The Trec postimmersion recovery did not differ between conditions over time (F1,17 = 0.6, P = .59). Conclusions We

  12. Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO2 rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure. PMID:23680299

  13. Manufacturing development of visor for binocular helmet mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David; Edwards, Timothy; Larkin, Eric; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert; Sowden, Tom

    2007-09-01

    The HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) visor is a sophisticated article. It is both the optical combiner for the display and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The visor must have dimensional and optical tolerances commensurate with precision optics; and mechanical properties sufficient for a ballistic shield. Optimized processes and tooling are necessary in order to manufacture a functional visor. This paper describes the manufacturing development of the visor for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HMD. The analytical and experimental basis for the tool and manufacturing process development are described; as well as the metrological and testing methods to verify the visor design and function. The requirements for the F-35 JSF visor are a generation beyond those for the HMD visor which currently flies on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18. The need for greater precision is manifest in the requirements for the tooling and molding process for the visor. The visor is injection-molded optical polycarbonate, selected for its combination of optical, mechanical and environmental properties. Proper design and manufacture of the tool - the mold - is essential. Design of the manufacturing tooling is an iterative process between visor design, mold design, mechanical modeling and polymer-flow modeling. Iterative design and manufacture enable the mold designer to define a polymer shrinkage factor more precise than derived from modeling or recommended by the resin supplier.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA variation of Nigerian domestic helmeted guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Adeniyi C; Ommeh, Sheila C; Murphy, Robert W; Wu, Shi-Fang; Peng, Min-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed genetic diversity of 215 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from seven populations of domesticated helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Nigeria and compared that with results of samples collected in Kenya (n = 4) and China (n = 22). In total, 241 sequences were assigned to 22 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity in Nigeria was 0.693 ± 0.022. The network grouped most matrilines into two main haplogroups: A and B. There was an absence of a geographic signal, and two haplotypes dominated across all locations with the exception of the Kebbi population in the northwest of the country; AMOVA also confirmed this observation (FST  = 0.035). The low genetic diversity may be a result of recent domestication, whereas the lack of maternal genetic structure likely suggests the extensive genetic intermixing within the country. Additionally, the differentiation of the Kebbi population may be due to a certain demographic history and/or artificial selection that shaped its haplotype profile. The current data do not permit us to make further conclusions; therefore, more research evidence from genetics and archaeology is still required. PMID:26153528

  15. Argos 500: operation of a helmet vector-MEG.

    PubMed

    Pasquarelli, A; Rossi, R; De Melis, M; Marzetti, L; Trebeschi, A; Müller, H-P; Erné, S N

    2004-01-01

    We here describe the MEG system recently installed at the University of Ulm; it is specifically designed for clinical application and routine use, to allow investigation of a large number of patients per day. To reach this goal, the system design meets the requirements of reliability, high field sensitivity, minimal set-up time before each measurement and an easy-to-handle user interface. The sensor system consists of a 163 vector-magnetometers array oriented and located in a suitable way to cover the whole head of the patient. Four additional triplets are available as references to arrange software gradiometers. The helmet shaped sensor system is positioned to accommodate the patient in a supine position. Simultaneously to the MEG, there are 64 EEG channels. Other relevant patient information can be recorded up to a total number of 660 acquisition channels. Noise level of a single magnetometer is about 5 fT/square root of Hz. Maximum sampling rate is 4200 Hz. PMID:16012694

  16. Quest Airlock Reflected in STS-113 Astronaut Herrington's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this photograph, STS-113 astronaut and mission specialist John B. Herrington participates in the mission's first space walk. The opened hatch of the Quest Airlock can be seen reflected in Herrington's helmet visor. The airlock, located on the starboard side of the Unity Node I on the International Space Station (ISS), makes it easier to perform space walks, and allows both Russian and American space suits to be worn when the Shuttle is not docked with the ISS. American suits will not fit through Russian airlocks at the Station. STS-113, the 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the ISS, launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour. The main mission objective was the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1.

  17. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions. PMID:26284680

  18. FIFA's approach to doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, J; Graf‐Baumann, T; D'Hooghe, M; Kirkendall, D; Taennler, H; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives FIFA's anti‐doping strategy relies on education and prevention. A worldwide network of physicians guarantees doping control procedures that are straightforward and leave no place for cheating. FIFA actively acknowledges its responsibility to protect players from harm and ensure equal chances for all competitors by stringent doping control regulations, data collection of positive samples, support of research, and collaboration with other organisations. This article aims to outline FIFA's approach to doping in football. Method Description of FIFA's doping control regulations and procedures, statistical analysis of FIFA database on doping control, and comparison with data obtained by WADA accredited laboratories as for 2004. Results Data on positive doping samples per substance and confederation/nation documented at the FIFA medical office from 1994 to 2005 are provided. According to the FIFA database, the incidence of positive cases over the past 11 years was 0.12%, with about 0.42% in 2004 (based on the assumption of 20 750 samples per year) and 0.37% in 2005. Especially important in this regard is the extremely low incidence of the true performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids and stimulants. However, there is a need for more consistent data collection and cross checks among international anti‐doping agencies as well as for further studies on specific substances, methods, and procedures. With regard to general health impairments in players, FIFA suggests that principles of occupational medicine should be considered and treatment with banned substances for purely medical reasons should be permitted to enable players to carry out their profession. At the same time, a firm stand has to be taken against suppression of symptoms by medication with the aim of meeting the ever increasing demands on football players. Conclusion Incidence of doping in football seems to be low, but much closer collaboration and further

  19. Chondral Rib Fractures in Professional American Football

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Timothy R.; Deimel, Jay F.; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S.; Beaulieu, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. Purpose: To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians’ experiences. Results: Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Clinical Relevance: Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of

  20. VISTA/NF-16D programmable helmet-mounted display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alexander A.

    1997-06-01

    The VISTA/NV-16D is currently the newest in-flight simulator in the USAF inventory. This unique research aircraft will be fitted with the GEC-Marconi Avionics Programmable Display System. This equipment provides the capability to rapidly develop display concepts on both helmet-mounted display and head up displays in a dynamic flight test environment. The equipment provided includes an enhanced Viper II Helmet Mounted Display fitted to the HGU-86/P helmet. Display drive is provided by a very capable graphics generation system which also provides display drive to the standard F-16 Head Up Display. The system provides real time reprogrammable stroke and stroke on raster symbology on the HUD and on the HMD. The system is initially configured with monocular Stroke only HMD drive, but growth to dual HMD, stroke on video and binocular HMDs is available. The Honeywell Advanced Metal Tolerant Helmet Tracker System is integrated within the HMD Programmable Display System providing very accurate helmet orientation information to the graphics generator which is used for the display of space stabilized symbology when required. A fail safe backup display generator provides reversionary display on the HUD. This paper provides a detailed description of this equipment and also address some of the design techniques involved in developing this high performance system.

  1. Hockey STAR: A Methodology for Assessing the Biomechanical Performance of Hockey Helmets.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Bethany; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing the protective capabilities of helmets is one of several methods of reducing brain injury risk in sports. This paper presents the experimental and analytical development of a hockey helmet evaluation methodology. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) formula combines head impact exposure with brain injury probability over the broad range of 227 head impacts that a hockey player is likely to experience during one season. These impact exposure data are mapped to laboratory testing parameters using a series of 12 impact conditions comprised of three energy levels and four head impact locations, which include centric and non-centric directions of force. Injury risk is determined using a multivariate injury risk function that incorporates both linear and rotational head acceleration measurements. All testing parameters are presented along with exemplar helmet test data. The Hockey STAR methodology provides a scientific framework for manufacturers to optimize hockey helmet design for injury risk reduction, as well as providing consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of hockey helmets. PMID:25822907

  2. Quality-Adjusted Life-Years and Helmet Use Among Motorcyclists Sustaining Head Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Hwang, Jing-Shiang

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated loss of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) among motorcyclists in Taiwan who sustained head injuries while wearing or not wearing a helmet. Methods. Patients with head injuries (n = 3328) were grouped into categories representing good and poor outcomes (moderate disability or death) at discharge. After linkage with the National Mortality Registry, survival functions were determined and extrapolated over a 50-year period on the basis of the survival ratio between patients and age- and gender-matched reference populations, as calculated from available Taiwan vital statistics. Survival functions were then multiplied by scores from quality-of-life measures. Results. Percentages of good and poor outcomes were 87.2% and 12.8%, respectively, in the helmeted group and 66.4% and 33.6% in the nonhelmeted group. The mean QALE for helmeted motorcyclists, calculated by weighting percentages of good and poor outcomes, was 31.7 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with an average loss of 5.8 QALYs. For nonhelmeted motorcyclists, the mean QALE was 25.9 QALYs, with a loss of 10.7 QALYs. Conclusions. Helmet use could save approximately 5 QALYs among motorcyclists sustaining head injuries. Future cost-effectiveness analysis can calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regulation of helmet use. PMID:19910346

  3. Integration and test of a high-resolution helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Swail, Carl P.; Craig, Greg; Lasnier, S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the integration and proposed flight test of the Simulation Program for Improved Rotorcraft Integration Technology (SPIRIT) II helmet-mounted display on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205 Airborne Simulator. The helmet-mounted display is a wide field-of-view (80 degrees H X 41 degrees V with a 30 degree binocular overlap) high resolution display (1280 X 960 pixels in each eye). Colors are displayed using a field sequential process, whereby green and red laser light is pulsed and directed onto the surface of a reflective ferro-electric liquid crystal display. The prototype helmet-mounted display overlays red, amber, or green symbology on monochrome green imagery obtained from high resolution daylight cameras. The optical design of the display does not form an exit pupil. This allows the wearer greater freedom in movement and comfort due to looser helmet fit tolerances. The helmet-mounted display was integrated with a head tracker and camera platform to form a visually coupled system on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205. The integration process and flight test plan will be discussed.

  4. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; P<0.001) and of middle facial injury (OR, 1.97; P<0.001) as compared to helmet users. In the case of lower facial injury, however, only a slightly increased risk (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67-3.00, P=0.36) was observed. The abovementioned results can be attributed to the fact that a helmet covers the head and forehead but cannot cover the lower face. However, helmets having a chin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury. PMID:26217559

  5. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; P<0.001) and of middle facial injury (OR, 1.97; P<0.001) as compared to helmet users. In the case of lower facial injury, however, only a slightly increased risk (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67-3.00, P=0.36) was observed. The abovementioned results can be attributed to the fact that a helmet covers the head and forehead but cannot cover the lower face. However, helmets having a chin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury. PMID:26217559

  6. Dynamic Response Due to Behind Helmet Blunt Trauma Measured with a Human Head Surrogate

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Christopher J.; Mathis, James T.; Scott, Nikki; Bigger, Rory P.; MacKiewicz, James

    2014-01-01

    A Human Head Surrogate has been developed for use in behind helmet blunt trauma experiments. This human head surrogate fills the void between Post-Mortem Human Subject testing (with biofidelity but handling restrictions) and commercial ballistic head forms (with no biofidelity but ease of use). This unique human head surrogate is based on refreshed human craniums and surrogate materials representing human head soft tissues such as the skin, dura, and brain. A methodology for refreshing the craniums is developed and verified through material testing. A test methodology utilizing these unique human head surrogates is also developed and then demonstrated in a series of experiments in which non-perforating ballistic impact of combat helmets is performed with and without supplemental ceramic appliques for protecting against larger caliber threats. Sensors embedded in the human head surrogates allow for direct measurement of intracranial pressure, cranial strain, and head and helmet acceleration. Over seventy (70) fully instrumented experiments have been executed using this unique surrogate. Examples of the data collected are presented. Based on these series of tests, the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Human Head Surrogate has demonstrated great potential for providing insights in to injury mechanics resulting from non-perforating ballistic impact on combat helmets, and directly supports behind helmet blunt trauma studies. PMID:24688303

  7. The effects of a 4-year program promoting bicycle helmet use among children in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Farley, C; Haddad, S; Brown, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 4-year program of bicycle helmet promotion that targeted elementary school children in one region of Quebec. The program revolved primarily around persuasive communication and community organization, combining standard educational activities and activities to facilitate helmet acquisition and use. METHODS. Helmet use was compared between more than 8000 young cyclists in municipalities exposed or not exposed to the program. Factors influencing helmet use were controlled through the use of multivariate analyses. RESULTS. Helmet use increased from 1.3% before program implementation to 33% in 1993. The program was clearly effective in most cycling circumstances and for various groups of children. However, the benefits of the program were unequally distributed; the program was one third as effective in poorer municipalities as in "average-rich" ones. CONCLUSIONS. This community-based program that combined various types of activities appeared to be effective. New intervention models are needed to ensure an equitable distribution of benefits. PMID:8561241

  8. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    PubMed Central

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  9. Nutrition and Gaelic football: review, recommendations, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted. PMID:24901412

  10. Management of concussion in the professional football player.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Elizabeth M; Hanks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is no other sport that has come under greater scrutiny surrounding the incidence and treatment of concussion than football, and there is no other professional sports league that has experienced more intense focus of its handling of concussions than the National Football League (NFL). The NFL has received significant criticism of their management of concussion in players from both the popular press and the medical community. However, those working with active NFL players have changed their assessment and treatment of these injuries as the knowledge of concussions has evolved over time. We review the current approach to the management of concussions in the professional football player. PMID:24923402

  11. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  12. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  13. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  14. A local bicycle helmet 'law' in a Swedish municipality--the structure and process of initiation and implementation.

    PubMed

    Nolén, Sixten; Lindqvist, Kent

    2002-06-01

    On May 1, 1996, the Municipality of Motala in Sweden introduced a local bicycle helmet 'law.' It is, however, not an official law in a legal sense, but a municipally endorsed recommendation supported by promotional activities. This 'law' applies to children (ages 6-12), although the objective is to increase helmet use among cyclists of all ages. The study is a qualitative evaluation of the structure and process during initiation and implementation of the Motala bicycle helmet law. The aim was to describe the activities that were carried out, which actors took part and the opinions of the most closely involved actors. The results are based on analysis of written material and on interviews with eight of the actors. The mass media focused much attention on the bicycle helmet law, especially during the first six months after its introduction. The name helmet law was presumably of significance in this context. It is essential that relevant target groups provide sufficient support and that committed individuals initiate and promote the work, which, however, must not become dependent on a single individual. All issues concerning bicycle helmets should be coordinated with the law. Also, continuous engagement of the municipal government and a strategy for the control and follow-up of the law are needed. Local bicycle helmet laws of this type have a potential to produce a long-lasting effect on helmet use, provided some of the problems encountered can be avoided and some of the promotional activities are intensified. PMID:12461835

  15. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  16. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  17. Helmet-mounted display accuracy in the aircraft cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Fred F.

    2002-08-01

    When a Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) system is used in an aircraft cockpit, the usual intent is to overlay symbols or images in the display on their real-world object counterparts. The HMD system determines a pointing angle (in aircraft coordinates) to the real-world object. This pointing angle is sent to the Mission Computer (MC) for use by other aircraft systems and is used by the HMD to position symbology in the HMD image. The accuracy of the HMD is defined as the error of the pointing angle sent to the MC versus the real-world angle to the object. This error is usually given in terms of milli-radians (mrad). Note that having the symbol in the HMD image overlay the corresponding object in the real world does not necessarily ensure an accurate pointing angle. One example of HMD use is to position an aiming cross in the display over an aircraft in the sky. The pointing angle to that aircraft is sent via the MC to another sensor (radar, missile, targeting pod) which then locks onto that aircraft or object. The accuracy requirement is to get the other sensor pointed at an angle to detect the same aircraft. There are aircraft integration issues to ensure target acquisition, but these will not be covered in this paper. One component of the HMD system is a tracker system, and the tracker system's accuracy is often looked at as the HMD accuracy. However, the accuracy of the tracker system is only one piece of the total HMD system accuracy, and as trackers get better, they may not even be the largest error component. This paper identifies the various error components of the HMD system installed in the aircraft cockpit and discusses the techniques used for minimizing errors and improving accuracy.

  18. Acoustic sensors in the helmet detect voice and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed body-contacting acoustic sensors that detect diverse physiological sounds such as heartbeats and breaths, high quality speech, and activity. These sensors use an acoustic impedance-matching gel contained in a soft, compliant pad to enhance the body borne sounds, yet significantly repel airborne noises due to an acoustic impedance mismatch. The signals from such a sensor can be used as a microphone with embedded physiology, or a dedicated digital signal processor can process packetized data to separate physiological parameters from voice, and log parameter trends for performance surveillance. Acoustic sensors were placed inside soldier helmets to monitor voice, physiology, activity, and situational awareness clues such as bullet shockwaves from sniper activity and explosions. The sensors were also incorporated into firefighter breathing masks, neck and wrist straps, and other protective equipment. Heart rate, breath rate, blood pressure, voice and activity can be derived from these sensors (reports at www.arl.army.mil/acoustics). Having numerous sensors at various locations provides a means for array processing to reduce motion artifacts, calculate pulse transit time for passive blood pressure measurement, and the origin of blunt/penetrating traumas such as ballistic wounding. These types of sensors give us the ability to monitor soldiers and civilian emergency first-responders in demanding environments, and provide vital signs information to assess their health status and how that person is interacting with the environment and mission at hand. The Objective Force Warrior, Scorpion, Land Warrior, Warrior Medic, and other military and civilian programs can potentially benefit from these sensors.

  19. Flight instruments and helmet-mounted SWIR imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tim; Green, John; Jacobson, Mickey; Grabski, Greg

    2011-06-01

    Night vision technology has experienced significant advances in the last two decades. Night vision goggles (NVGs) based on gallium arsenide (GaAs) continues to raise the bar for alternative technologies. Resolution, gain, sensitivity have all improved; the image quality through these devices is nothing less than incredible. Panoramic NVGs and enhanced NVGs are examples of recent advances that increase the warfighter capabilities. Even with these advances, alternative night vision devices such as solid-state indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) focal plane arrays are under development for helmet-mounted imaging systems. The InGaAs imaging system offers advantages over the existing NVGs. Two key advantages are; (1) the new system produces digital image data, and (2) the new system is sensitive to energy in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectrum. While it is tempting to contrast the performance of these digital systems to the existing NVGs, the advantage of different spectral detection bands leads to the conclusion that the technologies are less competitive and more synergistic. It is likely, by the end of the decade, pilots within a cockpit will use multi-band devices. As such, flight decks will need to be compatible with both NVGs and SWIR imaging systems. Insertion of NVGs in aircraft during the late 70's and early 80's resulted in many "lessons learned" concerning instrument compatibility with NVGs. These "lessons learned" ultimately resulted in specifications such as MIL-L-85762A and MIL-STD-3009. These specifications are now used throughout industry to produce NVG-compatible illuminated instruments and displays for both military and civilian applications. Inserting a SWIR imaging device in a cockpit will require similar consideration. A project evaluating flight deck instrument compatibility with SWIR devices is currently ongoing; aspects of this evaluation are described in this paper. This project is sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL).

  20. Bikes, helmets, and public health: decision-making when goods collide.

    PubMed

    Bateman-House, Alison

    2014-06-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods. PMID:24825196

  1. Complications associated with molding helmet therapy for positional plagiocephaly: a review.

    PubMed

    Gump, William C; Mutchnick, Ian S; Moriarty, Thomas M

    2013-10-01

    Molding helmet therapy is a widely accepted treatment for positional plagiocephaly that is generally considered to be low risk. Multiple large outcome studies have shown good results, but adverse events are rarely reported. The literature on helmet therapy was reviewed to clarify the clinical experience with associated complications. Although significant complications were extremely rare, there was a large degree of variability in detection of lesser problems such as minor skin irritation. Patients with a primarily brachycephalic morphology may be at higher risk for poorly fitting orthoses. Most reported complications are minor and self-limited. Maintenance of good helmet hygiene appears to be the most effective strategy for reducing or eliminating complications. PMID:24079782

  2. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  3. Bikes, Helmets, and Public Health: Decision-Making When Goods Collide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods. PMID:24825196

  4. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  5. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  6. Analysis and Design of Phase Change Thermal Control for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Spacesuit Helmet Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.

    2010-01-01

    LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.

  7. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158807.html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive non-concussive impacts To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football. PMID:27547675

  9. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  10. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive ... Repeated blows to the head can cause near vision to blur slightly, even if the individual impacts ...

  11. Hidden power law patterns in the top European football leagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Silveira, Eliza

    2013-11-01

    Because sports are stylized combat, sports may follow power laws similar to those found for wars, individual clashes, and acts of terrorism. We show this fact for football (soccer) by adjusting power laws that show a close relationship between rank and points won by the clubs participating in the latest seasons of the top fifteen European football leagues. In addition, we use Shannon entropy for gauging league competitive balance. As a result, we are able to rank the leagues according to competitiveness.

  12. The physiological demands of Gaelic football.

    PubMed Central

    Florida-James, G; Reilly, T

    1995-01-01

    Match-lay demands of Gaelic football and fitness profiles were assessed at club competitive level. English Gaelic football club championship players (n = 11) were assessed for anthropometry, leg strength and time to exhaustion on a treadmill run. A similar test battery was administered to a reference group of University competitive soccer players (n = 12). Heart rate was recorded during match-play using radio telemetry and blood lactate concentrations were determined at half-time and after full-time. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the Gaelic and soccer players in: body mass (70.7 +/- 10.3 vs 76.6 +/- 10.3 kg); height (176 +/- 5.9 vs 177.7 +/- 6.4 cm); leg to trunk ratio (0.53 +/- 0.01 vs 0.54 +/- 0.03); adiposity (12.2 +/- 2.1 vs 13.5 +/- 3.2% body fat); mean somatotype (2.8 - 4.3-2.0 vs 2.4-4.2-2.4); leg strength measures; and performance on the treadmill. The percentage muscle mass values were lower for the Gaelic players compared to the soccer players (41.9 +/- 5.4 vs 47.3 +/- 5.2%; p > 0.005). For the Gaelic and soccer players, respectively, mean heart rate recorded during each half of match-play were (157 +/- 10 and 158 +/- 12 beats/min) and (164 +/- 10 and 157 +/- 11 beats/min), whilst blood lactates measured at the end of each half, were (4.3 +/- 1 and 3.4 +/- 1.6 mmol/l) and (4.4 +/- 1.2 and 4.5 +/- 2.1 mmol/l). Gaelic footballers at English club championship level seem to exhibit similar fitness profiles, and are subject to broadly similar physiological demands as University-level competitive soccer players. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5&6 PMID:7788217

  13. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  14. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  15. Comanche Helmet-Mounted Display Heading-Tape Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, Terry; Dowell, Susan; Atencio, Adolph

    2006-01-01

    The Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMRDEC) conducted a simulation to assess the performance associated with a Contact Analog, world-referenced heading tape as implemented on the Comanche Helmet Integrated Display Sight System (HIDSS) when compared with a Compressed heading tape similar to that specified by the former Military Standard (MIL-STD) 1295. Six experienced pilots flew three modified Aeronautical Design Standards (ADS)-33 maneuvers (Hover Turn, Bob-up, Transient Turn) and a precision traffic pattern in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Analysis of the pilot objective performance data and subjective handling qualities ratings (HQRs) showed the following: Compressed symbology in the Velocity Stabilization (VelStab) flight mode generally produced the most precise performances over Contact Analog symbology with respect to the heading, altitude, position, and time criteria specified for the maneuvers tested. VelStab outperformed the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) on all maneuvers achieving desired performance on most maneuvers for both symbol sets. Performance in the AFCS mode was generally desirable to adequate for heading and altitude and did not meet adequate standards for hover position and time for the Hover Turn and Bob-up maneuvers. VelStab and AFCS performance were nearly the same for the Transient Turn. Pilot comments concerning the Contact Analog heading-tape implementation were generally unfavorable in spite of the achieved levels of performance. HQRs showed Compressed symbology in the VelStab flight mode produced the lowest mean HQR, encompassing mixed ratings of satisfactory handling and needing improvement. All other symbology/flight-mode combinations yielded higher HQRs, which characterized opinions that deficiencies in aircraft handling due to HMD symbology would need improvement. Contact Analog heading tape and other symbology require improvement, especially when operating in the AFCS mode. NASA-TLX rated Compressed symbology

  16. Football goal distributions and extremal statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhough, J.; Birch, P. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.

    2002-12-01

    We analyse the distributions of the number of goals scored by home teams, away teams, and the total scored in the match, in domestic football games from 169 countries between 1999 and 2001. The probability density functions (PDFs) of goals scored are too heavy-tailed to be fitted over their entire ranges by Poisson or negative binomial distributions which would be expected for uncorrelated processes. Log-normal distributions cannot include zero scores and here we find that the PDFs are consistent with those arising from extremal statistics. In addition, we show that it is sufficient to model English top division and FA Cup matches in the seasons of 1970/71-2000/01 on Poisson or negative binomial distributions, as reported in analyses of earlier seasons, and that these are not consistent with extremal statistics.

  17. The major traumas in youth football.

    PubMed

    Volpi, P; Pozzoni, R; Galli, M

    2003-11-01

    For 4 years we followed a group of football players in the youth division of a professional club, ranging in age from 9 to 19 years, and analyzed the major injuries, i.e., those which required them to be sidelined for at least 4 weeks. We observed 23 sprains, 16 fractures, 16 cases of osteochondrosis, 7 muscle lesions, 6 cases of groin pain (athletic pubalgia), and 4 tendonopathies. The most frequent sites were the knee (n=30) and the ankle (n=11); the trauma factor was predominant (65.2%) with respect to overuse; noncontact traumas were more numerous (63.8%) than those resulting from contrast. Of a total 72 cases 8 regarded goalkeepers, and the remaining 64 cases were distributed among the other positions. As regards the age categories we detected a prevalence of osteochondrosis, traumatic detachments, and some fractures in the younger players, while in the older athletes we observed more sprains, muscle lesions, and tendonopathies. PMID:14618321

  18. Medicolegal aspects of doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Graf‐Baumann, T

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase inhibitors for male pattern baldness in the face of the classification of finasteride as a forbidden masking agent; and lastly, the increasing use of recreational drugs and its social and legal implications in positive cases. PMID:16799105

  19. Hamstring Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Steven B.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Zoga, Adam; Irrgang, Jay J.; Makda, Junaid; Deluca, Peter F.; Bradley, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for detailed evaluation of hamstring injuries; however, there is no classification that allows prediction of return to play. Purpose: To correlate time for return to play in professional football players with MRI findings after acute hamstring strains and to create an MRI scoring scale predictive of return to sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Methods: Thirty-eight professional football players (43 cases) sustained acute hamstring strains with MRI evaluation. Records were retrospectively reviewed, and MRIs were evaluated by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists, graded with a traditional radiologic grade, and scored with a new MRI score. Results were correlated with games missed. Results: Players missed 2.6 ± 3.1 games. Based on MRI, the hamstring injury involved the biceps femoris long head in 34 cases and the proximal and distal hamstrings in 25 and 22 cases, respectively. When < 50% of the muscle was involved, the average number of games missed was 1.8; if > 75%, then 3.2. Ten players had retraction, missing 5.5 games. By MRI, grade I injuries yielded an average of 1.1 missed games; grade II, 1.7; and grade III, 6.4. Players who missed 0 or 1 game had an MRI score of 8.2; 2 or 3 games, 11.1; and 4 or more games, 13.9. Conclusions: Rapid return to play (< 1 week) occurred with isolated long head of biceps femoris injures with < 50% of involvement and minimal perimuscular edema, correlating to grade I radiologic strain (MRI score < 10). Prolonged recovery (missing > 2 or 3 games) occurs with multiple muscle injury, injuries distal to musculotendinous junction, short head of biceps injury, > 75% involvement, retraction, circumferential edema, and grade III radiologic strain (MRI score > 15). Clinical Relevance: MRI grade and this new MRI score are useful in determining severity of injury and games missed—and, ideally, predicting time missed from sports. PMID:23016038

  20. "Upbuilding Examples" for Adults Close to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wivestad, Stein M.

    2013-01-01

    Both in formal situations (as school teachers, football trainers, etc.) and in many, often unpredictable informal situations (both inside and outside institutions)--adults come close to children. Whether we intend it or not, we continually give them examples of what it is to live as a human being, and thereby we have a pedagogical responsibility.…

  1. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197.322 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322...

  2. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197.322 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322...

  3. Physiological and comfort effects of a commercial "cooling cap" worn under protective helmets.

    PubMed

    Wickwire, P J; Bishop, P A; Green, J M; Richardson, M T; Lomax, R G; Casaru, C; Curtner-Smith, M

    2009-08-01

    Ballistic protective helmets can impair heat dissipation. A cooling device in the helmet (cooling pad, CP) could help prevent heat problems in military personnel and potentially enhance comfort. This study examined the effects of CP on rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, percent change in plasma volume, urine specific gravity, rating of perceived exertion, and other subjective measures while performing light work in a hot environment. It was hypothesized that the CP would act as an insulator to the head, which would not positively affect any physiological variable but could positively affect wearer subjective comfort or temperature. Participants performed a work protocol for approximately 2 hr. A ballistic vest, slacks, short-sleeved button-up shirt, and a ballistic helmet (one trial with CP and one trial without) were worn. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no differences (p > 0.05) between wearing and not wearing the CP for any physiological parameter. However, participants perceived the CP as cooler (p = 0.002). Other trends in perceptual data such as thermal strain and helmet comfort indicated the CP felt cooler. However, based on forehead temperature and participant comments, the CP lost its cooling ability relatively quickly (within approximately 30 min). PMID:19412861

  4. The differences between storms driven by helmet streamer CIRs and storms driven by pseudostreamer CIRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.; Denton, Michael H.

    2013-09-01

    A corotating interaction region (CIR) is formed when fast coronal hole origin solar wind overtakes slow solar wind and forms a region of compressed plasma and magnetic field. The slow wind upstream of the coronal hole fast wind can be either of helmet streamer origin or pseudostreamer origin. For a collection of 125 CIR-driven geomagnetic storms, the slow wind ahead of each CIR is examined; for those storm not containing ejecta, each CIR is categorized as a helmet streamer CIR (74 of the 125 storms) or a pseudostreamer CIR (11 of the 125 storms). Separate superposed epoch studies are performed on the two groups to discern the differences between storms driven by pseudostreamer CIRs and those driven by helmet streamer CIRs. A major difference is that pseudostreamer CIR storms tend not to have a calm before the storm, so the outer plasmasphere does not refill before storm onset, and the outer electron radiation belt does not exhibit a pre-storm decay. The superdense plasma sheet is weaker for pseudostreamer CIR storms, and the dropout of the electron radiation belt is weaker. Pseudostreamer CIR storms and helmet streamer CIR storms tend to be of the same strength as measured by the magnitude of Kp, MBI (midnight boundary index), or Dst.

  5. Motorcycle-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries: Helmet Use and Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, Mathias Ogbonna Nnanna; Bankole, Olufemi Babatola; Fente, Beleudanyo Gbalipre

    2015-01-01

    Summary. With increasing use of motorcycle as means of transport in developing countries, traumatic brain injuries from motorcycle crashes have been increasing. The only single gadget that protects riders from traumatic brain injury is crash helmet. Objective. The objectives were to determine the treatment outcome among traumatic brain injury patients from motorcycle crashes and the rate of helmet use among them. Methods. It was a prospective, cross-sectional study of motorcycle-related traumatic brain injury patients managed in our center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were managed using our unit protocol for traumatic brain injuries. Data for the study were collected in accident and emergency, intensive care unit, wards, and outpatient clinic. The data were analyzed using Environmental Performance Index (EPI) info 7 software. Results. Ninety-six patients were studied. There were 87 males. Drivers were 65. Only one patient wore helmet. Majority of them were between 20 and 40 years. Fifty-three patients had mild head injuries. Favorable outcome among them was 84.35% while mortality was 12.5%. Severity of the injury affected the outcome significantly. Conclusion. Our study showed that the helmet use by motorcycle riders was close to zero despite the existing laws making its use compulsory in Nigeria. The outcome was related to severity of injuries. PMID:26317112

  6. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and...

  7. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical...

  8. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...

  9. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197.322 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322...

  10. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197.322 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322...

  11. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197.322 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... is not distorted by the eyepieces. (b) All eyepieces of gas masks combinations shall be designed and constructed to be impact and penetration resistant. Federal Specification, Mask, Air Line: and Respirator,...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... is not distorted by the eyepieces. (b) All eyepieces of gas masks combinations shall be designed and constructed to be impact and penetration resistant. Federal Specification, Mask, Air Line: and Respirator,...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... is not distorted by the eyepieces. (b) All eyepieces of gas masks combinations shall be designed and constructed to be impact and penetration resistant. Federal Specification, Mask, Air Line: and Respirator,...

  15. 76 FR 35023 - National Institute of Justice Protective Helmet Standards Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting a workshop focused on NIJ protective helmet standards. It is anticipated that the discussion at the workshop will be directed primarily toward manufacturers, certification bodies, and test laboratories. NIJ and NIST are hosting this workshop specifically to discuss with......

  16. A New Method for Breath Capture Inside a Space Suit Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filburn, Tom; Dolder, Craig; Tufano, Brett; Paul, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    This project investigates methods to capture an astronaut's exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) before it becomes diluted with the high volumetric oxygen flow present within a space suit. Typical expired breath contains CO2 partial pressures (pCO2) in the range of 20-35 mm Hg. This research investigates methods to capture the concentrated CO2 gas stream prior to its dilution with the low pCO2 ventilation flow. Specifically this research is looking at potential designs for a collection cup for use inside the space suit helmet. The collection cup concept is not the same as a breathing mask typical of that worn by firefighters and pilots. It is well known that most members of the astronaut corps view a mask as a serious deficiency in any space suit helmet design. Instead, the collection cup is a non-contact device that will be designed using a detailed Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of the ventilation flow environment within the helmet. The CFD code, Fluent, provides modeling of the various gas species (CO2, water vapor, and oxygen (O2)) as they pass through a helmet. This same model will be used to numerically evaluate several different collection cup designs for this same CO2 segregation effort. A new test rig will be built to test the results of the CFD analyses and validate the collection cup designs. This paper outlines the initial results and future plans of this work.

  17. Blast-Induced Pressure Fields Beneath a Military Helmet for Non-Lethal Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, David; Schwer, Douglas; Young, Theodore; Levine, Jeffrey; Dionne, Jean-Philippe; Makris, Aris; Hubler, Graham

    2008-11-01

    Coordinated experiments and numerical simulations investigated the pressure field surrounding a head with a helmet subjected to a blast wave typical of injurious but non-lethal threats. Experiments were conducted with C4 explosive charges ranging from 0.75 kg to 5 kg, and two anthropomorphic test mannequins (Hybrid III) located 3 m from the explosive. Experimental diagnostics included pressure sensors mounted at selected locations around each mannequin's head and in the free-field. Numerical modeling was done using a two-step approach. First, the blast and ground reflection were computed using a multi-component, reacting flow model. Second, the results were used to specify the boundary conditions for a three-dimensional unsteady simulation of the head-helmet complex subjected to a blast wave. The helmet was shown to provide protection against primary blast injury both in computations and experiments. The simulations indicate that pressure waves entering the gap between the helmet and head focus on the side of the head away from the blast and produce pressures comparable to that experienced on unprotected surfaces subjected to the blast.

  18. Community-based programmes to promote use of bicycle helmets in children aged 0-14 years: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Anneliese; Turner, Cathy; McClure, Rod; Acton, Caroline; Nixon, Jim

    2005-09-01

    Hospital-based research has shown that wearing a helmet reduces the risk of head injury in bicycle riders. These studies have provided the impetus for community-wide interventions to increase the numbers of cyclists who wear helmets; however, the effectiveness of such programmes is undetermined. This study employs extensive search strategies to review the scientific literature to establish the effectiveness of community-wide programmes to increase helmet use among cyclists. Thirteen community-wide intervention studies using substantive methodologies were located in 16 published papers. The community-wide interventions include mandating helmet wearing, education campaigns, distribution of free or subsidized helmets or, more frequently, combinations of all of these methods of influence. All studies reported success in influencing helmet wearing across communities. However, none of the studies reveals enough detail of the mix or techniques employed in the interventions to replicate the interventions. While it is encouraging that all of the studies showed positive results, the way forward for further implementation of helmet wearing is for adequate documentation of successful interventions. PMID:16335431

  19. Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p<0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p<0.001), and a 22-32% reduction in neck loading (p<0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

  20. A Novel Method for Quantifying Helmeted Field of View of a Spacesuit - And What It Means for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2010-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmet design, and in particular spacesuit design, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. Historically, suited field of view has been evaluated either qualitatively in parallel with design or quantitatively using various test methods and protocols. As such, oftentimes legacy suit field of view information is either ambiguous for lack of supporting data or contradictory to other field of view tests performed with different subjects and test methods. This paper serves to document a new field of view testing method that is more reliable and repeatable than its predecessors. It borrows heavily from standard ophthalmologic field of vision tests such as the Goldmann kinetic perimetry test, but is designed specifically for evaluating field of view of a spacesuit helmet. In this test, four suits utilizing three different helmet designs were tested for field of view. Not only do these tests provide more reliable field of view data for legacy and prototype helmet designs, they also provide insight into how helmet design impacts field of view and what this means for the Constellation Project spacesuit helmet, which must meet stringent field of view requirements that are more generous to the crewmember than legacy designs.

  1. Outcome analysis after helmet therapy using 3D photogrammetry in patients with deformational plagiocephaly: the role of root mean square.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet. PMID:24411583

  2. Angular Impact Mitigation System for Bicycle Helmets to Reduce Head Acceleration and Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M.; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p < 0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p < 0.001), and a 22% to 32% reduction in neck loading (p < 0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

  3. Bicycle helmet use and bicycling-related injury among young Canadians: an equity analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cycling is a major activity for adolescents in Canada and potential differences exist in bicycling-related risk and experience of injury by population subgroup. The overall aim of this study was to inform health equity interventions by profiling stratified analytic methods and identifying potential inequities associated with bicycle-related injury and the use of bicycle helmets among Canadian youth. The two objectives of this study were: (1) To examine national patterns in bicycle ridership and also bicycle helmet use among Canadian youth in a stratified analysis by potentially vulnerable population subgroups, and (2) To examine bicycling-related injury in the same population subgroups of Canadian youth in order to identify possible health inequities. Methods Data for this study were obtained from the 6th cycle (2009/10) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, which is a general health survey that was completed by 26,078 students in grades 6–10 from 436 Canadian schools. Based on survey responses, we determined point prevalence for bicycle ridership, bicycle helmet use and relative risks for bicycling-related injury. Results Three quarters of all respondents were bicycle riders (n=19,410). Independent factors associated with bicycle ridership among students include being male, being a younger student, being more affluent, and being a resident of a small town. Among bicycle riders, 43% (95%CI ± 0.6%) reported never wearing and 32% (± 0.6%) inconsistently wearing a helmet. Only 26% (± 0.5%) of students reported always wearing a bicycle helmet. Helmets were less frequently used among older students and there were also important patterns by sex, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Adjusting for all other demographic characteristics, boys reported 2.02-fold increase (95% CI: 1.61 to 1.90) and new immigrants a 1.35-fold increase (95%CI: 1.00 to1.82) in the relative risk of bicycling-related injury in the past 12 months

  4. Impact of severity and therapy onset on helmet therapy in positional plagiocephaly.

    PubMed

    Freudlsperger, Christian; Steinmacher, Sahra; Saure, Daniel; Bodem, Jens P; Kühle, Reinald; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Engel, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although helmet therapy is a widely established method in the treatment of positional plagiocephaly, therapeutic regimens remain contentious, especially regarding starting age. Hence, this study investigated the impact of starting age and severity on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. A total of 213 pediatric patients treated for positional plagiocephaly with an orthotic device were enrolled in this study. Pre- and post-treatment calvarial asymmetry was measured according to the Cranial Vault Asymmetry Index (CVAI) using 3D-Photogrammetry. Patients were classified by age at which treatment was started: Group 1 was comprised of patients younger than 24 weeks (n = 82); Group 2, those aged 24-32 weeks (n = 75); Group 3, those aged >32 weeks (n = 56). Additionally, groups were categorized by severity (mild: CVAI 3-7%; moderate: CVAI 7-12%; severe: CVAI > 12%). Mean initial CVAI was 9.8%, which reduced to 5.4% after helmet treatment. Group 1 (<24 weeks) showed the highest absolute and relative rate of correction. Within the groups, severity correlated positively with relative and absolute reduction of the asymmetry. A significant difference in the reduction of the CVAI depending on age was only seen in moderate and severe cases of plagiocephaly- but not in mild plagiocephaly. The present study confirms the effectiveness of helmet therapy for positional plagiocephaly. The use of an orthotic device is an appropriate treatment option particularly in infants with severe plagiocephaly and a start of helmet therapy before the age of 6 month is advisable. PMID:26724211

  5. Simulation of the effects of different pilot helmets on neck loading during air combat.

    PubMed

    Mathys, R; Ferguson, S J

    2012-09-21

    New generation pilot helmets with mounted devices enhance the capabilities of pilots substantially. However, the additional equipment increases the helmet weight and shifts its center of mass forward. Two helmets with different mass properties were modeled to simulate their effects on the pilot's neck. A musculoskeletal computer model was used, with the methods of inverse dynamics and static optimization, to compute the muscle activations and joint reaction forces for a given range of quasi-static postures at various accelerations experienced during air combat. Head postures which induce much higher loads on the cervical spine than encountered in a neutral position could be identified. The increased weight and the forward shift of the center of mass of a new generation helmet lead to higher muscle activations and higher joint reaction loads over a wide range of head and neck movements. The muscle activations required to balance the head and neck in extreme postures increased the compressive force at the T1-C7 level substantially, while in a neutral posture the muscle activations remained low. The lateral neck muscles can reach activations of 100% and cause compressive joint forces up to 1100N during extensive rotations and extensions at high 'vertical' accelerations (Gz). The calculated values have to be interpreted with care as the model has not been validated. Nevertheless, this systematic analysis could separate the effects of head posture, acceleration and helmet mass on neck loading. More reliable data about mass properties and muscle morphometry with a more detailed motion analysis would help to refine the existing model. PMID:22840756

  6. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2008-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmet design, and in particular space suit design, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a slightly different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view is required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited FOV, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was able to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables without sacrificing fidelity. The specific field of view angles were defined by considering mission segment activities, historical performance of other suits, comparison between similar requirements (pressure visor up versus down, etc.), estimated requirements from other teams for field of view (Orion, Altair, EVA), previous field of view tests, medical data for shirtsleeve field of view performance, and mapping of visual field data to generate 45degree off-axis field of view requirements. Full resolution of several specific field of view angle requirements warranted further work, which consisted of low and medium fidelity field of view testing in the rear entry ISuit and DO27 helmet prototype. This paper serves to document this reduction progress and followup testing employed to write the Constellation requirements for helmet field of view.

  7. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  8. The G. I. Bill and College Football: The Birth of a Spectator Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Donald S.

    1984-01-01

    College football became a popular spectator sport after World War II with the return of veterans to college. Financial help was provided by the G. I. Bill, which led to older, more experienced students playing football. This article explores how the G. I. Bill helped make college football the popular sport it is today. (DF)

  9. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  10. Severe and Catastrophic Neck Injuries Resulting from Tackle Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torg, Joseph S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Use of the spring-loaded blocking and tackling devices should be discontinued due to severe neck injuries resulting from their use; employment of the head and helmet as the primary assault weapon in blocking, tackling, and head butting should be condemned for the same reason. (MJB)

  11. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (P< 0.01) in ET than UT, respectively. Cardiac dimensions and function were greater in ET than UT, with left ventricular diastolic diameter, right ventricular diastolic diameter, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and peak transmitral flow in early diastole divided by peak transmitral flow velocity in late diastole during atrial contraction (E/A-ratio) being 13, 19, 27 and 41%, respectively, greater in ET than UT (P< 0.001 to< 0.05). Yo-Yo IE2 performance was 7-fold higher in ET than UT (1772 ± 508 vs. 234 ± 66 m, P< 0.001), fat mass was 51% lower (P< 0.001) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were 20% higher (P< 0.01). Sixteen weeks of football elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status. PMID:23829646

  12. Integration, development, and qualification of the helmet-mounted sight and display on the Rooivalk Attack Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Timothy K.; Van Zyl, Petrus H.; Cross, Trevor

    2001-08-01

    The Rooivalk Attack Helicopter is designed and manufactured by Denel Aviation of South Africa, and in service with the South African Air Force. The Helmet Mounted Sight and Display (HMSD) hardware is manufactured by Sextant Avionique of France. The HMSD symbology is developed by Denel Aviation and is specific to the weapons and roles of the aircraft. The HMSD has visor projected NVG and PNVS images, and Flight and Weapon Symbology incorporating head slaved weapon aiming, helmet-to-helmet cueing, and helmet to main sight cueing. The NVG/PNVS image selection and main image controls are incorporated in the flight controls. The paper gives an overview of the aircraft visionic design and describes the integration process. The development of the displayed flight and weapon symbols is discussed. Aeronautical Design Standard 33E was chosen as a basis for the qualification process, and the development of the qualification criteria and the flight testing program are discussed.

  13. Web-based survey of visual symptoms reported by Apache aviators using the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Suggs, Christie L.

    2002-08-01

    A web-based study was conducted to determine the continuing presence and frequency of visual complaints reported by pilots using the monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display (HMD) of the AH-64 Apache helicopter. A total of 216 pilots responded to the survey, which addressed areas of visual symptoms experienced during and/or after flight, helmet fit, and acoustics. Ninety-two percent of the pilots responding to the survey reported at least one visual symptom. The most frequently reported symptom for both during and after flight was visual discomfort. One out of four respondents reported having some difficulty in purposefully alternating between visual inputs to the two eyes. Approximately two-thirds of the pilots responding expressed reasonable satisfaction with their current helmet fit.

  14. Anti-fog composition. [for prevention of fogging on surfaces such as space helmet visors and windshields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, H. D.; Carmin, D. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An anti-fog composition is described for the prevention of fogging on surfaces such as space helmet visors, spacecraft windows, and windshields. It is composed of a surface active agent, water, and an oil time extender.

  15. Perceptual Responses While Wearing an American Football Uniform in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Evan C.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Lee, Elaine C.; Lopez, Rebecca M.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Casa, Douglas J.; Maresh, Carl M.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: The protective equipment worn during American football has been shown to increase thermal strain; however, the perception of this increased heat has not been examined. Objective: To evaluate perceptual responses of American football players while wearing different uniforms during exercise in the heat and to evaluate how these responses may be used to monitor athlete safety. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men with more than 3 years of competitive experience as football linemen (age  =  23.8 ± 1.3 years, height  =  183.9 ± 1.8 cm, mass  =  117.4 ± 3.5 kg, body fat  =  30.1% ± 1.7%) participated. Intervention(s): On 3 occasions in hot, humid (33°C, 48%–49% relative humidity) environmental conditions, participants completed 10 minutes of strenuous repetitive box lifting (RBL), 10 minutes of seated rest, and up to 60 minutes of treadmill walking. At each trial, they wore a different uniform condition: control (CON) clothing comprising shorts, socks, and sneakers; partial (PART) National Football League (NFL) uniform comprising the uniform without helmet or shoulder pads; or full (FULL) NFL uniform. Exercise, meals, and hydration status were controlled. Main Outcome Measure(s): Rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal perception (THM), perception of thirst (TST), and perception of muscle pain (MPN) were obtained for time points matched across trials. Results: Nineteen of the 30 trials ended before 60 minutes of treadmill walking as a result of participant exhaustion. Mean treadmill time was longer for the CON condition (51.7 ± 13.4 minutes) than for the PART (43.1 ± 15.6 minutes; t9  =  3.092, P  =  .01) or the FULL (36.2 ± 13.2 minutes; t9  =  4.393, P  =  .002) conditions. Neck and forearm Tsk increased between the initial time point and the end of exercise in the

  16. An integrated helmet and neck support (iHANS) for racing car drivers: a biomechanical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Newman, James A; Withnall, Christopher; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-10-01

    A new form of head and neck protection for racing car drivers is examined. The concept is one whereby the helmet portion of the system is attached, by way of a quick release clamp, to a collar-like platform which is supported on the driver's shoulders. The collar, which encircles the back and sides of the driver's neck, is held in place by way of the on-board restraint belts. The interior of the helmet portion of the assembly is large enough to provide adequate volitional head motion. The overall objective of the design is to remove the helmet from the wearer's head and thereby to mitigate the deleterious features of helmet wearing such as neck fatigue, poor ventilation and aerodynamic buffeting. Just as importantly, by transferring the weight of the helmet and all attendant reaction forces associated with inertial and impact loads to the shoulder complex (instead of to the neck), reduced head and neck injury probability should be achievable. This paper describes the concept development and the evolution of various prototype designs. Prototypes have been evaluated on track and sled tested in accordance with contemporary head neck restraint systems practice. Also discussed is a series of direct impact tests. In addition, low mass high velocity ballistic tests have been conducted and are reviewed herein. It is concluded that this new concept indeed does address most of the drawbacks of the customary helmet and that it generally can reduce the probability of head and neck injury. PMID:23625570

  17. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. PMID:26496484

  18. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health. PMID:24784464

  19. Monitoring of Lower Limb Comfort and Injury in Elite Football

    PubMed Central

    Kinchington, Michael; Ball, Kevin; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI) to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day). A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union). The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77) and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18). The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury. Key points Comfort as a method to determine the well-being of athletes has a role in injury management. A lower limb comfort index is a mechanism by which lower limb comfort can be evaluated. Poor lower limb comfort is associated with injury in professional football. The use of a comfort as a marker of athlete health has practical and clinical relevance to sports medicine professionals managing musculoskeletal injury. PMID:24149793

  20. Physical and fitness characteristics of successful Gaelic footballers.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A W

    1995-01-01

    Anthropometric and fitness observations were made on 32 members of a top level Gaelic football squad that reached the All Ireland final in the year in which these measurements were taken. The subjects were found to be large and well muscled with a mean somatotype of 2.6:5.6:3.1 (endomorphy:mesomorphy:ectomorphy). Body fat content of the whole squad averaged 15.0% but the most successful group of players averaged 12.4%. The body mass index (BMI) of the group was high and averaged 24.7 km.m-2. This group of Gaelic footballers was found to be taller and heavier than top level soccer players but smaller than Australian rules and American footballers. At 58.6 ml.min-1.kg-1 maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was higher than that reported for rugby players and American footballers and is probably similar to that of professional soccer players. Scores on three lung function tests: (1) forced vital capacity (FVC), (2) forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV1), and (3) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were between 112% and 115% of the values predicted from height and age. There were wide variations in flexibility among the members of the group, the best individuals being as flexible as elite track and field athletes while the worst were less flexible than untrained subjects. Vertical jump scores were high and averaged 503 mm. The fitness observations made on this group of elite Gaelic footballers showed that they were not only fitter but more homogeneously fit than rugby players and American footballers and their fitness was generally similar to that reported for professional soccer players. PMID:8808534

  1. Operational utility evaluation of helmet-mounted trackers and displays (HMT/Ds)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Randall W.; Franck, Douglas L.

    1998-08-01

    Current Air Force aircraft, such as the F-15 and F-16, and future aircraft, have a need to leverage improving technologies such as helmet-mounted trackers and displays (HMT/Ds) to maintain superior air combat capability in future conflicts. HMT/Ds can allow the pilot to point weapons and to quickly slew sensors at short visual range targets in either an air-to-air or air-to-ground environment. Flight and weapons parameters commonly displayed on ahead-up display can be provided on HMT/Ds, allowing the pilot to remain 'head out' of the cockpit for longer time periods while maintaining better situational awareness. If the hMT/D systems are designed and then tested early, the result can then be used to transfer technology, and reduce risk, for follow-on programs such as the Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System.

  2. Psychophysical Research in Development of a Fiber-optic Helmet Mounted Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Longridge, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display (FOHMD) was conceived as an innovative solution to existing flight simulator display deficiencies. An initial (breadboard) version of the system was fabricated to permit experimentation which would help define design requirements for a more refined engineering prototype. A series of visual/human factors studies are being conducted at the USAF Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) Operations Training Division, Williams AFB, Arizona to determine the optimum fit of human observer operating characteristics and fiber optic helmet mounted display technology. Pilot performance within a variety of high resolution insert/binocular overlap combinations is being assessed in two classes of environment. The first two of four studies planned incorporate an air-to-air combat environment, whereas the second two studies will use a low level environment with air to ground weapons delivery.

  3. Respiratory failure due to upper airway obstruction in children: use of the helmet as bridge interface.

    PubMed

    Racca, F; Cutrera, R; Robba, C; Caldarelli, V; Paglietti, M; De Angelis, M C; Sekhon, M S; Gualino, J; Bella, C; Passoni, N; Ranieri, V M

    2015-02-01

    Upper airway obstruction (UAO) can cause severe respiratory distress in young children by increasing inspiratory muscle load and decreasing alveolar ventilation, ultimately resulting in hypercapnia and hypoxemia which have long term negative cardiovascular effects. Although non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves gas exchange in these patients, use of conventional interfaces (nasal mask, nasal pillow and facial mask) may cause significant discomfort and lead to CPAP intolerance. We report five cases of children affected by UAO who experienced CPAP intolerance via application of conventional interfaces. Alternatively, we acutely applied helmet-CPAP which resulted in improved breathing pattern and gas exchange. Thereafter, patients received training with respect to a nasal CPAP interface, allowing successful long term treatment. In conclusion, these five clinical cases demonstrate that helmet-CPAP can be used acutely in children with UAO if compliance to conventional modalities is problematic, allowing for sufficient time to achieve compliance to nasal-CPAP. PMID:24918190

  4. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws. PMID:23106188

  5. Helmet of a laminate construction of polycarbonate and polysulfone polymeric material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J. (Inventor); Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An article of laminate construction is disclosed which is comprised of an underlayer of polycarbonate polymer material to which is applied a chemically resistant outer layer of polysulfone. The layers which are joined by compression-heat molding, are molded to form the shape of a body protective shell such as a space helmet comprising a shell of polycarbonate, polysulfone laminate construction attached at its open end to a sealing ring adapted for connection to a space suit. The front portion of the shell provides a transparent visor for the helmet. An outer visor of polycarbonate polysulfone laminate construction is pivotally mounted to the sealing ring for covering the transparent visor portion of the shell during extravehicular activities. The polycarbonate under layer of the outer visor is coated on its inner surface with a vacuum deposit of gold to provide additional thermal radiation resistance.

  6. Visual perceptual issues of the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS): four expert perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, Kevin; Francis, Gregory; Hiatt, Keith L.

    2008-04-01

    The Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display (HMD) has been flown for over a quarter of a century on the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache Attack Helicopter. The aircraft's successful deployment in both peacetime and combat has validated the original design concept for the IHADSS HMD. During its 1970s development phase, a number of design issues were identified as having the potential of introducing visual perception problems for aviators. These issues include monocular design, monochromatic imagery, reduced field-of-view (FOV), sensor spectrum, reduced resolution (effective visual acuity), and displaced visual input eye point. From their diverse perspectives, a panel of four experts - an HMD researcher, a cognitive psychologist, a flight surgeon, and a veteran AH-64 aviator - discuss the impact of the design issues on visual perception and related performance.

  7. Junior football players' classification of runners as their teammates from 400-msec. video clips.

    PubMed

    Steel, Kylie A; Adams, Roger D; Canning, Colleen G

    2008-08-01

    It was hypothesized that a specialized gait recognition skill enables humans to distinguish the gait of familiar from unfamiliar individuals, and that this may have relevance in team sports. Runners seen for less than half a second can be classified as teammates or not by adult players, so it may be asked whether this skill would also be demonstrated by young team players. In the current study, junior football players (M age = 10.0 yr., SD = 0.8, N = 13) viewed 400-msec. video clips of runners sprinting past a fixed forward facing digital video camera and similarly showed teammate recognition scores significantly above chance. Given the variation among the junior players in this skill, it seems possible for researchers to assess whether improvement can be obtained with structured training for young team players, where running teammates are seen in peripheral vision during training drills. PMID:18986058

  8. Alcohol consumption, helmet use and head trauma in cycling collisions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Chiara; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Cycling, being easy, inexpensive and healthy, is becoming one of the most popular means of transport. Cyclists, however, are among the most vulnerable road users in traffic collisions. The aims of this study were to establish which cyclist and cycling accident characteristics are associated with alcohol consumption and helmet use in Germany and to identify risk factors related to head trauma sustained in cycling accidents. The source used for the present analysis was the database of the German in-depth accident study (GIDAS). All cyclists who had been involved in a road accident between 2000 and 2010 and submitted to an alcohol test were selected. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate various aspects: alcohol consumption, helmet use, head trauma, and cyclist/accident characteristics. Female riders were less likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.08-0.66); cyclists who did not wear a helmet were more likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.08-5.38); cyclists who were not responsible for the collision were less likely to have consumed alcohol than those who were partially responsible for the accident (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61). Cyclists involved in collisions with another vehicle, motorised or not, had a lower risk of suffering a head injury compared with those involved in single-vehicle accidents (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62, and OR=0.08, 95% CI: 0.03-0.22, respectively). The prevention or limiting of alcohol consumption among cyclists and the corresponding testing of cyclists must be improved. Training initiatives on helmet protection should be encouraged. PMID:24448470

  9. Lightweight high-brightness helmet-mounted head-up display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Mathieu; North, Thibault; Bourquin, Stéphane; Kilcher, Lucio

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact binocular head-up display for integration in a motorcycle helmet. A 2D MEMS-mirror reflecting laser beams enables the formation of a bright image superimposed on the user vision by means of retinal scanning. A 3d-printed prototype including the required optical components is presented and characterized. It fits the morphology of most users thanks to several degrees of freedom accessible to the user for fine-tuning.

  10. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: adaptation to hyperstereopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Jennings, Sion A.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Craig, Gregory L.

    2009-05-01

    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwlTM helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the sides of the helmet onto the helmet visor. This increased effective inter-ocular separation distorts several cues to depth and distance that are grouped under the term "hyperstereopsis". Stereoscopic depth perception, at near to moderate distances (several hundred metres), is subject to magnification of binocular disparities. Absolute distance perception at near distances (a few metres) is affected by increased "differential perspective" as well as an increased requirement for convergence of the eyes to achieve binocular fixation. These distortions result in visual illusions such as the "bowl effect" where the ground appears to rise up near the observer. Previous reports have indicated that pilots can adapt to these distortions after several hours of exposure. The present study was concerned with both the time course and the mechanisms involved in this adaptation. Three test pilots flew five sorties with a hyperstereo night vision device. Initially, pilots reported that they were compensating for the effects of hyperstereopsis, but on the third and subsequent sorties all reported perceptual adaptation, that is, a reduction in illusory perception. Given that this adaptation was the result of intermittent exposure, and did not produce visual aftereffects, it was not due to the recalibration of the relationship between binocular cues and depth/distance. A more likely explanation of the observed visual adaptation is that it results from a discounting of distorted binocular cues in favour of veridical monocular cues, such as familiar size, motion parallax and linear perspective.

  11. The physiological demands of horseback mustering when wearing an equestrian helmet.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Caldwell, Joanne N; Dyer, Rodd

    2008-09-01

    The hottest months on northern Australian cattle stations are from September to November, and it is during these months that horseback cattle mustering occurs. Stockmen wear clothing that restricts heat loss, and protective helmets have recently been introduced. Anecdotal evidence points to the possibility that helmets may increase the probability of developing heat illness, or reducing workplace performance. In this project, we quantified the working (thermal) environment on such cattle stations, and measured the metabolic demands on, and concurrent physiological strain in stockmen during mustering, whilst wearing an equestrian helmet. During horseback work, the average heart rate was 102.0 beats min(-1) (SD 14.0), with almost 90% of the time (238 min) spent working at intensities <50% of the heart rate reserve. The projected metabolic heat production during mustering ranged between 178 and 333 W (women), and between 212 and 542 W (men). The average core temperature was 37.6 degrees C, while the mean skin temperature averaged 34.1 degrees C. It was concluded that the working environment is, on average, thermally uncompensable during the mustering season. However, horseback mustering per se is a relatively low-intensity activity, interspersed with short periods of high-intensity work. This activity level was reflected within core temperatures, which rarely climbed above values associated with light-moderate exercise. Thus, whilst the climatic state was uncompensable, stockmen used behavioural strategies to minimise the risk of heat illness. Finally, it was observed that the helmet, though unpleasant to wear, did not appear to increase thermal strain in a manner that would disadvantage stockmen. PMID:18176814

  12. Virtual MEG Helmet: Computer Simulation of an Approach to Neuromagnetic Field Sampling.

    PubMed

    Medvedovsky, Mordekhay; Nenonen, Jukka; Koptelova, Alexandra; Butorina, Anna; Paetau, Ritva; Makela, Jyrki P; Ahonen, Antti; Simola, Juha; Gazit, Tomer; Taulu, Samu

    2016-03-01

    Head movements during an MEG recording are commonly considered an obstacle. In this computer simulation study, we introduce an approach, the virtual MEG helmet (VMH), which employs the head movements for data quality improvement. With a VMH, a denser MEG helmet is constructed by adding new sensors corresponding to different head positions. Based on the Shannon's theory of communication, we calculated the total information as a figure of merit for comparing the actual 306-sensor Elekta Neuromag helmet to several types of the VMH. As source models, we used simulated randomly distributed source current (RDSC), simulated auditory and somatosensory evoked fields. Using the RDSC model with the simulation of 360 recorded events, the total information (bits/sample) was 989 for the most informative single head position and up to 1272 for the VMH (addition of 28.6%). Using simulated AEFs, the additional contribution of a VMH was 12.6% and using simulated SEF only 1.1%. For the distributed and bilateral sources, a VMH can provide a more informative sampling of the neuromagnetic field during the same recording time than measuring the MEG from one head position. VMH can, in some situations, improve source localization of the neuromagnetic fields related to the normal and pathological brain activity. This should be investigated further employing real MEG recordings. PMID:25616085

  13. SYMPATHETIC FILAMENT ERUPTIONS FROM A BIPOLAR HELMET STREAMER IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jiayan; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Bo

    2012-01-20

    On 2005 August 5, two solar filaments erupted successively from different confined arcades underlying a common overarching multiple-arcade bipolar helmet streamer. We present detailed observations of these two events and identify them as sympathetic filament eruptions. The first (F1) is a small active-region filament located near the outskirts of the streamer arcade. It underwent a nonradial eruption, initially moving in the interior of the streamer arcade and resulting in an over-and-out coronal mass ejection. The second filament (F2), a larger quiescent one far away from F1, was clearly disturbed during the F1 eruption. It then underwent a very slow eruption and finally disappeared completely and permanently. Because two belt-shaped diffuse dimmings formed along the footprints of the streamer arcade in the first eruption and persisted throughout the complete disappearance of F2, the eruption series are interpreted as sympathetic: the simple expansion of the common streamer arcade forced by the F1 eruption weakened magnetic flux overlying F2 and thus led to its slow eruption, with the dimming formation indicating their physical connection. Our observations suggest that multiple-arcade bipolar helmet-streamer configurations are appropriate to producing sympathetic eruptions. Combined with the recent observations of unipolar-streamer sympathetic events, it appears that a multiple-arcade unipolar or bipolar helmet streamer can serve as a common magnetic configuration for sympathetic eruptions.

  14. Hearing Health in Agricultural Aviation Pilots from Cindacta II Wearing Earplugs and a Helmet

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Ribas, Angela; Spanhol, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Agricultural aviation pilots, exposed daily to intense vibration and noise, are likely to develop noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of audiograms consistent with NIHL in agricultural aviation pilots who use earplugs and helmets. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional cohort and observational study. The data were taken from the medical records and audiograms of 94 pilots. Results NIHL was identified in 9.5% of individuals with hearing loss by audiograms at 3,000, 4,000, or 6,000 Hz. Normal audiograms were observed in 46.8% of pilots surveyed. Bilateral hearing loss was more frequent than unilateral hearing loss, occurring in 64.8% of cases. Conclusion Although there was a low incidence of audiograms compatible with NIHL in the records of the pilots examined, the disorder still occurs despite the doubled use of individual hearing protection equipment (helmets and earplugs) for agricultural aviation pilots. Nevertheless, even with the use of earplugs and helmets as noise protectors, the data showed that agricultural pilots suffer inner ear damage caused by occupational noise. Prevention and periodic audiologic evaluations must be conducted in noise-exposed occupational groups. PMID:27096013

  15. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the EMU 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) No. 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 water entered the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet resulting in the termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) approximately 1-hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5-L of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronauts hearing, vision and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based TT and E (Test, Tear-down and Evaluation) of the affected EMU hardware components led to the determination that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator function which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Filter Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  16. Helmets and Mouth Guards: The Role of Personal Equipment in Preventing Sport-Related Concussions

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Baugh, Christine M.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Every year, millions of athletes in the United States experience concussions. With athletes at all levels of play getting bigger, faster, and stronger, it has been suggested that newer technologies may provide an opportunity to reduce the risk and severity of these all too frequent injuries. Although helmets have been shown to decrease the rate of catastrophic head injuries, and mouth guards have decreased the risk of dental and oral injuries, the protective effect of helmets and mouth guards on concussions has not been conclusively demonstrated. In this review, the current literature pertaining to the effect that equipment has on concussions is evaluated. Understanding the role that this equipment plays in preventing concussions is complicated by many factors, such as selection bias in non-randomized studies, variations in playing style, and risk compensation in sports with mandatory protective equipment. At this point, there is little evidence supporting the use of specific helmets or mouth guards to prevent concussions outside of specific sports such as cycling, skiing, and snowboarding. Improving coach and player education about proper concussion management, encouraging neck strengthening exercises, and minimizing high-risk impacts may provide a more fruitful avenue to reduce concussions in sports. PMID:21074089

  17. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics. PMID:27391273

  18. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  19. Hearing Health in Agricultural Aviation Pilots from Cindacta II Wearing Earplugs and a Helmet.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Ribas, Angela; Spanhol, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Agricultural aviation pilots, exposed daily to intense vibration and noise, are likely to develop noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of audiograms consistent with NIHL in agricultural aviation pilots who use earplugs and helmets. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional cohort and observational study. The data were taken from the medical records and audiograms of 94 pilots. Results NIHL was identified in 9.5% of individuals with hearing loss by audiograms at 3,000, 4,000, or 6,000 Hz. Normal audiograms were observed in 46.8% of pilots surveyed. Bilateral hearing loss was more frequent than unilateral hearing loss, occurring in 64.8% of cases. Conclusion Although there was a low incidence of audiograms compatible with NIHL in the records of the pilots examined, the disorder still occurs despite the doubled use of individual hearing protection equipment (helmets and earplugs) for agricultural aviation pilots. Nevertheless, even with the use of earplugs and helmets as noise protectors, the data showed that agricultural pilots suffer inner ear damage caused by occupational noise. Prevention and periodic audiologic evaluations must be conducted in noise-exposed occupational groups. PMID:27096013

  20. Helmet Wearing Among Users of a Public Bicycle-Sharing Program in the District of Columbia and Comparable Riders on Personal Bicycles

    PubMed Central

    Roffenbender, Jason S.; Anderko, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are increasingly popular and have the potential to increase physical activity and decrease air pollution, but anecdotal evidence suggests helmet use is lower among users of bicycle-sharing programs than cyclists on private bicycles. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess helmet use among users of a bicycle-sharing program in Washington, DC. Helmet use was significantly lower among cyclists on shared bicycles than private bicycles, highlighting a need for targeted helmet promotion activities. PMID:22698021

  1. The Effect of Various Types of Motorcycle Helmets on Cervical Spine Injury in Head Injury Patients: A Multicenter Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mau-Roung; Chu, Shu-Fen; Tsai, Shin-Han; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The relationship between cervical spine injury (CSI) and helmet in head injury (HI) patients following motorcycle crashes is crucial. Controversy still exists; therefore we evaluated the effect of various types of helmets on CSI in HI patients following motorcycle crashes and researched the mechanism of this effect. Patients and Methods. A total of 5225 patients of motorcycle crashes between 2000 and 2009 were extracted from the Head Injury Registry in Taiwan. These patients were divided into case and control groups according to the presence of concomitant CSI. Helmet use and types were separately compared between the two groups and the odds ratio of CSI was obtained by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. We observed that 173 (3.3%) of the HI patients were associated with CSI. The HI patients using a helmet (odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.19−0.49), full-coverage helmet (0.19, 0.10−0.36), and partial-coverage helmet (0.35, 0.21−0.56) exhibited a significantly decreased rate of CSI compared with those without a helmet. Conclusion. Wearing full-coverage and partial-coverage helmets significantly reduced the risk of CSI among HI patients following motorcycle crashes. This effect may be due to the smooth surface and hard padding materials of helmet. PMID:25705663

  2. Helmet wearing among users of a public bicycle-sharing program in the district of columbia and comparable riders on personal bicycles.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, John D; Roffenbender, Jason S; Anderko, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Bicycle-sharing programs are increasingly popular and have the potential to increase physical activity and decrease air pollution, but anecdotal evidence suggests helmet use is lower among users of bicycle-sharing programs than cyclists on private bicycles. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess helmet use among users of a bicycle-sharing program in Washington, DC. Helmet use was significantly lower among cyclists on shared bicycles than private bicycles, highlighting a need for targeted helmet promotion activities. PMID:22698021

  3. If Football Referees Made Accreditation Calls: A Modest Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleson, Robert R.

    2004-01-01

    Barely a week passes without the "Chronicle of Higher Education" or another periodical decrying the perverse influence of college football on academic quality. Faculty keep saying (justifiably) that sports advocates care more about athletic prowess than about student learning, that even assistant coaches make more money than tenured faculty, and…

  4. An evolutionary approach to simulated football free kick optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Martin; Coupland, Simon

    We present a genetic algorithm-based evolutionary computing approach to the optimisation of simulated football free kick situations. A detailed physics model is implemented in order to apply evolutionary computing techniques to the creation of strategic offensive shots and defensive player locations.

  5. In a Tough Economy, Charlotte Makes a Play for Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    Despite tough economic times, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte hopes to win trustees' approval to raise funds to field a Division I-AA football team. Athletics officials and supporters at Charlotte are hopeful that they will raise the more than $45-million in capital expenses necessary to get the program up and running. However, the…

  6. The Body Composition of a College Football Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickkiser, John D.; Kelly, John M.

    This study focuses on the body composition and anthropometric measurements of 65 college football players. Body composition was determined by underwater weighing with an accurate assessment of residual volume. The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, seven skinfolds, waist circumference, and wrist diameter. A step-wise multiple…

  7. Huddle: At DeMatha High, Football Is Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayesh, Gelareh

    1993-01-01

    The football program at DeMatha High School in Hyattsville (Maryland), illustrates ways in which a sports program can build unity and racial tolerance among students. The shared team effort carries over into schoolwork and life outside of school. (SLD)

  8. Impact loading of the lumbar spine during football blocking.

    PubMed

    Gatt, C J; Hosea, T M; Palumbo, R C; Zawadsky, J P

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the impact force to the lumbar spine when football players hit a blocking sled. We quantified the loads at the L4-5 motion segment throughout the blocking sequence. Five Division I-A college football linemen were subjects for our study. Kinematic data were obtained while the subjects hit a blocking sled instrumented with a force plate. Three plane forces were then calculated from these data. The average impact force measured at the blocking sled was 3013 +/- 598 N. The average peak compression force at the L4-5 motion segment was 8679 +/- 1965 N. The average peak anteroposterior shear force was 3304 +/- 1116 N, and the average peak lateral shear force was 1709 +/- 411 N. The magnitude of the loads on the L4-5 motion segment during football blocking exceed those determined during fatigue studies to cause pathologic changes in both the lumbar disk and the pars interarticularis. These data suggest that the mechanics of repetitive blocking may be responsible for the increased incidence of lumbar spine injury incurred by football linemen. PMID:9167810

  9. Soccer-Speedball-Flag Football Guide. June 1974-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    This guide, produced by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS), is a collection of essays by various authors on soccer, speedball, and flag football. There is a separate section for each sport. In the section, the following topics are covered: goalkeeping, the use of tires as a teaching aid, skill testing, problem-solving…

  10. Stitching Footballs: Voices of Children in Sailkot, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Rachel; Husselbee, David; Shah, Faiz; Harper, Annie; Ali, Bahar

    This report details a situation analysis of children working in football stitching around Sialkot, Pakistan. The analysis (1) examined the reasons that children work and the probable impact of eradicating children's involvement and phasing out home-based production and (2) determined a baseline for monitoring changes in children's and families'…

  11. Behavioral Interventions to Improve Performance in Collegiate Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shannon L.; Ward, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    Using a multitreatment withdrawal design, this study evaluated the differential effects of publicly posted plus verbal feedback, goal setting plus verbal feedback, and publicly posted feedback, verbal feedback, and goal setting together on the performance of 3 collegiate football players in practice scrimmages. Also assessed was whether the…

  12. New Fantasy Football League Tests NCAA's Rules on Amateur Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The long-simmering debate over the commercialization of college sports reached a boiling point recently when CBS, the NCAA's key corporate partner, announced that it was creating a fantasy football league that uses college athletes' names. Not everyone however, is quite so enthusiastic. Some observers see it as part of a continuing assault on the…

  13. Football Games: Victory, Defeat, and Spectators' Power Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Burt S.; Alker, Henry A.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed a conceptual distinction between two types of experienced power and examined its relevance to participation in power-relaxed activities. After two college football games, spectators chose an image-of-power position after a hometeam defeat, and an actual-power position after a hometeam victory. Experiences of vicarious success or failure…

  14. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  15. Modifying Flag Football for Gender Equitable Engagement in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Flag or touch football is a popular activity unit in American secondary physical education curricula. However, unlike other sports its stigmatization as a masculine-typed activity and frequent inequitable distribution of game play opportunities at the skill positions (e.g., receiver, quarterback) results in the marginalization of female…

  16. FMRI of visual working memory in high school football players.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Trey E; Robinson, Meghan E; Svaldi, Diana O; Abbas, Kausar; Breedlove, Katherine M; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Visual working memory deficits have been observed in at-risk athletes. This study uses a visual N-back working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging task to longitudinally assess asymptomatic football athletes for abnormal activity. Athletes were increasingly "flagged" as the season progressed. Flagging may provide early detection of injury. PMID:25961587

  17. Gender Gaps and the Presence and Profitability of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishe, Patrick James

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1995-96 academic year for schools that compete at the Division I level of college athletics to determine the influence of the presence and profitability of football on female athletes in terms of funding and opportunity. Reveals that presence and profitability, as well as regional and ethnic considerations, influence…

  18. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  19. Concussion Incidences and Severity in Secondary School Varsity Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerberich, Susan Goodwin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Study of Minnesota high school football players found an injury rate of 78 per 100 players; 19/100 players reported a concussion experience characterized by loss of consciousness/awareness. Of these, 69 percent returned to play the same day. Illegal blocking and tackling contributed to increased concussion. Lasting effects were prevalent. (GC)

  20. Preparticipation Screening of Athletic Officials: SEC Football Referees at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John L., Jr.; Walters, Rod; Leski, Mark J.; Saywell, Robert M., Jr.; Wooldridge, J. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Reviewed prevalence data on health parameters for football officials, noting outcomes when screening criteria were applied in preseason exams. Referees had a lower risk than the national 10-year coronary heart disease risk but a higher risk compared with that of the low-risk population. Results suggested that more graded exercise testing was…

  1. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index,…

  2. What Coaching Football Taught Me aAbout Teaching Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Relates how coaching football is like teaching writing to students. Both groups of students benefit from demonstrations by the teacher or coach and require practice and routine drills. Describes the KISS theory of "Keep it simple, stupid" and how teachers can utilize it as part of their teaching strategy. (VWC)

  3. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  4. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  5. How the Football Coach Can Help Principals and Teachers Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers could learn a lesson from football coaches. Evidence suggests they know more about how their coaching affects their athletes' performance than classroom teachers do regarding student achievement. It is equally possible that the athletes are learning more quickly and in a deeper way than students in the classroom. Why? One reason…

  6. Syndesmotic Ankle Sprains in Football: A Survey of National Football League Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Doughtie, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain information regarding syndesmotic ankle sprains and to identify a specific treatment modality that reduces the recovery time for syndesmotic ankle sprains. Design and Setting: A mailed survey conducted from the Sports Medicine Department of Tufts University. Subjects: I sent a survey to the head athletic trainers of all 30 National Football League teams. Of the surveys mailed, 23 (77%) were returned. Measurements: The survey consisted of 8 questions pertaining to syndesmotic ankle sprains with respect to mechanism of injury, playing surface, diagnostic tests, immediate and follow-up treatment modalities, best treatment, recovery time, and taping procedure. Results: A variety of causes were noted as being responsible for syndesmotic ankle sprains; the most frequently described mechanism of injury involved a rotational component. Playing surface was not thought to be a factor in the incidence of syndesmotic ankle sprains. Most athletic trainers (96%) indicated that plain radiographs were part of the diagnostic process, while 52% noted that magnetic resonance imaging was also ordered for suspected syndesmotic ankle sprains. The most frequently used modalities during the acute stage were ice, electrical muscle stimulation, casting or bracing (or both), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Proprioception training, ultrasound, and taping were the most commonly used modalities during follow-up treatment. Immobilization, cortico-steroid injection, and ice and exercise were reported to be the best treatments for reducing recovery time of syndesmotic ankle sprains. Conclusions: To date, no treatment plan or modality for syndesmotic ankle sprains has been shown to effectively provide an early and safe return to football. Therefore, the need is clear for prospective studies comparing treatment protocols and severity of injury. PMID:16558541

  7. Personal and trip characteristics associated with safety equipment use by injured adult bicyclists: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate use of helmets, lights, and visible clothing among cyclists and to examine trip and personal characteristics associated with their use. Methods Using data from a study of transportation infrastructure and injuries to 690 adult cyclists in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we examined the proportion who used bike lights, conspicuous clothing on the torso, and helmets on their injury trip. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between personal and trip characteristics and each type of safety equipment. Results Bike lights were the least frequently used (20% of all trips) although they were used on 77% of trips at night. Conspicuous clothing (white, yellow, orange, red) was worn on 33% of trips. Helmets were used on 69% of trips, 76% in Vancouver where adult helmet use is required by law and 59% in Toronto where it is not. Factors positively associated with bike light use included night, dawn and dusk trips, poor weather conditions, weekday trips, male sex, and helmet use. Factors positively associated with conspicuous clothing use included good weather conditions, older age, and more frequent cycling. Factors positively associated with helmet use included bike light use, longer trip distances, hybrid bike type, not using alcohol in the 6 hours prior to the trip, female sex, older age, higher income, and higher education. Conclusions In two of Canada’s largest cities, helmets were the most widely used safety equipment. Measures to increase use of visibility aids on both daytime and night-time cycling trips may help prevent crashes. PMID:22966752

  8. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI. PMID:25970145

  9. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Cary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  10. Receivers in American football use a constant optical projection plane angle to pursue and catch thrown footballs.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Dennis M; Dolgov, Igor; Maynor, Andrew; Reed, Cody

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we test how well two interceptive strategies, which have been proposed for catching balls hit high in the air in baseball and cricket, account for receivers in American football catching footballs. This is an important test of the domain generality of these strategies as this is the first study examining a situation where the pursuer's locomotor axis is directed away from the origin of the ball, and because the flight characteristics of an American football are far different from targets studied in prior work. The first strategy is to elicit changes in the ball's lateral optical position that match changes in the vertical optical position so that the optical projection plane angle, psi, remains constant, thus resulting in a linear optical trajectory (LOT). The second is keeping vertical optical ball velocity decreasing while maintaining constant lateral optical velocity (generalized optical acceleration cancellation, or GOAC). We found that the optical projection plane angle was maintained as constant significantly more often than maintaining vertical and lateral optical velocities as GOAC predicted. The present experiment extends previous research by showing that the constancy of psi resulting in an LOT is used by humans pursuing American footballs and demonstrates the domain generality of the LOT heuristic. PMID:24303746

  11. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure. PMID:26200068

  12. Creating a Supportive Environment among Youth Football Players: A Qualitative Study of French and Norwegian Youth Grassroots Football Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Torill; Van Hoye, Aurelie; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Samdal, Oddrun; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The health promoting benefits of sport participation are under-utilized and should be further developed, particularly at the grassroots level. The purpose of this paper is to examine how grassroots coaches in youth football perceive their coaching practices after participating in a community-based coach education program aimed at…

  13. A Study about Problem Solving Skill Variable in Terms of Some Variables of Footballers Who Play Football Professionally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Selahattin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the problem solving skill levels of sportsmen who play football professionally, and to determine whether problem solving skill levels differ according to sportsmen's, sports club, age, marital status, parents' educational status, father's occupation, occupation in the game, year of playing football…

  14. Executive summary: Football for health - prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases across the lifespan through football.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J; Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    This supplement contains 16 original articles describing how football conducted as small sided games affects fitness and health of untrained individuals across the lifespan. The intermittent nature of football and high exercise intensity result in a broad range of effects. The heart changes its structure and improves its function. Blood pressure is markedly reduced with the mean arterial blood pressure being lowered by ~10 mmHg for hypertensive men and women training 2-3 times/week for 12-26 weeks. Triglycerides and cholesterol are lowered and body fat declines, especially in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, muscle mass and bone mineral density increases in a number of participant groups, including 65-75-year-old men. The functional capacity is elevated with increases in VO₂ max of 10-15%, and 50-100% improvements in the capacity to perform intermittent work within 16 weeks. These effects apply irrespective of whether the participants are young, overweight, elderly or suffering from a disease. The studies clearly show that the participants enjoy playing football and form special relationships with their team mates. Thus, football is a healthy activity, providing a unique opportunity to increase recruitment and adherence to physical activity in a hitherto underserved population, and to treat and rehabilitate patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes and prostate cancer. PMID:24944139

  15. Evaluation of the Use and Reasons for Not Using a Helmet by Motorcyclists Admitted to the Emergency Ward of Shahid Bahonar Hospital in Kerman

    PubMed Central

    Faryabi, Javad; Rajabi, Mahboobeh; Alirezaee, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Motorcycle crashes are the cause of severe morbidity and mortality especially because of head injuries. It seems that wearing a helmet has an effective role in protection against head injuries. Nevertheless, motorcyclists usually have no tendency to wear a helmet when driving in cities and have several reasons for this behavior. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the use and reasons for not using a helmet by motorcyclists admitted to an emergency ward of a trauma hospital due to accident in Kerman, Iran. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out by recoding the opinions of motorcyclists who had been transferred to the emergency ward of Shahid Bahonar Hospital (Kerman/Iran). Since no data was available on the frequency of the use of helmets, a pilot study was carried out and a sample size of 377 was determined for the main study. Then a researcher-made questionnaire was used to investigate the motorcyclists’ reasons for not using a helmet. Results: Only 21.5% of the motorcyclists had been wearing helmets at the time of the accident. The most frequent reasons for not using a helmet were the heavy weight of the helmet (77%), feeling of heat (71.4%), pain in the neck (69.4%), feeling of suffocation (67.7%), limitation of head and neck movements (59.6%) and all together, physical discomfort was the main cause of not wearing a helmet during motorcycle rides. Conclusions: In general, it appears that it is possible to increase the use of helmets by eliminating its physical problems, and increasing the knowledge of community members in relation to the advantages of helmet use, which will result in a significant decrease in traumas resulting from motorcycle accidents. PMID:25599066

  16. Brain Response to Primary Blast Wave Using Validated Finite Element Models of Human Head and Advanced Combat Helmet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Makwana, Rahul; Sharma, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a “signature injury” in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), a finite element (FE) study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27–0.66 MPa) from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP) in the head ranged from 0.68 to 1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10–35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44%) was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%). The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence “iso-damage” curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen

  17. Brain response to primary blast wave using validated finite element models of human head and advanced combat helmet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Makwana, Rahul; Sharma, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a "signature injury" in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), a finite element (FE) study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27-0.66 MPa) from the Bowen's lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen's cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP) in the head ranged from 0.68 to 1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10-35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44%) was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%). The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence "iso-damage" curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen curves for lung

  18. The Preventive Effect of Head Injury by Helmet Type in Motorcycle Crashes: A Rural Korean Single-Center Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kang-Min; Noble, Jennifer; Kim, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Yong; Do, Han-Ho; Park, Sang-O; Lee, Kyeong-Ryong; Baek, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to determine the preventive effect on head injury by helmet type: full face helmet (FFH), open face helmet (OFH), and half-coverage helmet (HCH). Methods. This is a retrospective observational study of motorcycle crash victims between June 2012 and May 2015 in a rural town in Korea. We performed multiple linear regression to predict the effect of each type of helmet compared to unhelmeted status in preventing head injury using dependent variables based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and applied logistic regression modeling to compare the incidence of head injury. Results. Of the 738 patients, the number of FFH patients was 33.5%, followed by unhelmeted (27.8%), OFH (17.6%), and HCH (13.0%) patients. The FFH and OFH group had a lower head maximum AIS than unhelmeted group (coefficient: −0.368, 95% CI: −0.559 to −0.177 and coefficient: −0.235, 95% CI: −0.459 to −0.010, resp.) and only FFHs experienced a reduction effect of severe and minor head injury (OR: 0.206, 95% CI: 0.080 to 0.533 and OR: 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377 to 0.920, resp.). Conclusions. FFHs and OFHs reduce the risk of head injury, and FFHs have a more preventive effect on head injury in motorcycle crashes. PMID:27340652

  19. The Preventive Effect of Head Injury by Helmet Type in Motorcycle Crashes: A Rural Korean Single-Center Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kang-Min; Noble, Jennifer; Kim, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Yong; Do, Han-Ho; Park, Sang-O; Lee, Kyeong-Ryong; Baek, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to determine the preventive effect on head injury by helmet type: full face helmet (FFH), open face helmet (OFH), and half-coverage helmet (HCH). Methods. This is a retrospective observational study of motorcycle crash victims between June 2012 and May 2015 in a rural town in Korea. We performed multiple linear regression to predict the effect of each type of helmet compared to unhelmeted status in preventing head injury using dependent variables based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and applied logistic regression modeling to compare the incidence of head injury. Results. Of the 738 patients, the number of FFH patients was 33.5%, followed by unhelmeted (27.8%), OFH (17.6%), and HCH (13.0%) patients. The FFH and OFH group had a lower head maximum AIS than unhelmeted group (coefficient: -0.368, 95% CI: -0.559 to -0.177 and coefficient: -0.235, 95% CI: -0.459 to -0.010, resp.) and only FFHs experienced a reduction effect of severe and minor head injury (OR: 0.206, 95% CI: 0.080 to 0.533 and OR: 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377 to 0.920, resp.). Conclusions. FFHs and OFHs reduce the risk of head injury, and FFHs have a more preventive effect on head injury in motorcycle crashes. PMID:27340652

  20. The helmet head restraint system: a viable solution for resting state fMRI in awake monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Monfardini, Elisabetta; Guedj, Carole; Gardechaux, Gislène; Hynaux, Clément; Farnè, Alessandro; Meunier, Martine

    2014-02-01

    In monkey neuroimaging, head restraint is currently achieved via surgical implants. Eradicating such invasive head restraint from otherwise non-invasive monkey studies could represent a substantial progress in terms of Reduction and Refinement. Two non-invasive helmet-based methods are available but they are used exclusively by the pioneering research groups who designed them. In the absence of independent replication, they have had little impact in replacing the surgical implants. Here, we built a modified version of the helmet system proposed by Srihasam et al. (2010 NeuroImage, 51(1), 267-73) and tested it for resting state fMRI in awake monkeys. Extremely vulnerable to motion artifacts, resting state fMRI represents a decisive test for non-invasive head restraint systems. We compared two monkeys restrained with the helmet to one monkey with a surgically implanted head post using both a seed-based approach and an independent component analysis. Technically, the helmet system proved relatively easy to develop. Scientifically, although it allowed more extensive movements than the head post system, the helmet proved viable for resting state fMRI, in particular when combined with the independent component analysis that deals more effectively with movement-related noise than the seed-based approach. We also discuss the pros and cons of such device in light of the European Union new 2013 regulation on non-human primate research and its firm Reduction and Refinement requests. PMID:24121168

  1. Midfoot sprains in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Drakos, Mark C; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2014-12-01

    Midfoot sprains in the National Football League (NFL) are uncommon. There are few studies on midfoot sprains in professional athletes, as most studies focus on severe traumatic injuries resulting in Lisfranc fracture-dislocations. We conducted a study to evaluate midfoot sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. All midfoot sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from participation. Fifteen NFL players sustained midfoot sprains. Most injuries occurred during games as opposed to practice, and the injury typically resulted from direct impact rather than torsion. Twelve players had nonoperative treatment, and 3 had operative treatment. Nonoperative management resulted in a mean of 11.7 days of time lost from participation. However, there was a significant (P=.047) difference in mean (SD) time lost between the grade 1 sprain group, 3.1 (1.9) days, and the grade 2 sprain group, 36 (26.1) days. Of the 3 operative grade 3 patients, 1 returned in 73 days, and 2 were injured late in the season and returned the next season. Eleven (92%) of the 12 players who had nonoperative treatment had a successful return to play, and 10 (83%) of the 12 played more games and seasons after their midfoot injury. Depending on the diastasis category, NFL team physicians vary treatment: no diastasis (84% cam walker), latent diastasis (47% surgery, 34% cam walker), and frank diastasis (94% surgery). In the NFL, midfoot sprains can be a source of significant disability. Successful return to play can be achieved with nonoperative management for grade 1 injuries within 1 week and grade 2 injuries within 5 weeks. However, severe injuries with frank diastasis that require operative management will

  2. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  6. Bicycle Helmet Promotion Act. Report of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on S. 3096. 102d Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    Senate Bill 3096 (S. 3096), the Bicycle Helmet Promotion Act, provides incentive grants to state and local governments that seek to promote the use of bicycle helmets by children under the age of 16. Between 1984 and 1988, a total of 4,815 Americans died and 2,830,475 suffered injuries requiring hospitalization as a result of accidents that…

  7. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  8. Human factors issues in the development of helmet-mounted displays for tactical fixed-wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, James M.

    1997-06-01

    There are many human factors issues that should be considered when designing a helmet mounted display for use in high speed aircraft with ejection seats. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System Program Office, with support from the Armstrong Laboratory and the Naval Air Warfare Center, has been studying many of these issues and is able to report several findings in the areas of anthropometry, limitations in head movement, helmet stability under high gravity forces and mass properties. This paper serves to summarize the findings of the program office in these areas. The paper will include highlights of several studies that have involved anthropometric data manipulation, 3D head scans, and testing of manikin and human subjects in static and dynamic cockpit environment simulations.

  9. Bicycling injury hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions: analyses examining associations with helmet legislation and mode share

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Kay; Koehoorn, Mieke; Shen, Hui; Dennis, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to calculate exposure-based bicycling hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions with different helmet legislation and bicycling mode shares, and to examine whether the rates were related to these differences. Methods Administrative data on hospital stays for bicycling injuries to 10 body region groups and national survey data on bicycling trips were used to calculate hospitalisation rates. Rates were calculated for 44 sex, age and jurisdiction strata for all injury causes and 22 age and jurisdiction strata for traffic-related injury causes. Inferential analyses examined associations between hospitalisation rates and sex, age group, helmet legislation and bicycling mode share. Results In Canada, over the study period 2006–2011, there was an average of 3690 hospitalisations per year and an estimated 593 million annual trips by bicycle among people 12 years of age and older, for a cycling hospitalisation rate of 622 per 100 million trips (95% CI 611 to 633). Hospitalisation rates varied substantially across the jurisdiction, age and sex strata, but only two characteristics explained this variability. For all injury causes, sex was associated with hospitalisation rates; females had rates consistently lower than males. For traffic-related injury causes, higher cycling mode share was consistently associated with lower hospitalisation rates. Helmet legislation was not associated with hospitalisation rates for brain, head, scalp, skull, face or neck injuries. Conclusions These results suggest that transportation and health policymakers who aim to reduce bicycling injury rates in the population should focus on factors related to increased cycling mode share and female cycling choices. Bicycling routes designed to be physically separated from traffic or along quiet streets fit both these criteria and are associated with lower relative risks of injury. PMID:26525719

  10. Proof of principle for helmet-mounted display image quality tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Beasley, Howard H.; Martin, John S.

    2003-09-01

    Helmet mounted displays (HMDs) provide essential pilotage and fire control imagery information for pilots. To maintain system integrity and readiness, there is a need to develop an image quality-testing tool for HMDs. There is currently no such tool. A framework for development of an image quality tester for the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used in the U.S. Army's AH-64 was proposed in Hsieh et al. This paper presents the prototype development, summarizes the bench test findings using three IHADSS helmet display units (HDUs), and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The prototype consists of hardware (two cameras, sensors, image capture/data acquisition cards, battery pack, HDU holder, moveable rack and handle, and computer) and software algorithms for image capture and analysis. Two cameras with different apertures were mounted in parallel on a rack facing the HDU holder. A handle was designed to allow users to position the HDU in front of the two cameras. The HMD test pattern was then captured. Sensors are used to detect the position of the holder and whether the HDU was angled correctly in relation to the camera. Two sets of unified algorithms were designed to detect features presented by the two cameras. These features include focus, orientation, displacement, field-of-view, and number of gray-shades. Images of test pattern were captured and analyzed, and used to develop a specification for each inspection feature. Experiments were conducted to verify the robustness of the algorithms. A worst-case scenario for factors such as clock-wise and counterclockwise tilt, degree of focus, magnitude of brightness and contrast, and shifted images were set up and evaluated. Bench testing of three field-quality HDUs indicate that the image analysis algorithms are robust and able to detect the desired image features. Suggested future work includes development of a learning algorithm to automatically develop or revise feature

  11. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: aircraft handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Craig, Gregory L.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.

    2009-05-01

    A flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on helicopter handling proficiency, workload and pilot acceptance. Three pilots with varying levels of night vision goggle and hyperstereo helmet-mounted display experience participated in the test. The pilots carried out a series of flights consisting of low-level maneuvers over a period of two weeks. Four of the test maneuvers, The turn around the tail, the hard surface landing, the hover height estimation and the tree-line following were analysed in detail. At the end of the testing period, no significant difference was observed in the performance data, between maneuvers performed with the TopOwl helmet and maneuvers performed with the standard night vision goggle. This study addressed only the image intensification display aspects of the TopOwl helmet system. The tests did not assess the added benefits of overlaid symbology or head slaved infrared camera imagery. These capabilities need to be taken into account when assessing the overall usefulness of the TopOwl system. Even so, this test showed that pilots can utilize the image intensification imagery displayed on the TopOwl to perform benign night flying tasks to an equivalent level as pilots using ANVIS. The study should be extended to investigate more dynamic and aggressive low level flying, slope landings and ship deck landings. While there may be concerns regarding the effect of hyperstereopsis on piloting, this initial study suggests that pilots can either adapt or compensate for hyperstereo effects with sufficient exposure and training. Further analysis and testing is required to determine the extent of training required.

  12. System requirements for head down and helmet mounted displays in the military avionics environment

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.F.; Kalmanash, M.; Sethna, V.

    1996-12-31

    The introduction of flat panel display technologies into the military avionics cockpit is a challenging proposition, due to the very difficult system level requirements which must be met. These relate to environmental extremes (temperature and vibrational), sever ambient lighting conditions (10,000 fL to nighttime viewing), night vision system compatibility, and wide viewing angle. At the same time, the display system must be packaged in minimal space and use minimal power. The authors will present details on the display system requirements for both head down and helmet mounted systems, as well as information on how these challenges may be overcome.

  13. Systems engineering in a joint program environment: the joint helmet-mounted cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Donald F.

    1999-07-01

    The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) is a design program involving two airframe companies (Boeing and Lockheed Martin), two services (USAF and USN) and four aircraft platforms: the F-22, the F-16, the F/A-18 and the F-15. Developing equipment requirements for the combined operational and environmental needs of these diverse communities is a significant challenge. In addition, the team is geographically dispersed which presented challenges in communication and coordination. This paper details the lessons learned in producing a cost-effective design within a short development schedule and makes recommendations for future development programs.

  14. Development of an aviator's helmet-mounted night-vision goggle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Gerry H.; McFarlane, Robert J.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  15. Health studies on a group of captive helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J E; Max, R A; Mbassa, G K

    1996-03-01

    A small group of housed helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) was studied over a 6-week period. Blood samples were taken on three occasions and basic haematology was performed. Clinical examination of the birds revealed a number of abnormalities including bumblefoot, inflammatory lesions on the wings and body, impaction of the preen gland and traumatic injuries. Supporting laboratory tests provided further information on the aetiology and pathogenesis of some of these disorders. Four birds died during the study: postmortem findings included oviductitis and septicaemia, visceral gout and nephropathy. Virological investigations were not carried out. The importance, when keeping guineafowl, of good husbandry, including regular handling and examination, is stressed. PMID:18645844

  16. Results of using helmet-mounted displays to control robots in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromadka, Theodore V., III; Melzer, James E.

    2003-09-01

    In July 2002, the US Army Robotics Study Team tested man-portable robots and controllers in combat for the first time. These robots quickly explored caves, bunkers, and other objectives in Afghanistan via remote control while the soldiers remained in secure positions. These systems, developed in less than a month, are still in use a year later. The M7 systems are based on equipment first prototyped for the Land Warrior program and clearly demonstrate that helmet-mounted display technology has reached a deployable state of the art for the infantry soldier. Further work on human factors and ergonomics are the new focus of development for this type of equipment.

  17. Helmets and mouth guards: the role of personal equipment in preventing sport-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Daniel H; Baugh, Christine M; Nowinski, Christopher J; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Millions of athletes in the United States experience concussions annually. Although helmets and mouth guards have decreased the risk of catastrophic head injuries, their protective effects on concussions are less clear. This article evaluates the current literature on the effect of equipment on concussions. Understanding the role that these equipment play in preventing concussions is complicated by many factors, such as selection bias in nonrandomized studies, variations in playing style, and risk compensation in sports with mandatory protective equipment. Improving coach and player education about proper concussion management, encouraging neck-strengthening exercises, and minimizing high-risk impacts may reduce concussions in sports. PMID:21074089

  18. A helmet mounted display to adapt the telerobotic environment to human vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; Yamashita, Hitomi; Stark, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    A Helmet Mounted Display system has been developed. It provides the capability to display stereo images with the viewpoint tied to subjects' head orientation. The type of display might be useful in a telerobotic environment provided the correct operating parameters are known. The effects of update frequency were tested using a 3D tracking task. The effects of blur were tested using both tracking and pick-and-place tasks. For both, researchers found that operator performance can be degraded if the correct parameters are not used. Researchers are also using the display to explore the use of head movements as part of gaze as subjects search their visual field for target objects.

  19. STS-113 Paul Lockhart adjusts his helmet during suitup before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Paul Lockhart adjusts his helmet during suitup before launch. Lockhart will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  20. The Incidence of Complications Associated With Molding Helmet Therapy: An Avoidable Risk in the Treatment of Positional Head Deformities?

    PubMed

    Freudlsperger, Christian; Bodem, Jens P; Kargus, Steffen; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Hoffman, Jürgen; Engel, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Molding helmet therapy using an individual head orthosis presents a widely accepted treatment option for children with positional head deformities; however, studies addressing the incidence of complications during helmet therapy are rare. The current study evaluates the incidence of complications in 205 children with positional head deformity undergoing molding helmet therapy. Children were classified according to the severity of their deformity as presented by the Cranial Vault Asymmetry Index (CVAI) and the Cephalic Index (CI). Fifty-nine (28.8%) of our patients presented a moderate and 146 (71.2%) a severe form of a positional head deformity. Of these children, 166 (81.0%) were diagnosed for plagiocephaly, 19 (9.3%) were brachycephalic, and 20 (9.7%) showed a combination of plagiocephaly and brachycephaly. Overall, 54 children (26.3%) showed minor complications during their helmet molding including pressure sores (13.7%), ethanol erythema (2.9%), skin erosions/skin infections (4.3%), or deficient fitting (5.4%). Children with a combination of plagiocephaly and brachycephaly (n = 20) showed the highest risk for complications, which was significantly higher compared with children with plagiocephaly (50% vs 22.3%; P = 0.012). Irrespective of the type of positional head deformity, no statistical difference was revealed between the moderate and the severe form. Minor complications are a relatively frequent event during helmet molding therapy. Especially children with a combination of plagiocephaly-brachycephaly are at high risk for complications. A reduction of this rate might be reached by a close follow-up for a short period between helmet manufacturing adjustments. PMID:26080239

  1. An Analysis of Technology-Related Distracted Biking Behaviors and Helmet Use Among Cyclists in New York City.

    PubMed

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Johnson, Glen D; Hammond, Rodney; Chow, Ching Man; Varsos, Victoria

    2016-02-01

    Bicycling is becoming an increasingly utilized mode of transportation in New York City. Technology-related distracted bicycling and helmet use are behaviors that can impact bike safety. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine rates and types of technology-related distracted behaviors among bicyclists in the borough of Manhattan in New York City; and (2) to assess the rate of bicycle helmet use among these cyclists. Bicyclists in five popular riding areas in Manhattan were observed for a total of 50 h using a digital video camera during summer months in 2014. Videos were coded and enumerated for the total number and gender of cyclists, type of bicycle, number wearing headphones/earbuds and/or using a mobile phone, and whether the cyclist was wearing a helmet. Almost 25,000 cyclists were observed across the five selected locations (n = 24,861). Riders were almost four times more likely not to wear a helmet on rental bikes as compared with non-rentals (Citi Bike(®) OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.5, 5.9: other rental OR 3.8; 95% CI 3.0, 4.9). Significantly increased odds of not wearing a helmet were observed for females relative to males (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) across varied times and locations. Overall, rates of technology-related distraction were low, with headphone use being most prevalent. Males were more likely to wear headphones/earbuds (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.9), as were cyclists on Citi Bikes relative to other rental bikes (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.6). Findings from this study contribute to the growing literature on distracted biking and helmet use among bike share program riders and other cyclists and can inform policymakers and program planners aiming to improve bicycle safety in urban settings. PMID:26323983

  2. Alterations in head dynamics with the addition of a hockey helmet and face shield under inertial loading.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Bishop, P J; Wells, R P

    1985-06-01

    The effect of a hockey helmet and face shield on the head and neck during inertial loading was studied. A Hybrid III Anthropometric Test Dummy (ATD) was struck from both the front and rear by a spring-loaded, instrumented striker moving at 2.9 ms-1. Data were collected from a triaxial force transducer mounted at the atlanto-occipital (a-o) junction of the ATD, a load cell in the striker, and by cinematography (250 fps). Angular kinematics of the head and moments of force about the a-o junction were determined along with impact force levels. When compared to a bare-head condition, the addition of a helmet and face shield caused an increase in head angular displacement (20-40%) but did not affect head angular acceleration. Axial and shear forces at the a-o junction did not change appreciably with the addition of a helmet and face shield. A triphasic pattern was evident for the neck moments including a small phase which represented a seating of the headform on the nodding blocks of the uppermost ATD neck segment, and two larger phases of opposite polarity which represented the motion of the head relative to the trunk during the first 350 ms after impact. No substantial differences were apparent between the helmeted and non-helmeted trials. The magnitudes of forces and moments found in the present study were well within tolerance levels reported by others (Melvin, 1979; Cheng et al., 1982). It was concluded that the increase in angular displacement of the head, with the addition of a helmet and face shield, does not place the wearer in a position of increased risk of cervical spine trauma. PMID:4017154

  3. Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves.

    PubMed

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Jazi, Mehdi Salimi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation were two major results of this study. PMID:25413615

  4. Sports and Concussions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of all sports, not just contact sports like football and hockey. As long as people play sports, ... sports, such as: helmet-to-helmet tackles in football getting checked against the boards in hockey heading ...

  5. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  6. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

    PubMed Central

    Possin, Katherine L.; Hess, Christopher P.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Nolan, Amber L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Ghosh, Pia M.; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players. PMID:26336629

  7. Concussion management in US college football: progress and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kroshus, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the frequency and severity of concussions from sport is an important issue in public health currently addressed by a multifaceted approach. Given the large number of participants and the comparatively high risk of injury, American football is an important sport to consider when examining concussion management practices. Focusing on American football at the collegiate level, this manuscript describes current research regarding concussion epidemiology, policy, implementation of clinical diagnosis, management and return-to-play standards and athlete concussion education. Although American collegiate sports leagues have put forth concussion-related policies in recent years, the implementation of these policies and related effects on athlete concussion education, clinical management of concussion and ultimately athlete health outcomes are not well understood. Additional research is needed. PMID:27064258

  8. Temazepam and the perceptual-motor performance of professional footballers.

    PubMed Central

    Golby, J; Hutson, M A

    1985-01-01

    The use of benzodiazepines to overcome the possible debilitating effects of travel on football performance is a recent phenomenon and indicative of current usage of such drugs. Contemporary psychological theory is critical of many of the measures used to monitor such drugs. This study has created a battery of tests which include some measures which are deemed more ecologically valid and, for purposes of comparison, some traditional indices. On a sample of First Division professional Association footballers temazepam (40 mg) was compared with placebo on these measures and testing occurred on the afternoon following night time medication. The findings suggest that on such a protocol, perceptual-motor performance is not impaired. Images p115-a p115-b Fig. 1 PMID:2862946

  9. Unintended Consequences of Concussion Prevention in NCAA Football

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W.; Wehr, Peter; Amendola, Annunziato

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Both lower extremity and head injuries are common in American Football players. Concussions, or Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (MTBIs), have gained increased interest in the past decade. Recurrent MTBIs have been associated with late-life cognitive impairment and depression in American Football populations.2, 3 Beginning in 2008, the NCAA introduced rule changes with the intent to halt or reverse the increasing rates of MTBIs in its players. Lower-extremity injuries in American football populations have been associated with increased rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis1 and significantly contribute to disability in retirement. While lower extremity injury rates have been studied and associated with weather5 and playing surface4, no such study has sought an association between lower extremity injury with the timing/introduction of rule changes used to prevent head injuries. The purpose of this study was to assess if lower extremity injury rates are increasing after concussion rule changes. We hypothesize that there may be a compensatory increase in lower extremity injury rates as players act to avoid head-to-head contact and comply with instated rules. Methods: The NCAA Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) database was queried for in-game injuries suffered between 2009-2014. All injuries suffered by NCAA Football players that occurred in competition were identified. Injuries that did not result in lost participation time were excluded. Lower extremity injuries that resulted in lost time included injuries to the thigh/upper leg, knee, lower leg/Achilles, ankle and foot. All concussions resulting in lost time were also identified during the same time period for comparison. Data regarding athletic exposures was collected in order to calculate the incidence of injury. Results: Between 2009 and 2014, 48 NCAA Football programs provided data on123 team-seasons to the NCAA ISS for analysis. The incidence of lower extremity injuries increased from 9

  10. Concussion in the National Football League: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2009-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area. PMID:19084771

  11. Concussion in the national football league: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2008-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area. PMID:18295092

  12. A network-based ranking system for US college football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juyong; Newman, M. E. J.

    2005-10-01

    American college football faces a conflict created by the desire to stage national championship games between the best teams of a season when there is no conventional play-off system for deciding which those teams are. Instead, ranking of teams is based on their records of wins and losses during the season, but each team plays only a small fraction of eligible opponents, making the system underdetermined or contradictory or both. It is an interesting challenge to create a ranking system that at once is mathematically well founded, gives results in general accord with received wisdom concerning the relative strengths of the teams, and is based upon intuitive principles, allowing it to be accepted readily by fans and experts alike. Here we introduce a one-parameter ranking method that satisfies all of these requirements and is based on a network representation of college football schedules.

  13. Movement Profiles, Match Events, and Performance in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Johnston, RJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, D, Pine, MJ, and Spurrs, RW. Movement profiles, match events, and performance in Australian football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2129-2137, 2016-This study examined the relationship between movement demands, match events, and match performance in professional Australian football. Data were collected from 19 players using global positioning system units during 2 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and instantaneous power measures were collected. The players were divided into high-caliber (HC, ≥17/20) and low-caliber (LC, ≤8/20) groups based on the rating score by their coaches. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups. The HC group had a significantly higher match duration (7.2%), higher total distance (9.6%), and covered more distance and spent more time high-speed running per minute (12.7 and 11.9%). Although not significant, the effect sizes revealed that the HC group tended to have a higher mean metabolic power output (2.6%) and spent more time at the high power zone (7.9%). For the match event data, the HC group had significantly more involvements with the football. The results demonstrated the higher physical demands placed on the HC group. The findings suggest that analyzing instantaneous power measures can provide valuable information about the physical demands placed on team sport athletes to coaches and conditioning staff. PMID:26808858

  14. Injury surveillance in the World Football Tournaments 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Background International sports bodies should protect the health of their athletes, and injury surveillance is an important pre-requisite for injury prevention. The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) has systematically surveyed all football injuries in their tournaments since 1998. Aims Analysis of the incidence, characteristics and changes of football injury during international top-level tournaments 1998–2012. Methods All newly incurred football injuries during the FIFA tournaments and the Olympic Games were reported by the team physicians on a standardised injury report form after each match. The average response rate was 92%. Results A total of 3944 injuries were reported from 1546 matches, equivalent to 2.6 injuries per match. The majority of injuries (80%) was caused by contact with another player, compared with 47% of contact injuries by foul play. The most frequently injured body parts were the ankle (19%), lower leg (16%) and head/neck (15%). Contusions (55%) were the most common type of injury, followed by sprains (17%) and strains (10%). On average, 1.1 injuries per match were expected to result in absence from a match or training. The incidence of time-loss injuries was highest in the FIFA World Cups and lowest in the FIFA U17 Women's World Cups. The injury rates in the various types of FIFA World Cups had different trends over the past 14 years. Conclusions Changes in the incidence of injuries in top-level tournaments might be influenced by the playing style, refereeing, extent and intensity of match play. Strict application of the Laws of the Games is an important means of injury prevention. PMID:23632746

  15. Cumulative Head Impact Burden in High School Football

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, James T.; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec2 and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines. PMID:21787201

  16. Football fever: goal distributions and non-Gaussian statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, E.; Nußbaumer, A.; Janke, W.; Weigel, M.

    2009-02-01

    Analyzing football score data with statistical techniques, we investigate how the not purely random, but highly co-operative nature of the game is reflected in averaged properties such as the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams. As it turns out, especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. Instead, a good effective description of the data is provided by less basic distributions such as the negative binomial one or the probability densities of extreme value statistics. To understand this behavior from a microscopical point of view, however, no waiting time problem or extremal process need be invoked. Instead, modifying the Bernoulli random process underlying the Poissonian model to include a simple component of self-affirmation seems to describe the data surprisingly well and allows to understand the observed deviation from Gaussian statistics. The phenomenological distributions used before can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the “FIFA World Cup” series, and found the proposed models to be applicable rather universally. In particular, here we analyze the results of the German women’s premier football league and consider the two separate German men’s premier leagues in the East and West during the cold war times as well as the unified league after 1990 to see how scoring in football and the component of self-affirmation depend on cultural and political circumstances.

  17. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success.

    PubMed

    Olde Rikkert, Joris; Haes, Vincent De; Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D; Theelen, Thomas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a video set-up (study 1) and a retrospective study on professional football clubs' performances dependent on their outfit colours (study 2). The studies were conducted with 18 human volunteers aged 15-18 years (study 1) and league results from 10 professional European football teams over 17 years (1995-2013) (study 2). We analysed the number of correct assessments of the positions of virtual football players with different outfit colours (study 1) and analysed the relationship between match results and outfits' colours (study 2). Study 1 showed that the position of players wearing white outfits was better assessed in 5.2% of the trials compared to players wearing green outfits (P = 0.007). Study 2 showed that Manchester City conceded less goals against in away games in highly visible kits (r = 0.62; P = 0.024), while Newcastle United conceded less goals and won more points while playing in kits associated with low visibility (r = 0.63; P = 0.007; r = 0.50; P = 0.040, respectively). We conclude that the colour of football outfits affects evaluations of football players' positions on the field, with white tricots resulting in the best location assessment. The outfit colour may indirectly influence football match results, warranting more attention to the home and away shirts by team managers and football scientists. PMID:26140538

  18. Osteochondral and Meniscal Allograft Transplantation in the Football (Soccer) Player

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Riley J.; Gersoff, Wayne K.; Bugbee, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Knee injuries are common in football, frequently involving damage to the meniscus and articular cartilage. These injuries can cause significant disability, result in loss of playing time, and predispose players to osteoarthritis. Osteochondral allografting is an increasingly popular treatment option for osteoarticular lesions in athletes. Osteochondral allografts provide mature, orthotopic hyaline cartilage on an osseous scaffold that serves as an attachment vehicle, which is rapidly replaced via creeping substitution, leading to reliable graft integration that allows for simplified rehabilitation and accelerated return to sport. The indications for meniscal replacement in football players are currently still evolving. Meniscus allografts offer potential functional, analgesic, and chondroprotective benefits in the meniscectomized knee. In the player at the end of his or her professional/competitive career, meniscal allografts can play a role in averting progression of chondropenia and facilitating knee function and an active lifestyle. This article is intended to present a concise overview of the limited published results for osteochondral and meniscal allografting in the athletic population and to provide a practical treatment algorithm that is of relevance to the clinician as well as the patient/football player, based on current consensus of opinion. PMID:26069605

  19. Etiology and Biomechanics of Tarsometatarsal Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Richard W.; Lievers, W. Brent; Riley, Patrick O.; Frimenko, Rebecca E.; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tarsometatarsal (TMT) dislocations are uncommon yet debilitating athletic injuries, particularly in American football. To date, the mechanisms of athletic TMT dislocation have been described only anecdotally. This lack of information confounds the development of preventative countermeasures. Purpose: To use video analysis to provide direct, independent identification of the etiologic and mechanistic variables responsible for TMT dislocations in professional football players. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Sixteen professional National Football League players who sustained publicly reported TMT dislocations were identified. Publicly broadcast game footage of the plays in which injury occurred was reviewed by a panel of 5 biomechanists. Consensus was reached regarding the details surrounding injury, and a weighting was assigned to each detail based on the panel’s confidence. Results: Roughly 90% of injuries occurred while the injured player was engaged with or by another player, a detail that has heretofore been undocumented. Few injuries resulted from direct loading of either the foot or the ipsilateral limb; however, the injured foot was frequently subjected to axial loading from ground engagement with the foot in plantar flexion and the toes dorsiflexed. Injurious loading was often due to external rotation of the midfoot (86%). Fifteen of 16 injuries were season ending. Conclusion: TMT dislocations are frequently associated with engagement by or with a second player but infrequently caused by a direct blow to the foot. Axial loading of the foot, external rotation, and pronation/supination are the most common conditions during injurious loading. PMID:26535306

  20. Compression and texture in socks enhance football kicking performance.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Hosni; Davids, Keith; Chow, Jia Yi; Kerr, Graham

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe effects of wearing textured insoles and clinical compression socks on organisation of lower limb interceptive actions in developing athletes of different skill levels in association football. Six advanced learners and six completely novice football players (15.4±0.9years) performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity, in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI) and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI). Reflective markers were placed on key anatomical locations and the ball to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) movement recording and analysis. Data on 3D kinematic variables and initial ball velocity were analysed using one-way mixed model ANOVAs. Results revealed that wearing textured and compression materials enhanced performance in key variables, such as the maximum velocity of the instep kick and increased initial ball velocity, among advanced learners compared to the use of non-textured and compression materials. Adding texture to football boot insoles appeared to interact with compression materials to improve kicking performance, captured by these important measures. This improvement in kicking performance is likely to have occurred through enhanced somatosensory system feedback utilised for foot placement and movement organisation of the lower limbs. Data suggested that advanced learners were better at harnessing the augmented feedback information from compression and texture to regulate emerging movement patterns compared to novices. PMID:27155962