Science.gov

Sample records for adult foster care

  1. Foster Care Experiences and Educational Outcomes of Young Adults Formerly Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…

  2. Predicting Homelessness among Emerging Adults Aging Out of Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Shah, Melissa Ford; Liu, Qinghua; Mark Eddy, J; Barkan, Susan; Marshall, David; Mancuso, David; Lucenko, Barbara; Huber, Alice

    2016-11-10

    This study examines risk and protective factors associated with experiencing homelessness in the year after "aging out" of foster care. Using a state-level integrated administrative database, we identified 1,202 emerging adults in Washington State who exited foster care between July 2010 and June 2012. Initial bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between candidate predictive factors and an indicator of homelessness in a 12-month follow-up period. After deploying a stepwise regression process, the final logistic regression model included 15 predictive factors. Youth who were parents, who had recently experienced housing instability, or who were African American had approximately twice the odds of experiencing homelessness in the year after exiting foster care. In addition, youth who had experienced disrupted adoptions, had multiple foster care placements (especially in congregate care settings), or had been involved with the juvenile justice system were more likely to become homeless. In contrast, youth were less likely to experience homelessness if they had ever been placed with a relative while in foster care or had a high cumulative grade point average relative to their peers.

  3. Children in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews statistics on children in foster care. Examines the definition of foster care, the reasons children are placed in foster care, the various living arrangements that constitute foster care, and the rapid growth of the foster care population. (MDM)

  4. Time well spent: the duration of foster care and early adult labor market, educational, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7220 children. The children experienced different average durations of foster care because of differences in exposure to a reform. Later born cohorts spent on average 3 months longer in foster care than earlier born cohorts. Isolating exogenous variation in duration of foster care, the study finds positive effects of increased duration of foster care on income and labor market participation.

  5. A Reason, a Season, or a Lifetime: "Relational Permanence among Young Adults with Foster Care Backgrounds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Gina Miranda

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon called "aging out" includes approximately 20,000 young people who enter adulthood directly from foster care each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). The number of youth and young adults who aged out of care in the U.S. in 2005, the year for which the most current statistics are available, increased 48 percent…

  6. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  7. The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Avonda C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the lived experiences of the adult African American woman who had lived in multiple foster care placements. Eleven adult African American women ages 22-25 participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to tell their stories and provide data of the memories of the experience. The…

  8. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Foster Care Alumni: The Role of Race, Gender, and Foster Care Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…

  10. Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care.

    PubMed

    Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-09-01

    This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities.

  11. Depression among Alumni of Foster Care: Decreasing Rates through Improvement of Experiences in Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; English, Diana; Williams, Jason R.; Phillips, Chereese M.

    2009-01-01

    The Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study examined the relation between experiences in foster care and depression among young adults who spent at least a year in foster care as adolescents. Results indicate that preparation for leaving foster care, nurturing supports from the foster family, school stability, access to tutoring, access to therapeutic…

  12. Foster Care and Child Health.

    PubMed

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  13. Alcohol Control and Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Sara; Cuellar, Alison; Conrad, Ryan M.; Grossman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parental alcohol consumption is often associated with an increased likelihood of child abuse. As consumption is related to price, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the propensity for increases in the full price of alcohol to influence entry rates and the length of time spent in foster care. Using alcoholic beverage prices and a measure of availability in combination with data on foster care cases, we find that higher alcohol prices are not effective in reducing foster care entry rates; however, once in foster care, the duration of stay may be shortened by higher prices and reduced availability. PMID:25506296

  14. Educating Students in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Students who are in foster care need principals who are informed about policy, aware of their needs, and willing to be advocates for them. Multiple school placements often result in significant gaps in the education of students in foster care. If they also have disabilities, they may lose special programs and services when they change placements.…

  15. Regulatory skill as a resilience factor for adults with a history of foster care: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Angela J; Tottenham, Nim

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of foster care (FC) are at elevated risk for emotion regulation-related mental illness. The purpose of the current study was to characterize regulatory function in a group of adults with a history of FC (N = 26) relative to those without a history of FC (N = 27) and how regulatory function moderates adverse caregiving-related outcomes (daily cortisol production and trait anxiety). Self-report items (anxiety, emotion regulation strategies, inhibitory control, caregiving history) were collected along with more objective measures (computerized task and salivary cortisol). Inhibitory control was assessed via self-report and a computerized task (emotional face go/nogo). Results showed that for adults with a history of FC, higher levels of inhibitory control were associated with higher accuracy on the emotional face go/nogo task and greater reported use of the emotion regulation strategy cognitive reappraisal. Greater use of cognitive reappraisal in turn was associated with healthier stress-related outcomes (decreased trait anxiety and steeper sloped cortisol production throughout the day). Dose-response associations were observed between self-reported regulatory skills and FC experiences (i.e., number of placements and age when exited foster care). These findings suggest that adverse caregiving can have long-term influences on mental health that extend into adulthood; however, individual differences in regulatory skills moderate these outcomes and may be an important target for intervention following caregiving adversity.

  16. Permanency and the Foster Care System.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Katie K; Friedman, Susan; Christian, Cindy W

    2015-10-01

    Each year over 20,000 youth age out of the child welfare system without reaching a permanent placement in a family. Certain children, such as those spending extended time in foster care, with a diagnosed disability, or adolescents, are at the highest risk for aging out. As young adults, this population is at and increased risk of incarceration; food, housing, and income insecurity; unemployment; educational deficits; receipt of public assistance; and mental health disorders. We reviewed the literature on foster care legislation, permanency, outcomes, and interventions. The outcomes of children who age out of the child welfare system are poor. Interventions to increase permanency include training programs for youth and foster parents, age extension for foster care and insurance coverage, an adoption tax credit, and specialized services and programs that support youth preparing for their transition to adulthood. Future ideas include expanding mentoring, educational support, mental health services, and post-permanency services to foster stability in foster care placements and encourage permanency planning. Children in the child welfare system are at a high risk for physical, mental, and emotional health problems that can lead to placement instability and create barriers to achieving permanency. Failure to reach the permanency of a family leads to poor outcomes, which have negative effects on the individual and society. Supporting youth in foster care throughout transitions may mediate the negative outcomes that have historically followed placement in out-of-home care.

  17. Behavioral Techniques in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Theodore J.; Gambrill, Eileen D.

    1976-01-01

    Behavioral modification techniques are used with families of children in foster care as a way of helping them achieve long-range goals for their children. Case examples illustrate the goals, intervention plans, and the outcomes. (Author)

  18. Use of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System in an assessment of an adolescent in foster care.

    PubMed

    Webster, Linda; Joubert, David

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment has been associated with a host of negative outcomes including impaired social relationships (Rogosch, Cicchetti, & Aber, 1995), depression (Toth, Manly, & Cicchetti, 1992), poor self-concept and motivation (Vondra, Barnett, & Cicchetti, 1990), and delinquency and conduct problems (Cook et al., 2005; Grotevant et al., 2006; McCabe, Lucchini, Hough, Yeh, & Hazen, 2005; Ryan & Testa, 2005). An assessment of the mental representation of attachment relationships could offer additional relevant and useful information to the evaluation of youth in foster care, and could inform treatment and placement considerations. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a relatively new measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George, West, & Pettem, 1997). This article considers the use of the AAP with a maltreated adolescent in a clinical setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to case conceptualization and interventions.

  19. Regulatory Skill as a Resilience Factor for Adults With a History of Foster Care: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela J; Tottenham, Nim

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of foster care (FC) are at elevated risk for emotion regulation-related mental illness. The purpose of the current study was to characterize regulatory function in a group of adults with a history of FC (N = 26) relative to those without a history of FC (N = 27) and how regulatory function moderates adverse caregiving-related outcomes (daily cortisol production and trait anxiety). Self-report items (anxiety, emotion regulation strategies, inhibitory control, caregiving history) were collected along with more objective measures (computerized task and salivary cortisol). Inhibitory control was assessed via self-report and a computerized task (emotional face go/nogo). Results showed that for adults with a history of FC, higher levels of inhibitory control were associated with higher accuracy on the emotional face go/nogo task and greater reported use of the emotion regulation strategy cognitive reappraisal. Greater use of cognitive reappraisal in turn was associated with healthier stress-related outcomes (decreased trait anxiety and steeper sloped cortisol production throughout the day). Dose-response associations were observed between self-reported regulatory skills and FC experiences (i.e., number of placements and age when exited foster care). These findings suggest that adverse caregiving can have long-term influences on mental health that extend into adulthood; however, individual differences in regulatory skills moderate these outcomes and may be an important target for intervention following caregiving adversity. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57: 1–16, 2015. PMID:25270099

  20. Handbook for Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    This handbook is for youth placed in foster care through local departments of social services (DSS) (not the juvenile justice system). The handbook was written for youth entering foster care for the first time as well as youth already in foster care, in the hope that youth entering or already in foster care will find the information helpful. The…

  1. Intergenerational pathways leading to foster care placement of foster care alumni's children.

    PubMed

    Jackson Foster, Lovie J; Beadnell, Blair; Pecora, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    This study examined a path model that postulated intergenerational relationships between biological parent psychosocial functioning and foster care alumni mental health, economic status, and social support; and from these to the likelihood of children of foster care alumni being placed in foster care. The sample included 742 adults who spent time in foster care as children with a private foster care agency and who reported having at least one biological child. A full pathway was found between poorer father's functioning to greater alumni depression, which was in turn associated with negative social support, and then a greater likelihood of child out of home placement. Other parent to alumni paths were that poorer father functioning was associated with alumni anxiety and PTSD, and poorer mother's mental health was associated with PTSD; however, anxiety and PTSD were not implicated as precursors of foster care placement of the child. Findings support the need for increased practice and policy support to address the mental health needs of parents of children in or at risk of foster care, as well as the children themselves, as family history may have a lasting influence on quality of life, even when children are raised apart from biological parents.

  2. Young Adult Outcomes Associated with Teen Pregnancy Among High-Risk Girls in an RCT of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Kerr, David C R; Harold, Gordon T

    2013-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes for girls such as drug use and poor parenting. Thus, reducing teen pregnancy rates could improve long-term developmental outcomes for girls, improving adjustment during young adulthood. Based on the positive effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to group care (GC) in a study of adolescent girls-significantly fewer pregnancies reported in the 2-year follow-up for MTFC girls-the present study followed this sample into young adulthood (approximately 7 years postbaseline) to examine the effects of adolescent pregnancy on young adult substance use and pregnancy-related outcomes. All participants were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as adolescents as part of two RCTs. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that becoming pregnant during the 2-year follow-up was significantly related to illicit drug use, miscarriage from a new pregnancy, and child welfare involvement at 7 years postbaseline. In addition, baseline marijuana use predicted marijuana use at 7 years postbaseline.

  3. Supporting Students in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmieri, Lauren E.; La Salle, Tamika P.

    2017-01-01

    Students living in foster care are at risk for experiencing many challenges in school, spanning domains of social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. They are twice as likely to be absent from school and to have received and out-of-school suspension and up to three and a half times more likely to receive special education services.…

  4. Homelessness: The Foster Care Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    Roughly 600,000 families are homeless today in America, while over 2.7 million children are in foster care or out-of-home placements. Few policymakers have examined these issues together, or understood that they are interrelated and must be addressed jointly to break the cycle of family disintegration, violence, and poverty. A recent survey by the…

  5. Typologies of substance use and illegal behaviors: A comparison of emerging adults with histories of foster care and the general population

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Susan M.; Medeiros, Rose Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore whether patterns of substance use and illegal behaviors among emerging adults, 18 to 28 years old, differ depending on whether they have a prior history in foster care. The study sample, consisting of 316 respondents who had previously been in foster care and 14,301 respondents without a foster care history, was drawn from the third wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. A multiple-group LCA compared former foster youth to their peers in the general population. The following four classes were identified: illegal behaviors, substance use, illegal behaviors with problematic substance use and normative behaviors. Most of the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. However, within the illegal behavior class former foster youth were less likely to have bought, sold, or held stolen goods; injured someone in a fight so that she or he needed medical attention; to have sold drugs; and to have been drunk at school or work. Additionally, in the illegal behaviors with problematic substance use class emerging adults in the general population were more likely to have used cocaine. Within the normative behaviors class, former foster youth were more likely to be current smokers, and to have injured someone in a fight so that he or she required medical attention. Within the substance use class, emerging adults from the general population were more likely to have taken place in a fight where one group fought another. Additional statistically significant, but very small differences were also identified. PMID:27546938

  6. Overcoming Social Disconnection and Its Consequences for Transition into Adulthood: Case Studies of Adults Who Exited Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taglianetti, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    Devastating life experiences continually plague many foster care youth throughout their entire lives on social, emotional, educational, psychological, and physical levels. Oftentimes, the cumulative effect of these events results in large numbers of individuals dropping out of school and becoming increasingly disconnected from people and many…

  7. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs. This person should be contacted by adoption ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs in each State or territory. State Postadoption ...

  8. Preventing re-entry to foster care.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  9. Unaccompanied Evacuation and Adult Mortality: Evaluating the Finnish Policy of Evacuating Children to Foster Care During World War II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I examined associations between evacuation of Finnish children to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II and all-cause mortality between ages 38 and 78 years. Methods. I used a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate mortality risk according to whether the individual was evacuated during childhood or not. I used within-sibling analysis to control for all unobserved socioeconomic and genetic characteristics shared among siblings. Individual-level data for Finnish cohorts born in 1933 to 1944 were derived from wartime government records, Finnish census data from 1950 and 1970, and death cause registry from 1971 to 2011. Results. I found no statistically significant association between evacuation and all-cause mortality when all exposed individuals were included in the analysis. However, subgroup analysis showed that men evacuated before age 4 years had a 1.31 higher mortality risk (95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.69) than their nonevacuated counterparts. Conclusions. In the aggregate, individuals do not have elevated mortality risk as a consequence of foster care during early childhood owing to the onset of sudden external shocks (e.g., wars). PMID:25033125

  10. Factors affecting foster care breakdown in Spain.

    PubMed

    López López, Mónica; del Valle, Jorge F; Montserrat, Carme; Bravo, Amaia

    2011-05-01

    Breakdown of foster care has been defined as the situation in which one of the involved parties terminates the intervention before having achieved the goals established for the case plan. This work presents a study carried out with a Spanish sample of 318 closed cases of children who were placed in foster homes and kinship care. The data were collected through the exhaustive review of the child protection and foster placement files, complemented with interviews of the welfare workers in charge of each case. The rate of breakdown of the entire sample was 26.1%, although it was significantly different in kinship care (19.7%) and foster care (31.2%). The results of this study indicate that the variables related to breakdown depend on the placement modality, either in foster care or kinship care. In the first case, the variables related to the child's characteristics are noteworthy, especially behavior and academic problems, with special relevance in the 9-12-year-old group, and in children who were previously in residential care. In contrast, in kinship care, the parents' problems (prison, mental health) and having some measure of guardianship are the most important. The fact of undergoing foster placement after having lived in various residential homes is transcendental. Lastly, the availability of economic resources and even the foster carers' studies seem to be related to foster breakdown.

  11. Issues in Adoption and Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    This speech presents an overview of issues and trends in the provision of foster care and adoption services in Canada. The number of children "in care" in Canada (in foster homes, institutions, or adoptive homes) appears to have peaked around 1969 and declined thereafter. Information on contraceptives and the availaibility of abortions…

  12. Mental Health Issues in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Lohr, W David; Jones, V Faye

    2016-10-01

    Children in foster care have exceptional needs due to their histories of abuse, neglect, and increased exposure to violence. The rates of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder, are much higher in children in foster care; furthermore, the rate of these children receiving psychotropic medications is 3 times that of children who are not in foster care. Pediatricians, in their role of providing a medical home, play a central role in safeguarding the physical and mental health of these children. By taking a trauma-informed approach to understanding the unique needs and gaps in their health care, pediatricians can improve the mental health and maximize outcome for children in foster care. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e342-e348.].

  13. 76 FR 25519 - National Foster Care Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8661 of April 29, 2011 National Foster Care Month, 2011 By the President of the... National Foster Care Month, we renew our commitment to ensuring a brighter future for foster youth, and we... remain in their own homes. During National Foster Care Month, we recognize the efforts of foster...

  14. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners.

  15. Health care of youth aging out of foster care.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care face significant medical and mental health care needs. Unfortunately, these youth rarely receive the services they need because of lack of health insurance. Through many policies and programs, the federal government has taken steps to support older youth in foster care and those aging out. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L No. 110-354) requires states to work with youth to develop a transition plan that addresses issues such as health insurance. In addition, beginning in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub L No. 111-148) makes youth aging out of foster care eligible for Medicaid coverage until age 26 years, regardless of income. Pediatricians can support youth aging out of foster care by working collaboratively with the child welfare agency in their state to ensure that the ongoing health needs of transitioning youth are met.

  16. Identifying divergent foster care careers for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care drift, instability, and placement disruptions to define the unstable foster care career as a subset of foster care careers. I then use administrative data on 30,239 Danish children born 1982-1987 who entered foster care to generate nine foster care careers, two of which meet the criteria for an unstable career. Children with a high number of risk factors associated with foster care entry were also the most likely to enter an unstable career. I end by discussing implications for recent studies of the effect of foster care on children's later life outcomes and the relevance of the findings for practitioners.

  17. Foster Care and College: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the Foster Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Chris M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an overall increase in college attendance, low-income youth and particularly those in the foster care system are less likely to attend college (Wolanin, 2005). Although youth in foster care report high educational aspirations, as little as 4% obtain a 4-year college degree (Nixon & Jones, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore…

  18. Ecological Correlates of Effective Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Daphne; Scannapieco, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Providing effective foster care is a major undertaking that continues to plague this country. The ultimate goal of substitute care is to provide child victims of maltreatment with a safe and nurturing home environment. The goal of this theory driven research project was to identify ecological factors correlated with effective non-kin family foster…

  19. Prereading Deficits in Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Pears, Katherine C; Heywood, Cynthia V; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2011-03-01

    Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten performance of 63 children in foster care were examined just prior to and during the fall of kindergarten. The children exhibited prereading deficits with average prereading scores that fell at the 30(th) to 40(th) percentile. Variations in prereading skills (particularly phonological awareness) predicted kindergarten teacher ratings of early literacy skills in a multivariate path analysis. These findings highlight the need for interventions focused on prereading skills for children in foster care.

  20. Prereading Deficits in Children in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Heywood, Cynthia V.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten performance of 63 children in foster care were examined just prior to and during the fall of kindergarten. The children exhibited prereading deficits with average prereading scores that fell at the 30th to 40th percentile. Variations in prereading skills (particularly phonological awareness) predicted kindergarten teacher ratings of early literacy skills in a multivariate path analysis. These findings highlight the need for interventions focused on prereading skills for children in foster care. PMID:21869854

  1. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    PubMed

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood.

  2. Parenting the Poorly Attached Teenager. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; Faust, Timothy Philip

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module explores the attachment process and the long-term effects of attachment difficulties in the first years of a child's life. The module's learning objectives address: (1) ways of identifying the basic concepts…

  3. Drinking, Drugs & Youth: Use and Abuse. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; And Others

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module examines substance abuse by children aged 10 years and above. The module's learning objectives address: (1) family rules and coping mechanisms relevant to substance-abusing youth; (2) characteristics of adolescent…

  4. Understanding the Impact of Sexual Abuse. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; Hartzell, Wenda

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module describes what sexual abuse is, why sexual abuse occurs, and how counties report and investigate cases of alleged sexual abuse. The module's learning objectives address: (1) ways of improving the child placement and…

  5. Preparing Adolescents for Life after Foster Care: The Central Role of Foster Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maluccio, Anthony N., Ed.; Krieger, Robin, Ed.; Pine, Barbara A., Ed.

    In recent years, attention has been given in the foster family care literature to adolescents' readiness for living on their own following aging out of their foster care placement. This book offers ideas on ways to help adolescents master the tasks required to successfully prepare for independent living following discharge from foster care. It is…

  6. Measuring Parent Engagement in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Lily T.; Britner, Preston A.

    2009-01-01

    Today, child welfare agencies widely endorse a family-centered approach to foster care casework. This approach centers on a collaborative parent-caseworker relationship as a mechanism for maintaining parents' engagement in services and presumes that continued engagement will propel parents toward reunification. However, despite the importance of…

  7. Prereading Deficits in Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pears, Katherine C.; Heywood, Cynthia V.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten…

  8. Family Resource System Preventing Unnecessary Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Dolores B.

    Montgomery County Children's Services, which provides public child welfare services in Dayton, Ohio, has instituted a family resource system to better serve and reduce the number of black children placed in foster care. The agency is mandated to receive and investigate child abuse and neglect complaints and to provide support services. The system…

  9. Institutional predictors of developmental outcomes among racially diverse foster care alumni.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Antonio R; Pecora, Peter J; Harachi, Tracy; Aisenberg, Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Child welfare practitioners are confronted with the responsibility of relying on best practice to ensure children in foster care transition successfully into adulthood after leaving the foster care system. Yet, despite recent reforms and efforts to address their needs, research clearly shows that foster care alumni are still more likely to experience negative developmental outcomes compared to adults in the general population. The purpose of this study was to better understand how child-serving systems of care adequately prepare racially diverse foster care alumni to thrive. Controlling for gender, age, placement instability, and circumstances of exit from foster care, study findings highlighted salient racial and ethnic differences relative to which factors predicted the odds of mental health, education, and employment outcomes. Implications for developing and implementing culturally sensitive, evidence-based prevention and intervention programs to promote positive developmental outcomes among racially diverse foster care alumni are discussed.

  10. 77 FR 26909 - National Foster Care Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...;#0; ] Proclamation 8814 of May 2, 2012 National Foster Care Month, 2012 By the President of the... sense of well-being and give them hope for the future. During National Foster Care Month, we recognize... care placements. National Foster Care Month is a time to reflect on the many ways government,...

  11. An Analysis of Foster Care Placement History and Post-Secondary Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Angelique; Dworsky, Amy; Feng, Wenning

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has document significant disparities in post-secondary educational attainment between young adults who had been in foster care and their peers in the general population. This study uses survival analysis to compare the four-year college graduation rate of students who had been in foster care to the graduation rate of first…

  12. The Influence of Perception on Maternal Sensitivity in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponciano, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceptions of children's care needs and maternal sensitivity with 76 dyads in foster care. Foster mothers were more sensitive to typically developing children perceived as requiring easier care and were less sensitive to children with developmental delays. Adopting foster mothers were sensitive with…

  13. Issues in Foster Care: Policy, Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Greg, Ed.; Gilligan, Robbie, Ed.

    This book assesses the current state of foster care in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the pressures which have shaped it, and the challenges it faces. Emphasizing the importance of fostering within a coherent child care policy, the contributors examine the latest research into key areas of foster care, and explore how practice can be improved.…

  14. 75 FR 23557 - National Foster Care Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Nearly a half-million.... During National Foster Care Month, we recognize the promise of children and youth in foster care, as well... State. This month, caring foster parents and professionals across our Nation will celebrate the...

  15. The Loneliest Babies: Foster Care in the Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicker, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an ignored problem--the plight of infants and toddlers in foster care who find themselves hospitalized. A majority of the children in foster care will be hospitalized for medical treatment while in foster care because they are more likely to have serious medical problems or developmental disabilities than their age peers.…

  16. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting.

  17. Probation foster care as an outcome for children exiting child welfare foster care.

    PubMed

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Barth, Richard P

    2003-07-01

    Little research has been done to help us understand what happens to children who exit child welfare foster care for reasons other than emancipation. Almost no research exists to help us understand out-of-home placement supervised by other providers of children's social services such as juvenile probation or mental health. This study examined school-age children who entered out-of-home placement supervised by probation departments after they left child welfare foster or group care. Instability in child welfare placements significantly increased the risk of a transition to probation foster care. Among the children exiting child welfare placements, those who had entered their first spell in care at ages 12 through 14 or were first removed because of sexual abuse or neglect were at greater risk of probation out-of-home placement. Implications for social work policy and services are discussed.

  18. Re-Imagining Language, Culture, and Family in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Victoria I.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half a million children in the United States are currently being served by the foster care system. Infants and toddlers represent the largest single group entering foster care. While these very young children are at the greatest peril for physical, mental health, and developmental issues and tend to spend the longest time in the foster care…

  19. Mentoring Children in Foster Care: Impact on Graduate Student Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali; Fitzpatrick, Leslie E. Schnoll; Hodas, Robyn Wertheimer

    2010-01-01

    Fostering Healthy Futures (FHF) is a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for preadolescent youth placed in foster care because of maltreatment. As part of the FHF program, graduate students spend sixteen to twenty hours per week mentoring two youths in foster care and receiving intensive training and supervision. During summer and fall…

  20. Role Perceptions of Foster Care in African American Kinship and Nonkinship Foster Parents: A Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warde, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined a cohort of African American kinship (n = 57) and nonkinship (n = 53) foster parents' perceptions of their role responsibilities as a foster care provider. The Foster Parent Role Perception (FPRP) scale was used to measure perceived role responsibility. Results indicated that both the kinship and…

  1. Expanded Medical Home Model Works for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Champagne, Vince; Harden, Allen; Masterson, James; Bilaver, Lucy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Welfare Department implemented a statewide health care system to ensure that children in foster care obtain quality health care by providing each child with a medical home. This study demonstrates that the Medical Home model works for children in foster care providing better health outcomes in higher immunization rates. These…

  2. 45 CFR 1356.71 - Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... foster care and the eligibility of foster care providers in title IV-E programs. 1356.71 Section 1356.71..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster...

  3. 45 CFR 1356.71 - Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... foster care and the eligibility of foster care providers in title IV-E programs. 1356.71 Section 1356.71..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster...

  4. 45 CFR 1356.71 - Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... foster care and the eligibility of foster care providers in title IV-E programs. 1356.71 Section 1356.71..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster...

  5. 45 CFR 1356.71 - Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... foster care and the eligibility of foster care providers in title IV-E programs. 1356.71 Section 1356.71..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster...

  6. 45 CFR 1356.71 - Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... foster care and the eligibility of foster care providers in title IV-E programs. 1356.71 Section 1356.71..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster...

  7. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  8. Resiliency in Children and Youth in Kinship Care and Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Jed

    2008-01-01

    This study examined self-concept, resiliency and social support in 107 children and youth placed in foster care in New York City. Of the children and youth, 55 were placed in family foster care, while the remaining 52 children and youth were placed in a kinship foster home. Significantly more of mothers of the kinship foster care children and…

  9. A Way of Caring: The Parents' Guide to Foster Family Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Barbara A.

    This booklet presents guidelines for parents of children placed in foster care on how to continue or strengthen their relationship with their children while the children are living in foster homes. Chapters are included on the following topics: (1) things parents should know about foster care; (2) preparing the child for foster care; (3) the first…

  10. Trauma-Informed Care for Youth in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Carolyn M

    2016-06-01

    For decades, evidence has shown an undeniable connection between childhood trauma and chronic adverse reactions across the lifespan (Bilchik & Nash, 2008; Perry, 2001; Perry, 2006). Childhood traumatic experiences are associated with serious and persistent, long-term physical, psychological, and substance abuse issues. In addition to adverse effects on physical health, research indicates that early childhood trauma has particularly adverse effects on adolescent self-esteem, coping skills, school performance, self-regulation, critical thinking, self-motivation, and the ability to build healthy relationships (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). A traumatic event is a dangerous or distressing experience, outside the range of usual human experience that overwhelms the capacity to cope and frequently results in intense emotional and physical reactions, feelings of helplessness and terror, and threatens serious injury or death (The National Child Traumatic Stress Network [NCTSNET], 2014). Approximately five million children each year in the United States experience some type of traumatic experience (Perry, 2006). Nationwide community studies estimate between 25% and 61% of children and adolescents have a history of at least one exposure to a potentially traumatic event and 38.5% of American adults claim to have experienced at least one traumatic event before the age of 13 (Briggs et al., 2012; Gerson & Rappaport, 2013). According to results of a 2002-2003 survey of 900 New York City adolescents, 24% reported a history of witnessing someone being shot, 12% reported exposure to someone being killed, and 51% reported witnessing someone being beaten or mugged (O'Connell et al., 2009). Each year, 2-3 million children are victims of maltreatment, a type of trauma, including physical and/or sexual abuse (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014; Perry, 2006). Compared to the general population, youth in foster care are significantly more likely to have experienced

  11. Who Disrupts from Placement in Foster and Kinship Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe M.; Reid, John B.; Landsverk, John; Fisher, Phillip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify reliable, inexpensive predictors of foster care placement disruption that could be used to assess risk of placement failure. Methods: Using the Parent Daily Report Checklist (PDR), foster or kinship parents of 246 children (5-12 years old) in California were interviewed three times about whether or not their foster child…

  12. Family Perceptions of Geriatric Foster Family and Nursing Home Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Rose, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Relatives (N=62) of matched pairs of patients in geriatric foster homes and nursing homes rated care provided to their relatives. Significantly more foster family patients had positive pre-placement attitudes than did nursing home patients. Upon follow-up, relatives of foster patients reported seeing more patient improvement, satisfaction,…

  13. Supportive Housing in Foster Care: The Views of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…

  14. Predictors of Running Away from Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Running away is a frequent but little studied phenomenon among adolescents in foster care. Repeated running from care often leads to premature discharge and homelessness for youth. This article uses cumulative risk theory in the context of normative adolescent development to investigate predictors of running away from foster care. Results indicate…

  15. Providing therapy to children and families in foster care: a systemic-relational approach.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Foster care is a system created to protect children from an unsafe home environment yet multiple foster home placements, conflictual or nonexistent relationships between foster parents and birth parents, long, drawn out court battles, and living in an on-going state of not knowing when or if they will be going home are just some of the challenges many children in care are expected to manage. This paper presents a guide for therapists working with families involved in foster care. Utilizing ideas from the postmodern therapies and structural family therapy, suggestions will be provided about who needs to talk to whom about what, when to have these necessary conversations, and how to talk to people in a way that mobilizes adults to take action for the children, with the goal of minimizing postplacement trauma, strengthening and repairing relational bonds, and moving children out of foster care and into permanent homes as quickly as possible.

  16. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Adult Day Care Adult Day Care Centers are designed to provide care and ... adults who need assistance or supervision during the day. Programs offer relief to family members and caregivers, ...

  17. Children in foster care: what forensic nurses need to know.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Children living in foster care are a unique population with specialized healthcare needs. This article will assist forensic nurses and advanced practice forensic nurses, particularly those working in pediatrics, in understanding the needs of children in foster care and implementing a practice plan to better meet their healthcare needs. To that end, a basic understanding of the foster care system is crucial and involves an appreciation of the interface between the legal system and the child welfare system. Most important to providing care to children in foster care is a true understanding of trauma exposure and its potential effects on the lives of children: physically, developmentally, emotionally, and psychologically. This article will assist forensic nurses working with pediatric populations to more fully understand the needs of children in foster care and to develop innovative interventions to appropriately meet their unique needs.

  18. Surviving Foster Care and Its Emotional Roller Coaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzola, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides one perspective of the foster-care experience as described by an individual who spent most of his youth in a foster home. Emphasizes the importance of excelling at something, the damage wrought by impermanence, and the chronic pain that can accompany emotional abuse. Suggests ways to improve child care. (RJM)

  19. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  20. Promoting Smooth School Transitions for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laviolette, Ghyslyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Children in foster care move two times per year on average. School records are not always transferred in a timely manner, which leads to a lack of services. Schools often are not aware of the legal issues surrounding foster care, such as who has legal rights to sign field trip permission slips or consent for educational evaluations. This study led…

  1. Engaging Adolescent Youth in Foster Care through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Karen; Girvin, Heather; Primak, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Older youth in foster care are particularly vulnerable because they are poorly prepared for the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. Interventions designed to assist in this transition rarely engage youth directly; plans are made for youth rather than with them. Photographs can serve as an externalised medium for the expression of…

  2. Emancipated Foster Youth's Transition from Care to Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Shylan E.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was the experience of students who had successfully achieved the transition from foster care to enrollment in Virginia Community Colleges. The following questions guided the inquiry: How do students who are emancipating from foster care describe their transition to enrollment at one of the Virginia Community Colleges? What…

  3. The New York Court Review of Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Trudy Bradley

    1975-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated three areas: (1) factors related to the court's determination of foster care status or availability of children for adoption; (2) the extent of agreement between agency recommendations and court orders; and (3) the impact of the court review on moving children out of foster care. (SDH)

  4. Exiting Foster Care: A Case Study of Former Foster Children Enrolled in Higher Education in Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwandt, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, foster care is provided to children to avert maltreatment and abuse of children in distressed families by providing a temporary home or a foster home. Courts with jurisdiction over families have been charged by Congress to find appropriate homes when necessary circumstances occur. In fiscal year 2009, there were 423,773…

  5. The economics of adoption of children from foster care.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mary Eschelbach; Hansen, Bradley A

    2006-01-01

    Federal initiatives since 1996 have intensified the efforts of states to achieve adoption for children in foster care. For many waiting children, the path to adoption is long. The authors offer an economic analysis of adoption from foster care, with an emphasis on the reasons why achieving the goal of adoption for all waiting children may be so difficult. The authors then estimate the determinants of adoptions from foster care across the states using data for fiscal years 1996 and 1997. Adoption assistance subsidy rates stand out as the most important determinant of adoptions from foster care, followed by use of alternatives (e.g., intercountry adoption). Adoptive matching on the basis of race does not appear to prevent adoptions from foster care in the aggregate, leaving flaws in the matching process, such as a lack of information and difficulty using the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC), as a primary reason why children wait.

  6. The Educational Rights of Children in Foster Care and Other Out-of-Home Placements: A Guide for Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    This guide is designed to help advocates--including biological and adoptive parents, resource parents, adult students in foster care, and service providers--understand and advocate for the educational rights of children in New Jersey's foster care system. The guide explains the requirements of federal and state laws that particularly affect these…

  7. Expanded medical home model works for children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Jaudes, Kienberger Paula; Champagne, Vince; Harden, Allen; Masterson, James; Bilaver, Lucy A

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Welfare Department implemented a statewide health care system to ensure that children in foster care obtain quality health care by providing each child with a medical home. This study demonstrates that the Medical Home model works for children in foster care providing better health outcomes in higher immunization rates.These children used the health care system more effectively and cost-effective as reflected in the higher utilization rates of primary care and well-child visits and lower utilization of emergency room care for children with chronic conditions.

  8. Pioneering the psychiatric nurse role in foster care.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Julie E; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; McMillen, J Curtis

    2013-12-01

    Older youth served in the foster care system have elevated rates of mental health disorders and are high users of mental health services, yet concerns have been raised about the quality of this care. This paper describes the details of a psychiatric nurse's work within a multidisciplinary team to address gaps in care for older youth with psychiatric disorders. We describe the process, outcomes, and lessons learned in developing and piloting a psychiatric nurse intervention for older youth in the foster care system as part of a multidimensional treatment foster care program. Our experiences support further work to develop a role for nursing to improve the quality of mental health treatment in foster care.

  9. Interventions in foster and kinship care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Debbie; Schlösser, Annette

    2013-07-01

    Foster care is a complex setting in which to provide therapeutic interventions due to the high rates of difficulty, poor outcomes and high numbers of professionals and carers involved. This systematic review aims to examine interventions that have been empirically assessed in foster care. Thirty papers describing 20 interventions were included. It was found that there was good support for wraparound services and relational interventions, but little support for widely used carer training programmes. A need was identified to further research and implement wraparound services within the UK, and to empirically test interventions which may be efficacious with a foster care population.

  10. Hispanic and African American Youth: Life after Foster Care Emancipation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglehart, Alfreda P.; Becerra, Rosina M.

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 28 Hispanic and Black former foster youth in Los Angeles County (California) found that emancipating from foster care placed individuals at risk because of a lack of education, marketable skills, or general living skills. Relationships overshadowed skill development in participants' memories of independent living programs.…

  11. How to Measure the Cost of Foster Family Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Barbara H.; And Others

    This report presents a method for measuring the cost of foster family care in local areas through use of governmental and other available data on costs relating to non-foster children. The cost measurement procedures used, for which 32 pages of tables and worksheet forms are provided, are designed to measure average costs in a particular area…

  12. Improving Educational Outcomes for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Christina; Kabler, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Recent statistics estimate that there are 783,000 children living in foster care in the United States. This vulnerable population is at risk for academic failure as well as internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Compared to their peers, foster youth face significant educational difficulties, including lower levels of academic…

  13. Effect of Foster Care on Young Children's Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Jennifer; Benigno, Joann P.; Wing, Christine A.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines 174 young children's language outcomes in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, the first randomized trial of foster placement after institutional care. Age of foster placement was highly correlated with language outcomes. Placement by 15 months led to similar expressive and receptive language test scores as typical age…

  14. 78 FR 26219 - National Foster Care Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...;#0; ] Proclamation 8968 of April 30, 2013 National Foster Care Month, 2013 By the President of the.... This month, we recommit to giving them that critical support, and we recognize the foster parents and... Americans who are answering that call to action, let us mark this month by showing children and youth...

  15. Foster care and healing from complex childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2014-10-01

    Children enter foster care with many forms of adversity and trauma beyond maltreatment that impact their short- and long-term physical, mental, and developmental health and their adaptation to their new care environment. Applying an understanding of the impact of toxic stress on the developing brain and body allows the health care provider to understand findings in this vulnerable population. Complex trauma alters immune response, neurodevelopment, and the genome, resulting in predictable and significant cognitive, behavioral, and physical consequences. Pediatric care of children in foster care must be trauma informed to meet their medical, mental health, and developmental needs.

  16. 25 CFR 20.507 - What requirements must foster care providers meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements must foster care providers meet? 20.507... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.507 What requirements must foster care providers meet? If a child needs foster care, the social services worker must select care...

  17. 25 CFR 20.507 - What requirements must foster care providers meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What requirements must foster care providers meet? 20.507... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.507 What requirements must foster care providers meet? If a child needs foster care, the social services worker must select care...

  18. 25 CFR 20.507 - What requirements must foster care providers meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements must foster care providers meet? 20.507... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.507 What requirements must foster care providers meet? If a child needs foster care, the social services worker must select care...

  19. Behavioral Health Service Use and Costs among Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Marion; Jordan, Neil; Larsen, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This article compares behavioral health service use and cost for foster care versus nonfoster care children; children before, during, and after foster care placement; and successfully reunified versus nonsuccessfully reunified foster care children. Behavioral health service costs for children in foster care were higher than for children not in…

  20. 25 CFR 20.507 - What requirements must foster care providers meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What requirements must foster care providers meet? 20.507... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.507 What requirements must foster care providers meet? If a child needs foster care, the social services worker must select care...

  1. Therapeutic Observation of an Infant in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakelyn, Jenifer

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a clinical research study of therapeutic observation of an infant in foster care. Infants and children under five represent more than half of all children entering care in the UK. The emotional needs of this population tend to be overlooked. This study aimed to find out about the experience of an infant or young child in care,…

  2. Getting Foster Youth to and through College: Successes and Challenges of the New Jersey Foster Care Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Maia; Losey, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of the New Jersey Foster Care Scholars program is a testament to its importance. Typical college students rely on parents for financial assistance and emotional support. Youth aging out of foster care often are on their own. The scholarship program offers an opportunity for higher education that many foster youth thought they would…

  3. 45 CFR Appendix D to Part 1355 - Foster Care and Adoption Record Layouts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foster Care and Adoption Record Layouts D Appendix... FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL Pt. 1355, App. D Appendix D to Part 1355—Foster Care and Adoption Record Layouts A. Foster Care 1....

  4. "Couch Surfing" of Latino Foster Care Alumni: Reliance on Peers as Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Beatrix F.; Romo, Harriett D.

    2011-01-01

    Youth exiting foster care often experience difficulties transitioning into adulthood. This paper focuses on Latino foster care youth in a major southwestern U.S. city and addresses the importance of peer networks as a crucial form of social capital as youth leave foster care. Case studies illustrate experiences of foster care alumni ranging in age…

  5. 45 CFR Appendix D to Part 1355 - Foster Care and Adoption Record Layouts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foster Care and Adoption Record Layouts D Appendix... FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL Pt. 1355, App. D Appendix D to Part 1355—Foster Care and Adoption Record Layouts A. Foster Care 1....

  6. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Munson, Michelle R; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th birthdays. Depression was assessed with the Depression Outcomes Module and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Data best fit a model of three trajectory classes, describing young people (1) maintaining low levels of depressive symptoms (never depressed class, 78%), (2) with increasing symptoms (increasing class, 6%), and (3) with decreasing symptoms (decreasing class, 15%). The increasing depression group was mostly male youths who were working or in school; the decreasing class was mostly highly maltreated female youths exiting the foster care system from residential care, with low levels of employment, and in school. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  7. The Need for Educational Assessment of Children Entering Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Larry D.; Scott, Susan S.; Schulz, Eldon G.

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive medical and mental health evaluations of children in foster care are recommended within 30 days of entering care. What constitutes a comprehensive evaluation has yet to be established. This study examines the need to include educational assessment as a component of the comprehensive evaluation. Rates of achievement and language…

  8. Enhancing the Empowerment of Youth in Foster Care: Supportive Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra J.; Skolnik, Louise; Turnbull, Ayme

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the research on youth empowerment in seven child welfare programmatic areas. A lack of studies specifically focused on the empowerment of youth in foster care was found. Conceptual perspectives and existing data, however, suggest that the empowerment of youth in and transitioning out of care is essential and should be overtly…

  9. Predicting family reunification, adoption, and subsidized guardianship among adolescents in foster care.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Sonya J; Falconnier, Lydia; Spielfogel, Jill E

    2010-07-01

    Although national legislation has attempted to decrease the length of time that children spend in foster care, these policies have been less effective with adolescents than with children, raising questions about how best to promote permanency for adolescents. This study examined factors that predict adolescent adoption, subsidized guardianship, and reunification. The caseworkers and foster parents of 203 randomly selected 12- to 13-year-olds placed in traditional or specialized foster care were interviewed. Permanency outcomes were prospectively tracked for 8 years. By the end of the study, over 40% of the adolescents were placed in permanent homes. As hypothesized, a strong relationship with a biological mother predicted successful reunification, and a high degree of integration into a foster home predicted adoption. Additionally, when compared with adoption, subsidized guardianship with foster parents occurred more frequently for youth with strong relationships with their biological mothers and weaker relationships with their foster families. Unexpectedly, behavior problems were not related to any permanency outcomes. Results suggest that promotion of strong relationships with adults is the key in efforts to find permanent families for foster children. Furthermore, efforts to attain permanency should not cease during adolescence.

  10. Predicting Family Reunification, Adoption, and Subsidized Guardianship Among Adolescents in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Leathers, Sonya J.; Falconnier, Lydia; Spielfogel, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    Although national legislation has attempted to decrease the length of time that children spend in foster care, these policies have been less effective with adolescents than with children, raising questions about how best to promote permanency for adolescents. This study examined factors that predict adolescent adoption, subsidized guardianship, and reunification. The caseworkers and foster parents of 203 randomly selected 12-13 year olds placed in traditional or specialized foster care were interviewed. Permanency outcomes were prospectively tracked for eight years. By the end of the study, over 40% of the adolescents were placed in permanent homes. As hypothesized, a strong relationship with a biological mother predicted successful reunification, and a high degree of integration into a foster home predicted adoption. Additionally, as compared to adoption, subsidized guardianship with foster parents occurred more frequently for youth with strong relationships with their biological mothers and weaker relationships with their foster families. Unexpectedly, behavior problems were not related to any permanency outcomes. Results suggest that promotion of strong relationships with adults is key in efforts to find permanent families for foster children. Furthermore, efforts to attain permanency should not cease during adolescence. PMID:20636947

  11. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children. PMID:25299657

  12. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  13. Fostering teamwork in an intermediate care unit.

    PubMed

    Spence, Heather; Cappleman, Julia

    2011-06-01

    The government has emphasised that, to deliver high quality, integrated care, staff must work across organisational boundaries using a team approach so that everyone works towards the same goals. This article describes how one NHS-managed intermediate care unit has integrated care staff employed by the independent sector.

  14. A Critical Reflection: Foster Care Youth Experiences at a Four Year Postsecondary Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Renada D.

    2016-01-01

    Foster care youth face significant challenges to postsecondary educational success, especially while enrolled at four-year institutions. Foster care youth are absent of family support that their non-foster peers receive throughout the college experience. Without family support, foster care youth encounter greater challenges to persevere through…

  15. 3 CFR 8661 - Proclamation 8661 of April 29, 2011. National Foster Care Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 29, 2011 Proc. 8661 National Foster Care Month, 2011By the President of the United States of America.... For nearly half a million youth in foster care across our country, the best path to success we can... National Foster Care Month, we renew our commitment to ensuring a brighter future for foster youth, and...

  16. Challenges of Assessing Maltreated Children Coming into Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Rachel; Hockaday, Harriet; Anderson, Beatrice; Davidson, Claire; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversity have been known to be at risk of developing cognitive, attachment, and mental health problems; therefore, it is crucial that children entering foster care can be properly assessed as early as possible. There are known difficulties in assessing children in foster care, for example, in finding a reliable informant. An ongoing randomised controlled trial in Glasgow, Scotland, recruiting infants entering foster care, provides a unique opportunity to explore some of the issues which need to be considered when assessing these children. The assessment data of 70 infants entering care is described while exploring the reliability of foster carers as informants and the importance of infant engagement with tasks. This group of infants was shown to be having more problems than children from the general population. While correlations were found between a carer's level of concern about a child and the severity of a child's problem, there were still a number of children displaying worrying problem scores whom foster carers did not report concern. The child's engagement in the cognitive task showed associations with the child's attainment on the task. Findings emphasise the importance of a holistic assessment for these children and all should be considered as potential cases with Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems (MAPP).

  17. Challenges of Assessing Maltreated Children Coming into Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Rachel; Hockaday, Harriet; Anderson, Beatrice; Davidson, Claire; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversity have been known to be at risk of developing cognitive, attachment, and mental health problems; therefore, it is crucial that children entering foster care can be properly assessed as early as possible. There are known difficulties in assessing children in foster care, for example, in finding a reliable informant. An ongoing randomised controlled trial in Glasgow, Scotland, recruiting infants entering foster care, provides a unique opportunity to explore some of the issues which need to be considered when assessing these children. The assessment data of 70 infants entering care is described while exploring the reliability of foster carers as informants and the importance of infant engagement with tasks. This group of infants was shown to be having more problems than children from the general population. While correlations were found between a carer's level of concern about a child and the severity of a child's problem, there were still a number of children displaying worrying problem scores whom foster carers did not report concern. The child's engagement in the cognitive task showed associations with the child's attainment on the task. Findings emphasise the importance of a holistic assessment for these children and all should be considered as potential cases with Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems (MAPP). PMID:26881270

  18. Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-12-14

    The Social Security Act (the Act) requires that ACF regulate a national data collection system that provides comprehensive demographic and case-specific information on children who are in foster care and adopted. This final rule replaces existing Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) regulations and the appendices to require title IV-E agencies to collect and report data to ACF on children in out-of-home care, and who exit out-of-home care to adoption or legal guardianship, children in out-of-home care who are covered by the Indian Child Welfare Act, and children who are covered by a title IV-E adoption or guardianship assistance agreement.

  19. Issues of shared parenting of LGBTQ children and youth in foster care: preparing foster parents for new roles.

    PubMed

    Craig-Oldsen, Heather; Craig, J Ann; Morton, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Foster parents have increasingly assumed new and challenging roles during the past decade. Meeting the developmental, attachment, and grieving needs of children and youth in out of home care is challenging by itself, but can become even more difficult with the issues that arise when the child is lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ). Preservice and in-service foster parent training programs can strengthen shared parenting skills by focusing on the universal critical issues of safety, well being, and permanence for children and youth in foster care. This article will focus on these skill areas: (1) sharing parenting to promote healthy growth and development of LGBTQ youth in foster care, (2) threats to safety of LGBTQ youth in foster care, and (3) general challenges and strategies for preparing foster parents of LGBTQ youth to build support systems.

  20. Fostering futures: a preventive intervention program for school-age children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Children in foster care have social and emotional problems at rates three to ten times higher than those found in the general population. During the elementary school years (i.e. 5-12 years), research indicates that disruptive behavior in children in care can negatively impact social, emotional and academic development, as well as placement stability. Evidenced-based interventions to improve children's behavior and reduce parenting stress are necessary. This pilot study augmented an existing evidenced-based intervention (i.e. the Incredible Years) developed for birth families for use with foster caregivers. Results from 18 families indicate that foster caregiver-reported conduct symptoms were significantly lower for children whose families participated in the treatment group. A similar trend was found for the overall externalizing behavior. No significant changes were identified in parenting attitudes and stress. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction and acceptability with the program and outcomes. These findings indicate that foster caregiver training should be examined in larger, randomized control trials.

  1. Health Care Issues for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care and Kinship Care.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Children and adolescents who enter foster care often do so with complicated and serious medical, mental health, developmental, oral health, and psychosocial problems rooted in their history of childhood trauma. Ideally, health care for this population is provided in a pediatric medical home by physicians who are familiar with the sequelae of childhood trauma and adversity. As youth with special health care needs, children and adolescents in foster care require more frequent monitoring of their health status, and pediatricians have a critical role in ensuring the well-being of children in out-of-home care through the provision of high-quality pediatric health services, health care coordination, and advocacy on their behalves.

  2. Processes that Contribute to Resilience among Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Sylvie; Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Lepine, Rachel; Begin, Gilles; Bernard, Martine

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative research is to better understand the processes that contribute to resilience among adolescents in foster care. Twelve boys and girls (X=15.9 years), identified as resilient, participated in this study. The mean duration of the teenagers' placement is 7.3 years. The results point to three types of turning points:…

  3. Mental Health Assessment of Infants in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Judith; Dicker, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Infants placed in foster care are at high risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Assessment of their mental health must account for their often-adverse life experiences prior to placement and the involvement of multiple systems that shape their lives in lieu of parents' authority. This article presents practice guidelines for infant mental…

  4. Summary of Head Start Provisions on Homelessness and Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Wednesday, December 12, President Bush signed the "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007" into law. The legislation reauthorizes the Head Start Act and contains numerous provisions on homelessness and foster care. A summary of those provisions is provided in this paper.

  5. Modern Family: Adoption and Foster Care in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Ruth Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often have no preparation for handling the questions and conversations that arise in the classroom when discussing literature having adoption or foster care themes. Instead of relying on personal experiences or stereotypes portrayed through the media, teachers are advised to understand the developmental tasks of children from families…

  6. Beginning Teacher Challenges Instructing Students Who Are in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetlin, Andrea; MacLeod, Elaine; Kimm, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Children in foster care compose a population of students very vulnerable to school failure. Placement and school instability and lack of collaboration between the school and child welfare agency are some of the barriers that impede their school performance. This study focused on the classroom context and questioned beginning general and special…

  7. Everyday Miracles: Supporting Parents of Infants in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Evelyn; McInnis, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a model for supporting parents and their infants during separations due to temporary foster care. Using a case example, the authors describe a model for visit coaching, including their process for assessment and strategies used for intervention. The lessons learned are: (a) that individual parents can present very…

  8. Prior Trauma Exposure for Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Shannon; Burns, Barbara J.; Southerland, Dannia G.; Cox, Julia Revillion; Wagner, H. Ryan; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Very little research has focused on rates of trauma exposure for youth in treatment foster care (TFC). Available research has utilized record review for assessing exposure, which presents limitations for the range of trauma types examined, as records are predominantly focused on abuse and neglect. The current study examines exposure rates and…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Offending for Male Adolescents Leaving Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Hernandez, Pedro M.; Herz, Denise

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties that adolescents encounter as they age out of the foster care system are numerous and fairly well documented. Such difficulties include poor health, lack of affordable housing, low-wage employment, limited educational opportunities, and unreliable or nonexistent familial support. These difficulties often increase the likelihood of…

  10. Educational Experiences and Aspirations of Older Youth in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Curtis; Auslander, Wendy; Elze, Diane; White, Tony; Thompson, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Documented school experiences of youth referred for independent-living preparation from foster care system in one Midwestern county. Found that 73 percent had been suspended at least once, and 16 percent had been expelled. Fifty-eight percent had failed a class in the past year, and 29 percent had been in physical fights with students. Seventy…

  11. Substance use and abuse among older youth in foster care.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Ollie, Marcia T; McMillen, J Curtis; Scott, Lionel; Munson, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore prevalence and predictors of current and lifetime substance use, substance abuse disorder, and polysubstance use among older youth in foster care. Interviews were conducted with 406 17-year old youth (90% of those eligible) in one state's foster care system between December 2001 and June 2003. Forty-five percent of foster care youth reported using alcohol or illicit drugs within the last six months; 49% had tried drugs sometime during their lifetime and 35% met criteria for a substance use disorder. Having a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder and/or living in an independent living situation significantly increased the likelihood of current and lifetime substance use and disorder. A diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder also predicted increased likelihood of polysubstance use and substance abuse disorder. In conclusion, older youth in the foster care system report similar levels of lifetime alcohol and illicit substance use when compared to the general adolescent population. However, rates of substance use disorder are high. Particularly at risk for both high rates of use and disorder are youth in independent living situations and youth with a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

  12. Determinants of foster care placement for the maltreated child.

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, D K; Gould, C L; Trost, D C; Loda, F A

    1981-01-01

    This study examined the records of the North Carolina Central Registry of Child Abuse and Neglect to determine which social, family, and child characteristics were most influential in the decision to place a child in foster care. These records contained all theoretically relevant factors as well as demographic data. Analysis included the computation of odds ratios for foster care for each of 250 variables. A maximum likelihood logistic regression model was constructed to obtain the independent and cumulative contribution of each factor. Some expected variables such as parental stress factors (substance abuse) and types of abuse (burns and scalds) placed a child at a significant risk for placement in foster care (p less than 0.01). However, less obvious factors such as referral source (law enforcement agencies) or geographic area also placed children at risk. Overall, the model explained little of the variance of these decisions (R2 = 0.168) and poorly predicted placement (sensitivity 66.3 per cent, specificity 74.6 per cent). Using existing data, we were unable to adequately describe the decision process in selecting foster care. PMID:7246836

  13. Youth Who "Age Out" of Foster Care: Troubled Lives, Troubling Prospects. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard

    Noting that the population of foster children who "age out" of the foster care system may be even more at risk than other foster children, this research brief summarizes a longer report examining trends in foster care in the United States, the number and needs of those aging out of the system, and public policy implications. The brief indicates…

  14. Placement History of Foster Children: A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment disorders, severity of behavioral problems, and…

  15. Reflection of Foster Parents on Caring for Foster and Adopted Children and Their Suggestions to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Helinski, Monica; Buchstein, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this research project we investigated the process of adoption of foster children by foster parents and the foster parents' ideas of how to help foster children going through the process of adoption or those who have been adopted. We sent questionnaires to 200 foster parents living in the Cleveland area, but just 23 foster parents replied.…

  16. Caring for vulnerable children: challenges of mothering in the Australian foster care system.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Stacy L; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2013-04-01

    Foster carers have a significant responsibility in caring for vulnerable children. In order to support and facilitate foster carers it is important to understand how they perceive and fulfil this responsibility. A qualitative story-telling study, informed by feminist perspectives, was used to conduct in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 women providing long-term foster care in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed these women characterised themselves as mothers, rather than paid carers, to the long-term foster children in their care. Using this maternal self-perception as the starting point, this paper reveals some of the challenges and difficulties participants encountered when mothering within the confines of the child protection system. Implications for nursing practice are discussed. These implications focus on ways that nurses can effectively support foster carers, thus optimising the health and well-being of the vulnerable children in their care.

  17. Physical Health Problems and Barriers to Optimal Health Care Among Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephanie Anne; Fortin, Kristine

    2015-10-01

    Children and adolescents in foster care placement represent a unique population with special health care needs, often resulting from pre-placement early adversity and neglected, unaddressed health care needs. High rates of all health problems, including acute and/or chronic physical, mental, and developmental issues prevail. Disparities in health status and access to health care are observed. This article summarizes the physical health problems of children in foster care, who are predisposed to poor health outcomes when complex care needs are unaddressed. Despite recognition of the significant burden of health care need among this unique population, barriers to effective and optimal health care delivery remain. Legislative solutions to overcome obstacles to health care delivery for children in foster care are discussed.

  18. Childhood Depression: New Theoretical Formulations and Implications for Foster Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Rosalie B.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses ways of dealing with the learned helplessness common in clinically depressed children undergoing foster care. Recommends social care treatment, which is inherent in daily living, and is guided by trained foster parents and caretakers. (SKC)

  19. 45 CFR 1356.22 - Implementation requirements for children voluntarily placed in foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... voluntarily placed in foster care. 1356.22 Section 1356.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD... children voluntarily placed in foster care. (a) As a condition of receipt of Federal...

  20. 45 CFR 233.110 - Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.110 Foster care... Security Act, and operates a foster care maintenance and adoption assistance program in conformity...

  1. 45 CFR 233.110 - Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.110 Foster care... Security Act, and operates a foster care maintenance and adoption assistance program in conformity...

  2. 45 CFR 233.110 - Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.110 Foster care... Security Act, and operates a foster care maintenance and adoption assistance program in conformity...

  3. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121... Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care as follows: (1) Employees...

  4. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121... Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care as follows: (1) Employees...

  5. 45 CFR 1356.22 - Implementation requirements for children voluntarily placed in foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... voluntarily placed in foster care. 1356.22 Section 1356.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD... children voluntarily placed in foster care. (a) As a condition of receipt of Federal...

  6. 45 CFR 1356.30 - Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive home providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive... ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E § 1356.30 Safety requirements for foster care...

  7. 45 CFR 1356.30 - Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive home providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive... ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E § 1356.30 Safety requirements for foster care...

  8. 45 CFR 1356.30 - Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive home providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive... ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E § 1356.30 Safety requirements for foster care...

  9. 45 CFR 1356.22 - Implementation requirements for children voluntarily placed in foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... voluntarily placed in foster care. 1356.22 Section 1356.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD... children voluntarily placed in foster care. (a) As a condition of receipt of Federal...

  10. 25 CFR 20.506 - What information is required in the foster care case file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What information is required in the foster care case file... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.506 What information is required in the foster care case file? At a minimum the following information is required: (a)...

  11. 45 CFR 233.110 - Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.110 Foster care... Security Act, and operates a foster care maintenance and adoption assistance program in conformity...

  12. 45 CFR 1356.22 - Implementation requirements for children voluntarily placed in foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... voluntarily placed in foster care. 1356.22 Section 1356.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD... children voluntarily placed in foster care. (a) As a condition of receipt of Federal...

  13. 45 CFR 1355.40 - Foster care and adoption data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foster care and adoption data collection. 1355.40... FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.40 Foster care and adoption data collection. (a) Scope of the data collection system. (1)...

  14. 45 CFR 1356.30 - Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive home providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive... ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E § 1356.30 Safety requirements for foster care...

  15. 45 CFR 1355.40 - Foster care and adoption data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foster care and adoption data collection. 1355.40... FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.40 Foster care and adoption data collection. (a) Scope of the data collection system. (1)...

  16. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121... Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care as follows: (1) Employees...

  17. 3 CFR 8505 - Proclamation 8505 of April 28, 2010. National Foster Care Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 28, 2010 Proc. 8505 National Foster Care Month, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Nearly a half-million children and youth are in foster care in America, all entering the system through no fault of their own. During National Foster Care Month, we recognize the...

  18. 45 CFR 1356.30 - Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive home providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety requirements for foster care and adoptive... ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E § 1356.30 Safety requirements for foster care...

  19. 25 CFR 20.506 - What information is required in the foster care case file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What information is required in the foster care case file... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.506 What information is required in the foster care case file? At a minimum the following information is required: (a)...

  20. Teacher's Understanding, Perceptions, and Experiences of Students in Foster Care: A Forgotten Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Davis, Darneika

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine elementary teacher's understanding, perceptions, and experiences of working with students in foster care. The researcher examined whether teachers are informed about students in foster care, determined teacher's understanding of the foster care system, and how their students are affected. The results…

  1. 45 CFR 1356.22 - Implementation requirements for children voluntarily placed in foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... voluntarily placed in foster care. 1356.22 Section 1356.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD... children voluntarily placed in foster care. (a) As a condition of receipt of Federal...

  2. 45 CFR 1355.40 - Foster care and adoption data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foster care and adoption data collection. 1355.40... FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.40 Foster care and adoption data collection. (a) Scope of the data collection system. (1)...

  3. The Effect of Foster Care Experience and Characteristics on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calix, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of foster care experience and characteristics on educational outcomes. The typical strategy in examining the effect foster care has on educational outcomes is to compare the educational achievement of youth with foster care experience to that of their peers or to national norms. This strategy fails to take selection…

  4. 25 CFR 20.506 - What information is required in the foster care case file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What information is required in the foster care case file... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.506 What information is required in the foster care case file? At a minimum the following information is required: (a)...

  5. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121... Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care as follows: (1) Employees...

  6. 25 CFR 20.506 - What information is required in the foster care case file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information is required in the foster care case file... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.506 What information is required in the foster care case file? At a minimum the following information is required: (a)...

  7. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121... Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care as follows: (1) Employees...

  8. 25 CFR 20.506 - What information is required in the foster care case file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information is required in the foster care case file... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.506 What information is required in the foster care case file? At a minimum the following information is required: (a)...

  9. 45 CFR 233.110 - Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foster care maintenance and adoption assistance... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.110 Foster care... Security Act, and operates a foster care maintenance and adoption assistance program in conformity...

  10. 45 CFR 1355.40 - Foster care and adoption data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... electronically report certain data regarding children in foster care and adoption. The foster care data...

  11. 45 CFR 1355.40 - Foster care and adoption data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... electronically report certain data regarding children in foster care and adoption. The foster care data...

  12. Evaluating a Transitional Living Program for Homeless, Former Foster Care Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) assess the outcomes of former foster care youth using transitional living programs and (b) compare outcomes achieved by former foster care youth who participated in an employment training program with similar youth who did not. The study sampled 23 former foster care youth using transitional living services in…

  13. Assessing the Costs of Foster Family Care in Rural Areas - Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Barbara H.; And Others

    A request to develop instruments for assessing local foster care costs provided the impetus to examine family foster care in depth. Based on data from original studies done in Delaware and nationally during 1974-75 and on review of other research available, the study examined the history and connection of foster care to rural areas in the United…

  14. Testing a Dynamic Automated Substance Use Intervention Model for Youths Exiting Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Braciszewski, Jordan M; Stout, Robert L; Tzilos, Golfo K; Moore, Roland S; Bock, Beth C; Chamberlain, Patricia

    With an ever increasing gap between need and availability for substance use services, more scalable and efficient interventions are needed. For youth in the foster care system, this gap is dramatic and expands as they leave care. Effective prevention services are strongly needed for this group of vulnerable young people. We propose a novel technology-driven intervention for preventing problematic substance use among youth receiving foster care services. This intervention approach would extend the work in brief computerized interventions by adding a text message-based booster, dynamically tailored to each individual's readiness to change. It also combats many barriers to service receipt. Dynamically tailored interventions delivered through technologies commonly used by adolescents and young adults have the strong potential to reduce the burden of problematic substance use.

  15. Testing a Dynamic Automated Substance Use Intervention Model for Youths Exiting Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Braciszewski, Jordan M.; Stout, Robert L.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Moore, Roland S.; Bock, Beth C.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    With an ever increasing gap between need and availability for substance use services, more scalable and efficient interventions are needed. For youth in the foster care system, this gap is dramatic and expands as they leave care. Effective prevention services are strongly needed for this group of vulnerable young people. We propose a novel technology-driven intervention for preventing problematic substance use among youth receiving foster care services. This intervention approach would extend the work in brief computerized interventions by adding a text message-based booster, dynamically tailored to each individual’s readiness to change. It also combats many barriers to service receipt. Dynamically tailored interventions delivered through technologies commonly used by adolescents and young adults have the strong potential to reduce the burden of problematic substance use. PMID:27081290

  16. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  17. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  18. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  19. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  20. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  1. National Health Care Reform, Medicaid, and Children in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Outlines access to health care for children in out-of-home care under current law, reviews how health care access for these children would be affected by President Clinton's health care reform initiative, and proposes additional measures that could be considered to improve access and service coordination for children in the child welfare system.…

  2. Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents in foster care: review of research literature.

    PubMed

    Landsverk, John A; Burns, Barbara J; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Reutz, Jennifer A Rolls

    2009-01-01

    Between one-half and three-fourths of children entering foster care exhibit behavioral or social-emotional problems warranting mental health care. This paper, condensed and updated from a technical report prepared for Casey Family Programs in 2005, reviews evidence-based and promising interventions for the most prevalent mental conditions found among children in foster care. This paper also makes several recommendations regarding increasing access to mental health care and effective psychosocial interventions for foster care children.

  3. How Can State Law Support School Continuity and Success for Students in Foster Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First Focus, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This brief is authored by The Legal Center for Foster Care and Education, a collaboration between the American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law, Education Law Center (PA), and Juvenile Law Center. The federal Fostering Connections Act of 2008 and the McKinney-Vento Act both provide education stability for children in foster care,…

  4. 3 CFR 8968 - Proclamation 8968 of April 30, 2013. National Foster Care Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 30, 2013 Proc. 8968 National Foster Care Month, 2013By the President of the United States of America... healthy and safe. It is a promise we owe to the hundreds of thousands of youth in foster care—boys and... those efforts, the number of young people in foster care is falling and fewer children are waiting...

  5. From Foster Care to College: The Seita Scholars Program at Western Michigan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unrau, Yvonne A.

    2011-01-01

    More than 32,000 young people in the United States exit the foster care system in a typical year by aging out to independence (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2011). Despite available financial support for post-secondary education through the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999, only 20% of college-qualified foster youth attend college and…

  6. Propensity Score Matching of Children in Kinship and Nonkinship Foster Care: Do Permanency Outcomes Still Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Eun; Testa, Mark F.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares the permanency outcomes of children in kinship foster care with a matched sample of children in nonkinship foster care in Illinois. It addresses the issue of selection bias by using propensity score matching (PSM) to balance mean differences in the characteristics of children in kinship and nonkinship foster homes. The data…

  7. An Ecological Understanding of Kinship Foster Care in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Algood, Carl L.; Chiu, Yu-Ling; Lee, Stephanie Ai-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We review empirical studies on kinship foster care in the United States. We conceptualize kinship foster care within the context of Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1994) most recent ecological systems theory. Because there are multiple levels of influences on the developmental outcomes of children placed in kinship foster home, understanding the…

  8. Meaningful Change for Children in Foster Care: Much More than Just Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Amy B.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    2016-01-01

    The youngest children in foster care suffer disproportionately. The Adoption and Safe Families Act (1997) attempted to provide greater safeguards for children, which led courts to push for earlier reunifications between foster children and their biological families. Although no one wants young children to languish in the foster care system, early…

  9. 75 FR 43187 - Request for Public Comment and Consultation Meetings on the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Meetings on the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) AGENCY: Department of... Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS). SUMMARY: Section 479 of the Social... foster care. The resultant Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) has...

  10. The Association between Foster Care and Substance Abuse Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes: An Exploratory Secondary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blome, Wendy Whiting; Shields, Joseph; Verdieck, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    The child welfare and substance abuse systems are integrally linked through the children and families they both serve. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, on how children who have experienced foster care fare when they are treated for substance abuse issues as adults. This article presents an exploratory study using the Alcohol and Drug…

  11. Medicaid and Financing of Health Care for Children in Foster Care: Findings from a National Survey. Health Services for Children in Foster Care. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Moira; Halfon, Neal

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, state Medicaid programs have implemented significant change and innovation in delivering health and behavioral health services. Prepaid capitated financing and the provider networks created by Medicaid managed care expansions have altered systems of medical and mental/behavioral health. Most children in foster care receive…

  12. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  13. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  14. Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care: The Model of Care Thirty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trunzo, Annette C.; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Strickler, Amy; Doncaster, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, trends in children's mental health have moved care from residential and office-based treatment to community-based interventions. The Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care (PRTFC) program was developed in 1981 in response to these trends. Currently, Pressley Ridge provides PR-TFC treatment in 15 programs in six states and the…

  15. Individuals with Disabilities Act of 2004 and the John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Act of 1999: What are the policy implications for youth with disabilities transitioning from foster care?

    PubMed

    Hill, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    Youth with disabilities who are transitioning out of foster care are at high risk for poor adult outcomes. Although there are not definitive studies, research estimates that between 50% and 80% of youth in the child welfare system are youth with disabilities (United Cerebral Palsy & Children's Rights, 2006). The John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 expanded transition services for youth aging out of foster care; the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 continues the federal commitment to transition supports for youth with disabilities through special education services. This article examines the similarities and differences between the transition mandates in each of the two laws and makes recommendations for policy improvements.

  16. Child maltreatment and foster care: unpacking the effects of prenatal and postnatal parental substance use.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dana K; Johnson, Amber B; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; DeGarmo, David S

    2007-05-01

    Parental substance use is a well-documented risk for children. However, little is known about specific effects of prenatal and postnatal substance use on child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions. In this study, the authors unpacked unique effects of (a) prenatal and postnatal parental alcohol and drug use and (b) maternal and paternal substance use as predictors of child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions in a sample of 117 maltreated foster care children. Models were tested with structural equation path modeling. Results indicated that prenatal maternal alcohol use predicted child maltreatment and that combined prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use predicted foster care placement transitions. Prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use also predicted postnatal paternal alcohol and drug use, which in turn predicted foster care placement transitions. Findings highlight the potential integrative role that maternal and paternal substance use has on the risk for child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions.

  17. Supporting college success in foster care alumni: salient factors related to postsecondary retention.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify factors associated with postsecondary disengagement for young people with foster care experience using survey data from a cross-sectional sample of foster care alumni scholarship recipients. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed several factors that differentiated those who did and did not disengage from college. Recommendations are given for improving service provision for youth transitioning from foster care who are considering pursuing higher education.

  18. Addressing the Impact of Foster Care on Biological Children and their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younes, Maha N.; Harp, Michele

    2007-01-01

    This study explores from a dual perspective the impact of the fostering process on biological children in the home. Ten foster parents and their biological children were interviewed separately. The impact of foster care on the psychological, educational, and social well-being of biological children and their relationship with parents and siblings…

  19. Increasing the Effectiveness of Foster Care Through the Use of the Service Contract with Children, Natural Parents, Foster Parents, and Workers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Social Services, Des Moines.

    This report describes a demonstration project in which service contracts were used as part of the caseworker approach to increase the effectiveness of foster care for children. The service contracts involved formal or informal agreements defining expectations for performance on the part of the children in foster care, the foster parents, and the…

  20. Placement in Foster Care Enhances Quality of Attachment among Young Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyke, Anna T.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Guthrie, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classifications of attachment in 42-month-old Romanian children (N = 169). Institutionalized since birth, children were assessed comprehensively, randomly assigned to care as usual (CAU) or to foster care, and compared to family-reared children. Attachment classifications for children in foster care were markedly different from…

  1. Bryan's First 2 Years: Mom, a Group Foster Care Home, and an IFSP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    This case study illustrates the integration of infant mental health and early intervention approaches for a 17-year-old teen mother and her infant son living in group foster care. Mother and son were involved with the foster care system, prenatal and delivery services, infant mental health practice, child care, and early intervention. Like many…

  2. Peer Relations at School Entry: Sex Differences in the Outcomes of Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Fisher, Philip A.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Converging research indicates that foster children with maltreatment histories have more behavior problems and poorer peer relations than biologically reared, nonmaltreated youth. However, little is known about whether such deficits in peer relations work independently or as a result of increased behavior problems, and whether outcomes for foster children differ by sex. To address these questions, multiagent methods were used to assess peer relations at school entry among maltreated foster children and a comparison sample of low-income, nonmaltreated, biologically reared children (N = 121). Controlling for caregiver-reported behavior problems prior to school entry, results from a multigroup SEM analysis suggested that there were significant relationships between foster care status and poor peer relations at school entry and between foster care status and the level of behavior problems prior to school entry for girls only. These Sex × Foster care status interactions suggest the need for gender-sensitive interventions with maltreated foster children. PMID:19234614

  3. Medical Management and Trauma-Informed Care for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Fortin, Kristine; Forkey, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Children enter foster care with a myriad of exposures and experiences, which can threaten their physical and mental health and development. Expanding evidence and evolving guidelines have helped to shape the care of these children over the past two decades. These guidelines address initial health screening, comprehensive medical evaluations, and follow-up care. Information exchange, attention to exposures, and consideration of how the adversities, which lead to foster placement, can impact health is crucial. These children should be examined with a trauma lens, so that the child, caregiver, and community supports can be assisted to view their physical and behavioral health from the perspective of what we now understand about the impact of toxic stress. Health care providers can impact the health of foster children by screening for the negative health consequences of trauma, advocating for trauma-informed services, and providing trauma-informed anticipatory guidance to foster parents. By taking an organized and comprehensive approach, the health care provider can best attend to the needs of this vulnerable population.

  4. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population.

  5. Childhood depression: new theoretical formulations and implications for foster care services.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R B

    1988-01-01

    The current emphasis on permanency planning should not derail traditional concern about helping foster children to grow developmentally while in care. This concern coincides with the importance of enabling foster children, who frequently manifest symptoms of childhood depression, to overcome the learned helplessness that is so often a feature of depression. This kind of treatment may be called social care, and is inherent in daily living, as guided by trained foster parents and caretakers.

  6. Somebody’s Children or Nobody’s Children? How the Sociological Perspective Could Enliven Research on Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have long been concerned about how the fortunes of parents affect their children, with acute interest in the most marginalized children. Yet little sociological research considers children in foster care. In this review, we take a three-pronged approach to show why this inattention is problematic. First, we provide overviews of the history of the foster care system and how children end up in foster care, as well as an estimate of how many children ever enter foster care. Second, we review research on the factors that shape the risk of foster care placement and foster care caseloads and how foster care affects children. We close by discussing how a sociological perspective and methodological orientation—ranging from ethnographic observation to longitudinal mixed methods research, demographic methods, and experimental studies—can foster new knowledge around the foster care system and the families it affects. PMID:25431518

  7. Foster care history and HIV infection among drug-using African American female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2012-05-01

    Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research.

  8. From Famine to Feast. A Review of the Foster Care Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellick, Clive

    2006-01-01

    Foster care has become the principal placement of choice for children and young people in public care in the United Kingdom (UK). This has been accompanied by a significant growth in its research scrutiny connected to a busy policy agenda, especially since 1997. With its increased usage, fostering has encountered both difficulties and…

  9. Addressing Foster Care Students' Behavioral Interventions: A National Survey of Teachers' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Each year thousands of our nation's youth experience abuse and neglect severe enough to warrant their placement into states' foster care systems. The reasons for their entry into foster care include experiences or potential risk for physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse, in addition to parental/caregiver neglect and maltreatment. The literature…

  10. Postsecondary Strengths, Challenges, and Supports Experienced by Foster Care Alumni College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Amy M.; Jones, Kevin R.; Emerson, John C.; Mucha, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Young people transitioning from foster care to college experience unique identities and circumstances that make being successful in college especially challenging. We used qualitative survey data from 248 college graduates who were formerly in foster care to explore the strengths, challenges, and supports they experienced while in college that…

  11. Special Education Administrators' Response to the Educational Needs of Foster Care Youth: Collaborative or Disjointed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John; Haar, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Although the literature discusses the deleterious educational outcomes that foster care students endure, little attention has focused on school personnel's responses to the phenomenon. Despite the documented relationship between foster care and special education, a missing contribution is the voice of special education administrators. In turn, the…

  12. The Foster Care Baby Boom Revisited: What Do the Numbers Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred; Chen, Lijun; Collins, Linda; Ernst, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The Center for State Foster Care and Adoption Data, operated by Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, supports child welfare agencies in using longitudinal data to improve outcomes for children. For the purposes of this article, the authors analyzed data for 14 states from 2000 through 2008 to examine trends in foster care placement, length of…

  13. Reducing Transfers of Children in Family Foster Care through Onsite Mental Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collado, Carmen; Levine, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful pilot project in New York City that effectively reduced the number of transfers or replacements of children in family foster care through the placement of mental health clinicians onsite at two foster care agencies. (Contains 2 tables and 2 footnotes.)

  14. ESSA and Students in Foster Care. Policy Update. Vol. 23, No. 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    For years, students in foster care have been among the most transient in the nation, enduring sudden, sometimes frequent school changes as they move from home to home. The lack of school stability contributes to those children's academic struggles: Students in foster care are more likely than their peers to score lower on assessments and less…

  15. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  16. 45 CFR Appendix D to Part 1355 - Foster Care and Adoption Record Layouts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL Pt... the status of all children in foster care as of the last day of the reporting period. Also,...

  17. 45 CFR Appendix D to Part 1355 - Foster Care and Adoption Record Layouts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL Pt.... (5) Report the status of all children in foster care as of the last day of the reporting period....

  18. College Access, Financial Aid, and College Success for Undergraduates from Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ryan J.

    2006-01-01

    In any given year, there are approximately 800,000 youth in the foster care system. These are young children and adolescents whose parents are deceased or who have been subjected to some form of neglect or abuse. They are considered "wards/dependents of the court" and placed in the foster care system, making them the legal custody of the state.…

  19. Youth Emancipating from Foster Care in California: Findings Using Linked Administrative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needell, Barbara; Cuccaro-Alamin, Stephanie; Brookhart, Alan; Jackman, William; Shlonsky, Aron

    This study examined characteristics of youth emancipated from child welfare (ECW) and probation (EPR) supervised foster care; receipt of mental health services for emancipating youth; births to emancipating females; deaths of youth who emancipated from foster care; receipt of Medi-Cal due to AFDC/TANF, SSI/disability, or medical indigence after…

  20. Better Federal Program Administration Can Contribute to Improving State Foster Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 provides for annual federal incentive payments to states if they improve foster care programs by (1) avoiding unnecessary removal of children from their homes; (2) preventing extended stays in foster care; and (3) reunifying children with their families or placing them for adoption. To be…

  1. City Kids in the Wilderness: A Pilot-Test of Outward Bound for Foster Care Group Home Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Robert L.; Attah, E. B.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined perceptions of a 7-day Outward Bound program among 23 urban youths, foster parents, and foster care workers from group homes in Atlanta (Georgia). Foster parents reported improved self-esteem and behavior among the teens, but foster care workers reported worse behavior. Negative program impressions lessened among male youths but…

  2. Issues of Shared Parenting of LGBTQ Children and Youth in Foster Care: Preparing Foster Parents for New Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig-Oldsen, Heather; Craig, J. Ann; Morton, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Foster parents have increasingly assumed new and challenging roles during the past decade. Meeting the developmental, attachment, and grieving needs of children and youth in out of home care is challenging by itself, but can become even more difficult with the issues that arise when the child is lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning…

  3. Youth transitioning out of foster care: an evaluation of a Supplemental Security Income policy change.

    PubMed

    King, Laura; Rukh-Kamaa, Aneer

    2013-01-01

    Youths with disabilities face numerous challenges when they transition to adulthood. Those who are aging out of foster care face the additional challenge of losing their foster care benefits, although some will be eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments after foster care ceases. However, the time needed to process SSI applications exposes those youths to a potential gap in the receipt of benefits as they move between foster care and SSI. We evaluate the effects of a 2010 Social Security Administration policy change that allows such youths to apply for SSI payments 60 days earlier than the previous policy allowed. The change provides additional time for processing claims before the applicant ages out of the foster care system. We examine administrative records on SSI applications from before and after the policy change to determine if the change has decreased the gap between benefits for the target population.

  4. The Effects of Foster Care Intervention on Socially Deprived Institutionalized Children's Attention and Positive Affect: Results from the BEIP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghera, Melissa M.; Marshall, Peter J.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Smyke, Anna T.; Guthrie, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of a foster care intervention on attention and emotion expression in socially deprived children in Romanian institutions. Methods: Institutionalized children were randomized to enter foster care or to remain under institutional care. Subsequently, the institutionalized and foster care groups, along with a…

  5. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  6. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  7. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  8. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  9. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  10. Kinship Foster Care Moving to the Mainstream: Controversy, Policy, and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Peter; Muller, Ulrich

    2000-01-01

    Reviews reasons for the growth in formal kinship care and outlines policy structures and practices of kinship care. Examines potential risks and benefits of kinship care for children and differences between formal kinship care and non-kin foster care. Reviews suggestions made for policy and practice models that could address needs of kinship…

  11. Foster care assessment: A study of the placement decision process in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Pijnenburg, Huub; Damen, Harm; Van Holen, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Family foster care placement decision-making has a weak scientific underpinning. Mostly a 'variable-oriented approach' is taken, which requires a lot of information that is not always available. The identification of clusters of foster children with similar characteristics may be a more viable decision strategy. In this study we investigated if foster children could indeed be clustered, which problems were identified at the time of placement, and the influence of placement history. It proved possible to group foster children into two clusters: (1) young children with familial problems and few behavioral problems, and (2) older children with prominent child problems and behavioral problems. For foster children with and without placement history, problems associated with placement proved identical. Considering that a foster care placement did not result in fundamental change in the problems present at time of placement, the importance is stressed of approaching foster care assessment as part of a decision making process which looks back as well as forward. Placement decisions should be based on an appraisal of the appropriateness of foster placement as a solution for the child. In conjunction with this appraisal a decision is required on how parents can be supported toward reunification. Or--if this is not an option--whether long term foster care is the best option for the child and if so, what conditions need to be met.

  12. Placement in Foster Care Enhances Quality of Attachment Among Young Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Smyke, Anna T.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Guthrie, Donald

    2014-01-01

    This study examined classifications of attachment in three groups of children in Bucharest, Romania at age 42 months. The first two groups had been placed in institutions soon after birth, assessed comprehensively and then randomly assigned to either care as usual, including institutionalization (care as usual/institutional group) or to foster care (intervention group). These groups were compared to a group of family-reared children recruited from pediatric clinics (never institutionalized group). Attachment was assessed using ratings of attachment behavior in the Strange Situation Procedure at 42 months of age. Attachment classifications for children randomly assigned to foster care were markedly different from those of children who received care as usual, particularly at the extremes of the classifications (Secure and Insecure-other). Importantly, children placed in foster care before 24 months were more likely to have secure attachments with their caregivers. In addition, children placed into foster care earlier showed more likelihood of being organized in their relationships with their caregivers. Further, cognitive status predicted greater likelihood of organized attachment for children in the Care as Usual/Institution group and greater likelihood of secure attachment in the foster care group and the never institutionalized group. These findings demonstrate that foster care is an important intervention to address the effects of early adverse rearing conditions. PMID:20331663

  13. Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Grant-Savela, Stacey D.; Brondino, Michael J.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study presents outcomes from a randomized trial of a novel Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) model for foster families. Differential effects of two intervention doses on child externalizing and internalizing symptoms are examined. Method: A sample of 102 foster children was assigned to one of three conditions--brief PCIT,…

  14. Allowing Family to be Family: End-of-Life Care in Veterans Affairs Medical Foster Homes.

    PubMed

    Manheim, Chelsea E; Haverhals, Leah M; Jones, Jacqueline; Levy, Cari R

    2016-01-01

    The Medical Foster Home program is a unique long-term care program coordinated by the Veterans Health Administration. The program pairs Veterans with private, 24-hour a day community-based caregivers who often care for Veterans until the end of life. This qualitative study explored the experiences of care coordination for Medical Foster Home Veterans at the end of life with eight Veterans' family members, five Medical Foster Home caregivers, and seven Veterans Health Administration Home-Based Primary Care team members. A case study, qualitative content analysis identified these themes addressing care coordination and impact of the Medical Foster Home model on those involved: (a) Medical Foster Home program supports Veterans' families; (b) Medical Foster Home program supports the caregiver as family; (c) Veterans' needs are met socially and culturally at the end of life; and (d) the changing needs of Veterans, families, and caregivers at Veterans' end of life are addressed. Insights into how to best support Medical Foster Home caregivers caring for Veterans at the end of life were gained including the need for more and better respite options and how caregivers are compensated in the month of the Veteran's death, as well as suggestions to navigate end-of-life care coordination with multiple stakeholders involved.

  15. Does Extending Foster Care beyond Age 18 Promote Postsecondary Educational Attainment? Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Although foster youth approaching the transition to adulthood have postsecondary educational aspirations similar to those of young people in the general population, for too many foster youth with these aspirations, a college education remains an unfulfilled dream. Previous analyses of data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of…

  16. Addressing the mental health needs of looked after children in foster care: the experiences of foster carers.

    PubMed

    York, W; Jones, J

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: In the UK and internationally, the number of looked after children is increasing year on year. Mental health problems among looked after children are significantly higher than in the general population, and the uptake of mental health services for these children is low. There is a poor prognosis for children with untreated mental health problems; this is further compounded if the child is within the care system. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study adds to our understanding of foster carers' experiences of the mental health needs of looked after children and demonstrates some of the challenges associated with accessing appropriate and timely mental health services. New knowledge derived from this research is that the barriers to accessing Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) are not at the time of initial referral as previously reported, but later, once within the mental health system with long waiting times experienced particularly for specialist services. This study provides new insights into the experience of being a foster carer and the levels of support and resources needed that directly relate to the viability of the placement. The majority of the foster carers interviewed were from a Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) background, previously under-represented in this research area. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: A number of areas in current CAMHS provision need addressing with a focus on accessibility, consultation and support for foster carers. Waiting times need to be addressed, and improved communication with other agencies is also highlighted. CAMHS nurses are well placed to develop and deliver a comprehensive care package to foster carers, offering more tailored support to them whilst enabling the children and young people in their care to access and engage more effectively with mental health services.

  17. 45 CFR 302.52 - Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... foster care maintenance cases. 302.52 Section 302.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases. Effective October 1, 1984, the... collected in foster care maintenance cases shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of §...

  18. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Coverage of the Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments...

  19. 45 CFR 302.52 - Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... foster care maintenance cases. 302.52 Section 302.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases. Effective October 1, 1984, the... collected in foster care maintenance cases shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of §...

  20. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Coverage of the Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments...

  1. 45 CFR 302.52 - Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... foster care maintenance cases. 302.52 Section 302.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases. Effective October 1, 1984, the... collected in foster care maintenance cases shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of §...

  2. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made under title IV-E of...

  3. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made under title IV-E of...

  4. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Coverage of the Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments...

  5. 45 CFR 302.52 - Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... foster care maintenance cases. 302.52 Section 302.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases. Effective October 1, 1984, the... collected in foster care maintenance cases shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of §...

  6. 45 CFR 302.52 - Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... foster care maintenance cases. 302.52 Section 302.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Distribution of support collected in Title IV-E foster care maintenance cases. Effective October 1, 1984, the... collected in foster care maintenance cases shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of §...

  7. Preventing rapid repeat pregnancy and promoting positive parenting among young mothers in foster care.

    PubMed

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Murray, Kantahyanee W; O'Connor, Julia M; Rushovich, Berenice R; Dixon, Desyree A; Barth, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Young mothers in foster care face considerable challenges above and beyond that of their non-foster care peers. Child welfare workers have few resources to guide them in the selection of evidence-informed programs, models, and strategies that address the unique risk factors and needs of youth in foster care who are at risk for rapid repeat pregnancy and inadequate parenting practices. Workers need knowledge of the evidence about which programs are most likely to improve key health and well-being outcomes. The article assesses the evidence-based programs identified and yields a list that reflects the best evidence for efficacy and effectiveness.

  8. Sudanese Refugee Youth in Foster Care: The "Lost Boys" in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Laura; Baird, Diane; Johnson, Deborah J.; Lee, Robert E.; Luster, Tom; Rehagen, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the resettlement experiences of unaccompanied Sudanese refugee youth placed in foster care from the perspectives of the youth, foster parents, and agency caseworkers. Youth experienced considerable success. The challenges of adjusting to school and family life, however, suggest a need for funding to support more intensive…

  9. Foster Care: Fraught with Data Gaps and Inadequate Services. California Children, California Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Joanne Thacker

    This report focuses on the foster family home, with special emphasis on the non-relative, county-licensed home in 11 diverse counties of California. The analysis address the following four principal concerns: (1) the process of deciding to remove a child from his or her home; (2) the abuse of children who are already in foster care; (3) the…

  10. Who's Who and What's What? Special Education Services for Foster Care Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the educational experiences of a foster care student named Chad. His foster parents and teacher notice educational deficits and express concern about gaps in the student's cumulative educational record. The principal and special education director must guide all constituents to adhere to special education mandates and at the…

  11. Children and Youth in Foster Care: Disentangling the Relationship between Problem Behaviors and Number of Placements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Rae R.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Landsverk, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The placement histories of 415 youth in foster care in San Diego, California, were analyzed together with behavior problems identified by the Child Behavior Check List. Results suggest that volatile placement histories contribute negatively to both internalizing and externalizing behavior of foster children. Initial externalizing behaviors were…

  12. The Socioemotional Development of Orphans in Orphanages and Traditional Foster Care in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj

    1996-01-01

    A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)

  13. Academic Achievement and Aging out of Care: Foster Parents' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Foster children experience multiple barriers and challenges that, amongst other issues, prevent them from achieving academically. At the age of 18, foster youth are forced out of the Department of Children and Families care, leading many of them to become homeless or to return to the homes from which they were displaced. Scholarly literature and…

  14. Evidence for Using Farm Care Practices to Improve Attachment Outcomes in Foster Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Martin J.; Lakhani, Ali; Maujean, Annick; Macfarlane, Kym; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that care farming practices have the potential to provide positive outcomes for young people in foster-care and residential care environments. A systematic review (searching; CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, PsychInfo) was conducted to explore how participation in care farming initiatives impacts attachment in children in foster-care and what aspects of care farming initiatives provides positive attachment outcomes. The systematic review did not identify any research publication in care farming and foster-care. Therefore, it is imperative that practitioners realise that the evidence is lacking when using these types of interventions and keep a close account of the benefit and harms that may be encountered during the interaction processes. PMID:27559225

  15. Psychopathology in young children in two types of foster care following institutional rearing.

    PubMed

    Tibu, Florin; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Institutional rearing of young children has been demonstrated to increase risk for a broad range of psychiatric disorders and other impairments. This has led many countries to consider or to invest in foster care. However, no study to date has explored potential differences in psychiatric symptoms in children placed in different types of foster care. We assessed internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 54-month-old children living with foster families. We compared one group of children living in high-quality foster families who had benefited from specialized training and support to another group of children placed with government-sponsored foster care in Bucharest, Romania. After controlling for duration of time spent in foster care, there was a main group effect in predicting ADHD (p = .021) and a marginal group × gender interaction effect. No effects were noted for signs of externalizing disorders. There was, however, a significant group × gender interaction effect of signs of internalizing disorders (p = .007), with the girls in high-quality foster care having less severe symptomatology than did their counterparts in the government-sponsored group. Governments must invest in quality interventions for their most vulnerable citizens to prevent serious and potentially lasting problems.

  16. Alternative Discipline Techniques for Parents and Care Givers of Children Returning Home from the Foster Care System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robin L.

    The teaching of positive or alternative discipline techniques to the legal family, who work toward having their children returned to them, does not currently occur at the private foster care agencies with which the children are placed. Therefore this practicum has been implemented to address this need. The children moving from the foster care…

  17. "Couch surfing" of Latino foster care alumni: reliance on peers as social capital.

    PubMed

    Perez, Beatrix F; Romo, Harriett D

    2011-04-01

    Youth exiting foster care often experience difficulties transitioning into adulthood. This paper focuses on Latino foster care youth in a major southwestern U.S. city and addresses the importance of peer networks as a crucial form of social capital as youth leave foster care. Case studies illustrate experiences of foster care alumni ranging in age from 18 to 26. Findings suggest that lack of housing forces youth into residential mobility or "couch surfing" and episodes of homelessness. Familial connections continue to be important to Latino youth. When Latino youth are unsuccessful in re-establishing family relationships, survival is dependent upon peer social capital as youth move between extended family and friends, eventually relying upon peers for support. Recommendations are included.

  18. The Impact of the New York Court Review of Children in Foster Care: A Followup Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Trudy Bradley

    1976-01-01

    Examines the data on children studied in a 1974 investigation. Proposes that court review speed movement of children out of foster care, and suggests steps necessary for both court and agencies to make the procedures more effective. (Author/SB)

  19. Changes in attachment representations for young people in long-term therapeutic foster care.

    PubMed

    Dallos, Rudi; Morgan-West, Kate; Denman, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article reports on a 1-year follow-up study exploring changes in attachment security of children placed in long-term therapeutic foster care over three data collection time points. A group of eight children (age 14 to 17) were assessed over a period of 1 year using a modified version of the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT). Interviews were also conducted to explore the young people's and the carers' experiences of the placements and their personal perspectives of changes. The findings indicated some positive changes in the young people's attachment security over time, for example, a reduction in extreme reactions and a trust that adults could understand their feelings (PAE - parental accurate empathy). However, despite this PAE, the young people did not expect adults to enact this by offering them support, and this lack of expectation persisted over the 1-year period. Specific differences in relation to placement success were suggested in that young people for whom their placements broke down indicated more initial fearful and aggressive representations of adults. Overall, young people emphasised positive aspects of their placements as including being treated as adults, listened to and made to feel safe.

  20. Is higher placement stability in kinship foster care by virtue or design?

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has repeatedly documented higher placement stability for children who enter kinship care rather than non-relative foster care. However, little is known about why, and under what circumstances, kinship care is more stable. This study uses longitudinal state administrative data to explore possible explanations. Results suggest that, while children in non-relative foster care are indeed at higher risk of any placement move than their peers in kinship care, this appears to be partly driven by child selection factors and policy preferences for kinship care. That is, the gap is not explained primarily by different rates of caregiver-requested moves. However, the gap was sizably smaller among select high-risk subgroups of foster children, suggesting that higher stability in kinship care may be partly explained by differences in the characteristics of children entering kinship care (versus non-relative foster care). Moreover, a large portion of the gap is explained by children in non-relative care being moved into kinship care; a move that is likely the result of policy preferences for kinship care rather than a defect in the initial placement. In sum, these results suggest that kinship care provides only a limited stability advantage, and the reasons for that advantage are not well understood.

  1. Foster care in Soweto, South Africa: under assault from a politically hostile environment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A; Mabusela, S

    1991-01-01

    Institutionalized discrimination has progressively eroded the formerly cohesive black family structure in South Africa, resulting in an increased need for alternative care for black children, as shown most prominently in South Africa's most populous black urban area. Foster care's inherent problems are compounded not only by apartheid but also by the political unrest in the country. This article offers a profile of Sowetan foster families and the problems they face.

  2. A randomized controlled trial comparing foster care and institutional care for children with signs of reactive attachment disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smyke, Anna T.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Drury, Stacy S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Guthrie, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors examined signs of emotionally withdrawn (inhibited type) and indiscriminately social (disinhibited type) reactive attachment disorder in Romanian children enrolled in a randomized trial of foster care compared with institutional care and in a comparison group of never-institutionalized children. Method At baseline and when children were ages 30, 42, and 54 months and 8 years, caregivers were interviewed with the Disturbances of Attachment Interview to assess changed in signs of reactive attachment disorder in three groups of children: those receiving care as usual (including continued institutional care) (N=68); those placed in foster care after institutional care (N=68), and those who were never institutionalized (N=72). The impact of gender, ethnicity, and baseline cognitive ability was also examined. Results On the Disturbances of Attachment Interview, signs of the inhibited type of reactive attachment disorder decreased after placement in foster care, and scores were indistinguishable from those of never-institutionalized children after 30 months. Signs of the disinhibited type were highest in the usual care group, lower in the foster care group, and lowest in the never-institutionalized group. Early placement in foster care (before age 24 months) was associated with fewer signs of the disinhibited type. Lower baseline cognitive ability was associated with more signs of the inhibited type in the usual care group and more signs of the disinhibited type in both groups. Conclusions Signs of the inhibited type of reactive attachment disorder responded quickly to placement in foster care; signs of the disinhibited type showed less robust resolution with foster placement. Lower baseline cognitive ability was linked to signs of reactive attachment disorder. PMID:22764361

  3. Public health nurses' primary health care practice: strategies for fostering citizen participation.

    PubMed

    Aston, Megan; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Edwards, Nancy; Young, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    Citizen participation is heralded as a critical element of community health programs that emphasize empowerment and health promotion strategies. Although there is a growing body of research on public health nurses' primary health care practice, few studies have described how public health nurses foster citizen participation. This article presents findings from an interpretive qualitative study of public health nurses' perceptions of their role in fostering citizen participation in an eastern Canadian province at a time of significant health care restructuring. The findings from this study clearly profile public health nurses as integral to the practice of fostering citizen participation.

  4. Reaching everyone: Promoting the inclusion of youth with disabilities in evaluating foster care outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Quest, A. Del; Powers, Jennifer; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Nelson, May; Dalton, Lawrence D.; McHugh, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to evaluate foster care outcomes must avoid systematic exclusion of particular groups. Although often unrecognized as such, youth with disabilities are highly overrepresented in the U.S. foster care system, and yet youth with some disabilities, including those with intellectual, serious emotional, and physical impairments may be underrepresented in research and evaluation studies evaluating foster care outcomes. The recruitment and retention of youth with various disabilities in such studies can be impeded by under-identification of disability and relatively high placement and school mobility. Furthermore, youth with various disabilities may experience more disappointing outcomes than foster youth overall, underscoring the importance of including these youth in outcome tracking efforts. This is especially relevant given the recent implementation of the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD), which requires that state child welfare agencies gather baseline information about youth in foster care at age 17, and then survey outcomes at 19 and 21. To promote the full participation of foster youth with disabilities in such outcome evaluation, this paper describes successful strategies for identifying and retaining participants that were used in three separate longitudinal intervention studies. These strategies include the systematic recruitment of foster youth by special education status, and creative use of validated tracking and retention strategies incorporating minor accommodations as needed. PMID:24273364

  5. The influence of caregiver depression on children in non-relative foster care versus kinship care placements.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Antonio; O'Reilly, Amanda; Matone, Meredith; Kim, Minseop; Long, Jin; Rubin, David M

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about how the challenges faced by caregivers influence the variation in social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) outcomes of youth placed in kinship versus non-relative foster care. This study examined SEB symptoms among youth in kinship and non-relative foster care settings, hypothesizing that changes in caregiver depression would modify children's change in behavior over time. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) assessments of 199 children placed with kinship and non-relative foster care providers in a Mid-Atlantic city were conducted at time of placement and 6-12 months post-placement. Linear regression estimated CBCL change scores for youth across placement type and caregiver depression trajectories. Kinship caregivers were more likely to become depressed or remained depressed than non-relative foster caregivers. Youth in kinship care always exhibited better change in SEB outcomes than youth in non-relative foster care, but these positive outcomes were principally observed among families where caregivers demonstrated a reduction in depression over time or were never depressed. Adjusted change scores for non-relative foster care youth were always negative, with the most negative scores among youth whose caregivers became depressed over time. Caregiver well-being may modify the influence of placement setting on SEB outcomes for youth placed into out-of-home care. Findings lend to policy relevance for child welfare systems that seek kinship settings as a panacea to the challenges faced by youth, without allocating resources to address caregiver needs.

  6. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  7. [Problems in placing the abused child in foster home care].

    PubMed

    Holá, M

    1995-05-31

    Children for whom foster parents are found include also abused and battered children. Is such a child able to establish a satisfactory emotional relationship with the foster parents or adoptive parents? The case of a boy repeatedly exposed to cruel corporal punishment in the original family. Attempts of the law court to return the child from a children's home to the original family. Finally complete refusal of the boy by his own parents. Placement of the boy in a new family and his successful adaptation in the new environment.

  8. Child welfare-involved youth with intellectual disabilities: pathways into and placements in foster care.

    PubMed

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-02-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, we drew on data from the Adoption and Foster Care Reporting System (AFCARS) for youth in 46 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. A sample of 17,714 youth with intellectual disabilities and a comparison group (n  =  655,536) were identified for 1999. Findings have implications for preventing the removal of youth from caregivers and the promotion of community inclusion of foster youth while in foster care.

  9. Independent Living: A Study of Rehabilitation of Physically Handicapped Adults Living in Foster Homes; Social Work Intervention in the Adaptation to Family Environment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Howard D.

    As an alternative to unnecessary inpatient care of adults with orthopedic disabilities, the Independent Living Project (ILP) placed persons who were institutionalized without need and persons who were living in the community under unsatisfactory circumstances in foster homes. Information is presented on the intake procedures, homefinding…

  10. Mitigating HPA Axis Dysregulation Associated With Placement Changes in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Maltreated foster children often exhibit alterations in diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity that are characterized by lower cortisol levels upon waking and smaller declines in morning-to-evening cortisol levels. Previous research has shown that this dysregulated pattern is associated with high caregiver stress levels over the course of foster care placements. In contrast, therapeutic interventions that emphasize consistent and responsive caregiving have been associated with more regulated cortisol rhythms. In this paper, two related issues were explored: whether placement changes (i.e., moving between foster homes or from a foster home to a permanent placement) were associated with more blunted daily cortisol rhythms and whether a caregiver-based intervention exerted a protective effect in this context. Because the intervention program has components specifically designed to prepare foster children for placement changes and to maintain consistent parenting techniques despite them, a prevention effect on HPA axis dysregulation during placement changes was hypothesized. The results of linear mixed modeling analyses showed that placement changes predicted dysregulation in cortisol rhythms in the regular foster care group but not in the intervention foster care group. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for child welfare policy and practice. PMID:20888698

  11. The Use of Psychotropic Medication for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crismon, M. Lynn; Argo, Tami

    2009-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medication for foster children is in itself not unique; however, these children are of particular interest because of the stress associated with their life situations. A thorough assessment of the child and family should occur before beginning these medications, and in general, they should only be used in the presence of a…

  12. 'She was a foster mother who said she didn't give cuddles': The adverse early foster care experiences of children who later struggle with adoptive family life.

    PubMed

    Meakings, Sarah; Selwyn, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Foster care remains a valuable and safe intervention for many children unable to live with their birth family. When birth family reunification is not considered possible, a small proportion of children in foster care will go on to achieve permanency by way of adoption. This article reports on some unexpected findings to emerge from two national adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. Focussing on a subset of families who had experienced or were at risk of an adoption disruption, the findings revealed that not only did children carry elevated risks for disruption due to their older age at entry to care, multiple foster care placements and traumatic early histories, but once in care, many of the children whose placements had disrupted were considered by their adoptive parents to have had very poor, even harmful fostering experiences before being placed for adoption. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, together with the implications for social work practice.

  13. Perspectives: Infants and Toddlers in Foster Care and Their Therapists: Mirrored Helplessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkoff, Sandra R.

    2011-01-01

    Professionals assigned to address the social and emotional needs of children in foster care have an enormous responsibility not only to understand these needs but to work with the multiple systems of care that converge to make decisions in the best interest of the child. In this essay, the author explores the emotional toll on those professionals…

  14. Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care: Review of Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsverk, John A.; Burns, Barbara J.; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Rolls Reutz, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Between one-half and three-fourths of children entering foster care exhibit behavioral or social-emotional problems warranting mental health care. This paper, condensed and updated from a technical report prepared for Casey Family Programs in 2005, reviews evidence-based and promising interventions for the most prevalent mental conditions found…

  15. Connective Complexity: African American Adolescents and the Relational Context of Kinship Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to address racial disproportionality in child welfare must include a focus on the benefits and challenges facing children in kinship care. African American children not only are overrepresented in the child welfare system, but also are placed disproportionately in kinship foster care. Using a sample of 18 African American adolescents ages…

  16. Treatment Foster Care for Improving Outcomes in Children and Young People: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, William; Macdonald, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of treatment foster care (TFC) on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes, delinquency, placement stability, and discharge status for children and adolescents who, for reasons of severe medical, social, psychological and behavioural problems, were placed in out-of-home care in restrictive settings or at risk of…

  17. Early school engagement and late elementary outcomes for maltreated children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen

    2013-12-01

    Children with a history of maltreatment and placement into foster care face elevated risks of poor psychosocial outcomes including school failure, substance use, externalizing, and deviant peer association. For children in the general population, school engagement appears to be a promotive factor in preventing negative outcomes. In this study, differences in 3 dimensions of school engagement (behavioral, affective, and cognitive) in early elementary school were explored in maltreated children in foster care (n = 93) and a community comparison group of low-socioeconomic status, nonmaltreated children (n = 54). It was also hypothesized that these 3 dimensions of school engagement would mediate the association between being maltreated and in foster care and several outcomes in late elementary school (Grades 3-5): academic competence, endorsement of substance use, externalizing behaviors, and deviant peer association. Measures were multimethod and multi-informant. Results showed that the children in foster care had lower affective and cognitive school engagement than children in the community comparison group. Structural equation modeling revealed that both affective and cognitive school engagement mediated the association between group status and academic competence in late elementary school. Cognitive engagement also mediated the association between group status and engagement in risk behaviors. The identification of dimensions of early school engagement that predict later outcomes suggests potential points of intervention to change trajectories of academic and behavioral adjustment for maltreated children in foster care.

  18. Early School Engagement and Late Elementary Outcomes for Maltreated Children in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.; Yoerger, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Children with a history of maltreatment and placement into foster care face elevated risks of poor psychosocial outcomes including school failure, substance use, externalizing and deviant peer association. For children in the general population, school engagement appears to be a promotive factor in preventing negative outcomes. In this study, differences in behavioral, affective, and cognitive dimensions of school engagement in early elementary school were explored in maltreated children in foster care (n = 93) and a community comparison group of low SES, non-maltreated children (n = 54). It was also hypothesized that the three dimensions of school engagement would mediate the association between being maltreated and in foster care and several outcomes in late elementary school (Grades 3 to 5): academic competence, endorsement of substance use, externalizing behaviors, and deviant peer association. Measures were multi-method and multi-informant. Results showed that the children in foster care had lower affective and cognitive school engagement than children in the community comparison group. Structural equation modeling revealed that both affective and cognitive school engagement mediated the association between group status and academic competence in late elementary school. Cognitive engagement also mediated the association between group status and engagement in risk behaviors. The identification of dimensions of early school engagement that predict later outcomes suggests potential points of intervention to change trajectories of academic and behavioral adjustment for maltreated children in foster care. PMID:23477532

  19. Medical foster care: what happens when children with medical complexity cannot be cared for by their families?

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Rebecca R; Henderson, Carrie M; Boss, Renee D

    2016-01-01

    Medical interventions for life-threatening pediatric conditions often oblige ongoing and complex medical care for survivors. For some children with medical complexity, their caretaking needs outstrip their parents' resources and abilities. When this occurs, the medical foster care system can provide the necessary health care and supervision to permit these children to live outside of hospitals. However, foster children with medical complexity experience extremes of social and medical risk, confounding their prognosis and quality of life beyond that of similar children living with biologic parents. Medical foster parents report inadequate training and preparation, perpetuating these health risks. Further, critical decisions that weigh the benefits and burdens of medical interventions for these children must accommodate complicated relationships involving foster families, caseworkers, biologic families, legal consultants, and clinicians. These variables can delay and undermine coordinated and comprehensive care. To rectify these issues, medical homes and written care plans can promote collaboration between providers, families, and agencies. Pediatricians should receive specialized training to meet the unique needs of this population. National policy and research agendas could target medical and social interventions to reduce the need for medical foster care for children with medical complexity, and to improve its quality for those children who do.

  20. The effects of early foster care intervention on attention biases in previously institutionalized children in Romania.

    PubMed

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-09-01

    Children raised in institutions experience psychosocial deprivation that can negatively impact attention skills and emotion regulation, which subsequently may influence behavioral regulation and social relationships. The current study examined visual attention biases in 8-year-old children who were part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Relations among attention biases and concurrent social outcomes were also investigated. In early childhood, 136 children abandoned at birth or shortly thereafter into institutional care were randomized to receive a high-quality foster care intervention or care-as-usual within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At 8 years of age, 50 care-as-usual, 55 foster care, and 52 community controls performed a behavioral dot-probe task, and indices of attention biases to threat and positive stimuli were calculated. Concurrent data on social behavior were collected. Children placed into the foster care intervention had a significant attention bias toward positive stimuli, while children who received care-as-usual had a significant bias toward threat. Children in the foster care intervention had a significantly larger positive bias when compared to the care-as-usual group. A positive bias was related to more social engagement, more prosocial behavior, less externalizing disorders, and less emotionally withdrawn behavior. The magnitude of positive bias was predicted by age of placement into foster care among children with a history of institutionalization. An attention bias towards positive stimuli was associated with reduced risk for behavioral problems amongst children who experienced early psychosocial deprivation. Research assessing attention biases in children experiencing early environmental stress may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later psychiatric and social disorders and inform prevention efforts.

  1. Social Capital Theory: Another Lens for School Social Workers to Use to Support Students Living in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Altshuler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Schools have a wide range of connections with the child welfare system, with common interests in the care, well-being, and future life opportunities of children living in foster care. Children in foster care are often the most vulnerable students in the school system, and school social workers often serve as important resources for these children.…

  2. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  3. Effect of foster care on language learning at eight years: findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2013-06-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care. One hundred and five children participated in the current study, fifty-four originally assigned to foster care and fifty-one to continued institutional care. Even though current placements varied, children originally in foster care had longer sentences and stronger sentence repetition and written word identification. Children placed in foster care by age two had significant advantages in word identification and nonword repetition; children placed by age 1 ; 3 performed equivalently to community peers. The results show the continuing adverse effects of early poor institutional care on later language development and the key importance of age of placement in a more optimal environment.

  4. Comparing Three Years of Well-Being Outcomes for Youth in Group Care and Nonkinship Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Julie S.; Lee, Bethany R.; Barth, Richard P.; Rauktis, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study examines differences in cognitive, academic, and affective well-being of youth first placed in nonkinship foster care (N=259) and youth first placed in group care (N=89). To compare nonrandomized groups, propensity score matching was used. Results…

  5. Mentoring and social skills training: ensuring better outcomes for youth in foster care.

    PubMed

    Williams, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Youth in foster care face significant life challenges that make it more likely that they will face negative outcomes (i.e., school failure, homelessness, and incarceration). While the reason(s) for out-of-home placement (i.e., family violence, abuse, neglect and/or abandonment) provide some context for negative outcomes, such negative outcomes need not be a foregone conclusion. In fact, interventions created to serve at-risk youth could ostensibly address the needs of youth in foster care as well, given that they often face similar social, emotional, and other challenges. Specifically, the author posits that supporting foster care youth through the use ofmentoring and social skills training could reduce the negative outcomes far too common for many of these youth.

  6. Evaluating the use of computerized stimulus preference assessments in foster care.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Cristina M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Colbert, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to extend the use of stimulus preference assessments to children in foster care. In Study 1, subjects completed a computerized 4-point Likert-type questionnaire designed to assess preference for a wide range of stimuli and activities. Next, items identified as highly preferred (HP) and less preferred (LP) on the questionnaire were tested using a computerized paired-stimulus preference assessment. Results showed complete correspondence between the results of the computerized preference assessments for 11 of 17 subjects. Studies 2 and 3 evaluated whether the stimuli identified as HP in Study 1 would function as reinforcers. Overall, subjects allocated their engagement to HP items, and those HP items could be used as reinforcers for math problem completion. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that computerized preference assessments may be a feasible method of identifying preferences in the foster care system. Implications for their use in foster care are discussed.

  7. Continuing in Foster Care Beyond Age 18: How Courts Can Help. Issue Brief 116

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Clark; Bell, Katie S. Claussen; Zinn, Andrew; Goerge, Robert M.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Research has found that foster youth who remain in care beyond age 18 are more likely to participate in services and tend to have better outcomes than those who do not. However, not all youth eligible to remain in care beyond age 18 do so. This study examines Illinois, one of the few states that extends care up to age 21, to identify the major…

  8. A multi-state study on mental health evaluation for children entering foster care.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Munya; Mackie, Thomas I; Mulé, Christina M; Bellonci, Christopher; Hyde, Justeen; Bakan, Jennifer S; Leslie, Laurel K

    2014-07-01

    When compared with the general United States child population, children entering foster care have elevated rates of mental health problems. This study examines: (1) state approaches to mental health evaluations for children entering foster care for the first time, (2) the consistency of these approaches with professional guidelines, and (3) whether the specific instruments endorsed are supported by available evidence. Semi-structured qualitative interviews and a document review of available protocols/policies were conducted for 47 states and the District of Columbia. All states endorsed mental health evaluations; variation existed between states in approach, timeframe, administrator, and specific instruments endorsed.

  9. Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: outcomes and mediation effects.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe; Leve, Leslie D; Laurent, Heidemarie; Landsverk, John A; Reid, John B

    2008-03-01

    Parent training for foster parents is mandated by federal law and supported by state statues in nearly all states; however, little is known about the efficacy of that training, and recent reviews underscore that the most widely used curricula in the child welfare system (CWS) have virtually no empirical support (Grimm, Youth Law News, April-June:3-29, 2003). On the other hand, numerous theoretically based, developmentally sensitive parent training interventions have been found to be effective in experimental clinical and prevention intervention trials (e.g., Kazdin and Wassell, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39:414-420, 2000; McMahon and Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child, Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2003; Patterson and Forgatch, Parents and adolescents: I. Living together, Castalia Publishing, Eugene, OR, USA, 1987; Webster-Stratton et al., Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology Psychiatry, 42:943-952, 2001). One of these, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC; Chamberlain, Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2003), has been used with foster parents of youth referred from juvenile justice. The effectiveness of a universal intervention, KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) based on MTFC (but less intensive) was tested in a universal randomized trial with 700 foster and kinship parents in the San Diego County CWS. The goal of the intervention was to reduce child problem behaviors through strengthening foster parents' skills. The trial was designed to examine effects on both child behavior and parenting practices, allowing for specific assessment of the extent to which improvements in child behavior were mediated by the parenting practices targeted in the intervention. Child behavior problems were reduced significantly more in the intervention condition than in the

  10. Professional and youth perspectives on higher education-focused interventions for youth transitioning from foster care.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M; Roe, Stephanie S; Ullrich, Jessica S; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2016-05-01

    Youth transitioning from foster care to adulthood access and succeed in college at much lower rates than the general population. A variety of services exist to support youth with their postsecondary goals, but few if any have evidence for their effectiveness. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded intervention development project to design Fostering Higher Education, a structured, testable postsecondary access and retention intervention for youth transitioning from foster care to adulthood, focus groups were conducted with community stakeholders to collect recommendations for how to most effectively structure the intervention. Analyses of focus group findings resulted in four theme groups: (1) general recommendations for intervention development; (2) recommendations for an educational advocacy intervention component; (3) recommendations for a mentoring intervention component; and (4) recommendations for a substance abuse prevention intervention component. These themes offered a variety of important insights for developing interventions in a way that is usable for youth and feasible for communities to implement.

  11. Permanency and Safety Among Children in Foster Family and Kinship Care: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Bell, Tessa; Romano, Elisa

    2015-10-11

    Over the past 25 years, kinship care placements have risen dramatically, such that when a child enters into care, child welfare agencies must first attempt to identify safe living arrangements with relatives or individuals known to the child before searching for alternatives. Despite the growing emphasis on kinship care, little is known about its impact on child outcomes in comparison to other placement types (e.g., foster family). Therefore, the aim of this scoping review was to evaluate quantitative research on children in out-of-home care from 2007 to 2014 with regard to the following outcomes: (1) permanency (i.e., reunification, reentry, placement stability, and adoption/guardianship) and (2) safety (e.g., additional reports to child welfare). Based on these objectives, the review identified 54 studies that examined permanency and safety among children in two major placement types, namely foster family and kinship care. Across studies, children in kinship care experienced greater permanency in terms of a lower rate of reentry, greater placement stability, and more guardianship placements in comparison to children living with foster families. Children in kinship care, however, had lower rates of adoption and reunification. The findings also indicated that differences in these variables diminish over time. Findings for safety outcomes were mixed. Study methodological limitations and recommendations for future research are considered.

  12. Family School Connectedness: An Examination of Participation for Foster Care Families with Children in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehr, Katherine Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Research (Henderson & Mapp, 2002) suggests the participation of teachers and families as partners in the education of students builds stronger foundations for the future development of children. This dissertation examined the participation of foster care families in schools and factors that contribute to their participation in the school setting…

  13. Patterns of Aberrant Eating among Pre-Adolescent Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarren-Sweeney, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports epidemiological and phenomenological investigations of aberrant eating among 347 pre-adolescent children in court-ordered foster and kinship care, in New South Wales, Australia. A quarter of children displayed clinically significant aberrant eating problems, with no evidence of gender or age effects. Two distinct patterns were…

  14. Supporting Youth in the Transition from Foster Care: Formal and Informal Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Elizabeth; Spencer, Renee; Ward, Rolanda

    2010-01-01

    Social support is needed by everyone, but particularly by vulnerable populations at times of transition. This study utilizes data collected from 96 former foster youth regarding supports they received during the transition from care. The report addresses three questions: (1) What types of supportive relationships did the sample report? (2) What…

  15. Outpatient Mental Health Services for Children in Foster Care: A National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Landsverk, John; Barth, Richard; Slymen, Donald J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors influencing the use of outpatient mental health services provided by mental health professionals (OMHS) for children in foster care using a national probability sample in the United States. Method: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, detailed survey data were collected on 462 children,…

  16. Outcomes of Specialized Foster Care in a Managed Child Welfare Services Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore P.; Leavey, Joseph; Mosley, Peggy R.; White, Andrew W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic

    2004-01-01

    This study (N = 384) presents results from outcome measurement in a services network providing specialized foster care (SFC) to children in child protective service custody. A majority of participants improved on most outcomes. Global improvement was associated with increased length of stay up to two years, five months, and with younger age, fewer…

  17. Maternal Smoking Behavior, Background and Neonatal Health in Finnish Children Subsequently Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalland, Mirjam; Sinkkonen, Jari; Gissler, Mika; Merilainen, Jouni; Siimes, Martti A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively neonatal health and maternal background among a sample of children taken into custody and placed in foster care and to investigate the relation between medical and social risk in the neonatal period. Method: The data-linkage study combined two registries: the Finnish Medical…

  18. Mentoring and Social Skills Training: Ensuring Better Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Youth in foster care face significant life challenges that make it more likely that they will face negative outcomes (i.e., school failure, homelessness, and incarceration). While the reason(s) for out-of-home placement (i.e., family violence, abuse, neglect and/or abandonment) provide some context for negative outcomes, such negative outcomes…

  19. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Problems of Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWey, Lenore M.; Cui, Ming; Pazdera, Andrea L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a developmental psychopathology framework, this study aimed to examine changes in externalizing and internalizing problems of adolescents in foster care and to determine whether type of maltreatment, gender, and age influenced trajectories. Authors used 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Growth-curve…

  20. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  1. Do Specialty Courts Achieve Better Outcomes for Children in Foster Care than General Courts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Frank A.; Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Eldred, Lindsey M.; Acquah, Kofi F.; Blevins, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effects of unified family and drug treatment courts (DTCs) on the resolution of cases involving foster care children and the resulting effects on school performance. Method: The first analytic step was to assess the impacts of presence of unified and DTCs in North Carolina counties on time children spent in…

  2. Shared Data Reveal the Invisible Achievement Gap of Students in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    At any given time, tens of thousands of children and youth in the U.S. are in the foster care system. Many have been abused, neglected, or abandoned, and they face a challenging journey of uncertainty, often not knowing where they will live next, where they will go to school, or whether they will have contact with friends and relatives. Child…

  3. Early School Engagement and Late Elementary Outcomes for Maltreated Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.; Yoerger, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Children with a history of maltreatment and placement into foster care face elevated risks of poor psychosocial outcomes including school failure, substance use, externalizing, and deviant peer association. For children in the general population, school engagement appears to be a promotive factor in preventing negative outcomes. In this study,…

  4. Child welfare services involvement among the children of young parents in foster care.

    PubMed

    Dworsky, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high rate of early parenthood among youth in foster care as well as the increased risk of child maltreatment among children whose adolescent parents have been neglected or abused, very little is known about child welfare services involvement among children whose parents were in foster care when they were born. This study uses administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) to examine the occurrence of child abuse and neglect investigations, indicated reports and out of home care placements among the children of youth in foster. Thirty-nine percent of the children were the subject of at least one CPS investigation, 17 percent had at least one indicated report and 11 percent were placed in out of home care at least once before their 5th birthday. Cox proportional hazard models are also estimated to identify characteristics of parenting foster youth and their placement histories associated with the risk of child welfare services involvement. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed.

  5. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  6. You're All Grown up Now: Termination of Foster Care Support at Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Rosemary J.; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the repercussions of discharging youth from foster care at age 18 based on recent research demonstrating that youth at this age are not developmentally prepared to live independently and have a continued need for strong social scaffolding during emerging adulthood. Drawing upon recent research findings, we make…

  7. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3 to 6 years old at the study start. Additionally, the…

  8. Antecedents and Concomitants of Parenting Stress in Adolescent Mothers in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karen S.; Holdsworth, Michelle J. A.; HoganBruen, Kathy D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to examine variables associated with different short-term trajectories in multiply disadvantaged adolescent mothers by investigating antecedents and concomitants of parenting stress. Method: We followed 49 adolescent mothers (ages 14-18 at study outset) who were wards in Illinois foster care using a longitudinal…

  9. Being in Relationship: Paradoxical Truths and Opportunities for Change in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Janet C.; Kretchmar, Molly D.; Worsham, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the experience of "Desirae," a young mother who participated with her children in services at The Children's Ark, an attachment-based intervention for families in foster care. The story of Desirae and her children highlights both the sometimes paradoxical truths about families fractured by addiction, abuse, and neglect and…

  10. Educational Supports for Middle School Youths Involved in the Foster Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyre, Ashli D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite our knowledge of poor educational outcomes for youths in foster care, the literature on methods or models for addressing the needs of this vulnerable group of students remains extremely limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to describe a school-based educational support model that provides advocacy, tutoring, and…

  11. Identification of Social-Emotional Problems among Young Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee, Sandra H.; Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Blumkin, Aaron; Baldwin, Constance D.; Szilagyi, Moira A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how best to implement behavioral screening recommendations in practice, especially for children in foster care, who are at risk for having social-emotional problems. Two validated screening tools are recommended for use with young children: the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) identifies…

  12. The Crisis in Foster Care: New Directions for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Theodora

    In January, 1990, a policy seminar examined problems with the foster care system and ways to encourage preventive and family-centered efforts. This document includes highlights of the seminar and a background briefing report. Seminar panelists included: Charles Gershenson, senior policy analyst, Center for the Study of Social Policy; Ann…

  13. Demographic, Clinical, and Geographic Predictors of Placement Disruption among Foster Care Youth Receiving Wraparound Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Dana A.; Leon, Scott C.; Stiehl, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effective delivery of wraparound depends upon the availability of a wide range of community-based services. This study seeks to determine the impact of proximity to resources on the effectiveness of a wraparound program for stabilizing foster care placements among a sample of youth. We present a methodology for deriving proximity scores for…

  14. Foster Children and Placement Stability: The Role of Child Care Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloy, Mary Elizabeth; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children who enter the child welfare system at a young age are at risk for a myriad of developmental, physical, and mental health problems. The risks faced by these vulnerable young children may be exacerbated by placement disruptions during foster care. This study utilizes administrative data from Illinois to explore the potential of child care…

  15. Kinship and Nonrelative Foster Care: The Effect of Placement Type on Child Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a national sample of 1,215 children, ages 6-17, who spent some time in formal kinship or nonrelative foster care to identify the effect of placement type on academic achievement, behavior, and health. Several identification strategies are used to reduce selection bias, including ordinary least squares, change score models,…

  16. Preventing Behavior Problems and Health-Risking Behaviors in Girls in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D.; Smith, Dana K.

    2006-01-01

    Transition into middle school presents complex challenges, including exposure to a larger peer group, increased expectations for time management and self-monitoring, renegotiation of rules with parents, and pubertal changes. For children in foster care, this transition is complicated by their maltreatment histories, living situation changes, and…

  17. Supportive Housing for Homeless Families: Foster Care Outcomes and Best Practices. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz-Rashid, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    The "Supportive Housing for Homeless Families: Foster Care Outcomes and Best Practices" report describes the outcome evaluation of Cottage Housing Incorporated's Serna Village program in Sacramento, California. Serna Village is a supportive housing program serving homeless families. Outcomes from the program illustrate that it is…

  18. Helping Youths Aging Outside Foster Care Achieve Higher Education Goals: A Student Model for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Rebecca; Vienneau, Lisa; Henderson, Candace; Hutson, Kristina; Gomez, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    As a service learning project, social work graduate students prepared a college information seminar and scholarship fundraiser for 15 youths in foster care. The project illustrates how students can apply learning and make a meaningful contribution to the lives of others. (SK)

  19. Maintaining Basic Skills through Summer Thematic Tutoring with Exceptional Students in Residential Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombey, Hanna

    A thematic teaching program and portfolio assessment were used to maintain basic academic language arts and mathematics skills during the summer for 21 elementary students placed in residential foster care settings as victims of physical and/or sexual abuse. All activities were designed around the selected theme of a safari. Students listened to…

  20. Understanding and Supporting Parent-Child Relationships during Foster Care Visits: Attachment Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Wendy L.; Kagle, Jill Doner; Black, James E.

    2003-01-01

    Parent visitation between parents and their children in foster care is the primary intervention for maintaining and supporting the development of parent child relationships necessary for reunification. This article examines the aspects of attachment relationships that provide an approach for understanding, assessing, and intervening in parent…

  1. Periodic Judicial Review of Children in Foster Care: Issues Related to Effective Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Howard A.

    In 1974, the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges initiated a special project to promote, in courts throughout the country, periodic review of the status of all children in foster care. This paper explains the development of these judicial review systems, describes several alternative review mechanisms, and discusses key issues…

  2. Learning to Play: Play Deprivation among Young Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Randy Lee

    2005-01-01

    Children who enter foster care typically have had little or not experience with play. This article describes the impact of play deprivation on early development. It provides guidelines for recognizing play deprivation and describes ways to help babies and young children develop a repertoire of play behaviors that is based on secure relationships…

  3. The Impact of Placement Stability on Behavioral Well-Being for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David M.; O'Reilly, Amanda L. R.; Luan, Xianqun; Localio, A. Russell

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The problems children have upon entering foster care can potentially explain prior research findings that frequent placement changes are associated with poor outcomes. This study sought to disentangle this cascading relationship in order to identify the independent impact of placement stability on behavioral outcomes downstream.…

  4. Using GIS Mapping to Assess Foster Care: A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rine, Christine M.; Morales, Jocelyn; Vanyukevych, Anastasiya B.; Durand, Emily G.; Schroeder, Kurt A.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become widely used outside of traditional mapping applications, expanding their reach to social service organizations. The purpose of this article is to describe and explore the benefits of GIS mapping in identifying strengths and needs of foster care systems in rural settings through graphically assessing…

  5. 25 CFR 20.507 - What requirements must foster care providers meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-term. The case plan must show that all of the requirements in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this...) If the child is placed with relatives in an adoption and guardian placement, the case file must contain an approved current home study. (c) An off-reservation foster home, or residential care...

  6. Youth with Disabilities in the Foster Care System: Barriers to Success and Proposed Policy Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide policymakers, primarily at the federal and state levels, with information about youth with disabilities in foster care, so that policymakers can begin to understand the characteristics of this population; the challenges they face; how they fare with regard to safety, permanency, self-determination and…

  7. You Can't Fight the System: Strategies of Family Justice in Foster Care Reintegration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Wes; Barnum, David

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the issue of justice in family therapy interventions and shares several strategies and ways of thinking about the therapy of foster care. Illustrates a case study and the interventions used to restore justice to a family caught up in the "system." (GCP)

  8. Re-examining Social Work Roles and Tasks with Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Leon C.; McGladdery, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote developmental outcomes with children and young people and to nurture their positive health and well-being in foster care, social workers and case managers are required to direct professional attention toward both the child or young person and her/his daily living environment(s)--at home, at school, and in the local…

  9. Type of Maltreatment as a Predictor of Mental Health Service Use for Children in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Ann F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of demographic, behavioral, and mental health service utilization data on 662 children in foster care found that 56% had received mental health services. Children who experienced "active" types of maltreatment (such as sexual abuse) were more likely to receive mental health services even when severity of mental health problems…

  10. Review of State Policies and Programs to Support Young People Transitioning Out of Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy; Havlicek, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive review of policies and programs designed to support youth transitioning out of foster care spans all 50 states and the District of Columbia. As part of the review, Chapin Hall administered a web-based survey of state independent living services coordinators to collect up-to-date information about their state's policies and…

  11. The Potential Contribution of Mentor Programs to Relational Permanency for Youth Aging out of Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Rosemary J.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes published research regarding the effectiveness of mentor programs in general, and for youth in foster care specifically, as a basis for evidence-based practice in child welfare. It examines the pros and cons of mentor programs and characteristics of programs that are more or less effective for achieving specific social…

  12. Associations between Early Life Stress, Child Maltreatment, and Pubertal Development among Girls in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N=100), assessed at 4 time points over 2 years, beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at the…

  13. Using GIS to Enhance Programs Serving Emancipated Youth Leaving Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsche, Catherine J.; Reader, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a GIS prototype designed to assist with the identification and evaluation of housing that is affordable, safe, and effective in supporting the educational goals and parental status of youth transitioning from foster care following emancipation. Spatial analysis was used to identify rental properties based on three inclusion…

  14. Practitioner Review: Children in Foster Care--Vulnerabilities and Evidence-Based Interventions that Promote Resilience Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of children are placed in foster care (i.e., a kin or nonkin family home other than the biological parent) due to experiences of physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse, and/or neglect. Children in foster care are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes encompassing emotional, behavioral,…

  15. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 3: Employment Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Sara; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This issue brief is one of three that focus on programs providing services to youth transitioning out of foster care in three common service domains: education, employment, and financial literacy and asset building. This brief highlights why employment services are important to youth currently or formerly in foster care, what we know about the…

  16. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 1: Education Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-66

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy; Smithgall, Cheryl; Courtney, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care and into adulthood need many supports to navigate the challenges they face. Over the past three decades, federal child welfare policy has significantly increased the availability of those supports. In 1999, the Foster Care Independence Act amended Title IV-E of the Social Security Act to create the Chafee…

  17. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  18. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  19. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  20. The Educational Professional: The Educational Experiences that Enhanced and Impeded the Academic Outcome of Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    A child in foster care is often categorized as a student at risk for school failure. However, children in foster care face a unique challenge in that most have been involuntarily separated from their biological parent and/or family. The schools must work in collaboration with the child to provide the necessary supports to achieve better…

  1. Grappling with the Gaps: Toward a Research Agenda to Meet the Educational Needs of Children and Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Some of the nation's leading scholars and philanthropic organizations selected a dozen foster care experts to discuss what they know--and don't know--about improving educational outcomes for children and youth in foster care. These experts represent a wide range of experience and perspective including that of an urban county school superintendent,…

  2. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  3. Cumulative risks of foster care placement by age 18 for U.S. children, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Wildeman, Christopher; Emanuel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Foster care placement is among the most tragic events a child can experience because it more often than not implies that a child has experienced or is at very high risk of experiencing abuse or neglect serious enough to warrant state intervention. Yet it is unclear how many children will experience foster care placement at some point between birth and age 18. Using synthetic cohort life tables and data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), we estimated how many U.S. children were placed in foster care between birth and age 18, finding support for three conclusions. First, up to 5.91% of all U.S. children were ever placed in foster care between their birth and age 18. Second, Native American (up to 15.44%) and Black (up to 11.53%) children were at far higher risk of placement. Foster care is thus quite common in the U.S., especially for historically disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups. Third, differences in foster care placement were minimal between the sexes, indicating that the high risks of foster care placement are shared almost equally by boys and girls.

  4. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  5. The Goal of Reunification: An Adlerian Approach to Working for Therapeutic Change within the Foster Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Guardia, Amanda C.; Banner, Amy T.

    2012-01-01

    The system of foster care that is currently in operation throughout the United States can present many challenges for counselors as they work with families toward positive outcomes. This article will endeavor to describe common issues and struggles currently facing children and families experiencing foster care and how these difficulties might…

  6. Perceived Social Environment and Adolescents' Well-Being and Adjustment: Comparing a Foster Care Sample with a Matched Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farruggia, Susan P.; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that former foster care youth are at risk for poor outcomes (e.g., more problem behaviors, more depression, lower self-esteem, and poor social relationships). It is not clear, however, whether these findings reflect preemancipation developmental deficits. This study used 163 preemancipation foster care youth and…

  7. Navigating the Financial Aid System in the Community College: The Lived Experience of Students Formerly in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solemsaas, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    For many low-income and disadvantaged students formerly in foster care, community colleges are the main post-secondary educational pathway to socioeconomic opportunities. However, students formerly in foster care face many barriers in accessing college as well as actually succeeding in achieving a college degree. Although considerable efforts have…

  8. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  9. Promising Practices: School to Career and Postsecondary Education for Foster Care Youth. A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Strategy Center, Brooklyn, NY.

    Focus of this guide is a project to identify best practices and programs in preparing foster care youth for career opportunities and economic self-sufficiency. Foster care program context is described as an economy characterized by jobs clustering into two categories (high wage positions with a continuing career pathway and low wage entry-level…

  10. Increasing Knowledge and Assessment of Foster Care Children through In-Service Training for Elementary School Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Gladys M.

    This practicum sought to provide elementary school teachers with the skills and knowledge needed to teach students residing in foster care. The three specific goals of the practicum were: (1) to have all 30 of the teacher participants use teaching strategies appropriate to the education of foster care children; (2) to have at least 25 of the 30…

  11. Health Care Issues for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care and Kinship Care.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Moira A; Rosen, David S; Rubin, David; Zlotnik, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Children and adolescents involved with child welfare, especially those who are removed from their family of origin and placed in out-of-home care, often present with complex and serious physical, mental health, developmental, and psychosocial problems rooted in childhood adversity and trauma. As such, they are designated as children with special health care needs. There are many barriers to providing high-quality comprehensive health care services to children and adolescents whose lives are characterized by transience and uncertainty. Pediatricians have a critical role in ensuring the well-being of children in out-of-home care through the provision of high-quality pediatric health services in the context of a medical home, and health care coordination and advocacy on their behalf. This technical report supports the policy statement of the same title.

  12. Starting with Self: Teaching Autoethnography to Foster Critically Caring Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camangian, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates the application of critical literacy (Freire & Macedo, 1987; Gutierrez, 2008; Morrell, 2007) pedagogies that draw from young people's funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992) to actively nurture personally, authentically, and culturally caring relationships (Howard, 2002; Noddings, 1992;…

  13. Quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care and in outpatient treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mihanović, Mate; Restek-Petrović, Branka; Bogović, Anamarija; Ivezić, Ena; Bodor, Davor; Požgain, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background The Sveti Ivan Psychiatric Hospital in Zagreb, Croatia, offers foster home care treatment that includes pharmacotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, family therapy, and work and occupational therapy. The aim of this study is to compare the health-related quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care with that of patients in standard outpatient treatment. Methods The sample consisted of 44 patients with schizophrenia who, upon discharge from the hospital, were included in foster home care treatment and a comparative group of 50 patients who returned to their families and continued receiving outpatient treatment. All patients completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire on the day they completed hospital treatment, 6 months later, and 1 year after they participated in the study. The research also included data on the number of hospitalizations for both groups of patients. Results Though directly upon discharge from the hospital, patients who entered foster home care treatment assessed their health-related quality of life as poorer than patients who returned to their families, their assessments significantly improved over time. After 6 months of treatment, these patients even achieved better results in several dimensions than did patients in the outpatient program, and they also had fewer hospitalizations. These effects remained the same at the follow-up 1 year after the inclusion in the study. Conclusion Notwithstanding the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that treatment in foster home care is associated with an improvement in the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia, but the same was not observed for the patients in standard outpatient treatment. We hope that these findings will contribute to an improved understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on the functioning of patients and the development of more effective therapeutic methods aimed at improving the patients

  14. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  15. HPA stability for children in foster care: mental health implications and moderation by early intervention.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-09-01

    Research on stress-sensitive biological systems has typically focused on activation at one time, yet recent theories emphasize dynamic, context-specific adaptation. This study tested hypothesized calibration of one such system by examining both mean levels and longitudinal stability of daily cortisol--reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation--in children exposed to high-risk versus lower-risk caregiving contexts. Context-specific effects of longitudinal cortisol profiles were addressed via relations with child psychiatric symptoms. Children from regular foster care, foster children participating in a family-based intervention, and community comparison children (n = 96 total) collected saliva samples for cortisol assay at 29 timepoints across 6+ years. High-risk (regular foster care) children showed lower and more variable cortisol levels than their lower-risk (treatment foster care, community comparison) counterparts. For the high-risk children only, higher and more stable cortisol related to elevated anxiety symptoms. Implications for contextual calibration of stress systems and family intervention mechanisms are discussed.

  16. Comparing three years of well-being outcomes for youth in group care and nonkinship foster care.

    PubMed

    McCrae, Julie S; Lee, Bethany R; Barth, Richard P; Rauktis, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study examines differences in cognitive, academic, and affective well-being of youth first placed in nonkinship foster care (N = 259) and youth first placed in group care (N = 89). To compare nonrandomized groups, propensity score matching was used. Results from hierarchical linear modeling suggest that both groups of youth show improved behavior and below-average academics over time.

  17. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making.

  18. Multidimensional treatment foster care for preschoolers: early findings of an implementation in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) has been shown to be an evidence based alternative to residential rearing and an effective method to improve behavior and attachment of foster children in the US. This preliminary study investigated an application of MTFC for preschoolers (MTFC-P) in the Netherlands focusing on behavioral outcomes in course of the intervention. To examine the following hypothesis: “the time in the MTFC-P intervention predicts a decline in problem behavior”, as this is the desired outcome for children assigned to MTFC-P, we assessed the daily occurrence of 38 problem behaviors via telephone interviews. Repeated measures revealed significant reduced problem behavior in course of the program. MTFC-P promises to be a treatment model suitable for high-risk foster children, that is transferable across centres and countries. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register: 1747. PMID:23216971

  19. Measurement of Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes of Youth in Foster Care: Investigation of the Roles of Age and Placement Type.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Brown, Shaquanna

    2015-09-01

    The Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) is used to assess behavioral and emotional outcomes for youth. Research providing evidence for use of the BASC-2 parent-report form historically has included biological parents reporting on their children (Reynolds and Kamphaus 2004). For youth residing in out-of-home placements through enrollment in foster care, caregivers reporting on their functioning may include foster parents or residential staff. Given the significant adverse mental health outcomes for youth in foster care and the need to adequately assess adjustment in foster care, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the measurement properties of caregivers' report on the parent report form (PRS) of the BASC-2 in foster care youth. Using 479 respondents, a measurement model was fit to the data demonstrating adequate fit across Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Adaptive Skills. Further, a comparison of measurement properties across child and adolescent groups and groups of youth residing in residential facilities versus foster homes was conducted. Factorial invariance and latent means also were assessed. The BASC-2 PRS was found to be an adequate assessment of psychological outcomes for youth in foster care when completed by foster parents or residential facility staff.

  20. Kinship foster care among African American youth: Interaction effects at multiple contextual levels.

    PubMed

    Rufa, Anne K; Fowler, Patrick J

    This study investigated the effects of kinship foster care on mental health outcomes among African American youth. Longitudinal data were used from a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents who were the subject of child protective services investigation from 1999 to 2000 (n=5,501). The secondary analyses focused on African American youth (n=225) placed into foster care. In structured interviews, current caregivers reported on youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors immediately following placement into out-of-home care and 18-months later. Path analysis tested a theoretical model that compared placements with kin to other formal out-of-home arrangements in context of setting characteristics, including aspects of caregiver and neighborhood disorder. Results suggested significant increases in internalizing symptoms over time for youth with more baseline mental health problems, as well as those placed in more distressed neighborhoods. Increased externalizing symptoms occurred among youth with greater baseline behavior problems, those placed in more problematic neighborhoods, and youth who experienced a placement change between assessments. Additionally, a combination of placement characteristics predicted increases in externalizing problems; youth placed in kinship foster care with older caregivers in poorer health exhibited greater increases in externalizing problems. Findings highlighted important contextual considerations for out-of-home placement among African American youth.

  1. The formation of secure new attachments by children who were maltreated: an observational study of adolescents in foster care.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Michelle A; O'Connor, Thomas G; Briskman, Jacqueline A; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Children who were maltreated and enter foster care are at risk for maladjustment and relationship disturbances with foster carers. A popular hypothesis is that prior attachment relationships with abusive birth parents are internalized and carried forward to impair the child's subsequent attachment relationships. However, the empirical base for this model is limited, especially in adolescence. We examined the attachment patterns of 62 adolescents with their birth parents and their foster parents; we compared them to a comparison sample of 50 adolescents in normal-risk families. Attachment was assessed using the Child Attachment Interview; adolescent-parent interaction quality was assessed from direct observation; disruptive behavior symptoms were assessed from multiple informants. Whereas nearly all of the adolescents in foster families exhibited insecure attachments to their birth mothers (90%) and birth fathers (100%), nearly one-half were classified as having a secure attachment with their foster mother (46%) and father (49%); rates of secure attachment toward foster parents did not differ significantly from the rate in comparison families. Within the foster care sample, attachment security to the foster mother was predicted from current observed relationship quality and the duration of current placement. In addition, attachment quality in foster adolescents was associated with fewer disruptive behavior symptoms, and this association was equally strong in foster and comparison families. Our findings demonstrate that there is substantial potential for maltreated children to change and develop subsequent secure attachments in adolescence.

  2. Adversity and Adjustment in Children in Institutions, Family Foster Care, and Adoption.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morago, Jesús M; León, Esperanza; Román, Maite

    2015-06-22

    This study's objective was to identify the adversity profiles of children in different childcare placements, and to analyze their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment. We studied a group of 230 children 4 to 10 years old indifferent childcare placements (international adoption, institutional care, non-kin foster care, and kinship care), as well as a control group. Information was collected from parent or caregiver interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results showed that children in the child welfare system had experienced significant adversity before their current placement, especially among institutional care cases and international adoptees. Meanwhile, children in kinship care had experienced less adversity (p .50 to d > .80). After a period of time in their respective placements, children's psychological adjustment was generally positive, but children living in institutional care exhibited the most problems and difficulties, followed by non-kin foster care cases (p .50 to d > .80). Finally, we found that children's early adversity levels (p < .05; r = .16), age of current placement (p < .01; r = .23), and duration of current placement (p < .05: r = -.19) were all tied to current psychological adjustment.

  3. Back-Up Childcare: A Quality Alternative to Regular Care Which Fosters Resilience in Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Bar, Nicole J.

    To many in the field of early care and education, back-up child care may be viewed as a stressful disruption that could interfere with attachment and be detrimental to continuity of care. This paper attempts to prove that high-quality back-up child care offered by employers actually fosters the development of resiliency in young children by…

  4. Psychometric properties of the Transitions from Foster Care Key Leader Survey.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M; Brown, Eric C; Monahan, Kathryn C; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-04-01

    This study summarizes the development and piloting of the Transitions from Foster Care Key Leader Survey (TFC-KLS), an instrument designed to measure change in systems serving young people transitioning from foster care to adulthood. The Jim Casey Youth Opportunity Initiative's logic model was used as a basis for instrument development. The instrument was piloted with 119 key leaders in six communities. Seven of eight latent scales performed well in psychometric testing. The relationships among the 24 measures of system change were explored. A CFA testing overall model fit was satisfactory following slight modifications. Finally, a test of inter-rater reliability between two raters did not find reliable reporting of service availability in a supplemental portion of the survey. The findings were generally positive and supported the validity and utility of the instrument for measuring system change, following some adaptations. Implications for the field are discussed.

  5. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at 8 Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    School-age language outcomes for children in a longitudinal, randomized controlled study of foster care were examined. Even though children had different placement status at 8 years, children originally placed in Romanian foster care had higher sentence repetition accuracy and longer sentences at 8 years than children who originally lived in severely depriving institutional care. A larger number of foster children also showed written word identification ability. Children placed in foster care by 25 months had significant advantages in nonword repetition and word identification than children placed later. Children placed by 15 months performed equivalently to typical community peers on these measures. Children’s expressive language at 42 months was correlated with their 8-year sentence repetition, nonword repetition, and word identification. The results speak to the continuing adverse effects of early poor institutional care on later language development and to the key importance of age of placement in a more optimal environment. PMID:22584071

  6. Mental Health, Behavioral and Developmental Issues for Youth in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephanie A; Lynch, Amy; Zlotnik, Sarah; Matone, Meredith; Kreider, Amanda; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Youth in foster care represent a unique population with complex mental and behavioral health, social-emotional, and developmental needs. For this population with special healthcare needs, the risk for adverse long-term outcomes great if needs go unaddressed or inadequately addressed while in placement. Although outcomes are malleable and effective interventions exist, there are barriers to optimal healthcare delivery. The general pediatrician as advocate is paramount to improve long-term outcomes.

  7. Pre-placement risk and longitudinal cognitive development for children adopted from foster care.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Jill M; Nadeem, Erum; Paczkowski, Emilie; Foster, Jared Cory; Lavner, Justin A; Belin, Thomas; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the trajectory of cognitive development over the first five years of adoptive placement among children adopted from foster care and how pre-adoption risk factors relate to this development. Overall, children's cognitive scores increased significantly, with the most rapid improvement occurring in the first year post-placement. By five years post-placement, children's mean cognitive and achievement scores were in the average range. Adoption is a positive intervention for children's cognitive development.

  8. Extending Foster Care to Age 21: Weighing the Costs to Government against the Benefits to Youth. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Clark M.; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.; Pollack, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 allows states to claim federal reimbursement for the costs of caring for and supervising Title IV-E eligible foster youth until their 21st birthday. This issue brief provides preliminary estimates of what the potential costs to government and the benefits to young people…

  9. Child welfare caseworkers as service brokers for youth in foster care: findings from project focus.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Shannon; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Trupin, Eric W; Conover, Kate L; Berliner, Lucy

    2012-02-01

    Youth in the foster care system have substantially higher rates of mental health needs compared to the general population, yet they rarely receive targeted, evidence-based practices (EBPs). Increasingly emerging in the literature on mental health services is the importance of "brokers" or "gateway providers" of services. For youth in foster care, child welfare caseworkers often play this role. This study examines caseworker-level outcomes of Project Focus, a caseworker training and consultation model designed to improve emotional and behavioral outcomes for youth in foster care through increased linkages with EBPs. Project Focus was tested through a small, randomized trial involving four child welfare offices. Caseworkers in the Project Focus intervention group demonstrated an increased awareness of EBPs and a trend toward increased ability to identify appropriate EBP referrals for particular mental health problems but did not have significantly different rates of actual referral to EBPs. Dose of consultation was associated with general awareness of EBPs. Implications for practice and outcomes for youth are discussed.

  10. Associations Between Maltreatment History and Severity of Substance Use Behavior in Youth in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Brown, Shaquanna

    2016-09-22

    Substance use (SU) in youth remains a significant public health concern and a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in adolescents. The present study offers examination of the association between severity and chronicity of maltreatment history and SU in youth in foster care. Two hundred and ten (48% female) foster youth with a mean age of 12.71 years (SD = 2.95 years) completed surveys using an audio-computer-assisted self-interview program. Results revealed 31% of participants reported past-year SU, and substance users had a mean CRAFFT score of 3.43 (SD = 1.90). Reported age of SU onset was 11.08 years (SD = 2.21 years). The SU measurement model demonstrated excellent fit in this sample. Accounting for both youth age and youth placement type, the structural model with maltreatment predicting SU severity demonstrated strong model fit with a significant path between maltreatment and SU. Youth in residential facilities and older youth had higher rates of use than those residing in traditional foster home environments and younger youth. Findings provide additional support for the link between maltreatment experiences and SU severity in foster youth and suggest the need for screening and intervention services appropriate for this high-risk population.

  11. Health care access, utilization, and problems in a sample of former foster children: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Loring

    2014-01-01

    Three years of descriptive data that describe health problems and access to care for former foster youth are presented (n = 92). Findings were that most youths had health coverage at emancipation, but the proportion with coverage shrinks after three years to 57%. Youths generally reported good health despite the loss of Medicaid and increasing difficulties with access to care. However, mental health problems and substance abuse problems in the sample remained high over the three years of study. Most of the mental health and substance abuse problems remained untreated. The policy implications of findings are discussed.

  12. The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This article uses administrative data on all Danish municipalities (N = 277) and a 10% randomly drawn sample of all Danish children (N = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children's acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads.

  13. The prevalence of child sexual abuse in out-of-home care: a comparison between abuse in residential and in foster care.

    PubMed

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tharner, Anne; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the 2010 year prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in residential and foster care and compared it with prevalence rates in the general population. We used two approaches to estimate the prevalence of CSA. First, 264 professionals working in residential or foster care (sentinels) reported CSA for the children they worked with (N = 6,281). Second, 329 adolescents staying in residential or foster care reported on their own experiences with CSA. Sentinels and adolescents were randomly selected from 82 Dutch out-of-home care facilities. We found that 3.5 per 1,000 children had been victims of CSA based on sentinel reports. In addition, 58 per 1,000 adolescents reported having experienced CSA. Results based on both sentinel report and self-report revealed higher prevalence rates in out-of-home care than in the general population, with the highest prevalence in residential care. Prevalence rates in foster care did not differ from the general population. According to our findings, children and adolescents in residential care are at increased risk of CSA compared to children in foster care. Unfortunately, foster care does not fully protect children against sexual abuse either, and thus its quality needs to be further improved.

  14. Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care in England: differential effects by level of initial antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Ian; Parry, Elizabeth; Biehal, Nina; Fresen, John; Kay, Catherine; Scott, Stephen; Green, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), recently renamed Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents (TFCO-A) is an internationally recognised intervention for troubled young people in public care. This paper seeks to explain conflicting results with MTFC by testing the hypotheses that it benefits antisocial young people more than others and does so through its effects on their behaviour. Hard-to-manage young people in English foster or residential homes were assessed at entry to a randomised and case-controlled trial of MTFC (n = 88) and usual care (TAU) (n = 83). Primary outcome was the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) at 12 months analysed according to high (n = 112) or low (n = 59) baseline level of antisocial behaviour on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents. After adjusting for covariates, there was no overall treatment effect on CGAS. However, the High Antisocial Group receiving MTFC gained more on the CGAS than the Low group (mean improvement 9.36 points vs. 5.33 points). This difference remained significant (p < 0.05) after adjusting for propensity and covariates and was statistically explained by the reduced antisocial behaviour ratings in MTFC. These analyses support the use of MTFC for youth in public care but only for those with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Further work is needed on whether such benefits persist, and on possible negative effects of this treatment for those with low antisocial behaviour.Trial Registry Name: ISRCTNRegistry identification number: ISRCTN 68038570Registry URL: www.isrctn.com.

  15. A national study of the impact of outpatient mental health services for children in long-term foster care.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Jennifer L; Gopalan, Geetha; Traube, Dorian E

    2010-10-01

    Despite the tremendous mental health need evidenced by children in foster care and high rates of use of mental health services among children in foster care, little is known about the impact of outpatient mental health services on the behavioral health of this population. This study utilizes data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), the first nationally representative study of child welfare in the United States. A subsample of 439 children who have experienced long-term foster care were included in this study. These data were used to estimate the impact of outpatient mental health services on the externalizing and internalizing behavior problems of children in long-term foster care. A propensity score matching model was employed to produce a robust estimate of the treatment effect. Results indicate that children who have experienced long-term foster care do not benefit from the receipt of outpatient mental health services. Study results are discussed in the context of earlier research on the quality of mental health services for children in foster care.

  16. Fostering person-centered care among nursing students: creative pedagogical approaches to developing personal knowing.

    PubMed

    Schwind, Jasna K; Beanlands, Heather; Lapum, Jennifer; Romaniuk, Daria; Fredericks, Suzanne; LeGrow, Karen; Edwards, Susanna; McCay, Elizabeth; Crosby, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    Person-centered care (PCC) is grounded in principles of respect, autonomy, and empowerment and requires the development of interpersonal relationships. For nursing students to engage in PCC, they need to intentionally develop personal knowing, which is an essential attribute of therapeutic relationships. Developing personal knowing, as well as professional knowledge, positions students to enact PCC in their practice. Faculty members play a vital role in fostering the development of personal knowing by creating opportunities for students in which genuine and respectful dialogue, reflection, self-awareness, and critical thinking can take place. This article explores several creative approaches faculty have used to actualize these qualities in their teaching-learning encounters with nursing students at various stages of their students' professional development. These approaches offer experiential teaching-learning opportunities that foster the development of personal knowing, as well as constructive and respectful relationships between faculty and students, therefore laying the groundwork for PCC in practice settings.

  17. Kinship Care and Nonrelative Family Foster Care: A Comparison of Caregiver Attributes and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebel, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Reports the findings of a survey that explored the attitudes and attributes of nonrelative family foster caregivers and kinship caregivers for children adjudicated dependent and placed by a state public welfare agency. Found significant differences on several demographic variables, in the frequency of caseworker contacts and in perceptions and…

  18. Preventing Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Girls in Foster Care as they Enter Middle School: Immediate Impact of an Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dana K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Girls in foster care have been shown to be at risk for emotional and behavioral problems, especially during the preadolescent and adolescent years. Based on these findings and on the lack of research-based preventive interventions for such youths, the current study examined the immediate impact of an intervention targeting the prevention of internalizing and externalizing problems for girls in foster care prior to middle school entry. Study participants included 100 girls in state-supported foster homes who were randomly assigned to an intervention condition or to a control condition (foster care services as usual). The intervention girls were hypothesized to have fewer internalizing problems, fewer externalizing problems, and more prosocial behavior at 6-months postbaseline compared to the control girls. The results confirmed the hypotheses for internalizing and externalizing problems, but not for prosocial behavior. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:21475990

  19. Counseling Services in Adult Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Gamal; Zaki, Sylvia

    Federal support for adult day care centers began in the United States approximately 10 years ago. To examine the counseling practices in the adult day care centers across the country and to explore how the services are affected by the staffing patterns at these centers, 135 centers completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed…

  20. Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

  1. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  2. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  3. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  4. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  5. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  6. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  7. Young adult palliative care: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jennifer K; Fasciano, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Young adulthood is a time of immense growth and possibilities. As a result, it is also a time when serious illness can have profound effects. This review examines the current data pertinent to young adult palliative care and discusses the challenges and opportunities where palliative medicine can enhance the care provided to this growing and vulnerable population. From the data, 2 primary themes emerged (1) ongoing young adult development not only generates unique biologic disease burdens and clinical treatment options but also requires frequent assessment and promotion and (2) binary health care systems often leave young adults without access to developmentally appropriate health care. Given its interdisciplinary approach, palliative care is uniquely poised to address the challenges known to caring for the seriously ill young adult.

  8. Ready to Succeed: Changing Systems to Give California's Foster Children the Opportunities They Deserve to Be Ready for and Succeed in School. Recommendations and Implementation Strategies from The California Education Collaborative for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report, released by The California Education Collaborative for Children in Foster Care, calls for a sharper focus on the educational outcomes for children in foster care and offers recommendations for strengthening the policies and systems that support them. The report describes the Collaborative's charge and products, briefly summarizes…

  9. Evidence Use in Mental Health Policy Making for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Justeen K; Mackie, Thomas I; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Niemi, Emily; Leslie, Laurel K

    2016-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the use of research evidence to inform public policy making. Building upon Weiss's model of research utilization, we examined the types and uses of evidence that child welfare administrators used in response to federal policy reforms requiring psychotropic medications oversight for children in foster care. Participants relied on a range of "global" and "local" evidence types throughout the policy development phase. Global research evidence was used to raise awareness about problems associated with psychotropic medication use. Local evidence helped to contextualize concerns and had problem-solving and political uses. In most states, policy actions were informed by a combination of evidence types.

  10. Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS education program for family-based foster care providers.

    PubMed

    Scotti, J R; Ujcich, K J; Nangle, D W; Weigle, K L; Ellis, J T; Kirk, K S; Vittimberga, G L; Giacoletti, A M; Carr-Nangle, R

    1996-04-01

    Because individuals with mental retardation have recently been identified as a group at-risk for developing HIV infection, HIV/AIDS training programs for service providers working with this population are critical. In this study an HIV/AIDS education program for family-based foster care providers was described and evaluated. The results indicate that although these service providers had some prior knowledge about HIV and AIDS, there were significant improvements in knowledge following the training. Implications of these findings for individuals with mental retardation were discussed.

  11. Attachment, Development, and Mental Health in Abused and Neglected Preschool Children in Foster Care: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz

    2016-09-22

    A proper preparation for foster parents to care for abused and neglected children includes effective training and initial diagnostics in order to plan individual treatment. Hence, a basic knowledge about the main psychosocial and developmental problems associated with abuse and neglect and their prevalence in foster children is needed. For this purpose, a systematical literature review and a series of meta-analyses were conducted. A total of 25 studies reporting data on development (n = 4,033), mental health (n = 726), and attachment (n = 255) of foster children in preschool age met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses indicated prevalence rates of approximately 40% for developmental, mental health problems, and insecure attachment. Rates of disorganized attachment were estimated to 22%. These findings outline the necessity of an initial trauma-oriented diagnostics and trainings for foster parents that address foster children's development, mental health, and disorganized attachment.

  12. Early Elementary School Adjustment of Maltreated Children in Foster Care: The Roles of Inhibitory Control and Caregiver Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Kim, Hyoun K.; Yoerger, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 85 maltreated foster children and 56 nonmaltreated community children (mean age = 3- to 6-years-old) were assessed across kindergarten and first grade to examine the hypothesis that inhibitory control and caregiver involvement mediate associations between a history of maltreatment and foster placement and early school adjustment. Specifically, academic and social-emotional competence were evaluated. The maltreated foster children performed more poorly in academic and social-emotional competence. Inhibitory control fully mediated the association of maltreatment and foster care placement with academic competence, whereas inhibitory control and caregiver involvement mediated their association with social-emotional competence. The results suggest that inhibitory control and caregiver involvement might be promising targets for school readiness interventions for foster preschoolers. PMID:20840240

  13. Foster care placement change: The role of family dynamics and household composition.

    PubMed

    Waid, Jeffrey; Kothari, Brianne H; Bank, Lew; McBeath, Bowen

    2016-09-01

    Sibling co-placement and kinship care have each been shown to protect against the occurrence of placement change for youth in substitute care. However, little is known about the effects of different combinations of sibling placement and relative caregiver status on placement change. Nor does the field fully understand how family dynamics may differ in these households. Utilizing data from the Supporting Siblings in Foster Care study, this paper examines family dynamics across four typologies of living composition, and tests the effects of living composition membership on the odds of experiencing a placement change over an 18-month period of time. Findings suggest that across living composition typologies, children who were placed separately from their siblings in non-relative care were more likely to be older, have more extensive placement histories, and experience more placement changes both prior to and during the study than were children in other living composition groups. Family living composition was found to influence the occurrence of placement change. Specifically, children co-placed in kinship care were least likely to experience movement; however, sibling co-placement in non-relative care was also protective. Results reveal the need to conduct additional research into the experiences of children in different family living arrangements, and tailor case management services and supports to children in substitute care accordingly. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  14. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of Foster Care: A Research Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Thomas P.; And Others

    This book reviews the findings of 29 studies published between 1960 and 1992 on the impact of childhood out-of-home care on adults' self-sufficiency, adjustment, family and social support, and personal well-being. Section 1, "Out-of-Home Care and Out-of-Home Care Studies," introduces the study and presents the history of out-of-home care…

  15. Caregivers, school liaisons, and agency advocates speak out about the educational needs of children and youths in foster care.

    PubMed

    Zetlin, Andrea; Weinberg, Lois; Shea, Nancy M

    2010-07-01

    Children in foster care comprise a population of students at great risk for school failure. The child welfare agency, schools, and home must all work together to provide the services and supports required to achieve better results. The purpose of this study was to conduct focus groups with participants from each sector to discuss their views on the educational problems and needs of students in foster care and their recommendations for what is needed to improve the academic prospects of foster students. The article provides details of the distinct themes identified by caregivers, school liaisons, and agency advocates and reveals how each group-while recognizing that foster students face substantial school problems-operates independent of each other and lacks a shared view on what is needed. The article concludes with recommendations for designing a model program that involves all the sectors and provides an arena for strategically addressing barriers to school success.

  16. Achieving Permanence in Foster Care for Young Children: A Comparison of Kinship and Non-Kinship Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabustan-Claar, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    A number of child welfare policies have reinforced the use of kinship care as the most preferred placement for foster children, reflecting the philosophy that maintaining children within their own extended family system contributes to their stability and well-being. Given the growing utilization and legislative emphasis on kinship care along with…

  17. Race, foster care, and the politics of abandonment in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, D; Markowitz, G

    1997-01-01

    Following the end of the Great Depression of the 1930s, the sectarian system of foster care services in New York City practiced open discrimination. African-American children were generally segregated in a small number of overcrowded and understaffed all-Black institutions. As the African-American migration to the city accelerated in the years following the outbreak of World War II, a small group of psychologists, jurists, philanthropists, and social workers began a systematic challenge to this system. This paper explores the role of racism in shaping New York's foster care system and the experience of African-American children who were forced to depend on services originally organized to serve Whites. It also looks at the ways race affected the way children were typed--as mentally ill, delinquent, or even criminal--in response to the structural realities of a system that sorted children into separate types of institutions according to race. The paper also provides the background for understanding the landmark challenge to segregation of children in sectarian and public institutions represented by Wilder v Sugarman. PMID:9366642

  18. Race, foster care, and the politics of abandonment in New York City.

    PubMed

    Rosner, D; Markowitz, G

    1997-11-01

    Following the end of the Great Depression of the 1930s, the sectarian system of foster care services in New York City practiced open discrimination. African-American children were generally segregated in a small number of overcrowded and understaffed all-Black institutions. As the African-American migration to the city accelerated in the years following the outbreak of World War II, a small group of psychologists, jurists, philanthropists, and social workers began a systematic challenge to this system. This paper explores the role of racism in shaping New York's foster care system and the experience of African-American children who were forced to depend on services originally organized to serve Whites. It also looks at the ways race affected the way children were typed--as mentally ill, delinquent, or even criminal--in response to the structural realities of a system that sorted children into separate types of institutions according to race. The paper also provides the background for understanding the landmark challenge to segregation of children in sectarian and public institutions represented by Wilder v Sugarman.

  19. Exploring spirituality among youth in foster care: findings from the Casey Field Office Mental Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Lovie J.; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; DiLorenzo, Paul; Cathcart, Ernie; Wolf, Mary; Bruskas, Delilah; Pecora, Peter J.; Nix-Early, Vivian; Cabrera, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This study examined spiritual coping mechanisms, beliefs about spirituality and participation in spiritual activities and in other positive activities among adolescents in foster care. A multidimensional measure of spirituality was developed for face-to-face interviews with 188 youth (ages 14–17) from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds in the United States. Findings revealed 95% of youth believe in God, over 70% believe God is ‘creator’ and God is ‘love’, and 79% considered prayer a spiritual practice. Most youth said love and forgiveness help them heal. Two-thirds (67%) reported responding to ‘bad or tragic things happening’ by spending time alone, and over half responded by praying (59%) or sharing the problem with someone else (56%). Youth's top three spiritual goals were to follow God's plan for them, become a better person, and know their purpose in life. Based on the value youth ascribed to spiritual coping mechanisms, recommendations for policy and practice focus on the integration of spirituality into practice and caregiving for youth in foster care. PMID:25057258

  20. Client Self-Management: Promoting Self-Help for Parents of Children in Foster-Care

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Bjørn Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon Foucault's concepts of power, this article shows how a course given to parents whose children are in foster-care encourages a particular form of self-management—most notably, that their internal dialogues must be altered so that the parents can view themselves as people in control of their behaviour who are in a position to choose new behaviour. The article is based on a qualitative study conducted in Norway and centres on the support and development of participants in the course. Study results show increased self-confidence and self-respect in the participants, both as individuals and as parents. In addition, significant benefits were stated as finding that they could verbalise and describe difficult events and emotions, experiencing being ‘normal’ within a group and receiving feedback. From the perspective of child protective services, dialogue with parents is central, as it not only commits clients to specific behaviours, but—more importantly—commits them to a particular inner dialogue about parenthood. The course can be seen as a management tool in which the parent's ‘self’ becomes the central object, seeking to contradict the conventional conception of parents with children in foster-care as having nothing to contribute to their children's upbringing. PMID:27559212

  1. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: An Alternative to Residential Treatment for High Risk Children and Adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program (MTFC), an evidence based approach for providing psychotherapeutic treatment for very troubled children and adolescents that is an alternative to residential care. Versions of the MTFC program have been developed and validated for young children with a history of maltreatment as well as for older children and adolescents who are involved with the youth justice system. In the paper we describe the development of the MTFC program and its foundations in the social learning model that originated at the Oregon Social Learning Center in the 1960’s and 70’s. We present information about program elements. We then review the research that has been conducted on MTFC. PMID:28250708

  2. Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course.

  3. Common needs but divergent interventions for U.S. homeless and foster care children: results from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Zerger, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    Many children living in homeless situations in the U.S. have temporary stays in foster care, and both populations suffer disproportionately higher rates of physical, psychological and social difficulties compared with other children. However, very little is known about which specific interventions achieve the best outcomes for children in these overlapping transitional living situations. To address this gap, we review existing literature to identify the most promising practices for children living in transition. A standardised vocabulary specific to each of three electronic databases (i.e. Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHL) was employed to identify studies that described an intervention specifically targeting foster care or homeless children and families. Separate systematic searches were conducted for homeless and foster children, and only studies published in English between January 1993 and February 2009 were selected. The final sample (n = 43) of articles described interventions that fell into two categories: mental health (n = 17) and case management (n = 26). No article included a sample containing both homeless and foster care children, and most studies on homeless children used case management interventions while most studies on foster care children focused on mental health interventions. Few articles employed rigorous study designs. Although repeatedly studies have demonstrated the overlap between populations of homeless and foster care children, studies focused on one population or the other. Virtually all studies on both homeless and foster children devised interventions to reduce trauma and family instability; yet, no evidence-based practice addresses the overlapping needs and potentially relevant evidence-based practice for these two populations. An important and vital next step is to establish an effective evidence-based intervention that reduces the impact of trauma on both U.S. populations of children living in transition.

  4. Family matters? The effect of kinship care on foster care disruption rates.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Fallesen, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Compared with other types of out-of-home care, kinship care is cheap, and offers the child a more familiar environment. However, little is known about the causal effect of kinship care on important outcomes. This study is the first to estimate causal effects of kinship care on placement stability, using full-sample administrative data (N=13,157) and instrumental variables methods. Results show that, in a sample of children of age 0-17 years, kinship care is as stable as other types of care, and only when the kin caregiver is particularly empathic and dutiful does this type of care prove more stable. Thus, in terms of stability, most children do not benefit additionally from being placed with kin.

  5. Reducing the Digital Divide for Children in Foster Care: First-Year Evaluation of the Building Skills-Building Futures Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jerry; Kerman, Ben; LeCornec, Juliette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the first-year evaluation outcomes of a program developed to increase information technology access and skills among foster children and families within the context of a long-term foster care environment. Method: A sample of 34 foster families who received computers, Internet connection, and supportive services…

  6. Primary care of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2006 Canadian guidelines for primary care of adults with developmental disabilities (DD) and to make practical recommendations based on current knowledge to address the particular health issues of adults with DD. Quality of evidence Knowledgeable health care providers participating in a colloquium and a subsequent working group discussed and agreed on revisions to the 2006 guidelines based on a comprehensive review of publications, feedback gained from users of the guidelines, and personal clinical experiences. Most of the available evidence in this area of care is from expert opinion or published consensus statements (level III). Main message Adults with DD have complex health issues, many of them differing from those of the general population. Good primary care identifies the particular health issues faced by adults with DD to improve their quality of life, to improve their access to health care, and to prevent suffering, morbidity, and premature death. These guidelines synthesize general, physical, behavioural, and mental health issues of adults with DD that primary care providers should be aware of, and they present recommendations for screening and management based on current knowledge that practitioners can apply. Because of interacting biologic, psychoaffective, and social factors that contribute to the health and well-being of adults with DD, these guidelines emphasize involving caregivers, adapting procedures when appropriate, and seeking input from a range of health professionals when available. Ethical care is also emphasized. The guidelines are formulated within an ethical framework that pays attention to issues such as informed consent and the assessment of health benefits in relation to risks of harm. Conclusion Implementation of the guidelines proposed here would improve the health of adults with DD and would minimize disparities in health and health care between adults with DD and those in the general population

  7. Girls in Foster Care: Risk and Promotive Factors for School Adjustment Across the Transition to Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2011-01-01

    Girls in foster care may face difficulties across the transition to middle school. Latent growth curve modeling was employed to examine trajectories and predictors of academic competence and aggression from and against peers for 75 girls in foster care from the end of elementary school to the 2nd year of middle school. Across the transition to middle school, academic competence increased. Poor self-regulation was associated with decreased academic competence, and higher caregiver support was associated with increased academic competence. Frequency of aggression from peers decreased across the transition, with perceived school competence predicting smaller decreases. Aggression against peers dropped initially and then increased to pretransition levels by the end of the 2nd year of middle school. Lower caregiver support was associated with higher rates of aggression against peers at the end of the 1st year of middle school. The results are discussed in terms of implications for interventions for girls in foster care. PMID:22389543

  8. Explaining variations in state foster care maintenance rates and the implications for implementing new evidence-based programs

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Babiarz, Kimberly S.; Garfield, Rachel L.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Background U.S. Child Welfare systems are involved in the lives of millions of children, and total spending exceeds $26 billion annually. Out-of-home foster care is a critical and expensive Child Welfare service, a major component of which is the maintenance rate paid to support housing and caring for a foster child. Maintenance rates vary widely across states and over time, but reasons for this variation are not well understood. As evidence-based programs are disseminated to state Child Welfare systems, it is important to understand what may be the important drivers in the uptake of these practices including state spending on core system areas. Data and methods We assembled a unique, longitudinal, state-level panel dataset (1990–2008) for all 50 states with annual data on foster care maintenance rates and measures of child population in need, poverty, employment, urbanicity, proportion minority, political party control of the state legislature and governorship, federal funding, and lawsuits involving state foster care systems. All monetary values were expressed in per-capita terms and inflation adjusted to 2008 dollars. We used longitudinal panel regressions with robust standard errors and state and year fixed effects to estimate the relationship between state foster care maintenance rates and the other factors in our dataset, lagging all factors by one year to mitigate the possibility that maintenance rates influenced their predictors. Exploratory analyses related maintenance rates to Child Welfare outcomes. Findings State foster care maintenance rates have increased in nominal terms, but in many states, have not kept pace with inflation, leading to lower real rates in 2008 compared to those in 1991 for 54% of states for 2 year-olds, 58% for 9 year-olds, and 65% for 16 year-olds. In multivariate analyses including socioeconomic, demographic, and political factors, monthly foster care maintenance rates declined $15 for each 1% increase in state unemployment and

  9. Great spotted cuckoo fledglings often receive feedings from other magpie adults than their foster parents: which magpies accept to feed foreign cuckoo fledglings?

    PubMed

    Soler, Manuel; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Roncalli, Gianluca; Macías-Sánchez, Elena; de Neve, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection penalizes individuals that provide costly parental care to non-relatives. However, feedings to brood-parasitic fledglings by individuals other than their foster parents, although anecdotic, have been commonly observed, also in the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius)--magpie (Pica pica) system, but this behaviour has never been studied in depth. In a first experiment, we here show that great spotted cuckoo fledglings that were translocated to a distant territory managed to survive. This implies that obtaining food from foreign magpies is a frequent and efficient strategy used by great spotted cuckoo fledglings. A second experiment, in which we presented a stuffed-cuckoo fledgling in magpie territories, showed that adult magpies caring for magpie fledglings responded aggressively in most of the trials and never tried to feed the stuffed cuckoo, whereas magpies that were caring for cuckoo fledglings reacted rarely with aggressive behavior and were sometimes disposed to feed the stuffed cuckoo. In a third experiment we observed feedings to post-fledgling cuckoos by marked adult magpies belonging to four different possibilities with respect to breeding status (i.e. composition of the brood: only cuckoos, only magpies, mixed, or failed breeding attempt). All non-parental feeding events to cuckoos were provided by magpies that were caring only for cuckoo fledglings. These results strongly support the conclusion that cuckoo fledglings that abandon their foster parents get fed by other adult magpies that are currently caring for other cuckoo fledglings. These findings are crucial to understand the co-evolutionary arms race between brood parasites and their hosts because they show that the presence of the host's own nestlings for comparison is likely a key clue to favour the evolution of fledgling discrimination and provide new insights on several relevant points such as learning mechanisms and multiparasitism.

  10. Great Spotted Cuckoo Fledglings Often Receive Feedings from Other Magpie Adults than Their Foster Parents: Which Magpies Accept to Feed Foreign Cuckoo Fledglings?

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Roncalli, Gianluca; Macías-Sánchez, Elena; de Neve, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection penalizes individuals that provide costly parental care to non-relatives. However, feedings to brood-parasitic fledglings by individuals other than their foster parents, although anecdotic, have been commonly observed, also in the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) – magpie (Pica pica) system, but this behaviour has never been studied in depth. In a first experiment, we here show that great spotted cuckoo fledglings that were translocated to a distant territory managed to survive. This implies that obtaining food from foreign magpies is a frequent and efficient strategy used by great spotted cuckoo fledglings. A second experiment, in which we presented a stuffed-cuckoo fledgling in magpie territories, showed that adult magpies caring for magpie fledglings responded aggressively in most of the trials and never tried to feed the stuffed cuckoo, whereas magpies that were caring for cuckoo fledglings reacted rarely with aggressive behavior and were sometimes disposed to feed the stuffed cuckoo. In a third experiment we observed feedings to post-fledgling cuckoos by marked adult magpies belonging to four different possibilities with respect to breeding status (i.e. composition of the brood: only cuckoos, only magpies, mixed, or failed breeding attempt). All non-parental feeding events to cuckoos were provided by magpies that were caring only for cuckoo fledglings. These results strongly support the conclusion that cuckoo fledglings that abandon their foster parents get fed by other adult magpies that are currently caring for other cuckoo fledglings. These findings are crucial to understand the co-evolutionary arms race between brood parasites and their hosts because they show that the presence of the host's own nestlings for comparison is likely a key clue to favour the evolution of fledgling discrimination and provide new insights on several relevant points such as learning mechanisms and multiparasitism. PMID:25272009

  11. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies.

  12. Practitioner Review: Children in foster care – vulnerabilities and evidence-based interventions that promote resilience processes

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasing number of children are placed in foster care g(i.e., a kin or nonkin family home other than the biological parent) due to experiences of physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse, and/or neglect. Children in foster care are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes encompassing emotional, behavioral, neurobiological, and social realms. Methods Areas of risk and vulnerability among foster children are described, including emotional and behavioral deficits, impaired neurobiological development, and social relationship deficits. Evidence suggesting the significance of family placement changes and prenatal exposure to substances as contributing mechanisms is presented. Based on a systematic search of the PsycINFO database (to March 2012), eight efficacious evidence-based interventions for foster families are summarized. Findings Although the development of evidence-based interventions that improve outcomes for foster children has lagged behind the delivery of interventions in other service sectors (e.g., mental health and educational sectors), several interventions across childhood and adolescence offer promise. Service system constraints offer both challenges and opportunities for more routine implementation of evidence-based interventions. Conclusions Given the increased likelihood of poor outcomes for foster children, increased efforts to understand the pathways to vulnerability and to implement interventions shown to be effective in remediating risks and improving outcomes for this population are indicated. Evaluation of efficacious interventions in countries outside of the USA is also needed. PMID:22882015

  13. Fostering innovation in medicine and health care: what must academic health centers do?

    PubMed

    Dzau, Victor J; Yoediono, Ziggy; Ellaissi, William F; Cho, Alex H

    2013-10-01

    There is a real need for innovation in health care delivery, as well as in medicine, to address related challenges of access, quality, and affordability through new and creative approaches. Health care environments must foster innovation, not just allowing it but actively encouraging it to happen anywhere and at every level in health care and medicine-from the laboratory, to the operating room, bedside, and clinics. This paper reviews the essential elements and environmental factors important for health-related innovation to flourish in academic health systems.The authors maintain that innovation must be actively cultivated by teaching it, creating "space" for and supporting it, and providing opportunities for its implementation. The authors seek to show the importance of these three fundamental principles and how they can be implemented, highlighting examples from across the country and their own institution.Health innovation cannot be relegated to a second-class status by the urgency of day-to-day operations, patient care, and the requirements of traditional research. Innovation needs to be elevated to a committed endeavor and become a part of an organization's culture, particularly in academic health centers.

  14. Development and feasibility of a sibling intervention for youth in foster care.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Brianne H; McBeath, Bowen; Lamson-Siu, Emilie; Webb, Sara Jade; Sorenson, Paul; Bowen, Hannah; Waid, Jeff; Bank, Lew

    2014-12-01

    Due to their ubiquity and possible influence on youth mental health, academic, and other outcomes, sibling-focused intervention strategies may be important for the development and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare. However, there is no rigorous evidence as to either the best methods for, or feasibility of, incorporating the sibling link within existing clinical treatments for foster youth. This paper applies the literature on evidence-based practices (EBP) and implementation research in child welfare to sibling-focused intervention; and presents data concerning the development, delivery, cost, and feasibility of a novel sibling-focused intervention program, Supporting Siblings in Foster Care (SIBS-FC). Results suggest that despite the challenges and costs involved with delivering SIBS-FC, the program catered to the diverse needs of pre-adolescent and adolescent siblings living together and apart, was viewed positively by youth, and was implemented with a high degree of fidelity. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the early-stage development of psychosocial interventions in child welfare and highlight the role of interagency collaboration, program planning, staff training and supervision, and fidelity tracking for EBP development in child welfare. Implications for prevention research and sibling-focused intervention programming in child welfare are discussed.

  15. Sex education and family planning services for adolescents in foster care.

    PubMed

    Polit, D F; White, C M; Morton, T D

    1987-01-01

    Representatives of public child-welfare agencies in 48 states were surveyed to determine their states' policies for meeting the sexual development and family planning needs of teenagers served by the agencies. Only nine states have a formal written policy dealing with this area of child welfare, and just two of the states have a comprehensive policy. A handful of states have deliberately avoided addressing the issue. Officials in other states believe that a formal policy would be counterproductive, arguing that a low-key approach is the best way to deal with the needs of the teenagers they serve. Finally, some state child-welfare officials admit that they have not given the issue much thought. Twenty-nine states offer foster parents special training in adolescent sexuality, and 19 offer such training to caseworkers; however, only five states mandate such training for foster parents and only four do so for caseworkers. Southern states are the most likely to have written policies, while western states are the least likely; western states also are the least likely to offer or mandate special training for caseworkers in contact with teenagers. The officials surveyed also identified a number of institutional barriers that prevent their agencies from developing and implementing policies to deal with the sexual development needs of children in state care.

  16. FOSTER CARE: Recent Legislation Helps States Focus on Finding Permanent Homes for Children, but Long-Standing Barriers Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Office, Foster Care: Agencies Face Challenges Securing Stable Homes for Children of Substance Abusers, GAO/HEHS-98-182 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 30, 1998...Approach. GAO/HEHS-99-8. Washington, D.C.: October 21, 1998. Foster Care: Agencies Face Challenges Securing Stable Homes for Children of Substance Abusers...Finding Permanent Homes for Children , but Long-Standing Barriers Remain GAO-02-585 Report Documentation Page Report Date 00JUN2002 Report Type N/A Dates

  17. Informal and Formal Help Seeking Among Older Black Male Foster Care Youth and Alumni.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lionel D; McMillen, J Curtis; Snowden, Lonnie R

    2015-02-01

    Using the behavioral model for vulnerable populations as a framework, this study examined predisposing, enabling, and need factors related to seeking help from formal and informal sources among older Black male foster youth and alumni. Results of logistic regression analyses showed that emotional control, a predisposing variable, was related to help-seeking. Specifically, greater adherence to the norm of emotional control was related to lower likelihood of using informal or formal sources of help. These results support the literature on males, in general, and Black males, in particular, that posits that inhibitions to express emotions are a barrier to their help seeking. Implications for help seeking among vulnerable populations of adolescent and young adult Black males are discussed.

  18. A pilot randomized trial teaching mindfulness-based stress reduction to traumatized youth in foster care.

    PubMed

    Jee, Sandra H; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Swanson, Dena; Gallegos, Autumn; Hilliard, Cammie; Blumkin, Aaron; Cunningham, Kendall; Heinert, Sara

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a pilot project implementing a mindfulness-based stress reduction program among traumatized youth in foster and kinship care over 10 weeks. Forty-two youth participated in this randomized controlled trial that used a mixed-methods (quantitative, qualitative, and physiologic) evaluation. Youth self-report measuring mental health problems, mindfulness, and stress were lower than anticipated, and the relatively short time-frame to teach these skills to traumatized youth may not have been sufficient to capture significant changes in stress as measured by electrocardiograms. Main themes from qualitative data included expressed competence in managing ongoing stress, enhanced self-awareness, and new strategies to manage stress. We share our experiences and recommendations for future research and practice, including focusing efforts on younger youth, and using community-based participatory research principles to promote engagement and co-learning. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: Protocol Registration System ID NCT01708291.

  19. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3-6-years-old at the study start. Additionally, the effects of moves from kindergarten through Grade 2 on academic and social emotional competence in Grades 3 through 5 were examined. A greater number of early school moves was associated with poorer later social emotional competence and partially mediated the effects of maltreatment and out-of-home placement on social emotional competence. This was only the case for children with poorer early learning skills in kindergarten. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:25906815

  20. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare.

  1. Demographic and placement variables associated with overweight and obesity in children in long-term foster care.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Smith, Caitlin; Duan, Lei; Fuentes, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    Overweight and obesity is a growing problem for children in foster care. This study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity in an urban, ethnic minority population of children ages 2-19 in long-term foster care (N = 312) in Los Angeles, California. It also investigates whether demographics or placement settings are related to high body mass index. The estimates of prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) were presented for gender, age, ethnicity, and placement type. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine potential associations between demographic and placement variables and weight status. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was almost 40 % and obesity was 23 % for the study population. Children placed in a group home had the highest prevalence of overweight/obesity (60 %) and obesity (43 %) compared to other types of placement. Within this study, older children (ages 12-19) were more likely to be overweight/obese than normal weight compared to children between 2 and 5 years old when controlling for gender, ethnicity and placement (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.14-3.87). These findings suggest that older age and long-term foster care in general may be risk factors for obesity. Child welfare agencies and health care providers need to work together to train caregivers with children in long-term foster care in obesity treatment interventions and obesity prevention strategies.

  2. Foster Care: State Practices for Assessing Health Needs, Facilitating Service Delivery, and Monitoring Children's Care. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Income Security and Family Support, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives. GAO-09-26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kay; Bascetta, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Providing health care services for foster children, who frequently have significant health care needs, can be challenging. The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) oversees foster care, but state child welfare agencies are responsible for ensuring that these children receive health care services, which are often financed by Medicaid. In…

  3. Using GIS to enhance programs serving emancipated youth leaving foster care.

    PubMed

    Batsche, Catherine J; Reader, Steven

    2012-02-01

    This article describes a GIS prototype designed to assist with the identification and evaluation of housing that is affordable, safe, and effective in supporting the educational goals and parental status of youth transitioning from foster care following emancipation. Spatial analysis was used to identify rental properties based on three inclusion criteria (affordability, proximity to public transportation, and proximity to grocery stores), three exclusion criteria (areas of high crime, prostitution, and sexual predator residence), and three suitability criteria (proximity to health care, mental health care, and youth serving organizations). The results were applied to four different scenarios to test the utility of the model. Of the 145 affordable rental properties, 27 met the criteria for safe and effective housing. Of these, 19 were located near bus routes with direct service to post-secondary education or vocational training programs. Only 6 were considered appropriate to meet the needs of youth who had children of their own. These outcomes highlight the complexities faced by youth when they attempt to find affordable and suitable housing following emancipation. The LEASE prototype demonstrates that spatial analysis can be a useful tool to assist with planning services for youth making the transition to independent living.

  4. Pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls in two randomized controlled trials of multidimensional treatment foster care.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-06-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17 years of age) with histories of criminal referrals (Mdn = 10) were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as part of 2 randomized controlled trials. Pregnancy histories were assessed from baseline through 24 months. Fewer postbaseline pregnancies were reported for MTFC girls (26.9%) than for GC girls (46.9%)--an effect that remained significant after controlling for baseline criminal referrals, pregnancy history, and sexual activity. MTFC has previously been shown to decrease arrest and lock-up rates. The present findings support the long-term preventive effects of MTFC on adolescent girls' pregnancy rates. Findings are consistent with the notion that programs that target delinquency by impacting general risk behavior pathways and contexts may more successfully prevent teen pregnancy than those that directly target sexual behaviors.

  5. An exploratory investigation of abnormal pain response among preadolescent children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Tarren-Sweeney, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present article describes a pattern of abnormal responses to pain (APR) among children in care, suggestive of pain insensitivity or failure to communicate felt pain. Exploratory analyses of caregiver-reported APR were conducted within a larger epidemiological study of 347 preadolescent children in foster and kinship care. APR items were generated from clinical assessment reports and a clinician survey, during development of a psychiatric rating scale for children in care. An APR construct was identified in factor analysis. Nine per cent of the sample had scores suggesting clinically meaningful APR, with a high level of corresponding psychological disturbance. Various analyses suggest the phenomenon may be a discrete, but integral component of complex, multifaceted psychopathology. Concurrent and retrospective measures of a large number of potential risk variables did not discriminate between APR scores and other estimates of psychopathology. However, moderate correlations between APR and ad hoc measures of impulsivity, dissociative behaviours, and inhibited-avoidant attachment difficulties suggest a number of hypothesized developmental mechanisms that might be explored in further studies.

  6. Maltreatment histories of aging out foster youth: A comparison of official investigated reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care.

    PubMed

    Havlicek, Judy; Courtney, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared official investigated reports of child maltreatment with retrospective self-reports prior to and during out-of-home care for a sample of foster youth who reached the age of majority in out-of-home care in Illinois. Using matched administrative and self-reported data for 474 youth who completed a baseline interview in the Midwest Evaluation of Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (i.e. the Midwest study) at ages 17-18, and 386 youth who completed a follow up interview at age 19, this study finds that official reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care differ significantly. Findings from this study add insight into measurement discrepancies, and help to inform understanding of the extent of maltreatment experienced by this sub-sample of young people exiting out-of-home care in adulthood. Study findings have implications for independent living policy and practice in child welfare.

  7. Family Foster Care, Kinship Networks, and Residential Care of Abandoned Infants in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megahead, Hamido A.; Cesario, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    While infant abandonment has occurred in all segments of society, on all continents, and across all generations, the motivations for this practice are varied and depend upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Western approaches addressing the care of abandoned infants focus on terminating parental rights and…

  8. Attachment Security as a Mechanism Linking Foster Care Placement to Improved Mental Health Outcomes in Previously Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children reared in institutions experience elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Inability to form a secure attachment relationship to a primary caregiver is posited to be a central mechanism in this association. We determined whether the ameliorative effect of a foster care (FC) intervention on internalizing disorders in previously…

  9. Trajectories of Behavioral Adjustment Following Early Placement in Foster Care: Predicting Stability and Change over 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Laura J.; Skriner, Laura C.; Roesch, Scott; Litrownik, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify trajectories of behavioral adjustment from age 6 through 14 years for youth placed in early foster care, and to examine links between trajectories and early cognitive ability and social competence, caregiver stability, and frequency, timing, and type of maltreatment. Method: Participants were 279 youth from the Southwest…

  10. Building Resilience in Students at the Intersection of Special Education and Foster Care: Challenges, Strategies, and Resources for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Parker; Folkman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform educators (general educators, special educators, teacher educators, and administrators) about ways to teach, advocate for, and empower students with disabilities who are also engaged in the foster care system. The conclusion includes authors' suggestions for how teacher educators might incorporate the…

  11. When the "Asked for" Becomes the "Not Wanted:" A Grant Funder's Retort to a Foster Care Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.; Giesler, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    A significant population of foster care infants and toddlers access early special education services under the parameters of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)-Part C. A dearth of literature exists about special education interventionists' services for this particular population. In response, we conducted a government-funded…

  12. After Foster Care and Juvenile Justice: A Preview of the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Ravett, Sara; Jacobs, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Young people who are leaving the foster care and juvenile justice systems often experience a difficult transition to adulthood that is characterized by a number of troubling outcomes, including poverty, low levels of education and employment, and housing instability. While some services are available for these populations, there is little evidence…

  13. Reviewing the Literature on the Breakdown of Foster Care Placements for Young People: Complexity and the Social Work Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Christine; Houston, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Young people in long-term foster care are at risk of experiencing poor social, emotional, behavioural and educational outcomes. Moreover, these placements have a significantly greater chance of breaking down compared with those involving children. This article critically evaluates the factors associated with this particular outcome. The article…

  14. Meaning-Making Dynamics of Emancipated Foster Care Youth Transitioning into Higher Education: A Constructivist-Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okumu, Jacob O.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored college transition meaning-making dynamics of emancipated foster care youth and the role campus environments play in that process. It adds to the college student development theoretical base by acknowledging the needs, goals, and values of disenfranchised college students transitioning into higher education. Emancipated foster…

  15. Using Staff Training to Decrease the Use of Restrictive Procedures at Two Facilities for Foster Care Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Cigales, Maricel; Dunlap, Glen; Neff, Bryon; Clark, Hewitt B.; Giddings, Tamela; Blanco, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Use of some restrictive procedures, including physical restraint, has been controversial. For children within the foster care system, who have already suffered various degrees of abuse and neglect, restrictive procedures could add to their emotional and behavioral problems. The current study was conducted to determine whether a…

  16. In-Home Treatment of Reactive Attachment Disorder in a Therapeutic Foster Care System: A Case Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheperis, Carl J.; Renfro-Michel, Edina L.; Doggett, R. Anthony

    2003-01-01

    When trauma precedes a child's placement in the foster care system, it can lead to lasting mental health difficulties. Often, children who experience extreme, chronic trauma prior to age 5 develop Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). This article discusses the characteristics of RAD as well as diagnostic criteria and possible etiology. (Contains 26…

  17. Affiliation with Delinquent Peers as a Mediator of the Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Delinquent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the ability of delinquent peer affiliation to mediate the effects of multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC; Chamberlain, 2003) on girls' delinquent behavior. Method: This study used a sample of girls from 2 cohorts (N = 166; M = 15.31 years old at baseline, range 13-17 years; 74% European American, 2% African…

  18. Mental Health Issues and the Foster Care System: An Examination of the Impact of the Adoption and Safe Families Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWey, Lenore M.; Henderson, Tammy L.; Tice, Susan N.

    2006-01-01

    Although marriage and family therapists are being called on to help at-risk families, some say that clinicians have insufficient knowledge about the impact of policies on families involved in the foster care system. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to identify how the Adoption and Safe Families Act informs decision making, to…

  19. Diagnosis and Medication Overload? A Nurse Review of the Psychiatric Histories of Older Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Bertram, Julie; McMillen, J. Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has raised concern about the appropriateness of psychotropic medication use and the validity of psychiatric diagnosing for youth in child welfare but has lacked in-depth case information. This study reports results from a psychiatric nurse review conducted with eight youth entering a foster care intervention using case records and…

  20. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 2: Financial Literacy and Asset Building Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Sara; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This issue brief is one of three that focus on programs providing services to youth transitioning out of foster care in three common service domains: education, employment, and financial literacy and asset building. This brief highlights why financial literacy and asset building services are important to youth currently or formerly in foster care,…

  1. Preparing for a "Next Generation" Evaluation of Independent Living Programs for Youth in Foster Care: Project Overview. OPRE Report No. 2014-71

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Marla; Courtney, Mark E.; Pergamit, Michael R.; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care and into adulthood need multiple supports to navigate the challenges they face. Over the past three decades, federal child welfare policy has significantly increased the availability of those supports. In 1999, the Chafee Foster Care Independence Program was created, increasing the amount of funds potentially…

  2. Individual-Level Predictors of Nonparticipation and Dropout in a Life-Skills HIV Prevention Program for Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.; Alonzo, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify individual-level characteristics of foster care adolescents who are more likely to not participate in, and drop out of, a life-skills HIV prevention program delivered over 8 months. Structured interviews were conducted with 320 foster care adolescents (15-18 years). Logistic regression and survival analyses…

  3. Foster Care, Adoption Assistance, and Child Welfare Services under the Social Security Act. Staff Data and Materials. 99th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    Legislation has been proposed by the Administration to revise the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) foster care program. This committee print provides background information on the AFDC foster care program under Title IV-A (from 1962-1980); discusses the changes made in the program since the passage of the Adoption Assistance and…

  4. Juvenile Justice Girls’ Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation Nine Years After Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; DeGarmo, David S.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) has been found to reduce delinquency among girls in juvenile justice through 2-year follow-up. Given that such girls are at elevated risk for suicide and depression into adulthood, we tested MTFC effects on long term trajectories of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. Method Girls [n =166; mean (SD) age = 15.3 (1.2) years; 68 % Caucasian] with a recent criminal referral who were mandated to out-of-home care were enrolled in two sequential cohorts. Girls were randomized to receive MTFC (n =81) or group care (GC) treatment as usual (TAU; n =85); the second MTFC cohort also received modules targeting substance use and risky sexual behavior. Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation were assessed repeatedly through early adulthood [mean (SD) follow-up = 8.8 (2.9) years]. Suicide attempt history was assessed in early adulthood. Results Girls assigned to MTFC showed significantly greater decreases in depressive symptoms across the long-term follow-up than GC girls (π = −.86, p < .05). Decreases in suicidal ideation rates were slightly stronger in MTFC than in GC as indicated by a marginal main effect [odds ratio (OR) = .92, p < .10] and a significant interaction that favored MTFC in the second cohort relative to the first [OR = .88, p < .01]. There were no significant MTFC effects on suicide attempt. Conclusions MTFC decreased depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking beyond the decreases attributable to time and TAU. Thus, MTFC has further impact on girls’ lives than originally anticipated. PMID:24731234

  5. Parent adjustment over time in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parent families adopting from foster care.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of gay and lesbian individuals and couples are adopting children, gay men and lesbian women continue to face increased scrutiny and legal obstacles from the child welfare system. To date, little research has compared the experiences of gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents over time, limiting conceptual understandings of the similarities they share and the unique challenges that gay and lesbian adoptive parents may face. This study compared the adoption satisfaction, depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and social support at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 parents (60 heterosexual, 15 gay, 7 lesbian) adopting children from foster care in Los Angeles County. Few differences were found between heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents at any of the assessments or in their patterns of change over time. On average, parents in both household types reported significant increases in adoption satisfaction and maintained low, nonclinical levels of depressive symptoms and parenting stress over time. Across all family types, greater parenting stress was associated with more depressive symptoms and lower adoption satisfaction. Results indicated many similarities between gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents, and highlight a need for services to support adoptive parents throughout the transition to parenthood to promote their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care on Psychotic Symptoms in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Richie; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Fowler, David; Cannon, Mary; Arseneault, Louise; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental theories of psychosis highlight the potential benefits of early intervention, prevention, and/or preemption. How early intervention should take place has not been established, nor if interventions based on social learning principles can have preemptive effects. The objective was to test if a comprehensive psychosocial intervention can significantly alter psychotic symptom trajectories during adolescence – a period of heightened risk for a wide range of psychopathology. Method This study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) for delinquent adolescent girls. Assessment of psychotic symptoms took place at baseline and then 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-baseline using a standardized self-report instrument (Brief Symptom Inventory). A second source of information about psychotic symptoms was obtained at baseline or 12 months, and again at 24 months using a structured diagnostic interview (the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children [DISC]). Results Significant benefits for MTFC over treatment-as-usual for psychosis symptoms were observed over a 24-month period. Findings were replicated across both measures. Effects were independent of substance use and initial symptom severity, and persisted beyond the initial intervention period. Conclusion Ameliorating non-clinical psychotic symptoms trajectories beginning in early adolescence via a multifaceted psychosocial intervention is possible. Developmental research on non-clinical psychotic symptoms and their prognostic value should be complemented by more psychosocial intervention research aimed at modifying these symptom trajectories early in their natural history. PMID:25457926

  7. Caring for Children and Youth Who Have Been Sexually Abused: A Training Manual for Child and Youth Care Workers and Foster Parents. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Linda

    This facilitator's guide is part of an overall program developed as a resource for child and youth care workers and foster parents. Those using the facilitator's guide must possess considerable knowledge and training in the areas of child abuse, child welfare, child laws, human development, and group and family dynamics. Facilitators must be able…

  8. The Role of Therapeutic Mentoring in Enhancing Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sara B.; Pryce, Julia M.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Effective service interventions greatly enhance the well-being of foster youth. A study of 262 foster youth examined one such intervention, therapeutic mentoring. Results showed that mentored youth improved significantly in the areas of family and social functioning, school behavior, and recreational activities, as well as in the reduction of…

  9. Caring for Children from the Same Culture: Challenges for Foster Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jason D.; St. Arnault, David; Sintzel, Jennifer; George, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Foster parents licensed in a central Canadian province were contacted by telephone and invited to participate in a survey that included the question "What are the challenges of fostering a child with the same values, beliefs, and traditions as you?" Participants sorted all responses to the question into concepts that were analyzed using…

  10. Predicting risk of entry into foster care from early childhood experiences: A survival analysis using LONGSCAN data.

    PubMed

    English, Diana J; Thompson, Richard; White, Catherine Roller

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether a multi-domain model of maltreatment informed by an ecological framework-including factors related to the child, caregiver, family, neighborhood, and dimensions of maltreatment experience-predicted entry into foster care between the ages of 4 and 18 among children with no prior foster care experience. To determine which factors predict entry into foster care, secondary data analyses were conducted utilizing a sub-sample from LONGSCAN (Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect) of 942 children and their primary caregivers. Results demonstrate that there are important predictors for entry into out-of-home placement across multiple ecological domains. Characteristics related to child, caregiver, and family characteristics, and neighborhood context, as well as dimensions of maltreatment (particularly emotional maltreatment), predicted risk of placement in out-of-home care. Implications for child welfare practice are discussed. This examination of the effects of multiple ecological domains adds to our understanding of children's risk of removal and entry into out-of-home placement.

  11. Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2012-10-01

    Adoption is known to promote cognitive and emotional development in children from foster care, but policy debates remain regarding whether children adopted by gay and lesbian parents can achieve these positive outcomes. This study compared the cognitive development and behavior problems at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 high-risk children adopted from foster care in heterosexual and gay or lesbian households. On average, children in both household types showed significant gains in cognitive development and maintained similar levels of behavior problems over time, despite gay and lesbian parents raising children with higher levels of biological and environmental risks prior to adoptive placement. Results demonstrated that high-risk children show similar patterns of development over time in heterosexual and gay and lesbian adoptive households.

  12. The Moderating Effect of Marijuana Use on the Relationship between Delinquent Behavior and HIV Risk among Adolescents in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Auslander, Wendy F.; Thompson, Ronald G.; Gerke, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents in foster care experience mental health and substance use problems that place them at risk for HIV, yet the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study examined the co-occurring influences of mental health problems and substance use on HIV risk and determined whether substance use moderated the effect of mental health problems on HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care. Regression analyses of cross-sectional data collected through structured interviews with 334 adolescents, aged 15–18 years, determined which mental health problems and substances increased HIV risk behaviors. Adolescents with delinquency and anxiety/depression engaged in significantly more HIV risk behaviors than their counterparts, controlling for race, gender, and type of childhood abuse. Further, any marijuana use significantly moderated the effects of delinquent behaviors on HIV risk, differentially increasing HIV risk among those who engaged in delinquent behaviors. PMID:25214818

  13. Foster Care: Agencies Face Challenges Securing Stable Homes for Children of Substance Abusers. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This study examined the extent and characteristics of parental substance abuse among foster care cases, the difficulties agencies face in making timely permanency decisions for foster children with substance abusing parents, and initiatives that address reunifying families or achieving other permanency outcomes in a timely manner for foster…

  14. Decreasing Risk Factors for Later Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behaviors in Children in Foster Care by Increasing Early Promotive Factors.

    PubMed

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    Children in foster care are at high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, including school failure, alcohol and other substance abuse, and criminal behaviors. Promoting healthy development by increasing broad-impact positive skills may help reduce some of the risk factors for longer-term negative outcomes. School readiness has been linked to a number of positive outcomes across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and may also boost intermediary positive skills such as self-competence. This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study involving 192 children in foster care who were 5 years old at the start of the study. They participated in a randomized controlled trial of a school readiness program to prepare them for kindergarten. Outcomes were assessed at third grade (9 years old) on variables associated with risk for later involvement in substance use and delinquency. These included positive attitudes towards alcohol use, positive attitudes towards antisocial behaviors, and involvement with deviant peers. Results showed that the intervention decreased positive attitudes towards alcohol use and antisocial behaviors. Further, the mediating role of children's self-competence was tested. The intervention positively influenced children's third-grade self-competence, which in turn, decreased their involvement with deviant peers. Findings suggest that promoting school readiness in children in foster care can have far-reaching, positive effects and that increased self-competence may be a mechanism for reducing risk.

  15. Black-White Differences in Child Maltreatment Reports and Foster Care Placements: A Statistical Decomposition Using Linked Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Tim; Jiang, Nan; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Dalton, Erin; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Official statistics have confirmed that relative to their presence in the population and relative to white children, black children have consistently higher rates of contact with child protective services (CPS). We used linked administrative data and statistical decomposition techniques to generate new insights into black and white differences in child maltreatment reports and foster care placements. Methods Birth records for all children born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, between 2008 and 2010 were linked to administrative service records originating in multiple county data systems. Differences in rates of involvement with child protective services between black and white children by age 4 were decomposed using nonlinear regression techniques. Results Black children had rates of CPS involvement that were 3 times higher than white children. Racial differences were explained solely by parental marital status (i.e., being unmarried) and age at birth (i.e., predominantly teenage mothers). Adding other covariates did not capture any further racial differences in maltreatment reporting or foster care placement rates, they simply shifted differences already explained by marital status and age to these other variables. Discussion Racial differences in rates of maltreatment reports and foster care placements can be explained by a basic model that adjusts only for parental marital status and age at the time of birth. Increasing access to early prevention services for vulnerable families may reduce disparities in child protective service involvement. Using birth records linked to other administrative data sources provides an important means to developing population-based research.

  16. A systematic review of cognitive functioning among young people who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty.

    PubMed

    Fry, Charlotte E; Langley, Kate; Shelton, Katherine H

    2016-09-01

    Young people who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty are among the most disadvantaged in society. This review examines whether young people who have these experiences differ from their non-disadvantaged peers with respect to their cognitive skills and abilities, and whether cognitive profiles differ between these three groups. Three electronic databases were systematically searched for articles published between 1 January 1995 and 1 February 2015 on cognitive functioning among young people aged 15 to 24 years who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. Articles were screened using pre-determined inclusion criteria, then the data were extracted, and its quality assessed. A total of 31 studies were included. Compared to non-disadvantaged youth or published norms, cognitive performance was generally found to be impaired in young people who had experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. A common area of difficulty across all groups is working memory. General cognitive functioning, attention, and executive function deficits are shared by the homeless and poverty groups. Creativity emerges as a potential strength for homeless young people. The cognitive functioning of young people with experiences of impermanent housing and poverty has been relatively neglected and more research is needed to further establish cognitive profiles and replicate the findings reviewed here. As some aspects of cognitive functioning may show improvement with training, these could represent a target for intervention.

  17. Maltreatment histories of foster youth exiting out-of-home care through emancipation: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Havlicek, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about maltreatment among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. Multiple entries into out-of-home care and unsuccessful attempts at reunification may nevertheless reflect extended exposure to chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization. This study used administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services to identify all unduplicated allegations of maltreatment in a cohort of 801 foster youth transitioning to adulthood in the state of Illinois. A latent variable modeling approach generated profiles of maltreatment based on substantiated and unsubstantiated reports of maltreatment taken from state administrative data. Four indicators of maltreatment were included in the latent class analysis: multiple types of maltreatment, predominant type of maltreatment, chronicity, and number of different perpetrators. The analysis identified four subpopulations of foster youth in relation to maltreatment. Study findings highlight the heterogeneity of maltreatment in the lives of foster youth transitioning to adulthood and draw attention to a need to raise awareness among service providers to screen for chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization.

  18. The role of therapeutic mentoring in enhancing outcomes for youth in foster care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sara B; Pryce, Julia M; Martinovich, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Effective service interventions greatly enhance the well-being of foster youth. A study of 262 foster youth examined one such intervention, therapeutic mentoring. Results showed that mentored youth improved significantly in the areas of family and social functioning, school behavior, and recreational activities, as well as in the reduction of expressed symptoms of traumatic stress. Study results suggest that therapeutic mentoring shows promise for enhancing treatment interventions.

  19. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... it is co-located in a nursing home, domiciliary, or other care facility, must have its own separate... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care... necessary to accommodate an increased quality of care for patients, an adult day health care...

  20. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... it is co-located in a nursing home, domiciliary, or other care facility, must have its own separate... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care... necessary to accommodate an increased quality of care for patients, an adult day health care...

  1. Do integrated care structures foster processes of integration? A quasi-experimental study in frail elderly care from the professional perspective

    PubMed Central

    Janse, Benjamin; Huijsman, Robbert; de Kuyper, Ruben Dennis Maurice; Fabbricotti, Isabelle Natalina

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explores the processes of integration that are assumed to underlie integrated care delivery. Design A quasi-experimental design with a control group was used; a new instrument was developed to measure integration from the professional perspective. Setting and participants Professionals from primary care practices and home-care organizations delivering care to the frail elderly in the Walcheren region of the Netherlands. Intervention An integrated care intervention specifically targeting frail elderly patients was implemented. Main Outcome Measures Structural, cultural, social and strategic integration and satisfaction with integration. Results The intervention significantly improved structural, cultural and social integration, agreement on goals, interests, power and resources and satisfaction with integration. Conclusions This study confirms that integrated care structures foster processes of integration among professionals. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN05748494. PMID:27174858

  2. Does severity of physical neglect moderate the impact of an efficacious preventive intervention for maltreated children in foster care?

    PubMed

    Taussig, Heather N; Culhane, Sara E; Garrido, Edward; Knudtson, Michael D; Petrenko, Christie L M

    2013-02-01

    Physically neglected youth are at increased risk of mental health problems, but there are few interventions that have demonstrated efficacy in reducing mental health symptoms for this vulnerable population. The Fostering Healthy Futures (FHF) program, which consists of mentoring and skills groups, was developed for preadolescent youth in foster care. In a published randomized controlled trial with 156 youth, FHF demonstrated positive impacts on mental health functioning. The current study sought to determine whether FHF might be particularly effective in ameliorating the impact of neglectful family environments. Because it was not possible to isolate a neglected-only subgroup, as most children with physical neglect histories had experienced other types of maltreatment, we tested the hypothesis that intervention effects would be stronger among children with more severe physical neglect. Findings did not support this hypothesis, however, as severity of physical neglect did not significantly moderate the impact of the intervention on psychosocial outcomes.

  3. The effectiveness of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) for young children with severe behavioral disturbances: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among children placed out of home, behavioral and relationship functioning is often problematic. When placed in foster care, problems tend to persist or even worsen and increase the risk of placement breakdown. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers is an intensive behavior-focused program for young foster children (3 to 7 years) aiming to provide children with a positive and stimulating foster family setting and individually tailored behavioral interventions. This study will be the first to examine the effectiveness of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers outside the US and to examine the effectiveness across a broader range of problems related to foster care. Methods This is a randomized controlled trial, wherein we expect to include 80 child-foster carer dyads. Forty dyads will be assigned to Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers and 40 to treatment as usual, following pre-randomization. Data to be gathered concern problem behavior, symptoms of attachment disorder, post-traumatic stress symptoms, quality of life, hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis functioning, parental stress and autonomic reactivity, to be collected via questionnaires, observations, interviews, saliva and recording at six time-points over 24 months. To compare treatment outcomes, Fisher’s exact tests and repeated measures (mixed models) and independent t-tests will be used. All analyses will be performed following the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion Examining the generalizability of previous findings in the US and extending these previous findings is a step towards improving knowledge about treatment of young foster children with severe behavioral, emotional and attachment problems. Trial registration NTR1747 PMID:23826798

  4. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care.

  5. Emerging versus Emancipating: The Transition to Adulthood for Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Singer, Erin; Hokanson, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood has been defined as a distinct developmental stage in which youth experience opportunities for identity development and transition toward independence. While this period has been examined for youth in the general population, less is known about how foster youth experience this transition. This study uses qualitative interviews…

  6. A Functional Approach to Reducing Runaway Behavior and Stabilizing Placements for Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Hewitt B.; Crosland, Kimberly A.; Geller, David; Cripe, Michael; Kenney, Terresa; Neff, Bryon; Dunlap, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Teenagers' running from foster placement is a significant problem in the field of child protection. This article describes a functional, behavior analytic approach to reducing running away through assessing the motivations for running, involving the youth in the assessment process, and implementing interventions to enhance the reinforcing value of…

  7. Social Care in Adult Education: Resisting a Marketplace Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a research study about the experiences of adult educators in which the stories of three of the participants were central in exploring the issue of social care in adult education. It proposes that the adult educators with a social care orientation in this study acknowledge the importance of, and work to provide for, human…

  8. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  9. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  10. Foster dams rear fighters: strain-specific effects of within-strain fostering on aggressive behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; So, Nina L T; Rissman, Emilie F

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that genes and environment interact to produce behavioral phenotypes. One environmental factor with long-term effects on gene transcription and behavior is maternal care. A classic paradigm for examining maternal care and genetic interactions is to foster pups of one genetic strain to dams of a different strain ("between-strain fostering"). In addition, fostering to a dam of the same strain ("within-strain fostering") is used to reduce indirect effects, via behavioral changes in the dams, of gestation treatments on offspring. Using within-and between-strain fostering we examined the contributions of genetics/prenatal environment, maternal care, and the effects of fostering per se, on adult aggressive behavior in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (DBA). We hypothesized that males reared by dams of the more aggressive DBA strain would attack intruders faster than those reared by B6 dams. Surprisingly, we found that both methods of fostering enhanced aggressive behavior, but only in B6 mice. Since all the B6 offspring are genetically identical, we asked if maternal behavior of B6 dams was affected by the relatedness of their pups. In fact, B6 dams caring for foster B6 pups displayed significantly reduced maternal behaviors. Finally, we measured vasopressin and corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA in the amygdalae of adult B6 males reared by foster or biological dams. Both genes correlated with aggressive behavior in within-strain fostered B6 mice, but not in mice reared by their biological dams. In sum, we have demonstrated in inbred laboratory mice, that dams behave differently when rearing their own newborn pups versus pups from another dam of the same strain. These differences in maternal care affect aggression in the male offspring and transcription of Avp and Crh in the brain. It is likely that rearing by foster dams has additional effects and implications for other species.

  11. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-11-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing arrest rates in delinquent boys and girls. In this study, the efficacy of MTFC on school attendance and homework completion was examined in juvenile justice girls who were referred to out-of-home care (N = 81). Results from this randomized intervention trial suggest that MTFC was more effective than group care in increasing girls' school attendance and homework completion while in treatment and at 12 months postbaseline. In addition, the previously reported effect of MTFC on reducing girls' days in locked settings was mediated by homework completion while girls were enrolled in the intervention setting. Implications for policy and practice are described.

  12. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing arrest rates in delinquent boys and girls. In this study, the efficacy of MTFC on school attendance and homework completion was examined in juvenile justice girls who were referred to out-of-home care (N = 81). Results from this randomized intervention trial suggest that MTFC was more effective than group care in increasing girls’ school attendance and homework completion while in treatment and at 12 months postbaseline. In addition, the previously reported effect of MTFC on reducing girls’ days in locked settings was mediated by homework completion while girls were enrolled in the intervention setting. Implications for policy and practice are described. PMID:18159224

  13. Longitudinal Assessment of Self-Harm Statements of Youth in Foster Care: Rates, Reporters, and Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Joy; Hambrick, Erin P; Tunno, Angela M; Jackson, Yo; Spangler, Amanda; Kanine, Rebecca M

    2015-12-01

    Self-harm in youth is a risk factor related to mental health and future morbidity, yet, relatively little is known about the rates and course of self-harm in youth residing in foster care. This study examined self-harm talk in foster youth based on caregiver and child report for 135 children between the ages of 8- and 11-years old. Longitudinal data on course of self-harm talk from both youth and caregivers also are provided. Caregivers identified that 24% of youth participants had disclosed a desire to die or to hurt themselves. Youth self-report revealed that 21% of children indicated a desire for self-harm, and rates of self-harm from both reporters decreased over time. While overall rates were similar across reporters, findings show discrepancies between youth self-report and caregiver report within individuals. Also, caregivers for youth in residential facilities were more likely to report youth self-harm talk than caregivers from foster home settings.

  14. Longitudinal assessment of self-harm statements of youth in foster care: Rates, reporters, and related factors

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, Joy; Hambrick, Erin P.; Tunno, Angela M.; Jackson, Yo; Spangler, Amanda; Kanine, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Self-harm in youth is a risk factor related to mental health and future morbidity, yet, relatively little is known about the rates and course of self-harm in youth residing in foster care. This study examined self-harm talk in foster youth based on caregiver and child report for 135 children between the ages of 8- and 11-years old. Longitudinal data on course of self-harm talk from both youth and caregivers also are provided. Caregivers identified that 24% of youth participants had disclosed a desire to die or to hurt themselves. Youth self-report revealed that 21% of children indicated a desire for self-harm, and rates of self-harm from both reporters decreased over time. While overall rates were similar across reporters, findings show discrepancies between youth self-report and caregiver report within individuals. Also, caregivers for youth in residential facilities were more likely to report youth self-harm talk than caregivers from foster home settings. PMID:25534966

  15. Architects, Captains, and Dreamers: Creating Advisor Roles that Foster Youth-Adult Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana; Lewis, Tiffanie; Sanders, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    While research has documented the many ways in which student voice can enable educational change, the process of how adults can help to enable student voice is less clear. This article examines how adults new to working as advisors of student voice initiatives begin to develop partnerships with young people. Using a Youth-Adult Partnership…

  16. Effect of childhood age in foster care on the incidence of divorce in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rusby, James S M

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study examines the long-term effect of the age at which British children were fostered in World War II on their divorce rate. A total of 859 respondents, aged 62 to 72 years, were recruited who had childhood homes in the county of Kent in southeast England during the war. Of these, 770 had been evacuated and fostered, and the remainder stayed at home. Reflecting the wartime concerns of Bowlby, Miller, and Winnicott (1939) regarding the wisdom of separating young children from their parents for a potentially long period, male and female respondents evacuated between the ages of 4 to 6 years had a significantly higher incidence of divorce compared with those in the 13- to 15-year age group. This association was found to be mediated by attachment style in which the fearful category was predominant. The relevance of these results in the broader developmental context, and to family counseling, are briefly discussed.

  17. Emotional Availability: Foster Caregiving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dean R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the emotional availability of caregivers is explanatory for successful adolescent foster care placement--from initial placement of an adolescent to age eighteen or emancipation from foster care, as mandated by the state of Colorado. Emotional availability of foster caregivers and the phenomenon's…

  18. Cumulative teen birth rates among girls in foster care at age 17: an analysis of linked birth and child protection records from California.

    PubMed

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; King, Bryn

    2014-04-01

    This study used linked foster care and birth records to provide a longitudinal, population-level examination of the incidence of first and repeat births among girls who were in foster care at age 17. Girls in a foster care placement in California at the age of 17 between 2003 and 2007 were identified from statewide child protection records. These records were probabilistically matched to vital birth records spanning the period from 2001 to 2010. Linked data were used to estimate the cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth before age 20. Birth rates and unadjusted risk ratios were generated to characterize foster care experiences correlated with heightened teen birth rates. Between 2003 and 2007 in California, there were 20,222 girls in foster care at age 17. Overall, 11.4% had a first birth before age 18. The cumulative percentage who gave birth before age 20 was 28.1%. Among girls who had a first birth before age 18, 41.2% had a repeat teen birth. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and placement-related characteristics emerged. Expanded data and rigorous research are needed to evaluate prevention efforts and ensure parenting teens are provided with the needed services and supports.

  19. Development and Testing of a Multimedia Internet-Based System for Fidelity and Monitoring of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Sprengelmeyer, Peter G; Davis, Betsy; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background The fields of mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice are jointly faced with the challenge of reducing the prevalence of antisocial behavior among adolescents. In the last 20 years, conduct disorders have moved from being considered intractable difficulties to having complex but available solutions. The treatments for even long-standing offending behavior among adolescents are now well documented and supported by a growing and compelling body of evidence. These empirically validated interventions are being widely disseminated, but the replication of the results from clinical trials in community settings has yet to be documented. The treatments, which produced impressive effects in a research context, are difficult to replicate without intensive monitoring of fidelity by the developers. Such monitoring is a barrier toward adoption; as the distance between the adopter and developer increases, so does cost. At the same time, states, communities, and agencies are under increasing pressure to implement those intervention services that have been shown to be most effective. The use of the Internet offers a potential solution in that existing reporting and data collection by clinicians can be subject to remote supervision. Such a system would have the potential to provide dissemination teams with more direct access to higher-quality data and would make adopters more likely to be able to implement services at the highest possible conformity to research protocols. Objective To create and test such an innovative system for use with the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) program, which is an in-home treatment (alternative to a residential- or group-home setting) for antisocial youths. This research could advance the knowledge base about developing innovative infrastructures in community settings to disseminate empirically validated treatments. Methods The fidelity system was used and reviewed by parent and professional users: 20 foster parent

  20. Fostering a New Model of Multigenerational Learning: Older Adult Perspectives, Community Partners, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Jason; Steitz, David W.; Cochran, Lynda J.

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational service-learning initiatives are an increasingly common educational practice designed to engage college students and older adults with one another. The growth of the baby boomer population and a growing interest in lifelong learning opportunities among older adults have the potential to create new models of multigenerational…

  1. The Vietnam War in Young Adult Literature: Practical Approaches That Foster Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    Suggesting that literature dealing with the Vietnam War can have a dramatic impact on students, this paper assists teachers in selecting young adult literature on the war, discusses a variety of assignments, and presents student responses to the literature. The paper begins with a discussion of the three main types of young adult literature:…

  2. Teaching Writing in Adult Literacy: Practices to Foster Motivation and Persistence and Improve Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Writing is critical to success in education, the workplace, and everyday communication yet receives limited attention in the research, particularly the topic of writing instruction in adult education. Adult literacy practitioners frequently lack training in writing instruction and must rely on a confusing array of information, primarily derived…

  3. Adult Education in the Workplace: An Engineer's Journey to Foster Self-Direction in Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    The author's initial entry into the field of adult education has been via an indirect route from the industrial environments where she has worked for the last 20 years in various engineering positions. She came to recognize many years ago that a large part of her job involved the education of adult employees. As a research and development…

  4. Fostering Supportive Learning Environments in Long-Term Care: The Case of WIN A STEP UP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Haviland, Sara B.; Woodside, M. Allyson; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    The education of direct care workers (DCWs) is key to improving job quality and the quality of care in long-term care (LTC). This paper describes the successful integration of a supervisory training program into a continuing education intervention (WIN A STEP UP) for DCWs, identifies the factors that appear to influence the integration of the…

  5. Effects of institutional rearing and foster care on psychopathology at age 12 years in Romania: follow-up of an open, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Drury, Stacy S; Miron, Devi; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Early social deprivation can negatively affect domains of functioning. We examined psychopathology at age 12 years in a cohort of Romanian children who had been abandoned at birth and placed into institutional care, then assigned either to be placed in foster care or to care as usual. Methods We used follow-up data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a randomised controlled trial of abandoned children in all six institutions for young children in Bucharest, Romania. In the initial trial, 136 children, enrolled between ages 6–31 months, were randomly assigned to either care as usual or placement in foster care. In this study we followed up these children at age 12 years to assess psychiatric symptoms using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (4th edition; DISC-IV). We also recruited Romanian children who had never been placed in an institution from paediatric clinics and schools in Bucharest as a comparator group who had never been placed in an institution. The primary outcome measure was symptom counts assessed through DISC-IV scores for three domains of psychopathology: internalising symptoms, externalising symptoms, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared mean DISC-IV scores between trial participants and comparators who had never been placed in an institution, and those assigned to care as usual or foster care. Analyses were done by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00747396. Findings We followed up 110 children from the BEIP trial between Jan 27, 2011, and April 11, 2014, and 49 children as comparators who had never been placed in an institution. The 110 children who had ever been placed in an institution had higher symptom counts for internalising disorders (mean 0.93 [SD 1.68] vs 0.45 [0.84], difference 0.48 [95% CI 0.14–0.82]; p=0.0127), externalising disorders (2.31 [2.86] vs 0.65 [1.33], difference 1.66 [1.06–2.25]; p<0

  6. Long-term depression and suicidal ideation outcomes subsequent to emancipation from foster care: pathways to psychiatric risk in the Métis population.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Violet

    2014-02-28

    Major depressive episode (MDE) and suicidal ideation (SI) associated with history of foster care placement (HxFCP), and mediating effects of psychosocial and socioeconomic factors through which placement may confer psychiatric risks in the years subsequent to emancipation were examined in a national sample of 7534 Métis. More than one third of emancipated respondents reported past year MDE, a prevalence rate nearly 50% higher than the rate of MDE among Métis respondents without a history of placement in foster care. The 25% lifetime prevalence rate of SI in the emancipated group was more than twice the rate observed in the non-fostered group. Direct effects of HxFCP on post placement MDE and SI were significant in multivariate logistic regression analyses, even when effects of childhood predispositional risk factors were controlled statistically. Emancipated individuals were unduly affected by psychosocial and socioeconomic disadvantages signifying pathways that linked foster care placement history and psychiatric status. Main mediators of the effects demonstrated using effect decomposition procedures were self-esteem, income, and community adversity. The findings warrant consideration of foster care history in clarifying the complex etiologies of suicidal ideation and major depressive episode in the Métis population and risk factors ensuing in the intervening years as integral to the process linking placement to long-term psychiatric outcomes.

  7. Overweight and obesity among Hispanic children entering foster care: a preliminary examination of polyvictimization.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    This retrospective medical chart review examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) in Hispanic foster children aged 2-18 years in Los Angeles, California. Logistic regression was used for boys and girls separately to analyze polyvictimization (i.e., one vs. two or more types of maltreatment), type of maltreatment (abuse vs. neglect), and age-group as risk factors for overweight and obesity. Almost 40% of participants were overweight/obese, with the highest prevalence (47.7%) observed among children aged 12-18. Children aged 6-18 were at an increased risk of overweight/obesity and obesity compared with children aged 2-5. Although polyvictimization has been shown to have adverse health effects, in this study, it was related to slightly lower odds of obesity for boys but was unrelated to high weight for girls. Addressing the obesity epidemic among Hispanic foster children is vital to preventing continued obesity and the development of obesity-related health problems, especially by focusing on important community and family influences.

  8. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  9. Health insurance coverage and use of family planning services among current and former foster youth: implications of the health care reform law.

    PubMed

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-04-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population.

  10. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described.

  11. Employment of Former Foster Youth as Young Adults: Evidence from the Midwest Study. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Jennifer L.; Courtney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this issue brief, the authors explore how former foster youth in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa are faring in the labor market and what explains the variability in employment outcomes for these youth. First, they describe trends in former foster youths' employment from age 17 to 24. Then, they consider how former foster youths' characteristics…

  12. Action-oriented evaluation of an in-home family therapy program for families at risk for foster care placement.

    PubMed

    McWey, Lenore M; Humphreys, Julie; Pazdera, Andrea L

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an action-oriented evaluation of an in-home family therapy program serving families deemed at risk for the placement of children in foster care. In this study, feedback was solicited from both clients and therapists. Results indicate "duality" associated with several aspects of in-home family therapy, including the opportunity to observe families in their own homes versus the vulnerability some families feel when therapy is conducted in-home; therapists suggesting that sufficient training is required for in-home family therapy to be effective versus clients' opinions that therapists' lived experiences are more relevant; and the importance of the therapeutic alliance versus feelings of abandonment upon termination. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  13. Attachment security as a mechanism linking foster care placement to improved mental health outcomes in previously institutionalized children

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children reared in institutions experience elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Inability to form a secure attachment relationship to a primary caregiver is posited to be a central mechanism in this association. We determined whether the ameliorative effect of a foster care (FC) intervention on internalizing disorders in previously institutionalized children was explained by the development of secure attachment among children placed in FC and evaluated the role of lack of attachment in an institutionalized sample on the etiology of internalizing disorders within the context of a randomized trial. Methods A sample of 136 children (aged 6-30 months) residing in institutions was recruited in Bucharest, Romania. Children were randomized to FC (n=68) or to care as usual (CAU; n=68). Foster parents were recruited, trained, and overseen by the investigative team. Attachment security at 42 months was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure, and internalizing disorders at 54 months were assessed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Results Girls in FC had fewer internalizing disorders than girls in CAU (OR=0.17, p=006). The intervention had no effect on internalizing disorders in boys (OR=0.47, p=.150). At 42 months, girls in FC were more likely to have secure attachment than girls in CAU (OR=12.5, p<.001), but no difference was observed in boys (OR=2.0, p=.205). Greater attachment security predicted lower rates of internalizing disorders in both sexes. Development of attachment security fully mediated intervention effects on internalizing disorders in girls. Conclusion Placement into FC facilitated the development of secure attachment and prevented the onset of internalizing disorders in institutionalized girls. The differential effects of FC on attachment security in boys and girls explained gender differences in the intervention effects on psychopathology. Findings provide evidence for the critical role of disrupted attachment in the

  14. Adult Day Care for Alzheimer's Patients and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Dan; Suzuki, Thelma

    1983-01-01

    Harbor Area Adult Day Care Center has operated for two years with a primary purpose of providing respite care to families caring for a relative with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. The rationale, history, program, staffing, funding, and experience for the first two years of the project are provided. (Author/RC)

  15. Fostering Social Ties through a Volunteer Role: Implications for Older-Adults' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rook, Karen S.; Sorkin, Dara H.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects on older adults' psychological health of participation in a volunteer role that afforded opportunities to form friendships with age peers and to express nurturance toward another person. Access to these important social provisions was expected, in turn, to contribute to greater self-esteem, less loneliness, and less…

  16. Communication Is More than Language: Adult ESL Classes Foster Parent-School Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Public-school policy and federal law both emphasize parental involvement, yet there is insufficient research guiding meaningful collaboration between school practitioners and immigrant parents. This article reports on results gleaned from a larger study of school-based adult ESL classes, focusing on the role that these classes could play in…

  17. Fostering LGBTQ Advocacy in School Psychology as Adult Education: Shaping Attitudes, Beliefs, and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Elana C.

    2013-01-01

    School psychologists are adult learners. They support children and youth within the K-12 system who are facing academic, emotional, behavioral, or systematic barriers to education. Among the most vulnerable are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth, and school psychologists need to learn to be LGBTQ competent. The purpose of…

  18. Effectiveness and Efficiency in Higher Education for Adults: A Guide for Fostering Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Morris T.; Sheckley, Barry G.; Griggs, Joan Krejci

    This document uses the findings of educational research and actual case studies to provide guidance on enhancing the learning of adults in higher education while reducing program costs in the context of increasing demands for demonstration of student learning outcomes and decreases in college and university resources. The novelty of the book is…

  19. Advice from Adults with Physical Disabilities on Fostering Self-Determination during the School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Maureen E.; Stoner, Julia B.; Fulk, Barbara M.

    2010-01-01

    Essentially, the goal of the P-16 educational process is to teach students to become self-determined adults. Unfortunately, educational systems sometimes fail in addressing these factors and in educating students with various disabilities in the area of self-determination. In this article, the authors present the major findings that emerged from…

  20. Fostering Hand Washing before Lunch by Students Attending a Special Needs Young Adult Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Christopher; Mahoney, Amanda; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A multiple baseline across groups design was used to investigate the effects of a treatment package on hand washing before lunch by five students with disabilities who attended a young adult educational program. To evaluate hand washing, a lotion called Glo Germ was applied to participants' hands. Glo Germ is visible under a black light, which…