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Sample records for adult glandular stomach

  1. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Speer, Allison L; Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Ford, Henri R; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  2. In vivo rat glandular stomach and colon micronucleus tests: Kinetics of micronucleated cells, apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the target tissues after a single oral administration of stomach- or colon-carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Wakako; Okada, Emiko; Fujiishi, Yohei; Narumi, Kazunori; Yasutake, Nobuyoshi

    2013-08-15

    We have developed in vivo micronucleus (MN) tests by using an epithelial cell suspension isolated from the glandular stomach and colon of rodents. In the present study, our aim was to demonstrate the characteristics of the glandular stomach and colon MN tests by analyzing time-related changes in MN frequencies, apoptosis and cell proliferation in the target tissues of male CD (SD) rats that were orally administered a single dose of a stomach- or colon-targeted carcinogen, i.e., N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) for the stomach and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) for the colon. After treatment, the MN frequencies significantly increased in the respective target tissues, peaking at 48-96h and decreasing afterwards. The time-response pattern could be explained by the epithelial cell turnover confirmed with a labeling experiment using the thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). In the study with MNU and DMH, we also prepared paraffin sections of the respective target tissues for the immunohistochemical evaluation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. The incidence of apoptosis increased in the early phase (6 and/or 24h) after treatment, and then decreased. Cell proliferation was depressed when a high incidence of apoptosis was observed, and then it recovered until 72h. MN frequencies increased with the recovery of cell proliferation occurring later than the peak apoptosis response. These results indicated that micronuclei were induced in the glandular stomach and colon epithelial cells by administration of the model chemicals. On the other hand, MNU induced significant increases of MNed cells in both the glandular stomach and bone marrow in the same rats, while MNNG did only in the glandular stomach when administered orally up to 1/4 of the LD50. These results suggest that the glandular stomach- and colon-MN tests would be useful for evaluating the genotoxicity of agents in the gastrointestinal tract.

  3. Notch signaling functions as a binary switch for the determination of glandular and luminal fates of endodermal epithelium during chicken stomach development.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Kohyama, Jun; Okano, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Kimiko; Yasugi, Sadao

    2005-06-01

    During development of the chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), gut endoderm differentiates into glandular and luminal epithelium. We found that Delta1-expressing cells, undifferentiated cells and Notch-activated cells colocalize within the endodermal epithelium during early gland formation. Inhibition of Notch signaling using Numb or dominant-negative form of Su(H) resulted in a luminal differentiation, while forced activation of Notch signaling promoted the specification of immature glandular cells, but prevented the subsequent differentiation and the invagination of the glands. These results suggest that Delta1-mediated Notch signaling among endodermal cells functions as a binary switch for determination of glandular and luminal fates, and regulates patterned differentiation of glands in the chicken proventriculus.

  4. Chemopreventive effects of curcumin on glandular stomach carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and sodium chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikezaki, S; Nishikawa, A; Furukawa, F; Kudo, K; Nakamura, H; Tamura, K; Mori, H

    2001-01-01

    The modifying effects of pure curcumin on glandular stomach carcinogenesis were investigated during the post-initiation phase in male Wistar rats treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanisine (MNNG) and sodium chloride. A total of 110 male 6-week-old rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1-3 (consisting of 30 rats/group) were given MNNG in their drinking water at a concentration of 100 ppm and simultaneously fed a diet supplemented with 5% NaCl for 8 weeks. They were then fed a diet containing either 0.2% (group 1) or 0.05% (group 2) pure curcumin or kept on a basal diet alone (group 3) for 55 weeks. The rats of the curcumin-treated groups (groups 1 and 2) were then switched to the basal diet for the following 4 weeks before sacrifice. Group 4 (20 rats) served as a non-treatment control. The total incidence of combined atypical hyperplasias and adenocarcinomas in the glandular stomachs was rather lower in groups 1 (93%) and 2 (90%) than in group 3 (100%), albeit without statistical significance. However, the mean number of atypical hyperplasias or adenocarcinomas of the glandular stomachs in group 1 (4.70) was significantly less than the value of group 3 (7.17) (p<0.05). Thus, the development of cancerous and precancerous lesions in the glandular stomach was decreased by exposure to pure curcumin. The present results indicate that the compound exerts chemopreventive effects, when given during the post-initiation phase of glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats.

  5. Apoptotic depletion of infiltrating mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosal epithelium: human glandular stomach as a site of immune privilege.

    PubMed

    Koyama, S

    2000-04-01

    H. pylori infection almost invariably results in chronic gastritis, but only a proportion of patients develops severe destruction of epithelial glandular structure or peptic ulcer. To confirm the recent data obtained in testis and eye, showing that Fas ligand is involved in the phenomenon of "immune privilege," expression of Fas receptor and its ligand of the stomach was investigated in a panel of gastric biopsies obtained from patients H. pylori-positive (N = 42) and with H. pylori-negative (N = 18) by two-color flow cytometry. The results show that membrane-bound Fas ligand protein is constitutively expressed on freshly isolated human gastric mucosal epithelium coupled with infiltrating lymphocytes. There was significant overexpression of Fas receptor and its ligand, and a higher frequency of apoptotic cell death detected by TUNEL in epithelium and infiltrating lymphocytes in H. pylori-infected patients. These findings suggest that involvement of Fas receptor and its ligand system contributes to some extent to mucosal damage in H. pylori-associated gastritis. However, the more specific findings are apoptotic depletion of invading mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by gastric epithelium. These provide the first direct quantitative evidence to support Fas receptor counterattack and/or paracrine fratricide as a mechanism of immune privilege in vivo in the H. pylori-infected glandular stomach.

  6. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    SciTech Connect

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  7. Chemopreventive Activity of MGN-3/Biobran Against Chemical Induction of Glandular Stomach Carcinogenesis in Rats and Its Apoptotic Effect in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Abdel Fattah, Salma M; Pan, Deyu; Tolentino, Lucilene; Ghoneum, Mamdooh

    2016-12-01

    In the current study, we investigated the chemopreventive activity of arabinoxylan rice bran, MGN-3/Biobran, against chemical induction of glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats. Gastric cancer was induced by carcinogen methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and rats received MNNG alone or MNNG plus Biobran (40 mg/kg body weight) for a total of 8 months. Averaged results from 2 separate readings showed that exposure to MNNG plus Biobran caused gastric dysplasia and cancer (adenocarcinoma) in 4.5/12 rats (9/24 readings, 37.5%), with 3.5/12 rats (7/24 readings, 29.2%) showing dysplasia and 1/12 rats (8.3%) developing adenocarcinoma. In contrast, in rats treated with MNNG alone, 8/10 (80%) developed dysplasia and adenocarcinoma, with 6/10 rats (60%) showing dysplasia and 2/10 rats (20%) developing adenocarcinoma. The effect of combining both agents was also associated with significant suppression of the expression of the tumor marker Ki-67 and remarkable induction in the apoptotic gastric cancer cells via mitochondrial-dependent pathway as indicated by the upregulation in p53 expression, Bax expression, downregulation in Bcl-2 expression, an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and an activation of caspase-3. In addition, Biobran treatment induced cell-cycle arrest in the subG1 phase, where the hypodiploid cell population was markedly increased. Moreover, Biobran treatment protected rats against MNNG-induced significant decrease in lymphocyte levels. We conclude that Biobran provides protection against chemical induction of glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats and may be useful for the treatment of human patients with gastric cancer.

  8. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Methyl Eugenol-induced Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Neuroendocrine Cell Lesions in Glandular Stomach of Rats.

    PubMed

    Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Rebolloso, Yvette; Hurlburt, Geoffrey; Olson, David; Lyght, Otis; Clayton, Natasha P; Gruebbel, Margarita; Picut, Catherine; Shackelford, Cynthia; Herbert, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Methyl eugenol induces neuroendocrine (NE) cell hyperplasia and tumors in F344/N rat stomach. Detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) characterization of these tumors has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to fill that data gap. Archived slides and paraffin blocks were retrieved from the National Toxicology Program Archives. NE hyperplasias and tumors were stained with chromogranin A, synaptophysin, amylase, gastrin, H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), pepsinogen, somatostatin, and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) antibodies. Many of the rats had gastric mucosal atrophy, due to loss of chief and parietal cells. The hyperplasias and tumors were confined to fundic stomach, and females were more affected than the males. Hyperplasia of NE cells was not observed in the pyloric region. Approximately one-third of the females with malignant NE tumors had areas of pancreatic acinar differentiation. The rate of metastasis was 21%, with liver being the most common site of metastasis. Immunohistochemically, the hyperplasias and tumors stained consistently with chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Neoplastic cells were also positive for amylase and CK18 and negative for gastrin, somatostatin, H(+)/K(+) ATPase, and pepsinogen. Metastatic neoplasms histologically similar to the primary neoplasm stained positively for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Based on the histopathological and IHC features, the neoplasms appear to arise from enterochromaffin-like cells.

  9. A Concurrence of Adenocarcinoma with Micropapillary Features and Composite Glandular-Endocrine Cell Carcinoma in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Park, Cheon-Soo; Kwak, Jae-Young; Park, Eun-Hwa; Kwak, Jin-Ho; Jang, Hyuk-Jae; Choi, Kun-Moo; Han, Myung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We report a unique case of synchronous double primary gastric cancer consisting of adenocarcinoma components with micropapillary features and composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma components. The patient was a 53-year-old man presenting with a 6-month history of epigastric pain and diarrhea. A subtotal gastrectomy was performed. Histologically, one tumor was composed of micropapillary carcinoma components (50%) with tight clusters of micropapillary aggregates lying in the empty spaces, admixed with moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma components. MUC-1 was expressed at the stromal edge of the micropapillary component. The other tumor was composed of atypical carcinoid-like neuroendocrine carcinoma (50%), adenocarcinoid (30%), and adenocarcinoma components (20%). The neuroendocrine components were positive for CD56, synaptophysin, chromogranin, and creatine kinase. The adenocarcinoid components were positive for both carcinoembryonic antigen and neuroendocrine markers (amphicrine differentiation). This case is unique, due to the peculiar histologic micropapillary pattern and the histologic spectrum of adenocarcinoma adenocarcinoid-neuroendocrine carcinoma of the synchronous composite tumor. PMID:28053814

  10. Histology of the mucosa of the oesophagogastric junction and the stomach in adult Rana perezi.

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Huidobro, J; Pastor, L M

    1996-01-01

    The histological structure of the frog digestive mucosa changes at the oesophagogastric junction. The pseudostratified ciliated mucosal epithelium of oesophageal type changes to a simple mucus-secreting epithelium of gastric type. The glands straighten and the muscularis mucosae develops as a complete layer. The muscularis increases in thickness. Unlike the mammalian stomach, in the frog the surface of the plicae forms convoluted ridges that delimit furrow-shaped pits. Two types of gastric glands are distinguished, fundal and pyloric. The former consist of mucous, oxynticopeptic and endocrine cells. The pyloric glandular cells are mainly of mucus-secreting type with scattered endocrine cells. Scattered endocrine cells of P, D, G, A, EC, and EC-L-like types are found in the glands along the stomach. It is concluded that the mucosal structure of the anuran oesophagogastric junction and stomach is less complicated than that of mammals, including man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8621343

  11. Stimulation of cell division in the rat by NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, and inhibition of the sodium chloride effect on the glandular stomach by ascorbic acid and beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Lugli, S M; Lutz, W K

    1999-01-01

    Three questions associated with the stimulation of cell division by chloride salts have been investigated: (i) whether cations other than sodium show a similar effect, (ii) whether vitamins can have a preventive activity, and (iii) whether subchronic treatment with sodium chloride in the diet is also effective. Male Fischer 344 rats were given solutions of the chloride salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium by oral gavage. Water was used for control. After 4 h, a 24-h osmotic minipump containing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was implanted subcutaneously. The forestomach and glandular stomach, as well as liver and bladder were analyzed immunohistochemically 24 h later for the proportion of cells in S phase as an indicator of the rate of replicative DNA synthesis. For both the forestomach and the glandular stomach, potassium was as potent as sodium, and the divalent cations Mg and Ca were even more potent on a molar basis. Supplementation of the diet with ascorbic acid (2 g/kg food) or beta-carotene (12.5 mg/kg food) for 1 week before gavage of the sodium chloride solution resulted in an inhibition of the stimulation of cell division. A putative tumor-chemopreventive activity of the two vitamins might therefore not only rely on their antioxidative properties but may include effects on the cell cycle. A 4-week treatment with a sodium chloride supplement in the diet (2% and 4% supplement) resulted in a significant stimulation of cell division not only in both parts of the stomach and in the bladder (with the 4% supplement) but also in the liver (even with the 2% supplement). Sodium-chloride-stimulated cell turnover therefore is a sustained effect.

  12. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth.

  13. Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  15. Stomach cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - stomach; Gastric cancer; Gastric carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of the stomach ... Several types of cancer can occur in the stomach. The most common type is called adenocarcinoma. It starts from one of the cell ...

  16. Endocytoscopic findings of lymphomas of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gastric lesions of various lymphomas were observed at the cellular level using endocytoscopy. Methods Endocytoscopy and magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI) were performed in 17 patients with lymphomas of the stomach. The lesions consisted of 7 with low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), 5 with gastric involvement by adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), 4 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and 1 with peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Results On conventional endoscopy, 9 were classified as having superficial spreading type, 7 were mass-forming type, and 1 was diffuse infiltrating type. Anti-H. pylori treatment was given in the 7 MALT lymphoma cases. NBI magnification endoscopy invariably showed dilatation or ballooning and destruction of gastric pits and elongation and distortion in microvessels. Endocytoscopy showed mucosal aggregation of interstitial cellular elements in almost all gastric lymphoma cases. The nuclear diversity in size and configuration was exclusively seen in gastric lymphomas other than MALT lymphoma, whereas the nuclei of MALT lymphoma cells were regular and small to moderate in size. Inter-glandular infiltration by lymphomatous cell elements was frequently observed in MALT lymphoma and DLBCL, but it was uncommon in peripheral gastric T-cell malignancies. Endocytoscopy could identify the disease-specific histology, the lymphoepithelial origin, as inter-glandular infiltration of cellular components in MALT lymphoma and the possibly related DLBCL cases. Complete regression (CR) was observed in 2 of the 7 MALT lymphoma patients. In the 2 patients with CR who underwent repeat endocytoscopy, the ultra-high magnification abnormalities returned to normal, while they were unchanged in those without tumor regression. Conclusions On endocytoscopy, intra-glandular aggregation of cellular components was invariably identified in lymphomas of the stomach. Nuclear regularity in size and configuration may indicate

  17. Helminth co-infection in Helicobacter pylori infected INS-GAS mice attenuates gastric premalignant lesions of epithelial dysplasia and glandular atrophy and preserves colonization resistance of the stomach to lower bowel microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Whary, Mark T.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ge, Zhongming; Feng, Yan; Lofgren, Jennifer; Shi, Hai Ning; Taylor, Nancy S.; Correa, Pelayo; Versalovic, James; Wang, Timothy C.; Fox, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Higher prevalence of helminth infections in H. pylori infected children was suggested to potentially lower the life-time risk for gastric adenocarcinoma. In rodent models, helminth co-infection does not reduce Helicobacter-induced inflammation but delays progression of pre-malignant gastric lesions. Because gastric cancer in INS-GAS mice is promoted by intestinal microflora, the impact of Heligmosomoides polygyrus co-infection on H. pylori-associated gastric lesions and microflora were evaluated. Male INS-GAS mice co-infected with H. pylori and H. polygyrus for 5 months were assessed for gastrointestinal lesions, inflammation-related mRNA expression, FoxP3+ cells, epithelial proliferation, and gastric colonization with H. pylori and Altered Schaedler Flora. Despite similar gastric inflammation and high levels of proinflammatory mRNA, helminth co-infection increased FoxP3+ cells in the corpus and reduced H. pylori-associated gastric atrophy (p<0.04), dysplasia (p<0.02) and prevented H. pylori-induced changes in the gastric flora (p<0.05). This is the first evidence of helminth infection reducing H. pylori-induced gastric lesions while inhibiting changes in gastric flora, consistent with prior observations that gastric colonization with enteric microbiota accelerated gastric lesions in INS-GAS mice. Identifying how helminths reduce gastric premalignant lesions and impact bacterial colonization of the H. pylori infected stomach could lead to new treatment strategies to inhibit progression from chronic gastritis to cancer in humans. PMID:24513446

  18. Stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The stomach is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for breaking down food. The lower esophageal sphincter at the top of the stomach regulates food passing from the esophagus into the ...

  19. Purification and molecular cloning of aspartic proteinases from the stomach of adult Japanese fire belly newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Sano, Kaori; Kawaguchi, Mari; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Inokuchi, Tomofumi

    2016-04-01

    Six aspartic proteinase precursors, a pro-cathepsin E (ProCatE) and five pepsinogens (Pgs), were purified from the stomach of adult newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster). On sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weights of the Pgs and active enzymes were 37-38 kDa and 31-34 kDa, respectively. The purified ProCatE was a dimer whose subunits were connected by a disulphide bond. cDNA cloning by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that three of the purified Pgs were classified as PgA and the remaining two were classified as PgBC belonging to C-type Pg. Our results suggest that PgBC is one of the major constituents of acid protease in the urodele stomach. We hypothesize that PgBC is an amphibian-specific Pg that diverged during its evolutional lineage. PgBC was purified and characterized for the first time. The purified urodele pepsin A was completely inhibited by equal molar units of pepstatin A. Conversely, the urodele pepsin BC had low sensitivity to pepstatin A. In acidic condition, the activation rates of newt pepsin A and BC were similar to those of mammalian pepsin A and C1, respectively. Our results suggest that the enzymological characters that distinguish A- and C-type pepsins appear to be conserved in mammals and amphibians.

  20. Stomach Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... polyps are common among people who regularly take proton pump inhibitors to reduce stomach acid. These polyps ... of cancer, so your doctor might recommend discontinuing proton pump inhibitors or removing the polyp or both. ...

  1. Stomach ulcer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... are absorbed in the small intestine. It produces acid and various enzymes that break down food into ... wall of the stomach is protected from the acid and enzymes by a mucous lining. Ulcers are ...

  2. What Is Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer What Is Stomach Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... normal structure and function of the stomach. The stomach After food is chewed and swallowed, it enters ...

  3. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    PubMed

    Oidovsambuu, Odgerel; Nyamsuren, Gunsmaa; Liu, Shuai; Göring, Wolfgang; Engel, Wolfgang; Adham, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Although Vsig1(-/Y) ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y) cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  4. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2(+) cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5(+) stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5(+) stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2(+) cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2(+) cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program.

  5. Cigarette smoking, use of other tobacco products and stomach cancer mortality in US adults: The Cancer Prevention Study II.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ann; Thun, Michael J; Henley, S Jane; Jacobs, Eric J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Calle, Eugenia E

    2002-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in many studies but there are limited data on this relationship in women and on risk associated with use of tobacco products other than cigarettes. We examined stomach cancer death rates in relation to cigarette smoking in women and use of cigarette, cigar, pipe, or smokeless tobacco in men in a nationwide prospective mortality study in the United States (US). Cohort follow-up from 1982-96 identified 996 and 509 stomach cancer deaths among 467,788 men and 588,053 women, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using non-users of tobacco as the referent group. Multivariate-adjusted RRs were the highest for men who currently smoked cigars (RR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.49-3.51) or cigarettes (RR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.75-2.67) and both increased with smoking duration. Women who currently (RR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.18-1.88) or formerly (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.08-1.71) smoked cigarettes were at significantly increased risk, as were men who formerly smoked cigarettes (RR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.28-1.88), or currently (RR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.40-2.35) or formerly (RR: 1.57, 95% CI = 1.22-2.03) used more than one type of tobacco. Men who reported a history of chronic indigestion or gastroduodenal ulcer had substantially higher mortality rates associated with current cigarette (RR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.05-5.80) or cigar (RR = 8.93, 95% CI = 4.02-19.90) smoking, as did men who were current aspirin users. If causal, the estimated proportion of stomach cancer deaths attributable to tobacco use would be 28% in US men and 14% in women. We conclude that prolonged use of tobacco products is associated with increased stomach cancer mortality in men and women. The accumulated evidence from this and other studies support reconsidering stomach cancer as a tobacco-related cancer.

  6. Cross-fostering of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) pouch young accelerates fore-stomach maturation.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Joly H L; Iongh, Robbert De; Digby, Matthew R; Renfree, Marilyn B; Nicholas, Kevin R; Familari, Mary

    2009-01-01

    There are two phases of fore-stomach development during the first 200 days of pouch life in tammar wallaby. For the first 170 days, the mucosa displays an immature gastric glandular phenotype that changes to a cardia glandular phenotype, which remains for the rest of the animal's life. During this 200-day period after birth, the pouch young (PY) is dependent on maternal milk, which progressively changes in composition. We showed previously that PY cross-fostered to host mothers at a later stage of lactation accelerated development. In this study, we investigated whether cross-fostering and exposure to late lactation stage milk affected the transition to cardia glandular phenotype. In fostered PY fore-stomach, there was increased apoptosis, but no change in cell proliferation. The parietal cell population was significantly reduced, and expression of gastric glandular phenotype marker genes (ATP4A, GKN2, GHRL and NDRG2) was down-regulated, suggesting down-regulation of gastric phenotype in fostered PY fore-stomach. The expression of cardia glandular phenotype genes (MUC4, KRT20, CSTB, ITLN2 and LPLUNC1) was not changed in fostered PY. These data suggest that fore-stomach maturation proceeds via two temporally distinct processes: down-regulation of gastric glandular phenotype and initiation of cardia glandular phenotype. In fostered PY, these two processes appear uncoupled, as gastric glandular phenotype was down-regulated but cardia glandular phenotype was not initiated. We propose that milk from later stages of lactation and/or herbage consumed by the PY may play independent roles in regulating these two processes.

  7. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The stomach is a J- ... outermost) layer. Stomach cancer begins in the cells lining the mucosal layer and spreads through the outer ...

  8. Surgery For Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment for stomach cancer. Placement of a feeding tube Some patients have trouble taking in enough nutrition ... of the stomach and the small intestine. Feeding tube placement: Some people with stomach cancer are not ...

  9. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past.

  10. How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed? Stomach cancers are usually found when ... Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  11. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  12. "Stomach Flu" (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" A A A en español "El virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their ...

  13. Glandular prediction: the pride and the prejudice.

    PubMed

    Waddell, C

    2004-08-01

    For the cytologist and clinician alike, glandular lesions pose possibly the greatest challenge in cervical screening. Worldwide, with increasing confidence in cytological prediction, terminology is evolving. In the UK, with the adoption of liquid based methods, the technical aspects of cervical cytology are being addressed, it is now time to standardise our terminology in glandular reporting. Consideration of the cytological complexity, clinical needs and international protocols is essential in this endeavour.

  14. Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

  15. Population Responses of Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to Insecticide in Glandular-Haired and Non-glandular-Haired Alfalfa Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sulc, R Mark; McCormick, John S; Hammond, Ronald B; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of glandular-haired alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to reduce potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, population abundance in field environments. We measured potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance and yield responses in a cultivar selected for high potato leafhopper resistance ('54H91') and in a non-glandular-haired susceptible cultivar ('54V54') with and without insecticide treatment across 3 yr. Treatments included no insecticide and insecticide applied either early or late in each summer growth cycle. Date × cultivar × treatment interactions were found for potato leafhopper population abundance. In the absence of insecticides, total potato leafhopper abundance (adults + nymphs per sweep) was lower in 54H91 than in 54V54 on 85% of sampling dates; cultivar differences were especially evident as potato leafhopper abundance peaked. Insecticide treatment reduced potato leafhopper populations in both cultivars, but populations recovered and often exceeded the normal action threshold in both cultivars within 2-3 wk of insecticide application. Yield gain from early insecticide treatment of 54V54 was >400 kg/ha in 11 of 14 summer harvests, whereas in 54H91 the yield gain was <250 kg/ha in 10 of 14 summer harvests. We conclude that glandular-haired alfalfa cultivars with high levels of potato leafhopper resistance significantly suppress potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance, reduce yield losses in the absence of insecticides, and have potential within an integrated pest management strategy to reduce insecticide use in alfalfa production systems.

  16. FGF10 signaling controls stomach morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nyeng, Pia; Norgaard, Gitte Anker; Kobberup, Sune; Jensen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance of progenitor cell properties in development is required for proper organogenesis of most organs, including those derived from the endoderm. FGF10 has been shown to play a role in both lung and pancreatic development. Here we find that FGF10 signaling controls stomach progenitor maintenance, morphogenesis and cellular differentiation. Through a characterization of the initiation of terminal differentiation of the three major gastric regions in the mouse, forestomach, corpus and antrum, we first describe the existence of a “secondary transition” event occurring in mouse stomach between E15.5-E16.5. This includes the formation of terminally differentiated squamous cells, parietal, chief a nd gastric endocrine cells from a pre-patterned gastric progenitor epithelium. Expression analysis of both FGF and Notch signaling components suggested a role of these networks in such progenitors, which was tested through ectopically expressing FGF10 in the developing posterior stomach. These data provide evidence that gastric gland specification and progenitor cell maintenance is controlled by FGF10. The glandular proliferative niche was disrupted in pPDX-FGF10FLAG mice leading to aberrant gland formation, and endocrine and parietal cell differentiation was attenuated. These effects were paralleled by changes in Hes1, Shh, and Wnt6 expression, suggesting that FGF10 acts in concert with multiple morphogenetic signaling systems during gastric development. PMID:17196193

  17. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) By Mayo Clinic Staff Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection marked by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea or vomiting, and ...

  18. Further Studies on Induction of Stomach Cancer in Hamsters by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine*

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, K.; Sasadaira, H.; Kawachi, T.; Shimosato, Y.; Tokunaga, A.; Fujimura, S.; Sugimura, T.

    1974-01-01

    Oral administration of N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) to hamsters at a concentration of 50-83 μg/ml in the drinking water resulted in a high incidence of tumours in the glandular stomach. Short-term administration of MNNG for 4-6 months resulted in more adenocarcinomata in the glandular stomach than long-term administration for 7-8 months. One case of metastasis of an adenocarcinoma of the glandular stomach to the liver and 2 cases of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes were found. Spindle cell sarcomata in the glandular stomach and adenocarcinomata in the duodenum were also often produced. Oral administration of MNNG at the very high concentration of 500-2000 μg/ml induced a hepatic cell carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct carcinomata, bile duct cystadenomata and cystic dilatation, and a haemangioma in the liver but no tumour in the glandular stomach. Sequential morphological studies on the glandular stomach of hamsters receiving 50 μg/ml of MNNG in the drinking water showed 3 stages of change of the mucosa. The mucosa became atrophic and eroded in the first 16 weeks. Irregular atypical glands developed at the margins of erosions and proliferation of spindle cells in the submucosa were found after 18 weeks. Spindle cell sarcomata developed in animals after 20 weeks. Adenocarcinomata developed between 25 and 32 weeks. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4830138

  19. New developments in endocervical glandular lesions.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn

    2013-01-01

    McCluggage W G (2012) Histopathology New developments in endocervical glandular lesions There is evidence that the prevalence of premalignant and malignant endocervical glandular lesions is increasing in real as well as in apparent terms. In this review, new developments and selected controversial aspects of endocervical glandular lesions are covered, concentrating mainly on premalignant and malignant lesions. The terminology of premalignant endocervical glandular lesions is discussed with a comparison of the World Health Organization classification and the cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) system, which is in widespread use in the United Kingdom. Primary cervical adenocarcinomas comprise a heterogeneous group of different morphological types, and while it is known that the majority of these are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), it has become clear in recent years that most of the more uncommon morphological types are unassociated with HPV, although they may sometimes be p16-positive. A spectrum of benign, premalignant and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation is now recognized; these include type A tunnel clusters, typical and atypical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, adenoma malignum and gastric-type adenocarcinoma. The latter is a recently described variant of primary cervical adenocarcinoma which has a different morphological appearance to the usual endocervical type and which is probably associated with different patterns of spread and a worse prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that 'early invasive' cervical adenocarcinomas have an excellent prognosis and are suitable for conservative management. Immunohistochemical markers of value in the distinction between a primary cervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma are discussed. While it is well known that a panel of markers comprising oestrogen receptor (ER), vimentin, p16 and monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is

  20. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past. PMID:28292079

  1. Malignant glandular lesions and glandular differentiation in invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Although the lumen of the urinary bladder is covered with only urothelial epithelium, malign glandular lesions (eg, nonurachal adenocarcinoma) and benign lesions (eg, cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis) can also rarely occur in this site due to its characteristic embryologic development. Glandular differentiation is uncommon in urothelial carcinomas and is even less common in noninvasive urothelial cancers. In addition, in situ urothelial carcinomas are more likely to progress in the presence of glandular differentiation toward high-grade urothelial carcinomas and/or aggressive urothelial carcinomas. Pure nonurachal adenocarcinomas and mixed carcinomas (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) are very rare, and their pathogenesis is not clear. Most of the nonurachal adenocarcinomas are thought to arise on the grounds of cystitis glandularus with intestinal metaplasia. Here, I present 2 cases with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with substantial glandular differentiation showing progression to signet ring cell carcinoma and invasive urothelial carcinoma, one case with mixed carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) and another case with pure adenocarcinoma developing from cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia, and discuss malign glandular lesions in the bladder and invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation.

  2. Nonulcer Stomach Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and alternative treatments, talk to your doctor about: Herbal supplements. Herbal remedies that may be of some benefit for nonulcer stomach pain include a combination of peppermint and caraway oil. These supplements may relieve some of the symptoms of nonulcer ...

  3. What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer? For some people with stomach cancer, treatment ... Treatment for Stomach Cancer Stops Working More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  4. Generation of stomach tissue from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Taka-aki K; Ninomiya, Naoto; Sekine, Mari; Komazaki, Shinji; Wang, Pi-Chao; Asashima, Makoto; Kurisaki, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Successful pluripotent stem cell differentiation methods have been developed for several endoderm-derived cells, including hepatocytes, β-cells and intestinal cells. However, stomach lineage commitment from pluripotent stem cells has remained a challenge, and only antrum specification has been demonstrated. We established a method for stomach differentiation from embryonic stem cells by inducing mesenchymal Barx1, an essential gene for in vivo stomach specification from gut endoderm. Barx1-inducing culture conditions generated stomach primordium-like spheroids, which differentiated into mature stomach tissue cells in both the corpus and antrum by three-dimensional culture. This embryonic stem cell-derived stomach tissue (e-ST) shared a similar gene expression profile with adult stomach, and secreted pepsinogen as well as gastric acid. Furthermore, TGFA overexpression in e-ST caused hypertrophic mucus and gastric anacidity, which mimicked Ménétrier disease in vitro. Thus, in vitro stomach tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells mimics in vivo development and can be used for stomach disease models.

  5. Gastric tumor development in Smad3-deficient mice initiates from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Taek; O'Neal, Ryan; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan; Coffey, Robert J; Goldenring, James R

    2012-06-01

    SMAD proteins are downstream effectors of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Smad3-null mice develop colorectal cancer by 6 months of age. In this study, we have examined whether the loss of Smad3 promotes gastric neoplasia in mice. The stomachs of Smad3⁻/⁻ mice were compared with age-matched Smad3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. E-cadherin, Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemisty. The short hairpin RNA (ShRNA)-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells was also performed. In addition, we examined alterations in DCLK1-expressing cells. Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs at 6 months of age revealed the presence of exophytic growths along the lesser curvature in the proximal fundus. Six-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs showed metaplastic columnar glands initiating from the transition zone junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium along the lesser curvature. Ten-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice all exhibited invasive gastric neoplastic changes with increased Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3 expression, and aberrant cytosolic E-cadherin staining in papillary glands within the invading submucosal gland. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells promoted the expression of phosphoSTAT3. DCLK1-expressing cells, which also stained for the tuft cell marker acetylated-α-tubulin, were observed in 10-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice within tumors and in fundic invasive lesions. In conclusion, Smad3-null mice develop gastric tumors in the fundus, which arise from the junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium and progress to prominent invasive tumors over time. Smad3-null mice represent a novel model of fundic gastric tumor initiated from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

  6. Comparative functional genomic analysis of Solanum glandular trichome types.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Eric T; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors.

  7. Terpene biosynthesis in glandular trichomes of hop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Tian, Li; Aziz, Naveed; Broun, Pierre; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; King, Andrew; Zhao, Patrick X; Dixon, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L. Cannabaceae) is an economically important crop for the brewing industry, where it is used to impart flavor and aroma to beer, and has also drawn attention in recent years due to its potential pharmaceutical applications. Essential oils (mono- and sesquiterpenes), bitter acids (prenylated polyketides), and prenylflavonoids are the primary phytochemical components that account for these traits, and all accumulate at high concentrations in glandular trichomes of hop cones. To understand the molecular basis for terpene accumulation in hop trichomes, a trichome cDNA library was constructed and 9,816 cleansed expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were obtained from random sequencing of 16,152 cDNA clones. The ESTs were assembled into 3,619 unigenes (1,101 contigs and 2,518 singletons). Putative functions were assigned to the unigenes based on their homology to annotated sequences in the GenBank database. Two mono- and two sesquiterpene synthases identified from the EST collection were expressed in Escherichia coli. Hop MONOTERPENE SYNTHASE2 formed the linear monterpene myrcene from geranyl pyrophosphate, whereas hop SESQUITERPENE SYNTHASE1 (HlSTS1) formed both caryophyllene and humulene from farnesyl pyrophosphate. Together, these enzymes account for the production of the major terpene constituents of the hop trichomes. HlSTS2 formed the minor sesquiterpene constituent germacrene A, which was converted to beta-elemene on chromatography at elevated temperature. We discuss potential functions for other genes expressed at high levels in developing hop trichomes.

  8. What Are the Key Statistics about Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stomach Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Stomach Cancer? The American Cancer Society’s estimates for stomach ... in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  9. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  10. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%.

  11. Quantitation of glandular gastric changes in rats given a proton pump inhibitor for 3 months with emphasis on sampling scheme selection.

    PubMed

    White, S L; Smith, W C; Fisher, L F; Gatlin, C L; Hanasono, G K; Jordan, W H

    1998-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors and H2-receptor antagonists suppress gastric acid secretion and secondarily induce hypergastrinemia. Sustained hypergastrinemia has a trophic effect on stomach fundic mucosa, including enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Histomorphometric quantitation of the pharmacologic gastric effects was conducted on 10 male and 10 female rats treated orally with LY307640 sodium, a proton pump inhibitor, at daily doses of 25, 60, 130, or 300 mg/kg for 3 mo. Histologic sections of glandular stomach, stained for chromogranin A, were evaluated by image analysis to determine stomach mucosal thickness, mucosal and nonmucosal (submucosa and muscularis) area, gastric glandular area, ECL cell number/area and cross-sectional area. Total mucosal and nonmucosal tissue volumes per animal were derived from glandular stomach volumetric and area data. Daily oral doses of compound LY307640 sodium caused slight to moderate dose-related mucosal hypertrophy and ECL cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in all treatment groups as compared with controls. All observed effects were prominent in both sexes but were generally greater in females. The morphometric sampling schemes were explored to optimize the data collection efficiency for future studies. A comparison between the sampling schemes used in this study and alternative schemes was conducted by estimating the probability of detecting a specific percentage of change between the male control and high-dose groups based on Tukey's trend test. The sampling scheme analysis indicated that mucosal thickness and mass had been oversampled. ECL cell density quantitation efficiency would have been increased by sampling the basal mucosa only for short-term studies. The ECL cell size sampling scheme was deemed appropriate for this type of study.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation for correlation analysis of average glandular dose by breast thickness and glandular ratio in breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Tae; Cho, Jung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    A glandular breast tissue is a radio-sensitive tissue. So during the evaluation of an X-ray mammography device, Average Glandular Dose (AGD) measurement is a very important part. In reality, it is difficult to measure AGD directly, Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the correlation between the AGD and breast thickness. As a result, AGDs calculated through the Monte Carlo simulation were 1.64, 1.41 and 0.88 mGy. The simulated AGDs mainly depend on the glandular ratio of the breast. With the increase of glandular breast tissue, absorption of low photon-energy increased so that the AGDs increased, too. In addition, the thicker the breast was, the more the AGD became. Consequently, this study will be used as basic data for establishing the diagnostic reference levels of mammography.

  13. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The stomach is a J- ... outermost) layer. Stomach cancer begins in the cells lining the mucosal layer and spreads through the outer ...

  14. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  15. Endometriosis mimicking glandular atypia in a cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez–Urrego, Paula A; Dulcey–Hormiga, Isabel C; Barrera–Herrera, Luis E; Suarez–Zamora, David A; Palau–Lazaro, Mauricio A; Buritica–Cifuentes, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis involving the uterine cervix is a rare condition that can lead to diagnostic errors in the interpretation of Pap smear. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient in whom the initial Pap smear revealed three-dimensional clusters of glandular cells with elongated nuclei, occasional mitosis, and atypia, which was interpreted as atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified (NOS). The patient was taken to colposcopy and endocervical biopsy. Colposcopy was normal and the biopsy presented glands with elongated nuclei and surrounded by endometrial stroma admixed with normal endocervical glands. Immunohistochemical studies were reactive for CD10 in the stromal cells and vimentin in endometrioid glands. The findings were consistent with cervical endometriosis. Endometriosis in the cervix is an uncommon pathology that mimics malignancy and may be interpreted as atypical or glandular neoplasia in the cytology. PMID:28182083

  16. Histomorphometric study of the goat stomach during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Angela; Rodriguez, Pedro; Masot, Javier; Franco, Antonio; Redondo, Eloy

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a morphometric analysis of the different structural tissue layers of the goat stomach to study their prenatal growth from mathematical models fitted to these morphometric data. A total of 90 embryos and fetuses were used, from the early stages of prenatal life until birth. The growth rate of the gastric wall was slower than that of body length; rumen was the stomach compartment displaying slowest growth. In the three non-glandular compartments, the epithelial layer grew faster than the gastric wall itself, while the growth rate of the abomasal epithelium declined in the early stages of development. A decline in growth rate was also observed for the lamina propria and submucosa in rumen and reticulum from the early embryonic stages, whereas in omasum and abomasum these layers continued to grow as gestation progressed. The tunica muscularis displayed consistent growth in all compartments, growing faster than the gastric wall. Serosa thickness increased as gestation progressed, displaying a decline in growth-rate only in the omasum. In conclusion, the dynamics of gastric wall growth were governed by the growth rate of each of the component tissue layers.

  17. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... stomachs. Stomachs or portions of the stomachs of ruminants or swine, other than those imported for...

  18. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... stomachs. Stomachs or portions of the stomachs of ruminants or swine, other than those imported for...

  19. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... stomachs. Stomachs or portions of the stomachs of ruminants or swine, other than those imported for...

  20. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... stomachs. Stomachs or portions of the stomachs of ruminants or swine, other than those imported for...

  1. Removal of a nasogastric tube fragment from the stomach of a standing horse

    PubMed Central

    Cribb, Nicola C.; Kenney, Daniel G.; Reid-Burke, Robin

    2012-01-01

    An 82-cm fragment of nasogastric tube was removed from the stomach of an adult horse under standing sedation by use of an endoscope and electrocautery snare. This is the first report of successful non-surgical removal of a nasogastric tube fragment from the stomach of a horse. PMID:22753970

  2. The stomach-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    The stomach has distinct functions in relation to the ingestion and handling of solids and liquids. These functions include storage of the food before it is gradually emptied into the duodenum, mechanical crushing of larger food particles to increase the surface area, secretion of an acidic enzyme rich gastric juice and mixing the ingested food with the gastric juice. In addition, the stomach 'senses' the composition of the gastric content and this information is passed via the vagal nerve to the lateral hypothalamus and the limbic system, most likely as palatability signals that influence eating behaviour. Other sensory qualities related to the stimulation of gastric tension receptors are satiety and fullness. Receptors that respond to macronutrient content or gastric wall tension influence appetite and meal related hormone responses. The ingestion of food - in contrast to an infusion of nutrients into the stomach - has distinct effects on the activation of specific brain regions. Brain areas such as thalamus, amygdala, putamen and praecuneus are activated by the ingestion of food. Gastric nutrient infusion evokes greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. The brain integrates these interrelated neural and hormonal signals arising from the stomach as well as visual, olfactory and anticipatory stimuli that ultimately influence eating and other behavioural patterns. Furthermore, there is now good evidence from experimental studies that gastric afferents influence mood, and animal studies point towards the possibility that gastric dysfunction may be a risk factor for mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. The stomach is also not only colonised by Helicobacter pylori but a large array of bacteria. While there is sufficient evidence to suggest that H. pylori may alter caloric intake and mood, the role of other gastric microbiome for the brain function is unknown. To address this appropriate targeted gastric microbiome studies would be

  3. Glandular dose in breast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Mettivier, G; Fedon, C; Di Lillo, F; Longo, R; Sarno, A; Tromba, G; Russo, P

    2016-01-21

    The purpose of this work is to provide an evaluation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for breast computed tomography (CT) with synchrotron radiation in an axial scanning configuration with a partial or total organ volume irradiation, for the in vivo program of breast CT ongoing at the ELETTRA facility (Trieste, Italy). A Geant4 Monte Carlo code was implemented, simulating the photon irradiation from a synchrotron radiation source in the energetic range from 8 to 50 keV with 1 keV intervals, to evaluate the MGD. The code was validated with literature data, in terms of mammographic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) and with ad hoc experimental data, in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI). Simulated cylindrical phantoms of different sizes (diameter at phantom base 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16 cm, axial length 1.5 times the radius) and glandular fraction by weight (0%, 14.3%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were implemented into the code. The validation of the code shows an excellent agreement both with previously published work and in terms of DgN and CDTI measurements. The implemented simulations show a dependence of the glandular dose estimate on the vertical dimension of the irradiated zone when a partial organ irradiation was implemented. Specific normalized coefficients for calculating the MGD to the whole breast or to the single irradiated slice were reported.

  4. Clinical considerations of the glandular branch of the lacrimal artery.

    PubMed

    Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Balsiger, Heather; Scott, Gabriel; Gest, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The lacrimal artery is classically described as a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplied by the internal carotid. In this study, 25 orbits were dissected to identify variations in glandular branching and to compare them to previously published accounts. The glandular branching patterns of the lacrimal artery fall into two categories, those that branch (56%) and those that do not branch (44%). We found the medial and lateral glandular branches to be equal in diameter with a divergence of 2.67-40.58 mm proximal to the gland parenchyma. The long glandular branches run alongside the superolateral aspect of the orbit. The lateral branch runs lateral to the lateral rectus muscle. The medial branch runs superomedial to the lateral rectus muscle and lateral to the superior rectus muscle. In relation to the lacrimal gland, the medial branch enters the superior aspect of the gland parenchyma and the lateral branch enters its inferior aspect. The average branch lengths were 17.88 mm (medial) and 13.51 mm (lateral) as measured with a Mitutoyo Absolute 1/100 mm caliper. We could not confirm the existence of a third branch supplying the lacrimal gland, as posited by other authors. The key finding in this study is that the lacrimal gland is predominantly supplied by two significant arterial branches, both of which must be identified during procedures involving the lateral orbit.

  5. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. PMID:24250266

  6. Influence of plant ontogeny and abiotic factors on resistance of glandular-haired alfalfa to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Ranger, Christopher M; Backus, Elaine A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Johnson, David W

    2006-04-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterize the trichome-based defense of glandular-haired alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., against the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris). Within-plant variability in leafhopper resistance was examined by caging adult leafhoppers to either basal or apical stem internodes of the leafhopper-resistant, glandular-haired M. sativa genotype G98A or the susceptible, nonglandular-haired M. sativa 'Ranger'. Young, actively secreting glandular trichomes are located on apical internodes of G98A, whereas senesced gland heads are found on older, basal internodes of G98A. After 96 h, the highest cumulative leafhopper mortality and lowest number of excretory droplets were associated with apical internodes of G98A. No difference was detected in mortality and feeding levels among insects caged to basal internodes of G98A and basal and apical internodes of Ranger. The influence of abiotic factors on leafhopper resistance was evaluated by caging adult leafhoppers to either G98A or Ranger under four combinations of low and high light (250 and 1,000 micromol s(-1) m(-2)) and temperature regimes (17 and 30 degrees C). After 96 h, the highest cumulative mortality was associated with leafhoppers confined to G98A under high light and high temperature conditions. Temperature level and plant type also had an effect on the production of excretory droplets, resulting in the highest number of excretory droplets being associated with Ranger under the high temperature regime. These results indicate that certain regions of M. sativa G98A are better protected against the potato leafhopper than others and that temperature influences resistance levels of glandular-haired alfalfa.

  7. Survival in hostile territory: the microbiota of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ines; Nell, Sandra; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    The human stomach is a formidable barrier to orally ingested microorganisms and was long thought to be sterile. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori, a carcinogenic bacterial pathogen that infects the stomach mucosa of more than one half of all humans globally, has started a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the stomach as an ecological niche for bacteria. The special adaptations that enable H. pylori to colonize this well-protected habitat have been intensively studied over the last three decades. In contrast, our knowledge concerning bacteria other than H. pylori in the human stomach is still quite limited. However, a substantial body of evidence documents convincingly that bacteria can regularly be sampled from the stomachs of healthy adults. Commonly detected phyla include Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and characteristic genera are Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium. In this review, we summarize the available literature about the gastric microbiota in humans and selected model animals, discuss the methods used in its characterization, and identify gaps in our knowledge that need to be addressed to advance our understanding of the bacterial colonization of the different layers of the gastric mucosa and its potential role in health and disease.

  8. Immunohistochemical evidence: testicular and scented glandular androgen synthesis in muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Weng, J; Zhang, H; Lu, L; Ma, X; Wang, Q; Cao, H; Liu, S; Xu, M; Weng, Q; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    2011-10-19

    In order to elucidate the relationship between androgens and the function of the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) scented glands during the breeding season, we investigated immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 in the muskrat testes and scented glands. Nine adult muskrats were obtained in March (n=3), May (n=3) and July (n=3) 2010. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal P450scc, human placental 3βHSD and porcine testicular P450c17. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature-phase spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules were observed in all testes. Glandular cells, interstitial cells, epithelial cells and excretory tubules were identified in scented glands during the breeding season. P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 were only identified in Leydig cells during the breeding season; P450scc and P450c17 were observed in glandular cells of scented glands, however, 3βHSD was not found in scented glands during the breeding season. These novel findings provide the first evidence showing that scented glands of the muskrats are capable of locally synthesizing androgens and androgens acting via an endocrine, autocrine or paracrine manner may play an important role in scented gland function during the breeding season.

  9. Functional disorders of the stomach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastroenterologists frequently encounter patients who report vague epigastric discomforts or sensations of fullness, bloating, and distention in the upper abdomen. The discomfort is neither burning in character nor severe in intensity; there is no nocturnal pain. The epigastric location of discomfort and lack of radiation may help to exclude biliary tract and pancreatic diseases. Nausea may be present, but there is little or no vomiting. After these patients ingest liquids or solid foods, the symptoms of easy filling or early satiety and increasing discomfort and nausea are almost always present. The patient may only report "indigestion," but a specific chief complaint, such as pain, discomfort, nausea, or bloating may be elicited with further inquiries. Solid foods usually provoke more symptoms than do liquids. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort may culminate in the vomiting of undigested food. These vague upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been termed "dyspepsia." When peptic diseases of the stomach are excluded, the symptom complex has been called "nonulcer" dyspepsia, a vague syndrome with symptoms attributed to stomach dysfunction. Nonulcer dyspepsia has been reviewed recently. Such symptoms, commonly attributed to a "functional" disorder, are very common in clinical practice, with an incidence of 30% of patients. In this review, we will discuss an approach to the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptoms of nausea, early satiety, bloating, and vague epigastric discomfort--dyspeptic symptoms associated with functional stomach disorders. We will review the anatomy and motility of the stomach and suggest potential neuromuscular malfunctions of the stomach that may result in epigastric symptoms. The potential role of stress and other brain-gut interactions, which may underlie these symptoms, will also be reviewed.

  10. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Materials and Methods Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Results Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Conclusion Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. PMID

  11. A novel texture descriptor for detection of glandular structures in colon histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Snead, David R.; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    The first step prior to most analyses on most histopathology images is the detection of area of interest. In this work, we present a superpixel-based approach for glandular structure detection in colon histology images. An image is first segmented into superpixels with the constraint on the presence of glandular boundaries. Texture and color information is then extracted from each superpixel to calculate the probability of that superpixel belonging to glandular regions, resulting in a glandular probability map. In addition, we present a novel texture descriptor derived from a region covariance matrix of scattering coefficients. Our approach shows encouraging results for the detection of glandular structures in colon tissue samples.

  12. Stomach lysozymes of the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus), an arboreal folivore from the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, M Andreína; Concepción, Juan Luís; Rangel, José David Rosales; Ruiz, Marie Christine; Michelangeli, Fabián; Domínguez-Bello, María G

    2007-07-01

    Lysozymes are antimicrobial defences that act as digestive enzymes when expressed in the stomach of herbivores with pre-gastric fermentation. We studied this enzyme in the complex stomach of the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus), a folivore with pre-gastric fermentation. Lysozymes were identified by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting in all portions: diverticulum, pouch, glandular and muscular prepyloric area with 14.3 kDa of molecular mass. Purified lysozymes from all areas but the diverticulum were characterized by MALDI-TOF, optimal pH, optimal ionic strength, and specific activity. The differences observed suggested at least three isoforms. The optimal pHs were similar to the pH of the stomach portion where the enzymes were isolated. The lysozyme from the pouch (fermentation chamber) exhibited higher specific activity and concentration than the others. The specific activity of the enzyme from the acid muscular prepyloric portion was comparable to that reported in the cow abomasums; however, its concentration was lower than that observed in cow. This distinctive pattern of secretion/specific activity and overall low concentration suggests different roles for the lysozymes in this herbivore compared to Artiodactyla. We postulate that sloth stomach lysozymes may still be antimicrobial defences by protecting the microbial flora of the fermentation chamber against foreign bacteria.

  13. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  14. Stomach Flu: How Long Am I Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... am I contagious if I have the stomach flu? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. You can be contagious ... depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). A number of viruses can cause gastroenteritis, ...

  15. Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163342.html Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier? New technology may also spot esophageal ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A breath test to detect stomach and esophageal cancers shows promise, researchers say. The ...

  16. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y.

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  17. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: The Value of Intraepithelial Hemosiderin.

    PubMed

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Koilelat, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a relatively rare but well-described clinicopathologic entity. Its rarity and unpredictable clinical behavior are challenging to managing clinicians. Its variable and overlapping histomorphologic features are also diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Other odontogenic cysts and oral cystic neoplasms can simulate GOC. There are specific histologic criteria that help distinguish GOC from other mimickers. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of hemosiderin pigments deposition within the lining glandular epithelium of GOC has not been covered in detail or specifically reported so far in the literature. We report a case of nontraumatized anterior mandibular GOC in a middle-aged male, which histologically showed hemosiderin pigments within the lining epithelium without stromal siderophages. This finding might reflect a nonspecific spontaneous intraluminal hemorrhage. However, intraepithelial hemosiderin in GOC may be an additional helpful diagnostic clue of GOC in challenging cases since this phenomenon has not been reported in other mimicker cystic lesions.

  18. Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marisa R

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the cervix continue to be diagnostically challenging for the surgical pathologist. This review covers a select number of these lesions that may be misinterpreted as premalignant or malignant, with an emphasis on those about which Dr Scully has advanced our knowledge. The topics covered include microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric hyperplasia, diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, and endocervical adenomyoma. The first listed entity has a greater diversity of morphology than the name might imply including, but not limited to solid growth and prominent hyaline stroma. The second entity may be remarkably diffuse within the cervical wall and reasonably result in consideration of diagnoses such as minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum), but has nonmucinous epithelium and bland cytology. The third entity, one of the least common of those considered, represents a peculiar form of reactive hyperplasia of the endocervical epithelium. The fourth entity is the one about which knowledge is still fast advancing. In pure form with no atypia it is almost certainly a clinically benign process, but a subset of cases show cytologic atypia and an occasional association with adenocarcinoma is seen. Finally, adenomyomas of the uterus in general have received much attention in recent years, mostly in the corpus, but the less common endocervical variant may be particularly problematic because mucinous epithelium in abundant myogenic stroma may be potentially confused with an infiltrating differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Although immunohistochemistry may play a role on occasion in evaluating benign endocervical glandular proliferations the mainstay of their interpretation remains conventional morphologic analysis of routinely stained slides.

  19. Bone metastasis of glandular cardiac myxoma mimicking a metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Uppin, Shantveer G; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Puri, Ajay; Kumar, Rajiv; Agarwal, Manish; Sanghvi, Darshana

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis from a cardiac myxoma is rare. We describe an extremely unusual case of a cardiac myxoma metastasing to the femur in a 46-year-old female presenting with pain in the right hip. Radiographs showed an expansile lytic lesion with pathological fracture involving the neck and proximal shaft of the right femur. Histology revealed features of cardiac myxoma with heterologous glandular elements, which was initially mistaken for a metastatic mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma.

  20. Genetic basis for glandular trichome formation in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Hu, Yan; Yang, Changqing; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Wan, Qun; Liang, Wenhua; Mei, Gaofu; Wang, Lingjian; Wang, Haiping; Ding, Linyun; Dong, Chenguang; Pan, Mengqiao; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Shuqi; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Guan, Xueying; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes originate from epidermal cells and can be classified as either glandular or non-glandular. Gossypium species are characterized by the presence of small and darkly pigmented lysigenous glands that contain large amounts of gossypol. Here, using a dominant glandless mutant, we characterize GoPGF, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor, that we propose is a positive regulator of gland formation. Silencing GoPGF leads to a completely glandless phenotype. A single nucleotide insertion in GoPGF, introducing a premature stop codon is found in the duplicate recessive glandless mutant (gl2gl3). The characterization of GoPGF helps to unravel the regulatory network of glandular structure biogenesis, and has implications for understanding the production of secondary metabolites in glands. It also provides a potential molecular basis to generate glandless seed and glanded cotton to not only supply fibre and oil but also provide a source of protein for human consumption. PMID:26795254

  1. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staging What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? As you cope with cancer and cancer ... Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  2. Stomach development, stem cells and disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2016-02-15

    The stomach, an organ derived from foregut endoderm, secretes acid and enzymes and plays a key role in digestion. During development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions drive stomach specification, patterning, differentiation and growth through selected signaling pathways and transcription factors. After birth, the gastric epithelium is maintained by the activity of stem cells. Developmental signals are aberrantly activated and stem cell functions are disrupted in gastric cancer and other disorders. Therefore, a better understanding of stomach development and stem cells can inform approaches to treating these conditions. This Review highlights the molecular mechanisms of stomach development and discusses recent findings regarding stomach stem cells and organoid cultures, and their roles in investigating disease mechanisms.

  3. GLP-1 receptor is expressed in human stomach mucosa: analysis of its cellular association and distribution within gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Broide, Efrat; Bloch, Olga; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J

    2013-09-01

    The stomach is a target organ of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the cellular expression and glandular distribution of its receptor (GLP-1R) in human gastric mucosa are not known. We determined the expression of GLP-1R in different regions of human stomach mucosa and its specific cellular association and distribution within gastric glands. Tissue samples from stomach body and antrum were obtained from 20 patients during routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy. mRNA encoding GLP-1R protein expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Determination of cell types bearing GLP-1R, their localization, and their frequency in gastric glands in different gastric regions were estimated by immunohistochemical morphological analysis. Levels of GLP-1R mRNA were similar in body and antrum. GLP-1R immunoreactivity was found throughout the gastric mucosa in various types of glandular cells. The highest frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells was found in the neck area of the principal glands in cells morphologically identified as parietal cells. GLP-1R immunostaining was also found on enteroendocrine-like cells in the pyloric glands. This study provides the first description of GLP-1R expression in human gastric glands and its specific cellular association. Our data suggest that GLP-1 may act directly on the gastric mucosa to modulate its complex functions.

  4. The muscular organization of the stomach of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris): an architectural view.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Priscilla Teixeira de Barros; de Souza, Wilson Machado; da Silva Neto, Paulo Bezerra; Barretto, Carla Siqueira de Figueiredo; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2005-03-01

    Twenty-two stomachs from adult capybaras were used in this study, and an acid digestion mesoscopic technique was pursued using different concentrations of nitric acid to observe the muscular organization of the stomach. The capybara's stomach possessed a muscular coat composed of four layers or strata: external longitudinal, external oblique, circular and internal oblique. Also, the cardiac and pyloric sphincter muscles were comprised of three or two different layers, respectively. Furthermore, the internal oblique fibres were observed extending from the cardiac portion of the stomach to the smaller curvature, where they participated in the formation of the Ansa cardiaca together with the external longitudinal fibres. This muscular architectural arrangement was compared to that in small rodents (rat, hamster, guinea pig), as well as in rabbits and pigs. In conclusion, the stomach of the capybara has a very particular, complex and defined muscular organization that differs from that in other rodents, or domestic animals, in particular, pigs.

  5. Clearance and metabolism of glandular kallikrein in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabito, S.F.; Seto, M.; Maitra, S.R.; Carretero, O.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the clearance of circulating rat glandular kallikrein and to determine the contribution of various organs and the urinary excretion to the removal of glandular kallikrein from the bloodstream. The authors injected either active /sup 125/I-kallikrein or kallikrein inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (/sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein) intravenously into intact or nephrectomized rats and then studied the disappearance rate of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable radioactivity from the circulation. Inactivation by PMSF markedly reduced the binding of kallikrein to plasma protease inhibitors. The removal rate of the acid-precipitable radioactivity fit a biexponential curve for both active and inactive kallikrein. In the intact rats approximately 50% of the radioactivity was removed from the circulation 30 min after the injection of active /sup 125/I-kallikrein. Removal of the kidneys did not significantly affect the clearance of active kallikrein. On the other hand, inactive /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein was removed from blood faster than active /sup 125/I-kallikrein in normal animals. Approximately 50% of the radioactivity was removed from the circulation 8 min after the injection, and the half-life of inactive /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein was markedly prolonged by bilateral nephrectomy. Active /sup 125/I-kallikrein was taken up by tissues, particularly the liver and the kidney. In urine, less than 2% of the radioactivity was excreted in 60 min as TCA-precipitable material. The authors concluded that glandular kallikrein is cleared rapidly from the circulation of the rat, probably in the form of a complex with a plasma protease inhibitor.

  6. New method for generating breast models featuring glandular tissue spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paixão, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Oliveira, M. A.; Teixeira, M. H. A.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mammography is the main radiographic technique used for breast imaging. A major concern with mammographic imaging is the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer due to the high sensitivity of breast tissue. The mean glandular dose (DG) is the dosimetric quantity widely accepted to characterize the risk of radiation induced cancer. Previous studies have concluded that DG depends not only on the breast glandular content but also on the spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. In this work, a new method for generating computational breast models featuring skin composition and glandular tissue distribution from patients undergoing digital mammography is proposed. Such models allow a more accurate way of calculating individualized breast glandular doses taking into consideration the glandular tissue fraction. Sixteen breast models of four patients with different glandularity breasts were simulated and the results were compared with those obtained from recommended DG conversion factors. The results show that the internationally recommended conversion factors may be overestimating the mean glandular dose to less dense breasts and underestimating the mean glandular dose for denser breasts. The methodology described in this work constitutes a powerful tool for breast dosimetry, especially for risk studies.

  7. Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung in a 64-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-02-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopathological diagnosis was mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma.

  8. Localization of Salvinorin A and Related Compounds in Glandular Trichomes of the Psychoactive Sage, Salvia divinorum

    PubMed Central

    SIEBERT, DANIEL J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution. • Methods Chemical analyses were performed using thin layer chromatographic and histochemical techniques. Trichomes were examined using conventional light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. • Key Results It was found that neoclerodane diterpenes are secreted as components of a resin that accumulates in peltate glandular trichomes, specifically in the subcuticular space that exists between the trichome head cells and the cuticle that encloses them. Four main types of trichomes were observed: peltate glandular trichomes, short‐stalked capitate glandular trichomes, long‐stalked capitate glandular trichomes and non‐glandular trichomes. Their morphology and distribution is described. Peltate glandular trichomes were only found on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves, stems, rachises, bracts, pedicles and calyces. This was consistent with chemical analyses, which showed the presence of neoclerodane diterpenes in these organs, but not in parts of the plant where peltate glandular trichomes are absent. • Conclusions Salvinorin A and related compounds are secreted as components of a complex resin that accumulates in the subcuticular space of peltate glandular trichomes. PMID:15087301

  9. Morphological aspects of the capybara stomach (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris): gross and microscopic structure.

    PubMed

    Moraes, P T de Barros; Pacheco, M R; de Souza, W M; da Silva, R A; Neto, P B S; Barreto, C S de Figueiredo; Ribeiro, A A C M

    2002-12-01

    The digestive system of the capybara has been investigated because of its coprofagia habits, important for their absorptive activity. These species present differences in terms of gastrointestinal morphological characters when compared with other rodents. Macroscopiclly, the stomach of the capybara is constituted of the following parts: cardiac, pyloric, body, fundic and gastric diverticulum. It presents two curvatures, one big and another small. Externally, the presence of gastric bands (tenias) is observed. With regards to the volumetric view, the gastric capacity varies from 850 to 2010 ml, with an average of 1498.57 ml. So, the stomach of this animal can be classified as a simple stomach, in the format of a curved sack and similar to an inverted letter 'J'. The gastric mucous membrane presents a surface filled by numerous tortuous gastric folds and longitudinally distributed along all its extension. The mucous tunic also possesses recesses located among the successive gastric folds, which were denoted as gastric parts with numerous openings described as gastric pits. In the cardiac part, a glandular epithelium with cardiac glands is noticed containing a lot of parietal and mucous neck cells. The fundic part, body and gastric diverticulum contain proper gastric glands with main, parietal and mucous neck cells. Finally, the pyloric part has pyloric glands with two cellular types, mucous neck and parietal cells.

  10. Flat urothelial carcinoma in situ of the bladder with glandular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Jimenez, Rafael E; Montironi, Rodolfo; Patriarca, Carlo; Blanca, Ana; Menendez, Carmen L; Algaba, Ferran; Cheng, Liang

    2011-11-01

    We present the clinicopathologic and immunonohistochemical features of 25 cases of flat urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation. Previously, cases on this category have been reported as in situ adenocarcinoma (a term not currently preferred). Fourteen of 25 cases had concurrent conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ. Five of the cases were primary carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation; twenty cases of secondary carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation were associated with urothelial carcinoma alone (n = 11) or with glandular differentiation (n = 7), discohesive (n = 1) or micropapillary carcinoma (n = 1). The individual tumor cells were columnar. The architectural pattern of the carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation consisted of 1 or more papillary, flat or cribriform glandular patterns. Univariate statistical analysis showed no survival differences between urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation and conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ (log-rank 0.810; P = .368). Carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation showed high ki-67 index and p53 accumulation, high nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression and diffuse PTEN expression, a phenotype that also characterized concurrent conventional carcinoma in situ. MUC5A, MUC2, CK20, and c-erbB2 were positive in all 25 cases of urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation, and CDX-2 was present in 19 cases; MUC1, CK7, or 34βE12 was focally present in 21, 19, and 18 cases, respectively. MUC1core was negative in all cases. We concluded that urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation is a variant of carcinoma in situ that follows the natural history of conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ. The immunophenotype suggests urothelial origin with the expression of MUC5A and CDX2 as signature for glandular differentiation.

  11. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Song, Min Jeong; An, Soyeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Beom Su; Kim, Jihun

    2016-09-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a highly aggressive small round cell tumor that mainly occurs in the bone or soft tissue of children or young adults but is extremely rare in the stomach. A 55-year-old man presented with melena and anemia. On endoscopy, an ulcerofungating mass was observed in the high body and total gastrectomy was performed. Histologically, the mass consisted of small round cells with scanty cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli. They often formed perivascular pseudorosettes and multinucleated giant cells were frequently observed. The tumor cells strongly expressed CD99, FLI1, and chromogranin and weakly expressed synaptophysin and CD56. EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. ES/PNET is frequently misdiagnosed because of its similarity with small cell carcinoma. Although gastric ES/PNET is very rare, it should be included in differential diagnoses of small round cell tumor in the stomach.

  12. Computer-assisted lesion detection system for stomach screening using stomach shape and appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midoh, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Takashima, M.; Nakamae, K.; Fujioka, H.

    2007-03-01

    In Japan, stomach cancer is one of the three most common causes of death from cancer. Since periodic health checks of stomach X-rays have become more widely carried out, the physicians' burdens have been increasing in the mass screening to detect initial symptoms of a disease. For the purpose of automatic diagnosis, we try to develop a computer-assisted lesion detection system for stomach screening. The proposed system has two databases. One is the stomach shape database that consists of the computer graphics stomach 3D models based on biomechanics simulation and their projected 2D images. The other is the normal appearance database that is constructed by learning patterns in a normal patient training set. The stomach contour is extracted from an X-ray image including a barium filled region by the following steps. Firstly, the approximated stomach region is obtained by nonrigid registration based on mutual information. We define nonrigid transformation as one that includes translations, rotations, scaling, air-barium interface and weights of eigenvectors determined by principal components analysis in the stomach shape database. Secondly, the accurate stomach contour is extracted from the gradient of an image by using the Dynamic Programming. After then, stomach lesions are detected by inspecting whether the Mahalanobis distance from the mean in the normal appearance database is longer than a suitable value on the extracted stomach contour. We applied our system to 75 X-ray images of barium-filled stomach to show its validity.

  13. Microanalysis of stomach cancer glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Weyers, Amanda; Yang, Bo; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Seok; Kim, Sun-Moon; Lee, Sang-Eok; Zhang, Fuming; Lee, Kyung Bok; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGS) are anionic, linear, polysaccharides involved in cell signaling. The GAG content, composition and structure of human tissue have been suggested to play a role in cancer and might provide useful diagnostic or prognostic markers. The current study examines 17 stomach tissue biopsy samples taken from normal individuals and from patients with gastric cancers. An ultrasensitive liquid chromatography (LC) – mass spectrometry assay was applied to individual biopsy samples as small 250 µg providing GAG content and disaccharide composition. The results of these analyses show a significant increase in non-sulfated chondroitin/dermatan sulfate concentration in all cancer samples when compared to normal tissues. In addition in advanced gastric cancer, a significant decrease is observed in hyaluronan. PMID:23604988

  14. Human bronchial epithelial cells differentiate to 3D glandular acini on basement membrane matrix.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Peters-Hall, Jennifer R; Bose, Sumit; Peña, Maria T; Rose, Mary C

    2011-06-01

    To create a model system that investigates mechanisms resulting in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of respiratory tract submucosal glands, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) system wherein normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells differentiated into glandular acini when grown on a basement membrane matrix. The differentiation of primary HBE cells into glandular acini was monitored temporally by light microscopy. Apoptosis-induced lumen formation was observed by immunofluorescence analysis. The acinar cells expressed and secreted MUC5B mucin (marker for glandular mucous cells) and lysozyme, lactoferrin, and zinc-α2-glycoprotein (markers for glandular serous cells) at Day 22. β-Tubulin IV, a marker for ciliated cells, was not detected. Expression of mucous and serous cell markers in HBE glandular acini demonstrated that HBE cells grown on a basement membrane matrix differentiated into acini that exhibit molecular characteristics of respiratory tract glandular acinar cells. Inhibition studies with neutralizing antibodies resulted in a marked decrease in size of the spheroids at Day 7, demonstrating that laminin (a major component of the basement membrane matrix), the cell surface receptor integrin α6, and the cell junction marker E-cadherin have functional roles in HBE acinar morphogenesis. No significant variability was detected in the average size of glandular acini formed by HBE cells from two normal individuals. These results demonstrated that this in vitro model system is reproducible, stable, and potentially useful for studies of glandular differentiation and hyperplasia.

  15. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis of Solanum Glandular Trichome Types1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Eric T.; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors. PMID:21098679

  16. Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the chronic mucosal inflammation of the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Onoda, N; Katsuragi, K; Sawada, T; Maeda, K; Mino, A; Ohira, M; Ishikawa, T; Wakasa, K; Hirakawa, K

    2005-12-01

    Although eradication of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) after early gastric carcinoma has been recommended, very limited studies have been reported and the method differs from standard therapy. Here, we attempted the eradication of Hp in the remnant stomach after surgery for primary gastric cancer with the standardized method. We examined efficacy and the safeness of the treatment. Thirty-three H. pylori-positive patients after distal gastrectomy were treated with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapies. After eradication, endoscopic and histological changes were classified on the basis of the Updated Sydney System. The eradication rate in the remnant stomach was 90.9% (30 out of 33 cases) after triple therapy. Temporal minor side effects were notified in 3 cases. After eradication, the remnant stomach showed significant decreases in inflammation- and activity-scores. Moreover, significant improvement in glandular atrophy to normal mucosa was found. In conclusion, PPI-based standard therapy is just as effective for Hp eradication in the remnant stomach than it is in the non-operative stomach. Eradication therapy could be performed safely and resulted in a significant improvement in inflammation and atrophy of the mucosal layer in the remnant stomach after early gastric cancer surgery.

  17. Variation in the number of capitate glandular trichomes in wild and cultivated sunflower germplasm and potential for use in host plant resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capitate glandular trichomes of wild sunflower (Helianthus spp.) are considered an effective defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst), but cultivated sunflowers are reportedly deficient in glandular trichomes. To investigate whether glandular trichomes have a role in protect...

  18. A constitutively active dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces stomach tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Patrik; McGuire, Jacqueline; Rubio, Carlos; Gradin, Katarina; Whitelaw, Murray L.; Pettersson, Sven; Hanberg, Annika; Poellinger, Lorenz

    2002-07-01

    The dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor regulating transcription of a battery of genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Known receptor ligands are environmental pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dioxins. Loss-of-function (gene-disruption) studies in mice have demonstrated that the AhR is involved in toxic effects of dioxins but have not yielded unequivocal results concerning the physiological function of the receptor. Gain-of-function studies therefore were performed to unravel the biological functions of the AhR. A constitutively active AhR expressed in transgenic mice reduced the life span of the mice and induced tumors in the glandular part of the stomach, demonstrating the oncogenic potential of the AhR and implicating the receptor in regulation of cell proliferation.

  19. A constitutively active dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces stomach tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Patrik; McGuire, Jacqueline; Rubio, Carlos; Gradin, Katarina; Whitelaw, Murray L.; Pettersson, Sven; Hanberg, Annika; Poellinger, Lorenz

    2002-01-01

    The dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor regulating transcription of a battery of genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Known receptor ligands are environmental pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dioxins. Loss-of-function (gene-disruption) studies in mice have demonstrated that the AhR is involved in toxic effects of dioxins but have not yielded unequivocal results concerning the physiological function of the receptor. Gain-of-function studies therefore were performed to unravel the biological functions of the AhR. A constitutively active AhR expressed in transgenic mice reduced the life span of the mice and induced tumors in the glandular part of the stomach, demonstrating the oncogenic potential of the AhR and implicating the receptor in regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:12107286

  20. Glandular odontogenic cyst: report of an unusual bilateral occurrence.

    PubMed

    Amberkar, Vikram S; Jahagirdar, Abhishek; Ahmed Mujib, B R

    2011-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a recently recognized rare developmental odontogenic cyst having an aggressive behavior and accounting for 0.012% to 1.3% of all jaw cysts. GOC usually presents as a painless, slow-growing swelling that tends to affect the anterior part of the jaws. It chiefly occurs in the fourth and fifth decades of life and presents as an expansion of jaws with or without pain or paresthesia. Aggressive nature of the lesion has been reported, as supported by the fact that 25 to 55% of cases recur following curettage. So far only just over 113 cases of GOC have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of bilateral GOC in the posterior region of the maxilla, in a 29-year-old male patient, which is unique, being the first case of bilateral GOC to be reported in the literature.

  1. Glandular odontogenic cyst: absence of PTCH gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Barreto, D C; De Marco, L; Castro, W H; Gomez, R S

    2001-02-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare jawbone cyst of odontogenic origin. Human patched (PTCH) is a tumour suppressor gene that has been recently associated with signalling pathways during odontogenesis. Recently alterations of this gene were found on sporadic odontogenic keratocysts. This evidence, together with the biological behaviour similarities of both lesions, and the absence of reports on molecular analysis of GOC, led us to hypothesize that PTCH gene mutations may underlie the tumorigenesis of GOC. Therefore the aim of this study was to report one additional case of GOC and investigate the PTCH gene of the cyst. No mutations were found in the splicing and coding regions of the PTCH gene. In conclusion, the PTCH gene does not seem to be involved in GOC pathogenesis.

  2. What's New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer What’s New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment? Research is ... Chemotherapy drugs and combinations Some studies are testing new ways to combine drugs already known to be ...

  3. The stomach in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2015-10-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer.

  4. The stomach in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2016-01-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer. PMID:26342014

  5. Dysbiotic infection in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Ishihara, Shyunji; Richardo, Timmy; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2015-10-28

    Microbiota in human alimentary tract plays important roles for homeostatic maintenance of the body. Compositional difference of gut microbiota is tightly associated with susceptibility of many diseases, including inflammatory diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and atherosclerosis. "Dysbiosis" refers to a state of imbalance among the colonies of microorganisms within the body, which brings abnormal increase of specific minor components and decrease in the normally dominant species. Since stomach secrets strong acid for its digestive role, this organ has long been thought a sterile organ. However, the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has changed the concept. This bacterium has proven to cause gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. However, recent cross-sectional studies revealed that H. pylori carriers had a decreased risk of developing immunological diseases, such as asthma. H. pylori coinfection also suppresses inflammatory bowel diseases. This review describes human gastric microbiota by discussing its mutual interaction and pathogenic enrollment. Gastric "dysbiosis" may affect host inflammatory response and play important role for gastric pathogenesis. We will topically discuss enrollment of dysbiosis for genesis of gastric cancer as well as for disruption of immunological homeostasis affecting oncogenic resistance.

  6. Dysbiotic infection in the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Ishihara, Shyunji; Richardo, Timmy; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota in human alimentary tract plays important roles for homeostatic maintenance of the body. Compositional difference of gut microbiota is tightly associated with susceptibility of many diseases, including inflammatory diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and atherosclerosis. “Dysbiosis” refers to a state of imbalance among the colonies of microorganisms within the body, which brings abnormal increase of specific minor components and decrease in the normally dominant species. Since stomach secrets strong acid for its digestive role, this organ has long been thought a sterile organ. However, the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has changed the concept. This bacterium has proven to cause gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. However, recent cross-sectional studies revealed that H. pylori carriers had a decreased risk of developing immunological diseases, such as asthma. H. pylori coinfection also suppresses inflammatory bowel diseases. This review describes human gastric microbiota by discussing its mutual interaction and pathogenic enrollment. Gastric “dysbiosis” may affect host inflammatory response and play important role for gastric pathogenesis. We will topically discuss enrollment of dysbiosis for genesis of gastric cancer as well as for disruption of immunological homeostasis affecting oncogenic resistance. PMID:26523109

  7. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Gumuscu, Burak; Norwood, Kevin; Parker, George A.; Bridges, C. Lee; Rountree, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A 13-year-old African–American female presented to her primary care physician's office with fatigue, syncope, and hematemesis. After initial evaluation, the patient was referred to pediatric gastroenterology clinic for further evaluation. Main concerns, important findings: An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to evaluate the source of her bleeding. Endoscopy revealed a 3-cm mass in the lesser curvature of the stomach, and a biopsy of the mass revealed a concern for carcinoid (neuroendocrine) features. Diagnosis: She underwent an open gastrectomy. Post-surgical pathology reports confirmed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach. Conclusion: Neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach in children are rare and we presently do not have pediatric-specific diagnostic and treatment guidelines. Although adult-based The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS) guidelines are helpful, they are clearly not geared toward pediatric patients. To establish pediatric guidelines and to assess effectiveness of treatments, multicenter data collection is essential. In the long run, accumulation of clinically useful treatment information and long-term follow-up guidelines should enable clinicians to improve standard of care given to children with neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:27442656

  8. Differential transcriptome analysis of glandular and filamentous trichomes in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The medicinal plant Artemisia annua is covered with filamentous trichomes and glandular, artemisinin producing trichomes. A high artemisinin supply is needed at a reduced cost for treating malaria. Artemisinin production in bioreactors can be facilitated if a better insight is obtained in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other metabolites. Therefore, metabolic activities of glandular and filamentous trichomes were investigated at the transcriptome level. Results By laser pressure catapulting, glandular and filamentous trichomes as well as apical and sub-apical cells from glandular trichomes were collected and their transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq. A de novo transcriptome was assembled (Trinity) and studied with a differential expression analysis (edgeR). A comparison of the transcriptome from glandular and filamentous trichomes shows that MEP, MVA, most terpene and lipid biosynthesis pathways are significantly upregulated in glandular trichomes. Conversely, some transcripts coding for specific sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid enzymes such as 8-epi-cedrol synthase and an uncharacterized oxidosqualene cyclase were significantly upregulated in filamentous trichomes. All known artemisinin biosynthesis genes are upregulated in glandular trichomes and were detected in both the apical and sub-apical cells of the glandular trichomes. No significant differential expression could be observed between the apical and sub-apical cells. Conclusions Our results underscore the vast metabolic capacities of A. annua glandular trichomes but nonetheless point to the existence of specific terpene metabolic pathways in the filamentous trichomes. Candidate genes that might be involved in artemisinin biosynthesis are proposed based on their putative function and their differential expression level. PMID:24359620

  9. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  10. BRAT Diet: Recovering from an Upset Stomach

    MedlinePlus

    ... to vomiting and diarrhea. Bananas, for example, are high in the vitamin potassium.Bland foods don’t irritate your stomach. After you have diarrhea or vomiting, follow the BRAT diet to help your body ease back into normal ...

  11. Microbiota in the stomach: new insights.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen Ming; Yang, Yun Sheng; Peng, Li Hua

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria are sparsely distributed in the stomach due to the gastric microbicidal barrier. Several innate defenses (low pH, migrating motor complex and the entero-salivary circulation of nitrate) as well as external factors (diet, Helicobacter pylori infection, proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics and stomach diseases) have been shown to influence significantly the microbiota composition in the stomach. In recent years new culture-independent technologies have allowed the investigation of the cross talk that occurs between hosts and stomach-associated microflora, which helps us to understand the role of gastric bacterial flora in the gastrointestinal microbiological system, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we reviewed the literatures related to this topic and set the stage for future developments of the field.

  12. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Chemo Before Surgery May Help Stomach Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  14. Corrosive acid injury of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, T; Ratnatunga, C; Dharrmapala, A; Samarasinghe, T

    2015-03-01

    Ingestion of corrosives with accidental or suicidal intent is a common problem in Sri Lanka. Management options and outcomes of corrosive injuries on stomach are not well documented in our setting. The clinical presentation, complications and management outcomes of nine patients with corrosive injury to stomach are presented. Gastric outlet obstruction seen in majority, was managed with bypass procedure (n=5) or resection (n=4). The outcomes of management were successful with both methods.

  15. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Andrew M.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgNhetero) and homogeneous (pDgNhomo) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgNhetero coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgNhomo coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgNhetero relative to pDgNhomo of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the compressed breast width in the superior and

  16. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Andrew M.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  17. Coherent angular motion in the establishment of multicellular architecture of glandular tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Kandice; Mori, Hidetoshi; Mroue, Rana; Bruni-Cardoso, Alexandre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular tissues form ducts (tubes) and acini (spheres) in multicellular organisms. This process is best demonstrated in the organization of the ductal tree of the mammary gland and in 3D models of morphogenesis in culture. Here, we asked a fundamental question: How do single adult epithelial cells generate polarized acini when placed in a surrogate basement membrane 3D gel? Using human breast epithelial cells from either reduction mammoplasty or nonmalignant breast cell lines, we observed a unique cellular movement where single cells undergo multiple rotations and then maintain it cohesively as they divide to assemble into acini. This coherent angular motion (CAMo) was observed in both primary cells and breast cell lines. If CAMo was disrupted, the final geometry was not a sphere. The malignant counterparts of the human breast cell lines in 3D were randomly motile, did not display CAMo, and did not form spheres. Upon “phenotypic reversion” of malignant cells, both CAMo and spherical architecture were restored. We show that cell-cell adhesion and tissue polarity are essential for the formation of acini and link the functional relevance of CAMo to the establishment of spherical architecture rather than to multicellular aggregation or growth. We propose that CAMo is an integral step in the formation of the tissue architecture and that its disruption is involved in malignant transformation. PMID:22308439

  18. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  19. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-05

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  20. Histogenesis of the stomach of the pre-hatching quail: a light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Soha A; Ahmed, Yasser A; Abdelsabour-Khalaf, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    The current study conducted a careful description of the histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. Daily histological specimens from the quail stomach from day 4 to day 17 post incubation were examined by light microscopy. The primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at day 4 post incubation. The gut tube consisted of an endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type, surrounded by splanchnic mesenchyme. The prospective glandular epithelium invaginated at day 5 in the proventriculus and gradually developed to prospective proventricular glands. The muscular coat became distinguished at day 7 and day 8 in the proventriculus and gizzard, respectively. Transformation into simple columnar epithelium occurred in both proventriculus and the gizzard at day 12. The gizzard epithelium gave rise to tubular invaginations also at day 12. Canalization of the gizzard tubular glands was recognized at day 14. By day 15, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in a concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units that contained inactive oxyntico-peptic cells. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared at day 15 to form plicae and sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard at day 17 acquired histological features of post-hatching birds.

  1. [Esophageal reconstruction--using gastric tube instead of whole stomach].

    PubMed

    Chen, Keneng

    2014-09-01

    Stomach is the first choice for esophageal reconstruction following esophagectomy. In the earlier days, however, whole stomach pulling-up was the major surgery, which had some shortcomings. Recently, gastric tube has gained wide acceptance for esophageal reconstruction. This paper summarized the anatomical and physiological advantage of stomach, the disadvantage of whole stomach, and benefits of gastric tube for esophageal reconstruction.

  2. Pulmonary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma mimicking adenocarcinoma: a case study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dongliang; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Jigang; Ding, Li; Xin, Fangjie; Zhao, Han; Li, Yujun

    2013-08-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. Here we present another case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma in a 64-year-old female nonsmoker. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly papillary structures covered with squamous, glandular and transitional epithelium. Some glandular structures extending into adjacent bronchiolar and alveolar spaces with mucus were similar to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the different kinds of epithelia had similar immunophenotype. The different components were positive for cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, CAM5.2, CK5/6, CK34βE12, and TTF-1, but negative for CK20. The transitional morphology and immunohistochemistry indicate the different components likely come from a same kind of progenitor in the bronchiolar wall.

  3. [Study on characteristics of non-glandular hairs of cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-shan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-02-01

    We collected 22 cultivated population of Lonicera japonica from 17 areas. The characteristics of non-glandular hairs were observed and measured by the scanning electron microscopy. The principal components analysis and correlation analysis were conduct based on length and density of L. japonica. The results showed a significant negative correlation between length and density of non-glandular hairs, and the characteristics of non-glandular was not corrrelated significantly with latitude. The correlation results indicated that the density was a key to separate "Damaohua" and "Jizhuahua". The contribution of climate and soil was important to the cultivated population. This reminded that the characteristics of non-glandular hairs were affected by environmental and genetic interaction.

  4. Lewis Antigen Expression by Helicobacter pylori Strains Colonizing Different Regions of the Stomach of Individual Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    González-Valencia, Gerardo; Muñoz-Perez, Leopoldo; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres, Javier

    2008-01-01

    The diversity in the expression of Lewis antigens (Le) of 226 single colonies of Helicobacter pylori isolated from four regions of the stomach of eight adults is shown. Ley was expressed more in strains colonizing antrum than in strains colonizing fundus, whereas Lex was more common in fundus strains. cagA+ strains were more associated with Le-negative strains. PMID:18550746

  5. Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, R A; Ritchie, A C; Springer, J; Muller, J

    1993-01-01

    An excess of mortality from stomach cancer has been found in Ontario gold miners (observed (obs) 104, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 152, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 125-185) and no excess of stomach cancer could be detected in other miners in Ontario (obs 74, SMR 102, 95% CI 80-128). The excess of stomach cancer appeared five to 19 years after the miners began gold mining in Ontario. In that interval, similar patterns of excess mortality from stomach cancer were found in miners born in north America (obs 14, SMR 268, CI 147-450) and in miners born outside north America (obs 12, SMR 280, 95% CI 145-489). Twenty or more years after the miners began mining gold, an excess of mortality from stomach cancer was found in gold miners born outside of north American (obs 41, SMR 160, 95% CI 115-218) but not in gold miners born in north America (obs 37, SMR 113, 95% CI 80-156). The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 (obs 45, SMR 167, 95% CI 122-223) seems larger than the excess in gold miners between the ages of 60 and 74 (obs 59, SMR 143, 95% CI 109-184). Exposures to arsenic, chromium, mineral fibre, diesel emissions, and aluminium powder were considered as possible explanations of the excess of stomach cancer in Ontario gold miners. Exposure to diesel emissions and aluminium powder was rejected as gold miners and uranium miners were exposed to both agents but an excess of stomach cancer was noted only in gold miners. The association between the excess of stomach cancer and the time since the miner began mining gold suggested that duration of exposure to dust in gold mines ought to be weighted according to the time since the exposure to dust occurred and that an appropriate time weighting function would be one in the interval five to 19 years after each year of exposure to dust and zero otherwise. A statistically significant association between the relative risk of mortality from stomach cancer and the time weighted duration of exposure to

  6. Disintegration of solid foods in human stomach.

    PubMed

    Kong, F; Singh, R P

    2008-06-01

    Knowledge of the disintegration of solid foods in human stomach is essential to assess the bioavailability of nutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A comprehensive review of food gastric digestion, focusing on disintegration of solid foods, is presented. Most of the research reviewed in this paper is contained in the medical, pharmaceutical, food, and nutritional literature. Stomach physiology is briefly introduced, including composition and rheological properties of gastric contents, stomach wall motility in fed/fasted states, and hydrodynamic and mechanical forces that act on the ingested food. In vivo and in vitro methods used for studying food and drug digestion in GI are summarized. Stomach emptying rate, which controls the rate of absorption of nutrients, is highly related to the disintegration of foods. This topic is highlighted with focus on the important mechanisms and the influence of chemical and physical properties of foods. Future research in this area is identified to increase our fundamental understanding of the food digestion process in the stomach as related to the food composition, material properties such as texture and microstructure, and chemical characteristics. This information is necessary to develop new guidelines for seeking innovative processing methods to manufacture foods specifically targeted for health.

  7. Distribution of Pholeter gastrophilus (Digenea) within the stomach of four odontocete species: the role of the diet and digestive physiology of hosts.

    PubMed

    Aznar, F J; Fognani, P; Balbuena, J A; Pietrobelli, M; Raga, J A

    2006-09-01

    We compared the distribution of the digenean Pholeter gastrophilus in the stomach of 27 harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, 27 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, 18 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, and 100 long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas. The stomach of these species is composed of 4 chambers of different size, structure and function. In all species, P. gastrophilus was largely restricted to the glandular region of the stomach, but the parasite tended to favour the fundic chamber in bottlenose dolphins and harbour porpoises, the pyloric chamber in pilot whales, and none in striped dolphins. However, predictability at infrapopulation level was generally low, suggesting a weak preference of P. gastrophilus for any of the chambers. Three hypotheses were tested to investigate a common cause for the distribution of P. gastrophilus in all host species, namely, colonization of chambers was (1) sequential, (2) dependent on chamber size, or (3) dependent on the passage time of food through the whole stomach. The latter hypothesis was indirectly tested by assuming, based on previous evidence from other vertebrates, that the greater the size of the stomach and/or the energy content of prey, the greater the delay of food passage. We found no compelling evidence that chamber colonization was sequential, or related to chamber size in any species. However, the distribution of P. gastrophilus was significantly more anteriad when the host species had larger stomachs and, particularly, when hosts fed on prey with higher caloric content. Accordingly, the stomach distribution of P. gastrophilus at this scale seems to be passively driven by features of the diet and digestive physiology of each host species. This study provides a general framework to formulate null hypotheses in future studies on microhabitat choice by parasites.

  8. Glandular epithelial AR inactivation enhances PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion induces uterine pathology, whereas androgen actions via androgen receptor (AR) support uterine growth and therefore may modify uterine cancer risk. We hypothesized that the androgen actions mediated via uterine glandular epithelial AR could modify PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology. To test our hypothesis, we developed uterine glandular epithelium-specific PTEN and/or AR knockout mouse models comparing the uterine pathology among wild-type (WT), glandular epithelium-specific AR inactivation (ugeARKO), PTEN deletion (ugePTENKO), and the combined PTEN and AR knockout (ugePTENARKO) female mice. The double knockout restricted to glandular epithelium showed that AR inactivation enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology with development of intraepithelial neoplasia by 20 weeks of age. In ugePTENARKO, 6/10 (60%) developed intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas 3/10 (30%) developed only glandular hyperplasia in ugePTENKO uterus. No uterine pathology was observed in WT (n=8) and ugeARKO (n=7) uteri. Uterine weight was significantly (P=0.002) increased in ugePTENARKO (374±97 mg (mean±s.e.)) compared with WT (97±6 mg), ugeARKO (94±12 mg), and ugePTENKO (205±33 mg). Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and P-AKT expression was modified by uterine pathology but did not differ between ugePTENKO and ugePTENARKO, suggesting that its expressions are not directly affected by androgens. However, progesterone receptor (PR) expression was reduced in ugePTENARKO compared to ugePTENKO uterus, suggesting that PR expression could be regulated by glandular epithelial AR inactivation. In conclusion, glandular epithelial AR inactivation (with persistent stromal AR action) enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology possibly by downregulating PR expression in the uterus.

  9. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Hurairah, Abu; Grossman, Evan B.

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that usually originates from the pleura, but has been reported in other extrapleural locations. We report a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor of the stomach, which was successfully treated with endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:28286800

  10. Identification of neuroanatomic circuits from spinal cord to stomach in mouse: retrograde transneuronal viral tracing study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Da-Wei; Liu, Cheng; Tian, Xue-Bi; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    To determine the spinal innervation and neuronal connections is important for studying gastric carbohydrate metabolism and motor responses. Neurons involved in the efferent control of the stomach were identified following visualization of pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 retrograde tracing. PRV-614 was injected into the ventral stomach wall in 13 adult C57BL/6J strain male mice. On the fifth day postinjection, animals were humanely sacrificed, and spinal cords were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV visualization. The virus injected into the ventral stomach wall was specifically transported to the thoracic spinal cord. At 5 d after injection of the PRV-614, stomach enlargement and tissue edema were found, and PRV-614 positive cells were found in the intermediolateral cell column, the intercalates nucleus or the central autonomic nucleus of spinal cord segments T3 to L1, and major PRV-614 labeled cells were focused in the T6-10 segment. Our results revealed neuroanatomical circuits between stomach and the spinal intermediolateral cell column neurons.

  11. Influence of Environment on Glandular Trichomes and Composition of Essential Oil of Perovskia abrotanoides Karel.

    PubMed Central

    Oreizi, Elaheh; Rahiminejad, Mohammad Reza; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perovskia abrotanoides Karel. is a medicinal plant used in Iranian folk medicine as a pain killer. Forty-one components have been identified in P. abrotanoides samples collected from Baluchistan Province, and 29 components have been recognized in samples collected from Khorasan Province. The leaves of P. abrotanoides have glandular trichomes (capitates and peltate) on both sides of the lamina. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the variation of oil constituents of the plant and illustrate the glandular trichomes types and then show the influence of environment on oil constituents and glandular trichomes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the plant was obtained using hydrodistillation and the analysis of oils carried out using GC-MS. The anatomical analysis of leaves was done by fixing, coloring, and photoing the sections. Results: Glandular trichomes composed of capitates and peltate trichomes. The essential oil composition differs. Viridiflora and neryl acetate were not identified in yellow glandular trichomes. Conclusions: It seems that there is no relation between anatomical characteristics of the plant leaves and its essential oil composition. PMID:25625046

  12. Establishing epithelial glandular polarity: interlinked roles for ARF6, Rac1, and the matrix microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Monteleon, Christine L; Sedgwick, Alanna; Hartsell, Alyssa; Dai, Michael; Whittington, Catherine; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial cysts comprise the structural units of the glandular epithelium. Although glandular inversion in epithelial tumors is thought to be a potential mechanism for the establishment of metastatic disease, little is known about the morphogenic cues and signaling pathways that govern glandular polarity and organization. Using organotypic cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in reconstituted basement membrane, we show that cellular depletion of the small GTP-binding protein ARF6 promotes the formation of inverted cysts, wherein the apical cell membrane faces the cyst exterior, and the basal domain faces the central lumen, while individual cell polarity is maintained. These cysts are also defective in interactions with laminin at the cyst-matrix interface. This inversion of glandular orientation is accompanied by Rac1 inactivation during early cystogenesis, and temporal activation of Rac1 is sufficient to recover the normal cyst phenotype. In an unnatural collagen I microenvironment, ARF6-depleted, inverted epithelial cysts exhibit some loss of cell polarity, a marked increase in Rho activation and Rac1 inactivation, and striking rearrangement of the surrounding collagen I matrix. These studies demonstrate the importance of ARF6 as a critical determinant of glandular orientation and the matrix environment in dictating structural organization of epithelial cysts.

  13. Aquaporins are upregulated in glandular epithelium at the time of implantation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Laura A; Murphy, Christopher R

    2007-03-01

    Regulation of luminal fluid is essential for blastocyst implantation. While it has been known for quite some time that there is a reduction in the amount of luminal fluid at the time of implantation, the mechanisms regulating this process are only just emerging. Previous studies have shown an upregulation of aquaporin (AQP) 5 channels in luminal epithelial cells at the time of implantation providing a mechanism for fluid reabsorption across the surface epithelium. However to date the contribution of fluid reabsorption by glandular epithelial cells has not been established. This study using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrates the presence of several AQP isoforms in the rat uterus at the time of implantation while immunofluorescence data demonstrates an apical distribution of AQPs5 and 9 in the glandular epithelium at the time of implantation. The presence of AQPs5 and 9 in the apical plasma membrane of the glandular epithelium seen in this study provides a mechanism for transcellular fluid transport across these glandular epithelial cells similar to that seen in luminal epithelial cells. The reabsorption of glandular fluid via AQP channels may also regulate luminal fluid volume and be involved in the reduction in luminal fluid seen at the time of implantation.

  14. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Joris J.; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Alba, Juan M.; Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Schuurink, Robert C.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. PMID:23235331

  15. Prediction of the location and size of the stomach using patient characteristics for retrospective radiation dose estimation following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lamart, Stephanie; Imran, Rebecca; Simon, Steven L; Doi, Kazutaka; Morton, Lindsay M; Curtis, Rochelle E; Lee, Choonik; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Maass-Moreno, Roberto; Chen, Clara C; Whatley, Millie; Miller, Donald L; Pacak, Karel; Lee, Choonsik

    2013-12-21

    Following cancer radiotherapy, reconstruction of doses to organs, other than the target organ, is of interest for retrospective health risk studies. Reliable estimation of doses to organs that may be partially within or fully outside the treatment field requires reliable knowledge of the location and size of the organs, e.g., the stomach, which is at risk from abdominal irradiation. The stomach location and size are known to be highly variable between individuals, but have been little studied. Moreover, for treatments conducted years ago, medical images of patients are usually not available in medical records to locate the stomach. In light of the poor information available to locate the stomach in historical dose reconstructions, the purpose of this work was to investigate the variability of stomach location and size among adult male patients and to develop prediction models for the stomach location and size using predictor variables generally available in medical records of radiotherapy patients treated in the past. To collect data on stomach size and position, we segmented the contours of the stomach and of the skeleton on contemporary computed tomography (CT) images for 30 male patients in supine position. The location and size of the stomach was found to depend on body mass index (BMI), ponderal index (PI), and age. For example, the anteroposterior dimension of the stomach was found to increase with increasing BMI (≈0.25 cm kg(-1) m(2)) whereas its craniocaudal dimension decreased with increasing PI (≈-3.3 cm kg(-1) m(3)) and its transverse dimension increased with increasing PI (≈2.5 cm kg(-1) m(3)). Using the prediction models, we generated three-dimensional computational stomach models from a deformable hybrid phantom for three patients of different BMI. Based on a typical radiotherapy treatment, we simulated radiotherapy treatments on the predicted stomach models and on the CT images of the corresponding patients. Those dose calculations demonstrated

  16. Prediction of the location and size of the stomach using patient characteristics for retrospective radiation dose estimation following radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Imran, Rebecca; Simon, Steven L.; Doi, Kazutaka; Morton, Lindsay M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Lee, Choonik; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Maass-Moreno, Roberto; Chen, Clara C.; Whatley, Millie; Miller, Donald L.; Pacak, Karel; Lee, Choonsik

    2013-12-01

    Following cancer radiotherapy, reconstruction of doses to organs, other than the target organ, is of interest for retrospective health risk studies. Reliable estimation of doses to organs that may be partially within or fully outside the treatment field requires reliable knowledge of the location and size of the organs, e.g., the stomach, which is at risk from abdominal irradiation. The stomach location and size are known to be highly variable between individuals, but have been little studied. Moreover, for treatments conducted years ago, medical images of patients are usually not available in medical records to locate the stomach. In light of the poor information available to locate the stomach in historical dose reconstructions, the purpose of this work was to investigate the variability of stomach location and size among adult male patients and to develop prediction models for the stomach location and size using predictor variables generally available in medical records of radiotherapy patients treated in the past. To collect data on stomach size and position, we segmented the contours of the stomach and of the skeleton on contemporary computed tomography (CT) images for 30 male patients in supine position. The location and size of the stomach was found to depend on body mass index (BMI), ponderal index (PI), and age. For example, the anteroposterior dimension of the stomach was found to increase with increasing BMI (≈0.25 cm kg-1 m2) whereas its craniocaudal dimension decreased with increasing PI (≈-3.3 cm kg-1 m3) and its transverse dimension increased with increasing PI (≈2.5 cm kg-1 m3). Using the prediction models, we generated three-dimensional computational stomach models from a deformable hybrid phantom for three patients of different BMI. Based on a typical radiotherapy treatment, we simulated radiotherapy treatments on the predicted stomach models and on the CT images of the corresponding patients. Those dose calculations demonstrated good

  17. Hiatal hernia with upside-down stomach. Management of acute incarceration: case presentation and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Andrzej; Kuta, Marcin; Pasternak, Artur; Opach, Zdzisław; Walocha, Jerzy; Richter, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Upside-down stomach (UDS) represents the rarest type of hiatal hernia (<5%) and is characterized by herniation of the entire stomach or most gastric portions into the posterior mediastinum. We present here a very rare complication of such a condition which is incarceration of upside-down stomach. A 54 year-old female was admitted to the emergency department presenting signs of acute epigastric pain radiating into thorax. Computed tomography revealed a giant hiatal hernia with incarceration of the gastric trunk. Immediate operation for reduction of the incarcerated stomach and repair of the hiatal defect was performed. The patient was discharged without any complication and was followed up at the surgical outpatient department. The presented case confirms that differentiation of an acute epigastric or intrathoracic pain in adults should always exclude presence of hiatal hernia which in case of incarceration should be treated by prompt surgical management.

  18. [Anatomic-topographic description of the stomach, small intestine, large intestine and their arteries of the greater mara (Dolichotis patagonum Desmarest 1820)].

    PubMed

    Weissengruber, G E

    2000-04-01

    The abdominal parts of the alimentary canal and the associated arteries from seven male and nine female maras are described. The mara possesses a stomach with a single cavity and a glandular mucosa lining. The large stomach is situated caudal of the liver at right-angles to the longitudinal body axis. The long jejunum is located on the left side of the body caudal of the stomach. The cecum has two teniae and numerous haustra which are proximal larger than distal. The smooth colon ascendens runs proximal parallel to the cecum and describes distal an U-shaped double-loop. The internal surface of the proximal part of the colon ascendens is characterized by two parallel mucosal ledges. Cecum and colon ascendens lie right caudal of the liver. The colon descendens is coiled and situated on the left body side. The A. gastrica sinistra and branches of the A. lienalis and the A. hepatica supply the stomach. The A. mesenterica cranialis which branches of separately from the A. coeliaca is a large and long vessel that supplies the major parts of the small intestine and the colon. The A. mesenterica caudalis supplies parts of the colon desendens and of the rectum.

  19. Definition and Facts for Peptic Ulcers (Stomach Ulcers)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Clinical Trials Definition & Facts for Peptic Ulcers (Stomach Ulcers) What is a peptic ulcer? A peptic ... is a sore on the lining of your stomach or duodenum. Rarely, a peptic ulcer may develop ...

  20. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  1. Mesothelial glandular structures within pseudosarcomatous proliferative funiculitis--a diagnostic pitfall: report of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2008-01-01

    We describe 17 cases of distinct benign pseudomalignant mesothelial proliferations, involving the spermatic cord. All cases revealed necrosis. The areas adjacent to the necrotic tissue comprised a cellular spindle cell proliferation with a haphazard arrangement of the myofibroblasts that in many areas revealed transitions into plump oval epithelioid cells and into cells with genuine epithelial appearances arranged in linear cords and often luminized into small microcysts. These epithelial cells formed isolated groups with glandular structures arising on the myofibroblastic background. Glandular structures were often situated deeply in the stroma of the spermatic cords. All cellular elements were strongly positive with AE1/AE3 antibody. All myofibroblasts stained with SM-actin antibody. Ultrastructurally, the spindle cells displayed features of myofibroblasts including actin microfilaments, as did the plump epithelioid cells that, additionally, had desmosomes, and the cords of the epithelial cells including those forming glandular structures had characteristics of mesothelias including the characteristic microvilli.

  2. Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma: a radioimmunoassay for its determination

    SciTech Connect

    Rabito, S.F.; Scicli, A.G.; Kher, V.; Carretero, O.A.

    1982-04-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma. To prevent the binding of radioactive kallikrein to plasma inhibitors, /sup 125/I-kallikrein was inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a procedure that maintained /sup 125/I-kallikrein immunoreactivity. Different volumes of plasma displaced /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein in a parallel fashion to the kallikrein standard curve. The sensitivity of the RIA was 200 pg, and the recovery of nonradioactive active kallikrein added to plasma was 58.7%. The concentration of immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in normal rat plasma averaged 47.1 +/- 1.7 (SE) ng/ml. Bilateral nephrectomy caused a threefold increase in circulating glandular kallikrein (50 +/- 2.7 to 167 +/- 7 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Removal of the submandibular and sublingual glands signficantly decreased its concentration from 52 +/- 2.3 to 34 +/- 1.6 ng/ml (P < 0.001). Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein was higher in the submandibular gland vein than in arterial blood (venous; 94 +/- 10.5; arterial: 64 +/- 6.3 ng/ml; P < 0.05) and was lower in the renal venous blood (venous: 44 +/- 2.2; arterial: 53 +/- 2.6 ng/ml; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that the use of /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein as tracer prevents the interference in the RIA caused by plasma protease inhibitors. It also indicates that the submandibular gland is an important source of the immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma and that the kidney probably participates in its metabolism. Glandular kallikrein released by the submandibular gland into the circulation may participate in regulating local blood flow before it is inactivated by plasma inhibitors.

  3. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  5. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  6. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  7. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  8. Genetic elaborations of glandular and non-glandular trichomes in Mentha arvensis genotypes: assessing genotypic and phenotypic correlations along with gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anand; Lal, R K; Chanotiya, C S; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2017-03-01

    Mentha arvensis (corn mint) is well known for the production of menthol, a widely used commodity in pharma and flavoring industries and provides natural fragrances and products. Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the aerial surface of vascular plants species producing specific secondary metabolite chemistry. Correlations were established among trichomes, oil yield, and major secondary metabolites. Nine improved, elite cultivars representing different M. arvensis genotypes were used for analysis. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were estimated; results indicated the presence of considerable amount of genetic variability, thereby emphasizing wide scope of selection. Positive and significant associations were found among glandular trichomes, oil yield, essential oil constituents, and leaf morphology itself, whereas morphological parameters of leaf show positive and negative correlations to average number of trichome and essential oil constituents. Average number of glandular, non-glandular trichomes, their ratios, menthol content, and trichome number showed a good heritability. Trichomes were studied microscopically in leaf parts in all varieties for analyzing their distribution pattern. The trichome number variations showed significant correlation throughout the genotypes with essential oil yield and monoterpenoid constituents. Differential changes were analyzed for Glutathione S-transferases, Glutathione reductase, Malondialdehyde, phenolics, and chlorophyll content. Gene expressions were analyzed for biosynthesis genes and selected transcription factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1), ENOLASE 1, GLABRA 3, GTL 1, NUCLEAR TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Y SUBUNIT B-6, WRKY transcription factor 22, putative WRKY 33, WRKY 17, WRKY 1, and WRKY 65-like for harnessing their relation with trichome development in M. arvensis genotypes.

  9. Candidate chemosensory cells in the porcine stomach.

    PubMed

    Widmayer, Patricia; Breer, Heinz; Hass, Nicole

    2011-07-01

    A continuous chemosensory monitoring of the ingested food is of vital importance for adjusting digestive processes according to diet composition. Although any dysfunction of this surveillance system may be the cause of severe gastrointestinal disorders, information about the cellular and molecular basis of chemosensation in the gastrointestinal tract is limited. The porcine alimentary canal is considered as an appropriate model for the human gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the gastric mucosa of swine for cells which express gustatory transduction elements such as TRPM5 or PLCβ2, and thus may represent candidate "chemosensors". It was found that the porcine stomach indeed contains cells expressing gustatory marker molecules; however, the morphology and topographic distribution of putative chemosensory cells varied significantly from that in mice. Whereas in the murine stomach these cells were clustered at a distinct region near the gastric entrance, no such compact cell cluster was found in the pig stomach. These results indicate substantial differences regarding the phenotype of candidate chemosensory cells of mice and swine and underline the importance of choosing the most suitable model organisms.

  10. Cardiac myxoma with glandular elements: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of five new cases with an emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghui; Ding, Li; Liu, Yanhui; Xue, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper reported five new cases of cardiac myxoma with glandular components, known as glandular cardiac myxoma. The goals of this study were to analyze the clinicopathological features of this disease and to explore new features for differential diagnosis. The patient series included three women and two men. All tumors were located in the left atrium without invasion of the adjacent myocardium. Patients presented with cardiac-related or embolization symptoms. Histologically, neoplasms consisted of well-formed glandular structures and typical myxoma areas. No nuclear atypia, mitosis, or necrosis was identified in the glandular structures. Glandular lining cells were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CAM5.2 and cytokeratin 7, but were negative for some organ-specific markers, such as thyroid transcription factor-1, calretinin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, gross cystic disease fluid protein, prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeobox 2. In conclusion, glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare disease which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma. Because of its rarity, glandular cardiac myxoma must be distinguished from adenocarcinoma metastatic to the heart. The combination of histopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles should improve the diagnostic accuracy of glandular cardiac myxoma.

  11. Effect of chronic intake of liquid nutrition on stomach and duodenum morphology.

    PubMed

    Vrabcova, Michaela; Mikuska, Livia; Vazan, Rastislav; Miko, Michal; Varga, Ivan; Mravec, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of food intake have been shown to be associated with morphological and functional alterations of the gastrointestinal system. To examine this, we investigated the effect of chronic liquid nutrition intake (Fresubin) on stomach and duodenum morphology in Wistar rats fed liquid nutrition during different developmental periods. We used four groups of rats: a) control group (CON) fed pelleted chow for 130days; b) liquid nutrition group (LN) fed liquid nutrition for 130days; c) liquid nutrition juvenile group (LNJ) fed liquid nutrition for 70days and then pelleted food for 60days; d) liquid nutrition adult group (LNA) fed pelleted chow for 70days and then liquid nutrition for 60days. We found that LN and LNA rats showed a significant reduction of empty stomach mass compared to CON animals, while stomach and duodenal longitudinal muscle layer thickness did not differ between groups. Villus height was increased only in LNA animals, while villus width was increased in both LN and LNA rats. Crypt depth was reduced in LNJ. However, liquid nutrition intake did not affect villus height/crypt depth ratio, nor number of goblet cells. We found that chronic intake of liquid nutrition affects some morphological parameters of the stomach and duodenum but these changes were not homogenous between experimental groups. Interestingly, transition from liquid nutrition to solid food reversed the alterations of stomach weight as well as villus width induced by intake of liquid nutrition in LNA rats. Our data indicate that morphological and functional changes in the gastrointestinal system induced by qualitative and quantitative changes in food intake are at least partially reversible. Therefore, specific diets may be used potentially as adjuvant treatment for modulating the progression of gastrointestinal diseases by affecting stomach and small intestine morphology.

  12. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  13. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  14. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  15. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  16. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  17. Biochemical and histochemical localization of monoterpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    SciTech Connect

    Gershenzon, J.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R. )

    1989-04-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (-)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C{sub 10} isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (-)-limonene, hydroxylation to (-)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates.

  18. Phytotoxicity of Constituents of Glandular Trichomes and the Leaf Surface of Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby has a camphor-like odor, and its leaf surfaces contain glandular trichomes of the type shown to contain high levels of isoprenoids in other species. Phytotoxic calamenene-type sesquiterpenes (1-4, 8-10), borneol (11) and methylated flavone...

  19. [Computerized estimation of a percent glandular tissue composition in computed radiography mammography].

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Naoko; Goto, Sachiko; Azuma, Yoshiharu; Shiraishi, Junji

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of a percent glandular tissue composition (%GTC) is important in terms of the estimation of individual patient exposure dose and the prediction of malignancy, and thus a number of reports for estimating %GTC by use of a mammogram have been published. In this study, we propose a method for estimating individual %GTC by use of computed radiography (CR) mammograms. By employing breast-equivalent phantoms that are able to create breast phantom images with various combinations of fat and glandular tissue, as well as the thickness of whole breast, we determined a reference table for converting an each pixel value on CR mammography to the glandular tissue ratio. Therefore, the %GTC for individual breast was estimated by averaging glandular tissue ratio for a whole region. The clinical image data set that consisted of 49 CR mammograms were used for estimating %GTC. A paired comparison method for determining subjective ranking of the degree of breast density was employed in order to demonstrate the validity of our method. The results indicate that the average estimated %GTC was 35.0% (ranged from 12.0% to 67.0%) and they had a increased correlation with the ranking of those obtained by observer test. Therefore, it was suggested that our proposed method would be utilized for estimating the %GTC in objective manner.

  20. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2006-04-15

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT.

  1. The development of stomach during the fetal period.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Esra; Malas, Mehmet Ali; Albay, Soner; Cankara, Neslihan

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the fetal development of the stomach, its morphology and relationship with neighboring structures. The study is carried out in 2003 using 160 human embryos and fetuses (81 males and 79 females) aged between 9 and 40 weeks of gestation. None of the cases had any external pathology or anomaly. Its topographical localization and relationship with surrounding structures were revealed with anatomical dissections. Width and height of the stomach, lengths of the greater and lesser curvatures, the angle between horizontal and vertical axes of the stomach and types of stomach were established. During the fetal life stomach was most commonly located above the transverse axis passing through the umbilicus, in left and right hypochondrium (81%). There were significant differences among trimester groups with respect to the localization of the stomach in the quadrants (P < 0.001). There were no significant sex differences in parameters. After the second trimester, the height of the stomach increased more than the width of the stomach and anterior abdominal height. The angle of stomach decreased from 100 degrees to 50 degrees throughout the fetal period. During the fetal period, wide angles stomach was more common in the first(f) and second trimesters while acute-angled stomach was more common in the third trimester and term fetuses. Diagnosis and treatment of fetal anomalies and pathologies of the stomach requires knowledge of fetal anatomy of the stomach. Data acquired in this study are believed to contribute to the studies of obstetrics, perinatology, forensic medicine and fetal pathology on fetal development of the stomach, and diagnosis and treatment of its anomalies, pathologies, and variations.

  2. Comparison of stomach contents of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) from the 1981 and 1991 North Sea International Stomach Sampling Projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adlerstein, S.A.; Temming, A.; Mergardt, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study analyses data from over 20 000 haddock stomachs collected during the 1981 and 1991 Stomach Sampling Projects of the North Sea. Sampling was within the framework of the Multispecies Virtual Population Analysis (MSVPA) for fisheries stock assessment. In 1981 stomachs were collected to calculate input feeding parameters from main predators. During 1991 the sampling exercise was repeated to test stability of the parameters in the region. We investigate stability of haddock stomach content weight between years accounting for ontogenic, spatial and temporal variations within the scope of the survey resolution. Analysis using generalized linear and additive models is performed for weight of the stomach content including and excluding empty stomachs and also for proportion of stomachs without food. Results indicate that haddock stomach contents varied significantly between years, quarters and North Sea roundfish areas. Content weights were overall higher in 1981 than in 1991. In 1981 levels were high from spring to fall and in 1991 mostly in spring. During both years levels were lowest in the central North Sea and in winter. Most of the deviance in modelling the stomach weight is explained by the length of the predator. Stomachs sampled in 1981 were most frequently empty in spring and those sampled in 1991 in winter. In both years, proportions decreased with fish length except in winter when levels increased. Proportion of empty stomachs was highest in the central region of the North Sea. Most of the proportion variation is explained by quarterly fluctuation. Variation of content weight can be related to prey composition found in the stomachs. High stomach contents are generally associated with high contribution of fish prey to the total stomach content, mainly sandeels. We propose that sandeels were more vulnerable to predation in 1981 than in 1991 due to colder temperatures. ?? 2002 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier

  3. Treatment of stomach cancer, a national experience.

    PubMed

    Valen, B; Viste, A; Haugstvedt, T; Eide, G E; Søreide, O

    1988-07-01

    A total of 1165 patients with stomach cancer were entered into a prospective, observational national study. They represented 54 per cent of all stomach cancer patients reported to the Cancer Registry in Norway during the study period, and data are analysed for three hospital levels (local, county and university hospitals). The median age was 71 years (range 18-96 years). The median pretreatment delay was 113 days, and 46 per cent of patients had a performance status (Karnofsky index) of less than or equal to 80. The diagnosis was confirmed by pre-operative histology in 88 per cent of cases. In all, 88 per cent of patients underwent surgery, the resectability rate was 67 per cent and 50 per cent had a potential curative operation. Total gastrectomy was most commonly performed. Lymph node dissection was performed in 14 per cent of those undergoing a curative resection. The postoperative complication rate was 27 per cent but varied with the type of operation, being highest in proximal resection (55 per cent) and lowest after distal resection (19 per cent). A total of 7 per cent of the patients died postoperatively. Most patients had advanced disease at the time of treatment and only 6 per cent had stage I tumours. There were significant differences in patient and treatment characteristics between the three hospital levels. In conclusion, patient selection bias which will influence results does occur. A fairly aggressive attitude towards local disease was found, but the low proportion of patients undergoing lymph node dissection not only leads to questions regarding the efficacy of this treatment policy, but also casts doubt on the validity of staging of stomach cancer. Morbidity and mortality rates are still high. The consequences of the differences revealed between hospital groups are difficult to interpret. Proponents of both regionalization of treatment and small hospital care may find arguments for their case in the data.

  4. Morphometry of myenteric neurons in stomach.

    PubMed

    Saini, Narbada; Gupta, Madhur

    2007-06-01

    The wall of the gastrointestinal tract presents extensive plexuses of nerve fibres and neuronal cell bodies responsible for the modulation of the rhythmic gastrointestinal peristaltic activities, among other functions. One of the most developed ganglionated plexuses of the gastrointestinal tract is the Myenteric plexus located between the inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer of the smooth muscle tunica. The musculature of fundus, body and pyloric parts of stomach are differently disposed and they perform different functions. Thus the present study was conducted to study the myenteric plexus of all parts of stomach by counting the number of collections of neurons, number of neurons in each collection, diameter and area of the neurons of the plexus. The stomach walls of 1 cm in size were taken from 5 cadavers of medical post mortem cases from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Chandigarh and were processed for paraffin sections. 5 and 10 micro thick sections were stained with haematoxylin and Eosin and examined under light microscope. Randomly selected sections were photomicrographed using digital camera and morphometrical analysis was done using Image-Pro Express software. Number of collections of neurons was maximum in fundus with an average of 4.521 and each collection on an average contain 5.27 neurons ranging from 1-31, while body had 3.292 collections containing 1-19 neurons (mean: 3.198), pylorus had 3.883 collections of neurons which contained 1-16 neurons (mean: 4.411). The neurons were classified as small, medium and large according to the size of the area of their cell bodies. In this way, 11.3% neurons were found to be small, 69.5% medium and 19.1% large in fundus, 8.7% small, 80.6% medium and 11.2% large in body and 11.1% small, 74.3% medium and 14.5% large in pylorus.

  5. Siphonophores eat fish larger than their stomachs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagès, Francesc; Madin, Laurence P.

    2010-12-01

    We report a collection of the siphonophore Halistemma cupulifera, collected at 20 meters depth during a night SCUBA dive in the Sargasso Sea. One of its stomachs (gastrozooids) contained a leptocephalus larva of the eel Ariosoma sp. folded in thirds to fit, but 8.3 cm in length fully extended. This finding shows that in situ observations can reveal previously unknown trophic interactions that may be significant in a changing world ocean where gelatinous organisms seem to increase at the expense of fish.

  6. Management of acute upside-down stomach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Upside-down stomach (UDS) is characterized by herniation of the entire stomach or most gastric portions into the posterior mediastinum. Symptoms may vary heavily as they are related to reflux and mechanically impaired gastric emptying. UDS is associated with a risk of incarceration and volvulus development which both might be complicated by acute gastric outlet obstruction, advanced ischemia, gastric bleeding and perforation. Case presentation A 32-year-old male presented with acute intolerant epigastralgia and anterior chest pain associated with acute onset of nausea and vomiting. He reported on a previous surgical intervention due to a hiatal hernia. Chest radiography and computer tomography showed an incarcerated UDS. After immediate esophago-gastroscopy, urgent laparoscopic reduction, repair with a 360° floppy Nissen fundoplication and insertion of a gradually absorbable GORE® BIO-A®-mesh was performed. Conclusion Given the high risk of life-threatening complications of an incarcerated UDS as ischemia, gastric perforation or severe bleeding, emergent surgery is indicated. In stable patients with acute presentation of large paraesophageal hernia or UDS exhibiting acute mechanical gastric outlet obstruction, after esophago-gastroscopy laparoscopic reduction and hernia repair followed by an anti-reflux procedure is suggested. However, in cases of unstable patients open repair is the surgical method of choice. Here, we present an exceptionally challenging case of a young patient with a giant recurrent hiatal hernia becoming clinically manifest in an incarcerated UDS. PMID:24228771

  7. Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of the glandular breast dose for a digital breast tomosynthesis system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Leonardo; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre Goncalves; Braz, Delson

    2015-12-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a screening and diagnostic modality that acquires images of the breast at multiple angles during a short scan. The Selenia Dimensions (Hologic, Bedford, Mass) DBT system can perform both full-field digital mammography and DBT. The system acquires 15 projections over a 15° angular range (from -7.5° to +7.5°). An important factor in determining the optimal imaging technique for breast tomosynthesis is the radiation dose. In breast imaging, the radiation dose of concern is that deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast because this is the tissue that has a risk of developing cancer. The concept of the normalised mean glandular dose (DgN) has been introduced as the metric for the dose in breast imaging. The DgN is difficult to measure. The Monte Carlo techniques offer an alternative method for a realistic estimation of the radiation dose. The purpose of this work was to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX technique to generate monoenergetic glandular dose data for estimating the breast tissue dose in tomosynthesis for arbitrary spectra as well as to observe the deposited radiation dose by projection on the glandular portion of the breast in a Selenia Dimensions DBT system. A Monte Carlo simulation of the system was developed to compute the DgN in a craniocaudal view. Monoenergetic X-ray beams from 10 to 49 keV in 1-keV increments were used. The simulation utilised the assumption of a homogeneous breast composition and three compositions (0 % glandular, 50 % glandular and 100 % glandular). The glandular and adipose tissue compositions were specified according ICRU Report 44. A skin layer of 4 mm was assumed to encapsulate the breast on all surfaces. The breast size was varied using the chest wall-to-nipple distance (CND) and compressed breast thickness (t). In this work, the authors assumed a CND of 5 cm and the thicknesses ranged from 2 to 8 cm, in steps of 2 cm. The fractional energy absorption increases (up to 44.35 % between

  8. Mining the mouse transcriptome of receptive endometrium reveals distinct molecular signatures for the luminal and glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Niklaus, Andrea L; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2006-07-01

    Epithelia coat most tissues where they sense and respond to the environment and participate in innate immune responses. In the adult mouse uterus, columnar epithelium lines the central lumen and the glands that penetrate the underlying stroma. A nidatory surge of estrogen causes differentiation of the luminal epithelium to the receptive state that permits blastocyst attachment and allows subsequent implantation. Here, using laser-capture microdissection to isolate the luminal and glandular epithelia separately, we have profiled gene expression 2 h before embryo attachment to determine whether there are unique roles for these two epithelial structures in this process. Although most genes were expressed in both compartments, there was greater expression of 153 and 118 genes in the lumen and glands, respectively. In the luminal epithelium, there is enrichment in lipid, metal-ion binding, and carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, whereas in the glands, immune response genes are emphasized. In situ hybridization to uterine sections obtained from mice during the preimplantation period validated these data and indicated an array of previously undocumented genes expressed with unique patterns in these epithelia. The data show that each epithelial compartment has a distinct molecular signature and that they act differentially and synergistically to permit blastocyst implantation.

  9. Occurrence of Bifidobacteriaceae in human hypochlorhydria stomach

    PubMed Central

    Mattarelli, Paola; Brandi, Giovanni; Calabrese, Carlo; Fornari, Fabio; Prati, Gian Maria; Biavati, Bruno; Sgorbati, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background The human stomach, when healthy, is not a suitable host for microorganisms, but in pathological conditions such as gastritis, when gastric acid secretion is impaired, microbial overgrowth can be observed. Apart from Helicobacter pylori, the composition of microbiota, resident or exogenously introduced during neutral/high pH conditions, has not been investigated thoroughly. Thus, it is possible that Bifidobacteriaceae, important autochthonous and beneficial bacteria of human gastrointestinal microbiota, could over-colonize the stomach of hypochlorhydria patients suffering from autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) or omeprazole-treated (OME) gastritis. This prompted us to characterize the Bifidobacteriaceae in such patients’ gastric microbiota and to study its abnormal colonization. Methods Samples of gastric juices, and antrum and corpus mucosa from 23 hypochlorhydria patients (13 AAG and 10 OME) and from 10 control volunteers with base-line normochlorhydria, were cultivated in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and selective Bifidobacterium-Tryptone-Phytone-Yeast extract (Bif-TPY) media. The isolates were characterized by the fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) test, electrophoresis of cellular proteins, the fermentation test, guanine-cytosine% DNA content, and DNA–DNA hybridization. Negative F6PPK isolates were characterized by order-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results A total of 125 isolates, assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their morphology, were obtained from AAG and OME patients, but not from normal subjects. Of these isolates, 55 were assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their fructose-6-phosphoketolase (PPK) activity, PPK being the key taxonomic enzyme of this family. The remaining 70 isolates, which were PPK-negative, were attributed to the Actinomycetales order following specific primer PCR analysis. We observed a significantly higher abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae (Bifidobacterium

  10. Mayolenes: labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae).

    PubMed

    Smedley, Scott R; Schroeder, Frank C; Weibel, Douglas B; Meinwald, Jerrold; Lafleur, Katie A; Renwick, J Alan; Rutowski, Ronald; Eisner, Thomas

    2002-05-14

    Larvae of the European cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion at their tip. The fluid consists primarily of a series of chemically labile, unsaturated lipids, the mayolenes, which are derived from 11-hydroxylinolenic acid. In bioassays with the ant Crematogaster lineolata, the secretion was shown to be potently deterrent, indicating that the fluid plays a defensive role in nature.

  11. Comparison of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beraldo Oliveira, Bruno; Paixão, Lucas; Donato da Silva, Sabrina; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-06-01

    Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) procedures. Mean glandular dose (DG) values were derived from the incident air kerma (Ki) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients. Ki values were obtained through an ionization chamber positioned in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using appropriate exposure parameters. This work contributes to determine the reliable radiation dose received by the patients and compare DG values provided by this DBT system images.

  12. Thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2013-08-01

    Twelve cases of thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation are presented. The patients were 7 men and 5 women aged between 45 and 68 years (average, 56.5 years). Clinically, the patients presented with nonspecific symptoms of chest pain, cough, and fatigue. None of the patients had a history of myasthenia gravis or other autoimmune syndrome. Thymectomy was performed in all patients. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 7 cm in greatest diameter. Macroscopically, the tumors were described as firm and light tan without areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, or cystic change. Histologically, 7 tumors were classified as spindle cell (World Health Organization type A), 2 as mixed spindle cell and conventional (A+B1), 2 as conventional (B1), and 1 as atypical thymoma (B3). In 4 cases, the tumors showed invasion into periadipose thymic tissue. All cases showed the typical growth patterns of their particular subtypes. In addition, a distinct glandular component was present in all cases showing mucinous differentiation in 4 of them. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, and Pax8 and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor 1, and epithelial membrane antigen. Calretinin showed focal weak staining in the nonmucinous glandular components in 3 cases. Follow-up information obtained in 8 patients showed that all were alive and well in a period ranging from 2 to 5 years. The possibility of a glandular component in thymomas should be kept in mind in the assessment of mediastinoscopic biopsies to avoid misdiagnosis for other neoplasms that may require different treatment modalities.

  13. Population dynamics of Enterogyrus cichlidarum (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalinae) from the stomach of Tilapia spp. in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khidr, A A

    1990-10-01

    In a 1-year seasonal study of the numbers of the stomach-inhabiting monogenean Enterogyrus cichlidarum in Tilapia nilotica in the River Nile, Egypt, prevalence and intensity reached a height in spring and infection levels were surprisingly high in winter. T. zillii harboured fewer parasites but seasonal changes were similar. No parasites were found in T. galilaea. The prevalence and intensity of the infection with E. cichlidarum rose significantly with increasing size of the host. Some of the possible reasons for these fluctuations are discussed. Immature enterogyrids were more abundant in the posterior sector of the stomach and adult enterogyrids showed a preference for the anterior sector. No significant difference was found in the numbers of enterogyrids in male and female hosts.

  14. Identification of glandular (preputial and clitoral) proteins in house rat (Rattus rattus) involved in pheromonal communication.

    PubMed

    Archunan, G; Kamalakkannan, S; Achiraman, S; Rajkumar, R

    2004-10-01

    Proteins (18-20 kDa) belonging to lipocalin family have been reported to act as carriers for ligands binding to pheromones in mouse urine, pig saliva, hamster vaginal fluid and human sweat, that are involved in pheromonal communication. As the preputial gland is a major pheromonal source, the present study was aimed to detect the specific protein bands (around 18-20 kDa) in the preputial and clitoral glands of the house rat, R. rattus. The amount of protein was higher in preputial gland of the male than that of female (clitoral) gland. A 20 kDa protein was noted in male and female glands; however, the intensity of the band was much higher in male than in female. In addition, 70, 60, 35 kDa bands, identified in male preputial gland, were absent in females. The presence of higher concentration of glandular proteins in the male preputial gland suggests that male rats may depend more on these glandular proteins for the maintenance of reproductive and dominance behaviours. The results further suggest that these glandular proteins (20 kDa) may act as a carrier for ligand binding.

  15. Benign müllerian glandular inclusions in men undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Gallan, Alexander J; Antic, Tatjana

    2016-11-01

    Benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in lymph nodes are commonly seen in women, but to our knowledge, there have only been 4 reported cases in men. Distinction of these glandular structures from metastatic adenocarcinoma is crucial for proper staging, prognosis, and treatment of the patient. We report 3 cases of benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in men undergoing either prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy with lymph node dissection for treatment of prostatic adenocarcinoma and/or urothelial carcinoma. None of the patients were receiving hormonal therapy. All 3 cases showed benign glands with ciliated cuboidal to columnar cells and rare secretory cells, morphologically comparable with endosalpingiosis in women. These glands were diffusely positive for PAX-8, WT-1, estrogen receptor, and progesteron receptor consistent with müllerian origin. Our study is the first to confirm müllerian origin of these glands by PAX-8 and WT-1 positivity. This finding of müllerian glands in men identical to endosalpingiosis in women supports the theory that this entity can result from müllerian metaplasia of the peritoneal mesothelium rather than displacement of tubal-type epithelium. Pathologists should also be aware that müllerian-type glands can rarely occur in men to prevent the incorrect diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma involving a lymph node.

  16. [Estimation of the Average Glandular Dose Using the Mammary Gland Image Analysis in Mammography].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomoko; Teramoto, Atsushi; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Satoru; Anno, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Currently, the glandular dose is evaluated quantitatively on the basis of the measured data using phantom, and not in a dose based on the mammary gland structure of an individual patient. However, mammary gland structures of the patients are different from each other and mammary gland dose of an individual patient cannot be obtained by the existing methods. In this study, we present an automated estimation method of mammary gland dose by means of mammary structure which is measured automatically using mammogram. In this method, mammary gland structure is extracted by Gabor filter; mammary region is segmented by the automated thresholding. For the evaluation, mammograms of 100 patients diagnosed with category 1 were collected. Using these mammograms we compared the mammary gland ratio measured by proposed method and visual evaluation. As a result, 78% of the total cases were matched. Furthermore, the mammary gland ratio and average glandular dose among the patients with same breast thickness was matched well. These results show that the proposed method may be useful for the estimation of average glandular dose for the individual patients.

  17. Glandular hairs of Sigesbeckia jorullensis Kunth (Asteraceae): morphology, histochemistry and composition of essential oil.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, G; Pfeifhofer, H W; Stabentheiner, E; Sawidis, T

    2002-04-01

    Long-stalked glandular hairs of outer and inner involucral bracts of Sigesbeckia jorullensis, which are important for epizoic fruit propagation, were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The essential oil secreted by the hairs was analysed by chromatographic methods including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and with a laser microprobe mass analyser. The glandular hairs consisted of a large multicellular stalk and a multicellular secreting head. The apical layer of glandular head cells was characterized by leucoplasts and calcium oxalate crystals. Below the apical cells there were up to six layers of cells containing many chloroplasts around the nucleus and surrounded by vacuoles filled with flavonoids and tannins. The essential oil originating in the head cells was secreted into the subcuticular space and may be liberated by rupture of the cuticle. It was mainly composed of sesqui- and diterpenes, with the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene-D as the main component. Monoterpenes, n-alkanes and their derivatives as well as flavonoid aglycones were also detected. The stickiness of the essential oil is probably associated with the high content of oxygenated sesqui- and diterpenes. In addition to long-stalked trichomes, small biseriate trichomes occurred, secreting small quantities of essential oil into a subcuticular space.

  18. Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Shigeto; Kusuda, Tomoko; Liu, Xu-Ping; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Mikami, Yoshiki; Takeshita, Morishige; Nakao, Motonao; Chochi, Yasuyo; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2008-12-01

    Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix. In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurrent chromosomal imbalances, that is, gains of chromosome 3q and a loss of 1p, which were common to MDA and MAC, in 3 of 14 LEGHs analyzed (21%). LEGHs with chromosomal imbalances showed a degree of cellular atypia in the hyperplastic glandular epithelium. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions. HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined. Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions. Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.

  19. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  20. Heartburn Drugs May Raise Risk of Stomach Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scotland. They suspect that drugs that suppress stomach acids can change the balance of "good" and "bad" bacteria in the gut, which may make people more susceptible to infections. Dr. David Bernstein, a gastroenterologist ... agreed that stomach acid suppression could be the culprit. But he also ...

  1. Stomach Cancer Risk After Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Dores, Graça M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Lynch, Charles F.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hall, Per; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Hodgson, David C.; Storm, Hans H.; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Andersson, Michael; Fossa, Sophie D.; Hauptmann, Michael; Holowaty, Eric J.; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Langmark, Frøydis; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Travis, Lois B.; Aleman, Berthe M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear. Patients and Methods We conducted an international case-control study of stomach cancer nested in a cohort of 19,882 HL survivors diagnosed from 1953 to 2003, including 89 cases and 190 matched controls. For each patient, we quantified cumulative doses of specific alkylating agents (AAs) and reconstructed radiation dose to the stomach tumor location. Results Stomach cancer risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach (Ptrend < .001) and with increasing number of AA-containing chemotherapy cycles (Ptrend = .02). Patients who received both radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy and high-dose procarbazine (≥ 5,600 mg/m2) had strikingly elevated stomach cancer risk (25 cases, two controls; odds ratio [OR], 77.5; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1452) compared with those who received radiation < 25 Gy and procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2 (Pinteraction < .001). Risk was also elevated (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.4) among patients who received radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy but procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2; however, no procarbazine-related risk was evident with radiation < 25 Gy. Treatment with dacarbazine also increased stomach cancer risk (12 cases, nine controls; OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 46.6), after adjustment for radiation and procarbazine doses. Conclusion Patients with HL who received subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy had dose-dependent increased risk of stomach cancer, with marked risks for patients who also received chemotherapy containing high-dose procarbazine. For current patients, risks and benefits of exposure to both procarbazine and subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy should be weighed carefully. For patients treated previously, GI symptoms should be evaluated promptly. PMID:23980092

  2. Ethanol-induced damage to mucosal capillaries of rat stomach. Ultrastructural features and effects of prostaglandin F2 beta and cysteamine

    SciTech Connect

    Trier, J.S.; Szabo, S.; Allan, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Impairment of the mucosal microcirculation may contribute to ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. In this report, we describe diffuse and severe ultrastructural damage to the capillaries of the gastric glandular mucosa of the rat that occurred within 1 min after intragastric instillation of 100% ethanol. There was a gradient of damage in that endothelial cell structure was most severely disrupted in profiles of capillaries located close to the luminal surface but some morphologic evidence of damage was evident in the wall of capillary profiles to a mean depth of 256 micron. Capillary structure was generally normal in the deeper regions of the mucosa. Pretreatment with intragastric cysteamine, 30 mg/100 g, or intragastric prostaglandin F2 beta, 0.5 mg/100 g, significantly reduced the depth in the mucosa to which damage to capillaries extended. Pretreatment with intragastric prostaglandin F2 beta, 0.2 mg/100 g, afforded no significant protection. We conclude that a 1-min exposure to 100% ethanol induces striking damage to the microcirculation of glandular mucosa of the rat stomach with severe damage to capillary profiles near the lumen and sparing of capillary profiles near the muscularis mucosa, and pretreatment with the sulfhydryl agent, cysteamine, or with a large dose of prostaglandin F2 beta reduces the extent of but does not abolish ethanol-induced damage to gastric mucosal capillaries.

  3. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Cancer of the Gastroesophageal Junction or Stomach

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  4. Alkaline comet assay in liver and stomach, and micronucleus assay in bone marrow, from rats treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, azidothymidine, cisplatin, or isobutyraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kraynak, A R; Barnum, J E; Cunningham, C L; Ng, A; Ykoruk, B A; Bennet, B; Stoffregen, D; Merschman, M; Freeland, E; Galloway, S M

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined the ability of the assay to determine the genotoxicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), azidothymidine (AZT), cisplatin (CPN), and isobutyraldehyde (IBA) in liver and glandular stomach of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given oral doses of test compound or control once daily for three days. High dose levels were approximately maximum tolerated doses and were based on preliminary range-finding studies. Tissues were harvested 3h after the final dose (48h after the initial dose). A bone marrow micronucleus assay (MN) was also conducted on the rats treated with AZT, CPN, and IBA. Acute toxic effects of treatment were determined primarily through histomorphologic analysis of liver and stomach but also by body weight and serum liver enzyme changes. The comet assay was conducted on fresh tissue preparations but frozen samples from two studies were also assayed. Statistically significant dose-related differences in comet % DNA in tail were found in liver and stomach for the genotoxin AZT and in liver for the genotoxin CPN, but not in liver or stomach for the non-genotoxin IBA. Statistically significant differences in % DNA in tail were measured in liver for the low and mid dose of the genotoxin AAF, but not the high dose. The comet assays of frozen liver suspensions from CPN- and AAF-treated rats yielded comparable results to the assays of fresh preparations. There were no indications of significant toxicity induced by any treatment. The micronucleus assay was positive for CPN and AZT and negative for IBA. In conclusion, the in vivo comet assay is capable of detecting genotoxic effects of a variety of chemicals and may fill an important role in the genotoxicity test battery.

  5. Sonographic demonstration of stomach pathology: Reviewing the cases.

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Alison

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: The stomach can be the source of complaints for many patients attending for upper abdominal ultrasound. It is not routinely imaged as part of most upper abdominal ultrasound protocols, with sonographers and sonologists alike commonly muttering the line; "I can't see the stomach on ultrasound". However, this is incorrect, as the gastric antrum can almost always be visualised sonographically. Discussion: It is possible to detect a range of pathologies affecting the stomach sonographically, from common, largely tolerable conditions such as hiatus hernias through to life-threatening neoplasms. Conclusion: The stomach can easily be assessed during routine abdominal ultrasound providing the sonographer has knowledge of stomach anatomy, normal ultrasound appearances and limitations to its visualisation. While endoscopy is the gold standard for investigation of the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract, many patients will initially present for abdominal ultrasound due to its easy, non-invasive nature, ready availability and low cost. For patients with mild abdominal symptoms, a normal abdominal ultrasound may be the extent of their imaging investigations meaning stomach pathologies may go undiagnosed.

  6. How Does the Stomach Pump?---A Fluid Dynamics Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anupam; Abrahamsson, Bertil

    2005-11-01

    The stomach is a pump that empties viscous liquid from a flexible bag (fundus) through a valve (pylorus) by slow squeeze of fundic muscle. In addition, peristaltic contraction waves (CW) travel periodically towards the pylorus in the lower stomach to grind/mix content. As each CW approaches the pylorus, it deepens and the pylorus momentarily closes. Since liquid empties from the pyloric region, one expects content at the farthest reaches of the stomach to empty last. To study the patterns of gastric emptying we applied the lattice Boltzmann method with moving boundary conditions coupled with a stomach geometry model parameterized using MRI. By marking fluid particles leaving the stomach over a 10 min period, we discovered that the CWs create a narrow path of emptying, or ``Magenstrasse'' (stomach road) that directs content from the farthest reaches of the stomach to the pylorus with relatively little mixing. Thus, while drug released off the Magenstrasse (MS) can take an hour or more to empty at low concentration, when released on the MS the drug empties within 10 minutes at high concentration---a discovery with potential implications to other pumping systems.

  7. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Sever; Barbu, Emil; Ionescu, Călin; Costache, Adrian; Bălăşoiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal malignancies of the digestive tract. Gastric localization is the most frequent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance of immunohistochemical factors (CD117, CD34, α-SMA, vimentin, p53, Ki67) in diagnostic and size tumor and mitotic activity as prognostic factors for these tumors. We present the case of a 66-year-old male patient with a giant gastric GIST. Like in the vast majority, the symptomatology in this patient has long been faint, despite the large tumor size, and when it became manifest, it was nonspecific. Imagery wise, the computer tomography (CT) scan was the most efficient, showing the origin of the tumor from the greater curvature of the stomach, its dimensions, as well as the relations with the other abdominal viscera. Surgery in this patient was en-bloc, according to the principles of GIST. The histological aspect is characterized by a proliferation of spindle cells positive for CD117 and CD34. Despite complete microscopic resection, the size of the tumor (25×20×27 cm) and the mitotic activity (21÷5 mm2) remains important relapse factor.

  8. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development.

  9. Rescue of glandular dysmorphogenesis in PTEN-deficient colorectal cancer epithelium by PPARγ-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Jagan, I; Fatehullah, A; Deevi, R K; Bingham, V; Campbell, F C

    2013-03-07

    Disruption of glandular architecture associates with poor clinical outcome in high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) regulates morphogenic growth of benign MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cells through effects on the Rho-like GTPase cdc42 (cell division cycle 42). This study investigates PTEN-dependent morphogenesis in a CRC model. Stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of PTEN in Caco-2 cells influenced expression or localization of cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors and inhibited cdc42 activation. Parental Caco-2 cells formed regular hollow gland-like structures (glands) with a single central lumen, in three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Conversely, PTEN-deficient Caco-2 ShPTEN cells formed irregular glands with multiple abnormal lumens as well as intra- and/or intercellular vacuoles evocative of the high-grade CRC phenotype. Effects of targeted treatment were investigated. Phosphatidinylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) modulating treatment did not affect gland morphogenesis but did influence gland number, gland size and/or cell size within glands. As PTEN may be regulated by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), cultures were treated with the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone. This treatment enhanced PTEN expression, cdc42 activation and rescued dysmorphogenesis by restoring single lumen formation in Caco-2 ShPTEN glands. Rosiglitazone effects on cdc42 activation and Caco-2 ShPTEN gland development were attenuated by cotreatment with GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist. Taken together, these studies show PTEN-cdc42 regulation of lumen formation in a 3D model of human CRC glandular morphogenesis. Treatment by the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone, but not PI3K modulators, rescued colorectal glandular dysmorphogenesis of PTEN deficiency.

  10. Phytotoxicity of constituents of glandular trichomes and the leaf surface of camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Masanori; Cantrell, Charles L; Libous-Bailey, Lynn; Duke, Stephen O

    2009-01-01

    Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby, has a camphor-like odor, and its leaf surfaces contain glandular trichomes of the type shown to contain high levels of isoprenoids in other species. Borneol (1), the phytotoxic calamenene-type sesquiterpenes (2-5, 9-11), and methylated flavones (12-15) were isolated from the dichloromethane rinsate of camphorweed aerial tissues. The strongest plant growth inhibitor against Agrostis stolonifera and Lactuca sativa seedlings, as well as duckweed (Lemna pausicostata), was 2-methoxy-calamenene-14-carboxylic acid (2). Esterification of calamenene carboxylic acids decreased their biological activity.

  11. Uncertainties involved in the estimation of mean glandular dose for women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP).

    PubMed

    Hauge, I H R; Olerud, H M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to reflect on the estimation of the mean glandular dose for women in Norway aged 50-69 y. Estimation of mean glandular dose (MGD) has been conducted by applying the method of Dance et al. (1990, 2000, 2009). Uncertainties in the thickness of approximately ±10 mm adds uncertainties in the MGD of approximately ±10 %, and uncertainty in the glandularity of ±0 % will lead to an uncertainty in the MGD of ±4 %. However, the inherent uncertainty in the air kerma, given by the European protocol on dosimetry, will add an uncertainty of 12 %. The total uncertainty in the MGD is estimated to be ∼20 %, taking into consideration uncertainties in compressed breast thickness (±10 %), the air kerma (12 %), change in HVL by -0.05 mm (-9.0 %), uncertainty in the s-factor of ±2.1 % and changing the glandularity to an age-dependent glandularity distribution (+8.4 %).

  12. [Myomatous tumor of the stomach. 3 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Boschi, L; Lecce, F

    1993-10-15

    Three cases of smooth muscle tumors of the stomach are reported: a leiomyoma, a leiomyosarcoma and a leiomyoblastoma observed over a period of five years. Clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure and surgical treatment are discussed and the literature is reviewed.

  13. [New regulatory peptides in rat stomach secretion (amylin, PGP, semax)].

    PubMed

    Maev, I V; Dicheva, D T

    2003-01-01

    We showed antisecretory effects of peptides of PGP, semax and a new pancreatic hormone, amylin, on the model of continuous stomach perfusion with the registration of pH, PCO2 as well as the determination of the amount of pepsinogen in the stomach perfusate. The intraperitoneal introduction of these peptides in the doses that proved to have an apparent anti-ulcer effect caused a decrease of both basal production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and production caused by the irritation of the vagus nerve. Semax and amylin also decreased basal and stimulated secretion of pepsinogen. Amylin and PGP did not have any effect on basal bicarbonate secretion of the stomach, and semax caused its short-time increase 35 minutes after the introduction. We made a conclusion that the decrease of aggressive factors in gastric juices can be a mechanism of the anti-ulcer action of all three peptides under study.

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these can be controlled, but others cannot. Gender Stomach cancer is more common in men than ... would like to unsubscribe/opt out from our communications, please follow this link: http://www.cancer.org/ ...

  15. Gastrointestinal Bleeding from Metastatic Prostate Adenocarcinoma to the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Andree; Brauhmbhatt, Bhaumik; Lewis, Jason

    2017-01-01

    We present a rare case of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding associated with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma to the stomach. Prostate cancer, which is the most common noncutaneous malignancy among men, rarely spreads to the stomach, with only 7 cases reported in the English literature. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and GI bleeding. Our patient was treated with epinephrine injection and bipolar cautery, but GI bleeding recurred 7 months later when he had worsening of his thrombocytopenia while using ibuprofen. PMID:28377935

  16. Rupture of the stomach following mouth-to-mouth respiration

    PubMed Central

    Solowiejczyk, M.; Wapnick, S.; Koren, E.; Mandelbaum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Successful repair and survival after rupture of the stomach in a patient who received mouth-to-mouth respiration is presented. We were able to find only one report in the literature where rupture of the stomach occurred following this manoeuvre—the patient did not survive. The possible aetiological factors and measures designed to avoid this complication are discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4469046

  17. Comparison of polyphenol oxidase expression in glandular trichomes of solanum and lycopersicon species.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Kowalski, S P; Steffens, J C

    1992-12-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble M(r) 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the M(r) 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the M(r) 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiM(r) 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed.

  18. Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens

    PubMed Central

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed. PMID:20419093

  19. Glandular epithelium as a possible source of a fertility signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    PubMed

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-04-19

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed.

  20. Comparison of Polyphenol Oxidase Expression in Glandular Trichomes of Solanum and Lycopersicon Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haifeng; Kowalski, Stanley P.; Steffens, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble Mr 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the Mr 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the Mr 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiMr 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16653213

  1. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  2. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering.

  3. Cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. A comparative morphological analysis of the entire glandular tree of the breast.

    PubMed

    Sarnelli, R; Squartini, F

    1989-01-01

    Cancerous and clinically normal autopsy obtained breasts were collected in order to compare the physiopathological profile of both types of glandular tree. Each breast was visualized by whole thin sections and observed under a stereomicroscope with removal of the more interesting changes for histology. The comparison was made between 67 atrophic cancerous breasts and 88 atrophic control breasts. The results were as follows: 25% of the cancerous breasts versus 47% of control breasts showed no changes, atypical lobules, microfoci of "in situ" and/or infiltrating cancer were present in 46% of cancerous breasts and in 16% of control breasts, showing a significant correlation with clinical cancer. All other types of functional and proliferative changes, variously associated each other, were found in 29% of cancerous and in 37% of control breasts. Our morphological data agree completely with the statements in follow-up studies carried out on benign breast biopsies. The significant differences in the physiopathological profile of the glandular tree between "normal" and cancerous breasts, confirms that some changes are causally related to clinical cancer.

  4. Biological activity of acyl glucose esters from Datura wrightii glandular trichomes against three native insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hare, J Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Datura wrightii is dimorphic for leaf trichome type in southern California. "Sticky" plants produce glandular trichomes that secrete acylsugars, whereas velvety plants produce nonglandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes confer resistance to some potential insect herbivores and are associated with reduced feeding in the field by two native coleopteran herbivores: the tobacco flea beetle, Epitrix hirtipennis, and a weevil, Trichobaris compacta. In contrast, another native beetle, Lema daturaphila, damages sticky and velvety plants similarly in the field. A series of choice and no-choice "ester removal" and "ester addition" feeding experiments were performed in the laboratory to evaluate the role of acylsugars in feeding by all three insect species. Consumption of sticky leaves after their esters were removed by washing was compared to consumption of unwashed sticky leaves and velvety leaves in ester removal experiments. Consumption of velvety leaves was measured after acylsugars were applied to those leaves in controlled amounts in the ester addition experiments. Consumption by E. hirtipennis was reduced by acylsugars in all experiments. Consumption by T. compacta was reduced by acylsugars in the ester removal experiments, but not in the ester addition experiments. The location of the acylsugars at the tip of a long trichome, rather than simply on the leaf surface, may be an important component of the biological activity of acylsugars against T. compacta in nature. Consumption by L. daturaphila was not significantly reduced by acylsugars in any experiment. The acylsugars caused no significant mortality of any of the three insect species.

  5. The flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase modulates terpenoid production in glandular trichomes of tomato.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E; Jones, A Daniel; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-03-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments.

  6. [Changes in the ultrastructure of the stomach mucous membrane parietal cells caused by inhibitors of hydrochloric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Dondukova, G V; Morozov, I A

    2002-01-01

    The study of the action of phamotidine and omeprazol on the stomach parietal cells in patients with duodenal ulcer has shown that phamotidin results in changes of secretory membrane of the parietal cells increasing its secretory potential while omeprazol reduces energetic metabolism of the lining cell by the impact on its mitochondrial apparatus. Both in children and adults with duodenal ulcer more developed mitochondrial cell activity was found after omeprazol treatment.

  7. Enhanced expression of cytochrome P450 in stomach cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G. I.; Taylor, M. C.; Burke, M. D.; Melvin, W. T.

    1998-01-01

    The cytochromes P450 have a central role in the oxidative activation and detoxification of a wide range of xenobiotics, including many carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. Thus the cytochrome P450 enzyme system has important roles in both tumour development and influencing the response of tumours to chemotherapy. Stomach cancer is one of the commonest tumours of the alimentary tract and environmental factors, including dietary factors, have been implicated in the development of this tumour. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and responds poorly to current therapies. In this study, the presence and cellular localization of several major forms of P450, CYP1A, CYP2E1 and CYP3A have been investigated in stomach cancer and compared with their expression in normal stomach. There was enhanced expression of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer with CYP1A present in 51% and CYP3A present in 28% of cases. In contrast, no P450 was identified in normal stomach. The presence of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer provides further evidence for the enhanced expression of specific forms of cytochrome P450 in tumours and may be important therapeutically for the development of anti-cancer drugs that are activated by these forms of P450. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9569036

  8. Diets of introduced predators using stable isotopes and stomach contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meckstroth, A.M.; Miles, A.K.; Chandra, S.

    2007-01-01

    In a study of predation on ground-nesting birds at South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, USA, we analyzed stomach contents and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to identify commonly consumed prey. We obtained the stomach contents from 206 nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes regalis) collected in the South Bay area and Monterey County during 1995-2001 and from 68 feral cats (Felis silvestris) from the South Bay area during 2001-2002. We determined prey identity, biomass, and frequency, described seasonal diet trends, and derived an Index of Relative Importance. Avian species were the most frequent prey we found in the stomachs of red foxes from South Bay (61%), whereas small rodents were most frequent for red foxes from Monterey County (62%). Small rodents were the most frequent prey we found in feral cats (63%). Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for foxes supported stomach content findings. However, isotope results indicated that cats received a majority of their energy from a source other than rodents and outside the natural system, which differed from the stomach content analysis. We demonstrated the utility of both stable isotope and stomach content analyses to establish a more complete understanding of predators' diets. This information aids natural resource managers in planning and evaluating future predator-removal programs and increases our understanding of the impacts of nonnative foxes and cats on native species.

  9. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and extent of the disease are features of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Güdücü, Nilgün; Sidar, Güliz; Başsüllü, Nuray; Türkmen, Ilknur; Dünder, Ilkkan

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the rate of endocervical glandular involvement, positive surgical margins, multicentricity, and disease extent between low-grade and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Pathology medical records of patients who underwent LEEP were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with negative LEEP results were excluded. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure reports of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, 2, and 3 were compared. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with CIN 1 (n=24), CIN 2 (n=27), and CIN 3 (n=64) when age and surgical margin positivity were considered. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and disease extent were higher in patients with CIN 3 (P=.001, P=.002, and P=.001, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend that patients with endocervical glandular involvement, lesions involving more than two-thirds of the LEEP specimen, and multicentricity be followed up more closely.

  10. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, the enzyme controlling marijuana psychoactivity, is secreted into the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Taura, Futoshi; Tanaka, Yumi; Ishikawa, Yu; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2005-09-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is the enzyme responsible for the production of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.). We suggest herein that THCA is biosynthesized in the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes based on the following observations. (i) The exclusive expression of THCA synthase was confirmed in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. (ii) THCA synthase activity was detected in the storage cavity content. (iii) Transgenic tobacco expressing THCA synthase fused to green fluorescent protein showed fluorescence in the trichome head corresponding to the storage cavity. These results also showed that secretory cells of the glandular trichomes secrete not only metabolites but also biosynthetic enzyme.

  11. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  12. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants. PMID:26340695

  13. Occupation and risk of stomach cancer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Krstev, S; Dosemeci, M; Lissowska, J; Chow, W; Zatonski, W; Ward, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: In spite of the dramatic decline in the incidence of stomach cancer in the twentieth century, Poland has one of the highest rates in the world. Aims: To evaluate the risk of stomach cancer by grouped occupations and industries, as well as by some specific occupational exposures. Methods: Cases (n = 443) were newly diagnosed with stomach adenocarcinomas between 1994 and 1996. Controls (n = 479) were randomly selected from the general population in Warsaw. Results: Only a few occupations and industries were associated with significantly increased risks of stomach cancer. The most suggestive finding was for work in the leather goods industry. Risk was also significantly increased among men working in fabricated metal production and among women ever employed as managers and governmental officials. Men ever employed as teaching professionals and women employed as technical and science professionals had significantly decreased risks of stomach cancer. Among men, a significant positive trend in risk with duration of employment was observed for work in the leather industry and special trade construction. No significantly increased risks were observed for specific exposures assessed by a job-exposure matrix or by self-reports. However among men there were non-significantly increased risks with 10 or more years exposure to asbestos, metal dust, and nitrosamines assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Conclusions: Employment in the leather goods industry, special trade construction, and metal fabrication was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer among men. However, there were only weak associations with specific exposures. Occupational exposures do not contribute substantially to the high rates of stomach cancer in Poland. PMID:15837853

  14. Spatial Analysis of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Reza; Khani, Yousef; Pakzad, Iraj; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world, is very common in parts of Iran. Geographic variation in the incidence of stomach cancer is due to many different factors. The aim of this study was to assess the geographical and spatial distribution of stomach cancer in Iran using data from the cancer registry program in Iran for the year 2009. The reported incidences of stomach cancer for different provinces were standardized to the world population structure. ArcGIS software was used to analyse the data. Hot spots and high risk areas were determined using spatial analysis (Getis-Ord Gi). Hot and cold spots were determined as more than or less than 2 standard deviations from the national average, respectively. A significance level of 0.10 was used for statistical judgment. In 2009, a total of 6,886 cases of stomach cancers were reported of which 4,891 were in men and 1,995 in women (standardized incidence rates of 19.2 and 10.0, respectively, per 100,000 population). The results showed that stomach cancer was concentrated mainly in northwest of the country in both men and women. In women, northwest provinces such as Ardebil, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Qazvin were identified as hot spots (p<0.1). In men, all northwest provinces, Ardabil, East Azerbaijan, Gilan, Qazvin, Zanjan and Kurdistan, the incidences were higher than the national average and these were identified as hot spots (P<0.01). As stomach cancer is clustered in the northwest of the country, further epidemiological studies are needed to identify factors contributing to this concentration.

  15. Capitate glandular trichomes of Paragutzlaffia henryi harbor new phytotoxic labdane diterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Xiao-Nian; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2015-11-18

    The morphology and chemical profile of the capitate glandular trichomes (CGTs) of Paragutzlaffia henryi (Acanthaceae) were investigated. Four new labdane diterpenoids named paraguhenryisins A-D (1-4), together with the known physacoztomatin (5), were localized to the CGTs using laser microdissection coupled with cryogenic (1)H NMR and HPLC analyses and were traced and isolated from the CGT extract of inflorescences. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Bioassays indicated significant inhibitory effect for these diterpenoids on Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and seedling root elongation. The most potent inhibitor, paraguhenryisin C (3), was interestingly detected in both the rhizosphere soil and water rinsed inflorescences extract of P. henryi but not the roots, with average contents in the rhizosphere soil relevant to its phytotoxic EC50 values. These results suggested that phytotoxic labdane diterpenoids in the CGTs might be released into the environment as a defensive measure for P. henryi against other competitive plants.

  16. Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Glandular Trichomes of Solanum berthaultii.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, S P; Eannetta, N T; Hirzel, A T; Steffens, J C

    1992-10-01

    Type A glandular trichomes of the wild potato (Solanum berthaultii Hawkes) entrap insects by rapidly polymerizing the trichome contents after breakage by insect contact. Polymerization of trichome exudate appears to be driven by a soluble polyphenol oxidase (PPO). PPO constitutes up to 70% of the protein in individually collected trichomes and reaches a concentration approaching 200 mum in these organs. Trichome PPO has been purified and shown to be a monomeric copper metalloprotein with an isoelectric point of 5.5, possessing only o-diphenol oxygen oxido-reductase activity, and is larger than most other reported PPOs, with relative molecular weight of 59,000. Chlorogenic and caffeic acid were the most readily oxidized of 14 phenolic substrates tested. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the relative molecular weight 59,000 S. berthaultii trichome PPO were used to show that S. tuberosum L. trichomes express low levels of a cross-reactive protein that lacks detectable PPO activity.

  17. Chemistry of fruit flies: Glandular secretion ofBactrocera (Polistomimetes) visenda (Hardy).

    PubMed

    Krohn, S; Fletcher, M T; Kitching, W; Moore, C J; Drew, R A; Francke, W

    1992-12-01

    The major component (>90% of volatiles) of the male rectal glandular extract of the nonpest speciesBactrocera visenda (Hardy) is 3-methyl2-butenyl acetate, with minor components being the isomeric 3-methyl-3-butenyl acetate, the homologous esters, 3-methyl-2-butenyl propanoate and 3-methyl-2-butenyl formate, along with 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butenal, and 3-methylbutyl acetate. None of these compounds has been identified previously from aBactrocera species, supporting the view thatBactrocera visenda is taxonomically distant from otherBactrocera species identified from the Australian mainland. This collection of compounds adds to the known types utilized by dipteran species and emphasizes their extensive biosynthetic capability.

  18. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Streuli, Charles H

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a crucial role in determining the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and the formation of lumens in glandular tissues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. By using Cre–Lox deletion we show that β1 integrins are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and lumen formation, both in vivo and in a three-dimensional primary culture model in which epithelial cells directly contact a basement membrane. Downstream of basement membrane β1 integrins, Rac1 is not involved; however, ILK is needed to polarize microtubule plus ends at the basolateral membrane and disrupting each of these components prevents lumen formation. The integrin–microtubule axis is necessary for the endocytic removal of apical proteins from the basement-membrane–cell interface and for internal Golgi positioning. We propose that this integrin signalling network controls the delivery of apical components to the correct surface and thereby governs the orientation of polarity and development of lumens.

  19. Endometrial stromal sarcoma with smooth muscle and glandular differentiation of the feline uterus.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Maeda, H; Suzuki, A; Shibuya, H; Sakata, A; Shirai, W

    2007-05-01

    The intra-abdominal tumor developing in the uterus and lung of a domestic Shorthair cat was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The tumor showed a proliferation of both endometrial stromal and smooth muscle cells accompanied by prominent vasculature. There were well-differentiated endometrial glands, and tubuli made up a monolayer of eosinophilic cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, the spindle-shaped cells and half of the stromal-like cells reacted to caldesmon and desmin antibodies. The neoplastic epithelium expressed AE1/AE3 cytokeratin. Feline endometrial stromal tumor has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported previously and has smooth muscle and glandular components that are a unique variant to the human counterpart.

  20. Conformance of mean glandular dose from phantom and patient data in mammography.

    PubMed

    Kelaranta, A; Toroi, P; Timonen, M; Komssi, S; Kortesniemi, M

    2015-04-01

    In mammography dosimetry, phantoms are often used to represent breast tissue. The conformance of phantom- and patient-based mean glandular dose (MGD) estimates was evaluated mainly from the aspect of diagnostic reference levels. Patient and phantom exposure data were collected for eight diagnostic and three screening mammography devices. More extensive assessments were performed for two devices. The average breast thickness was close to the nationally used reference of 50 mm in diagnostic (50 mm, SD = 13 mm, n = 5342) and screening (47 mm, SD = 13 mm, n = 395) examinations. The average MGD for all breasts differed by 2% from the MGD determined for breasts in the limited compressed thickness range of 40-60 mm. The difference between phantom- and patient-based MGD estimations was up to 30%. Therefore, phantom measurements cannot replace patient dose data in MGD determination.

  1. Effect of filter on average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songsaeng, C.; Krisanachinda, A.; Theerakul, K.

    2016-03-01

    To determine the average glandular dose and entrance surface air kerma in both phantoms and patients to assess image quality for different target-filters (W/Rh and W/Ag) in digital mammography system. The compressed breast thickness, compression force, average glandular dose, entrance surface air kerma, peak kilovoltage and tube current time were recorded and compared between W/Rh and W/Ag target filter. The CNR and the figure of merit were used to determine the effect of target filter on image quality. The mean AGD of the W/Rh target filter was 1.75 mGy, the mean ESAK was 6.67 mGy, the mean CBT was 54.1 mm, the mean CF was 14 1bs. The mean AGD of W/Ag target filter was 2.7 mGy, the mean ESAK was 12.6 mGy, the mean CBT was 75.5 mm, the mean CF was 15 1bs. In phantom study, the AGD was 1.2 mGy at 4 cm, 3.3 mGy at 6 cm and 3.83 mGy at 7 cm thickness. The FOM was 24.6, CNR was 9.02 at thickness 6 cm. The FOM was 18.4, CNR was 8.6 at thickness 7 cm. The AGD from Digital Mammogram system with W/Rh of thinner CBT was lower than the AGD from W/Ag target filter.

  2. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Göpfert, Jens C; MacNevin, Gillian; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2009-01-01

    Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae) which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes as well. Conclusion This

  3. Dual-energy digital mammography: calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio.

    PubMed

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C

    2003-06-01

    Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were approximately 50 microm for the aluminum thickness and approximately 0.05 for the glandular ratio.

  4. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  5. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore. PMID:27556560

  6. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F. |; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Castillon, N.; Terryn, C.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E. , E-Mail: edith.puchelle@univ-reims.fr; Balossier, G.

    2005-10-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na{sup +} absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, P, S and Cl{sup -}) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR{sub inh}-172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF.

  7. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore.

  8. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Izdihar; Chelliah, Kanaga K.; Mustafa, Nawal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD) of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50) and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80) commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA) with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy) for two dimension (2D) and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D) images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error. PMID:26052465

  9. Application of 5-ALA for differential diagnostics of stomach diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhotnikova, Natalja L.; Dadvany, Sergey A.; Kuszin, Michail I.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sklyanskaya, Olga A.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Volkova, Anna I.; Agafonov, Valery V.

    2001-01-01

    59 patients with stomach diseases including gastric cancer or polyp, gastritis, esofagus disease were investigated. Before gastroscopy all patients were given 5-ALA in doses 5mg, 10mg and 20mg per 1kg of body weight orally. Fluorescence diagnostics which estimates concentration of ALA-induced PPIX in regular and alternated tissues of gastric mucosa were carried out in 2-4 hours. Using of 5-ALA has shown high diagnostic effectiveness for differential diagnostics of stomach diseases. This technique has proved 10 diagnosis of cancer and revealed 15 malignant stomach diseases including 4 cancer in situ for patients with preliminary diagnosis of gastric ulcer. It also revealed 5 patients with enhanced fluorescence for which aimed biopsy has shown high degree of inflammation process. The latter were assigned as a risk group.

  10. Optical Spectra of Some Pathological Conditions of Stomach Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Kobsev, O. V.

    Diffuse reflection spectra, diffuse and collimated transmittance spectra of the mucous tissue of stomach anthrus in norm and at a low-differential form of stomach cancer are measured in 300-800 nm spectrum range. The optical coefficients of absorption (μa), scattering (μs) and anisotropy factor (g) for tissues with pathological changes have been calculated by the three-flux model and diffusion approximation methods. It has been determined that the magnitude of optical parameters grows with the development of malignant processes in stomach tissues which indicates the prevalence of forward light scattering and the increase in Mi scatter contribution to the total scattering coefficient of malignant tissues. It has also been shown that the application of two independent theories as methods of tissues' optical parameters determination (μa,μs,g) gives satisfactorily similar results.

  11. Advanced carcinoma of the stomach treated with definitive proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, S.; Kawanishi, N.; Fukutomi, H.; Osuga, T.; Iijima, T.; Tsujii, H.; Kitagawa, T. )

    1990-04-01

    We report the case of a 72-yr-old man who suffered from severe chronic emphysema with poor pulmonary function, and who had advanced cancer of the stomach. Proton beam radiotherapy was applied to the lesion, since surgery was contraindicated. The total dose to the stomach lesion was 61 Gy in 7 wk. The tumor on the stomach regressed, with flattening of the round wall of the lesion. The reactive changes of the proton beam radiotherapy, based on the histopathological examination, revealed extensive tumor necrosis and sparing of vital architecture of normal tissue around the irradiated tumor tissue. Only small clusters of vital or devitalized tumor cells with less than approximately 5% of the whole tumor tissue remained after treatment. We suggest that a high dose of radiation delivered by well-defined proton field could result in an improved therapeutic outcome without undue risk of injury to normal tissue.

  12. Gradual reintroduction of oxygen reduces reperfusion injury in cat stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, M.A.; Wadhwa, S.S. )

    1988-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals are responsible for a major portion of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the stomach. The oxygen radicals are produced during perfusion when oxygen delivery to the tissue increases. In the present study the authors investigate the effect on mucosal injury of regulating the rate of reintroduction of oxygen to the stomach after ischemia. Local gastric ischemia was achieved by reducing celiac artery pressure to 30 mmHg for 1 h. Ischemic injury was assessed by measuring the loss of {sup 51}Cr-labeled red blood cells across the gastric mucosa. Mucosal blood loss was negligible before and during the ischemia period but increased during reperfusion. When blood flow to the stomach was gradually returned to normal after ischemia, the mucosal blood loss was reduced. If the stomach was vascularly perfused with low Po{sub 2} blood for 1 h after ischemia before being returned to normal arterial perfusion, the mucosal blood loss was also reduced. When the stomach was made hypoxemic for 1 h rather than ischemic by perfusing the vasculature with low Po{sub 2} blood then reperfused with normoxic blood, there was very little mucosal bleeding. The data indicate that gastric mucosal bleeding after ischemia is reduced if the tissue is returned slowly to a normal Po{sub 2}. These findings support the concept that reperfusion injury is due largely to the production of oxygen radicals. The low level of injury produced by hypoxemia indicates that hypoxia per se makes only a minor contribution to reperfusion injury in the stomach.

  13. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Julie Y.; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori’s ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria’s response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD’s colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium. PMID:28103315

  14. Traumatic rupture of the stomach after Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, A C; Lange, J F

    1990-01-01

    Fatal complications following the performance of the Heimlich maneuver have been reported. A 76-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with signs of respiratory distress, abdominal pain and distension one day after airway obstruction and subsequent resuscitation. Despite successful immediate laparotomy and repair of a ruptured stomach, she later succumbed to the sequelae of aspiration of gastric contents and dehiscence of the gastric tear. This is the 4th case of stomach rupture and the 7th reported fatal complication following the Heimlich maneuver. It is recommended that persons who undergo the Heimlich maneuver be examined and observed by a physician, as soon as possible, to rule out complications.

  15. Access to the bypassed stomach after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Fobi, M A; Chicola, K; Lee, H

    1998-06-01

    The gastric bypass (GBP) Operation is progressively being widely used to treat severe obesity. One problem with this operation is that it leaves the bypassed segment of the gastrointestinal tract not readily available for either mechanical, radiological or endoscopic evaluation. We have addressed this problem by putting a gastrostomy tube in the bypassed stomach at the time of the GBP. A radio-opaque marker placed around the gastrostomy site enables easy radiological localization of and thus easy percutaneous access to the bypassed stomach. The surgical technique is presented.

  16. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  17. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach

    PubMed Central

    IKEGAMI, Reona; TANIMOTO, Yoshimasa; KISHIMOTO, Miori; SHIBATA, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1–3 parietal and 1–3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1–4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2–7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits. PMID:26615866

  18. Management of early asymptomatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Scherübl, Hans; Faiss, Siegbert; Knoefel, Wolfram-Trudo; Wardelmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Approximately two thirds of clinically manifest tumors occur in the stomach, nearly one third in the small bowel, and the rest in the colorectal region with a few cases in the esophagus. GIST originate within the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the tubular gastrointestinal tract and grow mostly toward the serosa, far less often toward the mucosa. In the latter case, ulceration may develop and can cause gastrointestinal bleeding as the cardinal symptom. However, most GIST of the stomach are asymptomatic. They are increasingly detected incidentally as small intramural or submucosal tumors during endoscopy and particularly during endoscopic ultrasound. Epidemiological and molecular genetic findings suggest that early asymptomatic GIST of the stomach (< 1 cm) show self-limiting tumorigenesis. Thus, early (< 1 cm) asymptomatic gastric GIST (synonym: micro-GIST) are found in 20%-30% of the elderly. The mostly elderly people with early gastric GIST have an excellent GIST-specific prognosis. Patients with early GIST of the stomach can therefore be managed by endoscopic surveillance. PMID:25031785

  19. Spatial distribution of osteoblast activating peptide in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Noreldin, Ahmed E; Sogabe, Maina; Yamano, Yoshiaki; Uehara, Masato; Mahdy, Mohamed A A; Elnasharty, Mohamed A; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Warita, Katsuhiko; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z

    2016-03-01

    Osteoblast activating peptide (OBAP) was previously reported to be expressed in the rat stomach and to have a vital role in osteogenesis, but its distribution in rat stomach has not been determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the cell types expressing OBAP in the rat stomach. The stomachs of twelve 10-to-11-week-old male Jc1:SD rats were used. Samples were collected for immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and dot blot assay. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed that OBAP was distributed mainly in parietal cells without any expression in chief cells, X/A-like cells or enterochromaffin-like cells. Moreover, OBAP-immunopositive cells were observed mainly in the upper and lower parts of the gastric gland. Significantly high optical density of immunopositive cells was observed in the upper and lower gastric gland regions. The dot blot assay confirmed that OBAP is secreted by parietal cells and that it is present in the gastric gland lumen. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that OBAP was confined to the mitochondrial inner membrane within parietal cells and that the number of mitochondria in the upper and lower parts of the gastric epithelium was significantly larger than the number in the middle part of the gastric epithelium. Based on the results, it was concluded that OBAP is mainly produced by mitochondria of parietal cells in the upper and lower parts of the gastric epithelium. Moreover, the presence of OBAP in the gastric gland lumen suggests an exocrine mechanism of release.

  20. Computer decision support system for the stomach cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, E. V.; Sukhova, O. G.; Korenevskaya, P. Y.; Ovcharova, V. S.; Kudryavtseva, I. O.; Vlasova, S. V.; Grebennikova, O. P.; Burov, D. A.; Yemelyanova, G. S.; Selchuk, V. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the creation of the computer knowledge base containing the data of histological, cytologic, and clinical researches. The system is focused on improvement of diagnostics quality of stomach cancer - one of the most frequent death causes among oncologic patients.

  1. Local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kinami, Shinichi; Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideto; Nakano, Yasuharu; Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Takeo

    2016-06-24

    The local resection of the stomach is an ideal method for preventing postoperative symptoms. There are various procedures for performing local resection, such as the laparoscopic lesion lifting method, non-touch lesion lifting method, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the invention and widespread use of endoscopic submucosal dissection, local resection has become outdated as a curative surgical technique for gastric cancer. Nevertheless, local resection of the stomach in the treatment of gastric cancer in now expected to make a comeback with the clinical use of sentinel node navigation surgery. However, there are many issues associated with local resection for gastric cancer, other than the normal indications. These include gastric deformation, functional impairment, ensuring a safe surgical margin, the possibility of inducing peritoneal dissemination, and the associated increase in the risk of metachronous gastric cancer. In view of these issues, there is a tendency to regard local resection as an investigative treatment, to be applied only in carefully selected cases. The ideal model for local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer would be a combination of endoscopic full-thickness resection of the stomach using an ESD device and hand sutured closure using a laparoscope or a surgical robot, for achieving both oncological safety and preserved functions.

  2. Gallium accumulation in the stomach. A frequent incidental finding

    SciTech Connect

    MacMahon, H.; Vyborny, C.; Sephardari, S.; Kirchner, P.; Ryan, J.

    1985-10-01

    Accumulation of tracer by the stomach is a frequent incidental occurrence on gallium scans. Gastric concentration of Ga-67 equal to or greater than that seen in the liver was observed in approximately 10% of patients in a large series. Although a few of these patients had known or subsequently demonstrated gastric pathologic conditions, most had no clinically or radiographically identifiable gastric disease.

  3. Estrogen and progesterone receptor isoforms expression in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Neri-Gómez, Teresa; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: We studied the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms expression in gastric antrum and corpus of female gerbils and their regulation by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). METHODS: Ovariectomized adult female gerbils were subcutaneously treated with E2, and E2 + P4. Uteri and stomachs were removed, the latter were cut along the greater curvature, and antrum and corpus were excised. Proteins were immunoblotted using antibodies that recognize ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PR-A and PR-B receptor isoforms. Tissues from rats treated in the same way were used as controls. RESULTS: Specific bands were detected for ER-alpha (68 KDa), and PR isoforms (85 and 120 KDa for PR-A and PR-B isoforms, respectively) in uteri, gastric antrum and corpus. We could not detect ER-beta isoform. PR isoforms were not regulated by E2 or P4 in uterus and gastric tissues of gerbils. ER-alpha isoform content was significantly down-regulated by E2 in the corpus, but not affected by hormones in uterus and gastric antrum. CONCLUSION: The presence of ER-alpha and PR isoforms in gerbils stomach suggests that E2 and P4 actions in this organ are in part mediated by their nuclear receptors. PMID:18837087

  4. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code

    PubMed Central

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Background X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. Materials and Methods We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. “Midi-future” digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. Results MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. Conclusion By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD. PMID:27895876

  5. Leptin secretion and leptin receptor in the human stomach

    PubMed Central

    Sobhani, I; Bado, A; Vissuzaine, C; Buyse, M; Kermorgant, S; Laigneau, J; Attoub, S; Lehy, T; Henin, D; Mignon, M; Lewin, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM—The circulating peptide leptin produced by fat cells acts on central receptors to control food intake and body weight homeostasis. Contrary to initial reports, leptin expression has also been detected in the human placenta, muscles, and recently, in rat gastric chief cells. Here we investigate the possible presence of leptin and leptin receptor in the human stomach.
METHODS—Leptin and leptin receptor expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis on biopsy samples from 24 normal individuals. Fourteen (10 healthy volunteers and four patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and normal gastric mucosa histology) were analysed for gastric secretions. Plasma and fundic mucosa leptin content was determined by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS—In fundic biopsies from normal individuals, immunoreactive leptin cells were found in the lower half of the fundic glands. mRNA encoding ob protein was detected in the corpus of the human stomach. The amount of fundic leptin was 10.4 (3.7) ng leptin/g mucosa, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Intravenous infusions of pentagastrin or secretin caused an increase in circulating leptin levels and leptin release into the gastric juice. The leptin receptor was present in the basolateral membranes of fundic and antral gastric cells. mRNA encoding Ob-RL was detected in both the corpus and antrum, consistent with a protein of ~120 kDa detected by immunoblotting.
CONCLUSION—These data provide the first evidence of the presence of leptin and leptin receptor proteins in the human stomach and suggest that gastric epithelial cells may be direct targets for leptin. Therefore, we conclude that leptin may have a physiological role in the human stomach, although much work is required to establish this.


Keywords: leptin; leptin receptor; human stomach; gastrin; secretin PMID:10896907

  6. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-02-11

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome was carried out. In addition to the MVA and MEP pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPS) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (3 from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. Abbreviations - AACT, acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase; CMK, 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase; DGE, digital gene expression; DXR, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase; DXS, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase; FPPS, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase; GC, gas chromatography; GPPS, geranyl pyrophosphate synthase; GT, glandular trichome; HDR, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase; HDS, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate synthase; HMGR, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase; HMGS, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase; IDI, isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase; IPD, isopiperitenol dehydrogenase; IPI

  7. Histopathological confirmation of similar intramucosal distribution of fluorescein in both intravenous administration and local mucosal application for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the normal stomach

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ohata, Ken; Ban, Shinichi; Ichihara, Shin; Takasugi, Rumi; Minato, Yohei; Tashima, Tomoaki; Matsuyama, Yasushi; Takita, Maiko; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is capable of acquiring in vivo magnified cross-section images of the gastric mucosa. Intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium is used for confocal imaging. However, it is still under debate if local administration of the dye to the mucosa is also effective for confocal imaging as it is not yet clear if topical application also reveals the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein sodium after topical application and to compare the distribution to the conventional intravenous injection used for confocal imaging. pCLE of the stomach uninfected with Helicobacter pylori was performed in a healthy male employing intravenous administration and local mucosal application of fluorescein. The mucosa of the lower gastric body was biopsied 1 min and 5 min after intravenous administration or local mucosal application of fluorescein, and the distribution of fluorescein in the biopsy samples was examined histologically. Green fluorescence was already observed in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells in the biopsied deep mucosa 1 min after local mucosal application of fluorescein. It was also observed in the foveolar lumen and inter-foveolar lamina propria, although it was noted at only a few sites. In the tissue biopsied 5 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, green fluorescence was more frequently noted in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells than in that 1 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, although obvious green fluorescence was not identified in the foveolar lumen or inter-foveolar lamina propria. The distribution of intravenously administered fluorescein in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells was also clearly observed similarly to that after local mucosal application of fluorescein. Green fluorescence in more cells was observed in many cells 5 min after intravenous administration compared

  8. Foregut Duplication Cyst of the Stomach: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tjendra, Y.; Lyapichev, K.; Henderson, J.; Rojas, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Duplication cyst of the stomach is a rare congenital malformation, typically diagnosed in the first year of life. In most adult cases the cyst remains asymptomatic, but patients may present with abdominal symptoms including epigastric discomfort or pain. We present a case of a 65-year-old male with an asymptomatic gastric tumor diagnosed incidentally during initial workup of his esophageal adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography revealed a low density soft tissue tumor near the gastroesophageal junction. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a cystic lesion as a hypoechoic round mass with well-defined borders. Following complete laparoscopic resection, microscopic review revealed a cyst lined with respiratory pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and layers of smooth muscle with an outermost thin fibrous capsule consistent with a foregut duplication cyst. PMID:26998376

  9. The origin of pre-neoplastic metaplasia in the stomach: Chief cells emerge from the Mist

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenring, James R.; Nam, Ki Taek; Mills, Jason C.

    2011-11-15

    The digestive-enzyme secreting, gastric epithelial chief (zymogenic) cell is remarkable and underappreciated. Here, we discuss how all available evidence suggests that mature chief cells in the adult, mammalian stomach are postmitotic, slowly turning over cells that arise via a relatively long-lived progenitor, the mucous neck cell, The differentiation of chief cells from neck cells does not involve cell division, and the neck cell has its own distinct pattern of gene expression and putative physiological function. Thus, the ontogeny of the normal chief cell lineage exemplifies transdifferentiation. Furthermore, under pathophysiogical loss of acid-secreting parietal cell, the chief cell lineage can itself trasndifferentiate into a mucous cell metaplasia designated Spasmolytic Polypeptide Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Especially in the presence of inflammation, this metaplastic lineage can regain proliferative capacity and, in humans may also further differentiate into intestinal metaplasia. The results indicate that gastric fundic lineages display remarkable plasticity in both physiological ontogeny and pathophysiological pre-neoplastic metaplasia.

  10. The origin of pre-neoplastic metaplasia in the stomach: chief cells emerge from the Mist.

    PubMed

    Goldenring, James R; Nam, Ki Taek; Mills, Jason C

    2011-11-15

    The digestive-enzyme secreting, gastric epithelial chief (zymogenic) cell is remarkable and underappreciated. Here, we discuss how all available evidence suggests that mature chief cells in the adult, mammalian stomach are postmitotic, slowly turning over cells that arise via a relatively long-lived progenitor, the mucous neck cell, The differentiation of chief cells from neck cells does not involve cell division, and the neck cell has its own distinct pattern of gene expression and putative physiological function. Thus, the ontogeny of the normal chief cell lineage exemplifies transdifferentiation. Furthermore, under pathophysiogical loss of acid-secreting parietal cell, the chief cell lineage can itself trasndifferentiate into a mucous cell metaplasia designated Spasmolytic Polypeptide Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Especially in the presence of inflammation, this metaplastic lineage can regain proliferative capacity and, in humans may also further differentiate into intestinal metaplasia. The results indicate that gastric fundic lineages display remarkable plasticity in both physiological ontogeny and pathophysiological pre-neoplastic metaplasia.

  11. Weeding atypical glandular cell look-alikes from the true atypical lesions in liquid-based Pap tests: a review.

    PubMed

    Wood, Moira D; Horst, Julie A; Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify features that separate atypical glandular cells (AGC) associated with glandular neoplasia from its mimickers, both benign and neoplastic. We reviewed cases of AGC diagnosed on liquid-based Pap tests (LBP) for which corresponding histological follow-up was available. A review of the literature for similar studies in LBP tests was also conducted. We find that certain benign mimics can be reliably separated from AGC, but recommend caution in attempting to increase specificity at the risk of losing sensitivity. Although accounting for only a small percentage of diagnoses AGC require a thorough clinical evaluation, including colposcopy. Most cases are ultimately found to be benign. When evaluating smears suspicious for AGC, it is important to examine the subtle features which make truly atypical cells discernible from their numerous benign mimickers.

  12. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS: Second-harmonic generation as a DNA malignancy indicator of prostate glandular epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zheng-Fei; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Zhuo, Shuang-Mu; Yu, Bi-Ying; Deng, Xiao-Yuan

    2010-04-01

    This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a scanning region of 2.7 μm×2.7 μm in cell nuclei, SHG signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been investigated. Statistical analyses (t test) of a total of 405 measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference (p < 0.05), suggesting a potential optical method of revealing very early malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA.

  13. Effects of ezrin knockdown on the structure of gastric glandular epithelia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Saori; Yamamoto, Hiroto; Tetsui, Takahito; Kobayakawa, Yuka; Hatano, Ryo; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Asano, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Ezrin, an adaptor protein that cross-links plasma membrane-associated proteins with the actin cytoskeleton, is concentrated on apical surfaces of epithelial cells, especially in microvilli of the small intestine and stomach. In the stomach, ezrin is predominantly expressed on the apical canalicular membrane of parietal cells. Transgenic ezrin knockdown mice in which the expression level of ezrin was reduced to <7% compared with the wild-type suffered from achlorhydria because of impairment of membrane fusion between tubulovesicles and apical membranes. We observed, for the first time, hypergastrinemia and foveolar hyperplasia in the gastric fundic region of the knockdown mice. Dilation of fundic glands was observed, the percentage of parietal and chief cells was reduced, and that of mucous-secreting cells was increased. The parietal cells of knockdown mice contained dilated tubulovesicles and abnormal mitochondria, and subsets of these cells contained abnormal vacuoles and multilamellar structures. Therefore, lack of ezrin not only causes achlorhydria and hypergastrinemia but also changes the structure of gastric glands, with severe perturbation of the secretory membranes of parietal cells.

  14. Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Bergau, Nick; Navarette Santos, Alexander; Henning, Anja; Balcke, Gerd U.; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. PMID:27446176

  15. Capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae): ultrastructure and cytological development.

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, produce sesquiterpene lactones (STL) and flavonoids, which are sequestered and accumulated between the apical cuticle and the wall of the tip cells. To explore the cellular structures required and putatively involved in the STL biosynthesis and secretion, the present study was focused on the development of CGT and the comparison of the ultrastructure of its different cell types. Gradual maturation of flowers in the capitulum of the sunflower provided the possibility to study the simultaneous differentiation from the primordial to the secretory stage of CGT located by light microscopy (bright field, differential interference contrast and fluorescence) as well as transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the CGT of sunflower anthers had a biseriate structure with up to 14 cell pairs. In mature trichomes, the apical cells called secretory cells were covered entirely by a large cuticle globe, which enclosed the resinous terpenoids and was specialised in thickness and structure. The secretory cells lacked chloroplasts and contained mainly smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER). Conspicuous cell wall protuberances and an accumulation of mitochondria nearby occurred in the horizontally oriented cell walls. The cytological differences between stalk cells and secretory cells indicate a different function. The dominance of sER suggests its involvement in STL biosynthesis and cell wall protuberances enlarge the surface of the plasmamembrane of secretory cells and may be involved in the secretion processes of STL into the subcuticular space.

  16. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid.

  17. Mean glandular dose in six digital mammography services in Santiago, Chile: preliminary reference levels.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Do Socorro; Dantas, Marcelino; Duran, Maria Paz; Ubeda, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate mean glandular dose levels (DG) in six digital mammography systems in Santiago, Chile, and to propose preliminary reference levels to execute mammography in Chile. The study was carried out assessing two direct digital systems and four computer-based radiography (CR) systems. Estimates of DG were calculated for different thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate according to the quality control protocol in digital mammography of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. DG values ranged between 0.64 and 7.26 mGy for a range of 20- to 70-mm thickness, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of DG was higher than the acceptable dose level and 100 % of DG was higher than the desirable level. It is therefore necessary to optimise doses. The initial proposal to establish dose reference levels for DG would range between 0.90 and 6.40 mGy for a thickness range of 20 to 70 mm.

  18. Terpene Biosynthesis in Glandular Trichomes of Hop12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guodong; Tian, Li; Aziz, Naveed; Broun, Pierre; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; King, Andrew; Zhao, Patrick X.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L. Cannabaceae) is an economically important crop for the brewing industry, where it is used to impart flavor and aroma to beer, and has also drawn attention in recent years due to its potential pharmaceutical applications. Essential oils (mono- and sesquiterpenes), bitter acids (prenylated polyketides), and prenylflavonoids are the primary phytochemical components that account for these traits, and all accumulate at high concentrations in glandular trichomes of hop cones. To understand the molecular basis for terpene accumulation in hop trichomes, a trichome cDNA library was constructed and 9,816 cleansed expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were obtained from random sequencing of 16,152 cDNA clones. The ESTs were assembled into 3,619 unigenes (1,101 contigs and 2,518 singletons). Putative functions were assigned to the unigenes based on their homology to annotated sequences in the GenBank database. Two mono- and two sesquiterpene synthases identified from the EST collection were expressed in Escherichia coli. Hop MONOTERPENE SYNTHASE2 formed the linear monterpene myrcene from geranyl pyrophosphate, whereas hop SESQUITERPENE SYNTHASE1 (HlSTS1) formed both caryophyllene and humulene from farnesyl pyrophosphate. Together, these enzymes account for the production of the major terpene constituents of the hop trichomes. HlSTS2 formed the minor sesquiterpene constituent germacrene A, which was converted to β-elemene on chromatography at elevated temperature. We discuss potential functions for other genes expressed at high levels in developing hop trichomes. PMID:18775972

  19. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, suggesting glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research.

  20. A solitary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Kozu, Yoshiki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (mixed papilloma) of the lung is exceedingly rare, with only 18 cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of mixed papilloma and its associated immunohistochemical and positron emission tomographic (PET) findings. A 60-year-old Japanese male with a smoking history of 40 pack-years presented with a smooth-edged pulmonary lesion in the right S5 segment on computed tomography (CT). F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET revealed abnormally increased FDG uptake in the mass (maximum standardized uptake value, 3.4). We performed right middle lobectomy and combined partial resection of the S8 segment. The 1.8-cm tumor that filled the enlarged lumen of the B5b was histologically diagnosed as mixed papilloma. Immunohistochemically, the pseudostratified columnar epithelium was positive for cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and CK7. p40 positivity was predominant in the basal and squamous cells. Thyroid transcription factor-1 and carcinoembryonic antigen were negative on immunostaining. Malignant features were absent. The postoperative course has been uneventful for 3 months after the surgery. No recurrences were reported after the surgical resection of the mixed papilloma. Therefore, surgical resection may be considered the mainstay of curative treatment.

  1. Glandular odontogenic cyst: review of literature and report of a new case with cytokeratin-19 expression.

    PubMed

    Mascitti, Marco; Santarelli, Andrea; Sabatucci, Antonio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Zizzi, Antonio; Rubini, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) was a rare jawbone cyst described in 1988 as a distinct entity. This lesion can involve either jaw, and the anterior region of the mandible was the most commonly affected area. Clinical and radiographic findings were not specific, and the diagnosis of GOC can be extremely difficult due to the rarity of this lesion. The cyst presented a wall constituted by fibrous connective tissue and was lined by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of variable thickness. Large areas of the lining epithelium presented cylinder cells, sometimes ciliated. A variable amount of mucina was occasionally noted. Due to the strong similarities, this cyst can be easily misdiag-nosed as a central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). Immunohistochemistry may be an aid in diagnosis; in fact has been demonstrated that there were differences in the expression of cytokeratins (CK) in GOC and CMEC. In this study, we reported a new case of GOC in a 38 year female patient. In addition, we carried out a review of 110 previous cases reported in literature.

  2. Single-cell analysis of glandular T cell receptors in Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Christina; Pelikan, Richard C.; Moore, Jacen S.; Pan, Zijian; Radfar, Lida; Lewis, David M.; Grundahl, Kiely M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Wiley, Graham B.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Stone, Donald U.; Scofield, R. Hal; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Thompson, Linda F.; Farris, A. Darise

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells predominate in salivary gland (SG) inflammatory lesions in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). However, their antigen specificity, degree of clonal expansion, and relationship to clinical disease features remain unknown. We used multiplex reverse-transcriptase PCR to amplify paired T cell receptor α (TCRα) and β transcripts of single CD4+CD45RA– T cells from SG and peripheral blood (PB) of 10 individuals with primary SS, 9 of whom shared the HLA DR3/DQ2 risk haplotype. TCRα and β sequences were obtained from a median of 91 SG and 107 PB cells per subject. The degree of clonal expansion and frequency of cells expressing two productively rearranged α genes were increased in SG versus PB. Expanded clones from SG exhibited complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequence similarity both within and among subjects, suggesting antigenic selection and shared antigen recognition. CDR3 similarities were shared among expanded clones from individuals discordant for canonical Ro and La autoantibodies, suggesting recognition of alternative SG antigen(s). The extent of SG clonal expansion correlated with reduced saliva production and increased SG fibrosis, linking expanded SG T cells with glandular dysfunction. Knowledge of paired TCRα and β sequences enables further work toward identification of target antigens and development of novel therapies. PMID:27358913

  3. Transcriptional profiling unravels potential metabolic activities of the olive leaf non-glandular trichome

    PubMed Central

    Koudounas, Konstantinos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Kourti, Anna; Banilas, Georgios; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2015-01-01

    The olive leaf trichomes are multicellular peltate hairs densely distributed mainly at the lower leaf epidermis. Although, non-glandular, they have gained much attention since they significantly contribute to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of olive leaves. The exact mechanisms by which olive trichomes achieve these goals are not fully understood. They could act as mechanical barrier but they also accumulate high amounts of flavonoids among other secondary metabolites. However, little is currently known about the exact compounds they produce and the respective metabolic pathways. Here we present the first EST analysis from olive leaf trichomes by using 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 5368 unigenes were identified out of 7258 high quality reads with an average length of 262 bp. Blast search revealed that 27.5% of them had high homologies to known proteins. By using Blast2GO, 1079 unigenes (20.1%) were assigned at least one Gene Ontology (GO) term. Most of the genes were involved in cellular and metabolic processes and in binding functions followed by catalytic activity. A total of 521 transcripts were mapped to 67 KEGG pathways. Olive trichomes represent a tissue of highly unique transcriptome as per the genes involved in developmental processes and the secondary metabolism. The results indicate that mature olive trichomes are trancriptionally active, mainly through the potential production of enzymes that contribute to phenolic compounds with important roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26322070

  4. Clinical picture of primary HIV infection presenting as a glandular-fever-like illness.

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, H.; von Sydow, M.; Pehrson, P. O.; Lundbegh, P.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical symptoms and signs were assessed in 20 consecutive patients developing infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All were male homosexuals and all presented with a glandular-fever-like illness. Changes in laboratory values were compared with findings in 40 HIV negative male homosexual controls. In the 10 patients for whom date of exposure to the virus could be established the incubation period was 11-28 days (median 14). One or two days after the sudden onset of fever patients developed sore throat, lymphadenopathy, rash, lethargy, coated tongue, tonsillar hypertrophy, dry cough, headache, myalgia, conjunctivitis, vomiting, night sweats, nausea, diarrhoea, and palatal enanthema. Twelve patients had painful, shallow ulcers in the mouth or on the genitals or anus or as manifested by oesophageal symptoms; these ulcers may have been the site of entry of the virus. During the first week after the onset of symptoms mild leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased numbers of banded neutrophils were detected (p less than 0.0005). The mean duration of acute illness was 12.7 days (range 5-44). All patients remained healthy during a mean follow up period of 2.5 years. Heightened awareness of the typical clinical picture in patients developing primary HIV infection will alert the physician at an early stage and so aid prompt diagnosis and help contain the epidemic spread of AIDS. PMID:3146367

  5. Identification of cholinergic chemosensory cells in mouse tracheal and laryngeal glandular ducts.

    PubMed

    Krasteva-Christ, G; Soultanova, A; Schütz, B; Papadakis, T; Weiss, C; Deckmann, K; Chubanov, V; Gudermann, T; Voigt, A; Meyerhof, W; Boehm, U; Weihe, E; Kummer, W

    2015-11-01

    Specialized epithelial cells in the respiratory tract such as solitary chemosensory cells and brush cells sense the luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to the detection of potentially harmful substances. The majority of these cells are cholinergic and utilize the canonical taste signal transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Utilizing two different mouse strains reporting expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme of acetylcholine (ACh), we detected cholinergic cells in the submucosal glands of the murine larynx and trachea. These cells were localized in the ciliated glandular ducts and were neither found in the collecting ducts nor in alveolar or tubular segments of the glands. ChAT expression in tracheal gland ducts was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The cholinergic duct cells expressed the brush cell marker proteins, villin and cytokeratin-18, and were immunoreactive for components of the taste signal transduction cascade (Gα-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel = TRPM5, phospholipase C(β2)), but not for carbonic anhydrase IV. Furthermore, these cells expressed the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131, as demonstrated utilizing an appropriate reporter mouse strain. Our study identified a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensory cell type in the duct of the airway submucosal glands that likely utilizes ACh for paracrine signaling. We propose that these cells participate in infection-sensing mechanisms and initiate responses assisting bacterial clearance from the lower airways.

  6. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  7. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  8. Annual changes in the number, testosterone content and ultrastructure of glandular tissue cells of the testis in the marbled newt Triturus marmoratus.

    PubMed Central

    Fraile, B; Paniagua, R; Rodríguez, M C; Sáez, F J; Jimenez, A

    1989-01-01

    The testes of 8 specimens of Triturus marmoratus were collected during each month of 1987 and processed for electron microscopy and light microscopy demonstration of testosterone (T) following the ABC (avidin-biotin peroxidase complex) method. According to their staining affinity for anti-T antibodies, the glandular tissue cells were classified as T-, T+, T++, and T and the annual changes in the numbers of these cell populations, as well as in the volume occupied by the glandular tissue, were calculated. The volume occupied by the glandular tissue increases from September to December; it begins to decrease in April and disappears from June to August. The glandular tissue is formed from the interstitial cells that surround the lobules containing differentiating germ cells. During the spermatogenic process, the interstitial cells do not show staining affinity for anti-T antibodies. In August-September, the interstitial cells around the lobules that have completed spermatogenesis become positively stained (T+) and form the glandular tissue when the spermatozoa leave the testis. The numbers of intensely stained cells in the glandular tissue (T++ and T ) increase from September to November; begin to decrease in December; disappear in January-February; increase again in March and decrease again in April until they disappear in June-September. The interstitial cells, before their transformation in glandular tissue, are ultrastructurally similar to fibroblasts. After their transformation these cells increase in size and develop abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with tubular cristae and lipid droplets. This morphological pattern is maintained in the glandular tissue from September to April in spite of the changes in staining affinity during this period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2630543

  9. Metastatic pancreatic cancer presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shivani; Mulki, Ramzi; Sher, Daniel

    2016-03-08

    Metastatic disease from pancreatic carcinoma involving the stomach is an unusual event, and the pattern of spread in the form of linitis plastica, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Local recurrence after curative resection for pancreatic cancer is the most common pattern of disease. We report a case of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach 4 years after curative resection. A 52-year-old man presented with epigastric pain and melaena 4 years after undergoing a Whipple's procedure for a poorly-differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma, stage IB; T2N0M0. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed thickening of the gastric wall, and subsequent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) revealed diffuse friable erythaematous tissue. The biopsy specimen obtained during the OGD revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with similar appearance to the prior specimen obtained from the pancreas.

  10. Gelation of mucin: Protecting the stomach from autodigestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the remarkable ability of the mucus lining of the stomach for protecting the stomach from being digested by the acidic gastric juices that it secretes. These physical properties can be attributed to the presence of a high molecular weight glycoprotein found in mucus, called mucin. Rheology and other measurements show that gastric mucin forms a gel under acidic pH. A model of gelation based on the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions will be discussed. Molecular Dynamics simulation studies of folding and aggregation of mucin domains provide further support for this model. The relevance of gelation to the motion of the ulcer causing bacterium H. pylori will be discussed.

  11. Double contrast X-ray examination of stomach.

    PubMed

    Wiljasalo, M; Wiljasalo, S; Valle, M; Tallroth, K; Korhola, O; Somer, K

    1977-01-01

    A comparison was made between three double contrast methods and the conventional method of X-ray examination of the stomach. 106 patets received ordinary barium sulphate together with effervescent granules. 119 patients were examined with a special barium sulphate preparation containing dissolved carbon dioxide (Baritop). The third group, 100 patients, received Baritop and effervescent granules, and 100 patients a conventional barium meal. The films were analyzed as to the quality of mucosal pattern demonstration, mucosal affinity of the contrast medium, and the degree of dilatation of the stomach and duo8num. In addition, the degree of interference by gas bubbles was estimated. The best results were obtained with the contrast medium containing carbon dioxide (Baritop).

  12. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3′-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology. PMID:26168909

  13. Mechanical characterization of stomach tissue under uniaxial tensile action.

    PubMed

    Jia, Z G; Li, W; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-26

    In this article, the tensile properties of gastric wall were investigated by using biomechanical test and theoretical analysis. The samples of porcine stomach strips from smaller and greater curvature of the stomach were cut in longitudinal and circumferential direction, respectively. The loading-unloading, stress relaxation, strain creep, tensile fracture tests were performed at mucosa-submucosa, serosa-muscle and intact layer, respectively. Results showed that the biomechanical properties of the porcine stomach depended on the layers, orientations and locations of the gastric wall and presented typical viscoelastic, nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical properties. During loading-unloading test, the stress of serosa-muscle layer in the longitudinal direction was 15-20% more than that in the circumferential direction at 12% stretch ratio, while it could reach about 40% for the intact layer and 50% for the mucosa-submucosa layer. The results of stress relaxation and strain creep showed that the variation degree was obviously faster in the circumferential direction than that in the longitudinal direction, and the ultimate residual values were also different for the different layers, orientations and locations. In the process of fracture test, the serosa-muscle layer fractured firstly followed by the mucosa-submucosa layer when the intact layer was tested, the longitudinal strips firstly began to fracture and the required stress value was about twice as much as that in the circumferential strips. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of mechanical characterization of the porcine stomach were related to its complicated geometry, structure and functions. The results would help us to understand the biomechanics of soft organ tissue.

  14. Morphological features of the stomach of Malayan pangolin, Manis javanica.

    PubMed

    Nisa', C; Agungpriyono, S; Kitamura, N; Sasaki, M; Yamada, J; Sigit, K

    2010-10-01

    The morphology of the stomach of Malayan pangolin, Manis javanica was studied at macroscopic, light microscopic, and scanning electron microscopic levels. The stomach of M. javanica was C-shaped with short lesser curvature. At the oesophageal junction, the inner smooth muscle was thickened in the greater curvature side. The entire stomach was lined by a thick cornified stratified squamous epithelium, except at the duct orifices of glands and in the pyloric gland region. The wall of the fundus was thin and devoid of glands. The gastric glands consisted of mucous, oxyntic, and pyloric glands. The mucous glands were observed in the lesser curvature (Mg-L), in the greater curvature (Mg-G), and in the pyloric canal (Mg-C) respectively. The oxyntic glands were organized into gland mass, making an oval mound elevated to the gastric lumen, in the middle of the greater curvature. The oxyntic gland mass has a single common duct with opening directed to the pyloric side. This duct was surrounded by mucus gland (Mg-G). The pyloric glands were located caudal to the pylorus. There was no sphincter at the pyloric-duodenal junction. Large mucosal protuberance, the torus pyloricus was observed in the side of the lesser curvature of the pyloric canal. In the lumen of pyloric canal region, numerous spines and small pebbles were observed. The muscle layers in the wall of this region were considerably thickened. The present results on the stomach of M. javanica are thought to be closely related to the toothless and eating habits of this animal species.

  15. A technique of repairing acid burns of the stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique of repairing acid burns of the stomach which are followed by fibrosis and stricture formation, is described. The operation has been done on 3 patients with a maximum follow-up of 4 years. The method has an advantage over conventional gastrojejunostomy of enlarging small gastric remnants especially when an oesophageal bypass is either necessary at the same time or later on. Also normal gastroduodenal continuity is maintained. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3408163

  16. [Massive GIST of the stomach--case report].

    PubMed

    Jovović, M; Bajić, P; Golubović, M; Dobricanin, V; Marić, I

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are rare mesenchimal neoplasmas of the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of this tumors are oftenly very difficult. Patients with this tumor are ussualy addmited to the hospital cause of the gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, disphagia, obstructive jaundice and bowel obsstruction. In this case report, we present a 86 year old patient with massive GIST of the stomach which was not preoperatively diagnosed.

  17. MDCT imaging of the stomach: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Prashant; Prakash, Anjali; Pradhan, Gaurav; Vidholia, Aditi; Nagpal, Nishant; Saboo, Sachin S; Kuehn, David M; Khandelwal, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    The stomach may be involved by a myriad of pathologies ranging from benign aetiologies like inflammation to malignant aetiologies like carcinoma or lymphoma. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the stomach is the first-line imaging for patients with suspected gastric pathologies. Conventionally, CT imaging had the advantage of simultaneous detection of the mural and extramural disease extent, but advances in MDCT have allowed mucosal assessment by virtual endoscopy (VE). Also, better three-dimensional (3D) post-processing techniques have enabled more robust and accurate pre-operative planning in patients undergoing gastrectomy and even predict the response to surgery for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for weight loss. The ability of CT to obtain stomach volume (for bariatric surgery patients) and 3D VE images depends on various patient and protocol factors that are important for a radiologist to understand. We review the appropriate CT imaging protocol in the patients with suspected gastric pathologies and highlight the imaging pearls of various gastric pathologies on CT and VE.

  18. Study of stomach motility using the relaxation of magnetic tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, A. A.; Baffa, O.; Oliveira, R. B.

    1999-07-01

    Magnetic tracers can be observed in the interior of the human body to give information about their quantity, position and state of order. With the aim of detecting and studying the degree of disorder of these tracers after they have been previously magnetized inside the stomach, a system composed of magnetization coils and magnetic detectors was developed. Helmholtz coils of diameter 84 cm were used to magnetize the sample and the remanent magnetization (RM) was detected with two first-order gradiometric fluxgate arrays each with a 15 cm base line, sensitivity of 0.5 nT and common mode rejection (CMR) of at least 10. The system allows simultaneous measurement in the anterior and posterior projections of the stomach. Measurements of the time evolution of the RM were performed in vitro and in normal subjects after the ingestion of a test meal labelled with magnetic particles. The data were fitted with an exponential curve and the relaxation time tau was obtained. Initial studies were performed to ascertain the action of a drug that is known to affect the gastric motility, showing that the decay of the remanent magnetization was indeed due to stomach contractions.

  19. Antral recirculation in the stomach during gastric mixing.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yohsuke; Kobayashi, Ikuma; Ishida, Shunichi; Ishikawa, Takuji; Buist, Martin; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2013-03-01

    We investigate flow in the stomach during gastric mixing using a numerical simulation with an anatomically realistic geometry and free-surface flow modeling. Because of momentum differences between greater and lesser curvatures during peristaltic contractions, time-averaged recirculation is generated in the antrum, with retropulsive flow away from the pylorus and compensation flow along the greater curvature toward the pylorus. Gastric content in the distal stomach is continuously transported to the distal antrum by the forward flow of antral recirculation, and it is then mixed by the backward retropulsive flow. Hence, the content inside the antral recirculation is well mixed independently of initial location, whereas the content outside the recirculation is poorly mixed. Free-surface modeling enables us to analyze the effects of posture on gastric mixing. In the upright, prone, and right lateral positions, most of the antrum is filled with content, and the content is well mixed by antral recirculation. In contrast, in the supine and left lateral positions, most of the content is located outside antral recirculation, which results in poor mixing. The curved, twisted shape of the stomach substantially supports gastric mixing in fluid mechanical terms.

  20. Stomach in Contact with the Bladder: A Sonographic Sign of Left Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Horacio; Meller, César; Vázquez, Lucía; Otaño, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the characteristics of the fetal stomach should be part of every routine prenatal ultrasound after 11 weeks. A position that has not been previously described in the literature is the stomach in contact with the bladder. We describe 6 cases with the ultrasonographic finding of the stomach in contact with the bladder, all of them in fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Even though the reasons for this striking position of the stomach are not clear, our series highlights the fact that the visualization of the stomach in contact with the bladder may be a specific sonographic marker of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

  1. Osteonectin-expressing cells in human stomach cancer and their possible clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Hack-Young; Song, Seok Bean; Choi, Dong-Kug; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Jeong, Hyun Young; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Furihata, Chie

    2002-10-08

    The clinical significance of osteonectin in human stomach cancer was examined immunohistochemically and molecular biologically in 31 differentiated and eight undifferentiated stomach adenocarcinomas and 19 non-cancer stomach tissues. Osteonectin-mAb-stained cells were observed in stroma of 90% differentiated and 63% undifferentiated adenocarcinomas, and of 26% non-cancer stomach tissues. Competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results generally coincided with immunohistochemical data. The present results suggest that osteonectin is highly expressed in reactive stroma associated with invasive differentiated adenocarcinomas and that it may serve as a useful clinical diagnostic marker for stomach cancer.

  2. [Functional organization of myogenic pacemaker of the stomach in conditions of hunger and satiation].

    PubMed

    Kromin, A A; Kuznetsov, A M

    2002-06-01

    In chronic experiments, we have studied electrical activity of muscles of the gastro-esophageal sphincter, small curvature, corpus and antrum of the stomach in conditions of hunger, food intake behaviour and satiation of the rabbits. The aim of this study involved particularities of the electrical activity of myogenic pacemaker zone of the stomach. It has been shown that function of myogenic pacemaker of the rabbit stomach is performed by smooth muscles of the small curvature of the stomach. Pacemaker properties of muscles of the small curvature of the stomach are performed in conditions of food intake behaviour and satiation.

  3. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Brustad, Magritt; Johnsen, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study). Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%), Kven (7.3%) and Norwegian majority population (57.2%). Results Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%). Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese) was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely) consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (p=0.001) and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population. PMID:25694052

  4. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  5. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  6. Predominant Glandular Cholinergic Dysautonomia in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, Richard; Alevizos, Ilias; Bebris, Lolita; Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Illei, Gabor G.; Nikolov, Nikolay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates exocrine gland function. Available data show poor correlation between the degree of exocrine gland function and destruction in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) suggesting other mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction may be important in these patients. We performed a comprehensive analysis of sympathoneural and sympathetic cholinergic function in well-characterized patients with pSS. Methods 21 pSS patients (mean±SE age 44±3 years) and in 13 healthy controls (51±2 years) were assessed during orthostasis and intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg). The postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic system was evaluated by assessing sweat production by the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Gastric empting testing assessed the gastro-intestinal ANS in pSS patients. Results Velocity index and acceleration index were significantly higher (p<0.05) in pSS compared to controls before and during the orthostatic and edrophonium tests. Other hemodynamic and neurochemical parameters did not differ between pSS patients and controls during the orthostasis and edrophonium test, however, edrophonium-induced saliva increment was lower in pSS (p=0.002). Abnormally low sweat production was found in four (N=4) pSS patients but in none of the controls in the QSART. Gastric empting was delayed in 53 % of pSS patients. Conclusion We observed subtle differences in several ANS domains, including gastrointestinal and sympathocholinergic system suggesting a complex ANS dysfunction in pSS. The impact was the largest on the exocrine glands with subtle differences in the cardiac parasympathetic function independent of glandular inflammation and atrophy, suggesting an alternative pathogenesis mechanism of the disease in pSS. PMID:25622919

  7. Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with 22 chemicals using young adult rats: summary of the collaborative study by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) - Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS).

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Takashima, Rie; Shimada, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Kazumi; Kawakami, Satoru; Uno, Fuyumi; Sui, Hajime; Shimada, Yasushi; Imamura, Tadashi; Matsumura, Shoji; Sanada, Hisakazu; Inoue, Kenji; Muto, Shigeharu; Ogawa, Izumi; Hayashi, Aya; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Ogiwara, Yosuke; Maeda, Akihisa; Okada, Emiko; Terashima, Yukari; Takasawa, Hironao; Narumi, Kazunori; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Sano, Masaki; Ohashi, Nobuyuki; Morita, Takeshi; Kojima, Hajime; Honma, Masamitsu; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect hepatocarcinogens. We conducted a collaborative study to assess the performance of this assay and to evaluate the possibility of integrating it into general toxicological studies. Twenty-four testing laboratories belonging to the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group, a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, participated in this trial. Twenty-two model chemicals, including some hepatocarcinogens, were tested in 14- and/or 28-day RDLMN assays. As a result, 14 out of the 16 hepatocarcinogens were positive, including 9 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, which were reported negative in the bone marrow/peripheral blood micronucleus (MN) assay by a single treatment. These outcomes show the high sensitivity of the RDLMN assay to hepatocarcinogens. Regarding the specificity, 4 out of the 6 non-liver targeted genotoxic carcinogens gave negative responses. This shows the high organ specificity of the RDLMN assay. In addition to the RDLMN assay, we simultaneously conducted gastrointestinal tract MN assays using 6 of the above carcinogens as an optional trial of the collaborative study. The MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first contact site of the test chemical when administered by oral gavage, was able to detect chromosomal aberrations with 3 test chemicals including a stomach-targeted carcinogen. The treatment regime was the 14- and/or 28-day repeated-dose, and the regime is sufficiently promising to incorporate these methods into repeated-dose toxicological studies. The outcomes of our collaborative study indicated that the new techniques to detect chromosomal aberrations in vivo in several tissues worked successfully.

  8. Ion Transport and the Development of Hydrogen Ion Secretion in the Stomach of the Metamorphosing Bullfrog Tadpole

    PubMed Central

    Forte, John G.; Limlomwongse, Liangchai; Kasbekar, Dinkar K.

    1969-01-01

    Isolated bullfrog tadpole stomachs secrete H+ by stage XXIV of metamorphosis, when tail reabsorption is nearly complete. At this stage the PD shows characteristic responses identical to those of the adult. The appearance of HCl secretion correlates well with other studies showing the morphogenesis of oxyntic cells. Prior to the development of H+ secretion tadpole stomachs maintain a PD similar in polarity and magnitude to that of the adult; i.e., secretory (S) side negative with respect to the nutrient (N) side. The interdependence with aerobic metabolism appeared to increase progressively through metamorphosis; however, glycolytic inhibitors always abolished the PD. Isotopic flux analysis showed that the transepithelial movement of Na+ was consistent with passive diffusion, whereas an active transport of Cl- from N to S was clearly indicated. Variations in [Na+], [K+], and [Cl-] in the bathing solutions induced changes consistent with the following functional description of the pre-H+-secreting tadpole stomach. (a) The S side is relatively permeable to Cl-, but not to Na+ or K+. (b) An equilibrium potential for K+ and Cl- exists at the N interface. (c) Ouabain abolishes the selective K+ permeablity at the N interface and reduces the total PD. (d) Effects of Na+ replacement by choline in the N solution become manifest only below 10–20 mM. It is concluded that prior to development of H+ secretion, the tadpole gastric PD is generated by a Cl- pump from N to S and a Na+ pump operating from the cell interior toward the N side. PMID:5792366

  9. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-09-21

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in

  10. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubiak, R. R.; Gamba, H. R.; Neves, E. B.; Peixoto, J. E.

    2013-09-01

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in both

  11. Radiation treatment planning techniques for lymphoma of the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Della Biancia, Cesar; Hunt, Margie; Furhang, Eli; Wu, Elisa; Yahalom, Joachim . E-mail: yahalomj@mskcc.org

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: Involved-field radiation therapy of the stomach is often used in the curative treatment of gastric lymphoma. Yet, the optimal technique to irradiate the stomach with minimal morbidity has not been well established. This study was designed to evaluate treatment planning alternatives for stomach irradiation, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine which approach resulted in improved dose distribution and to identify patient-specific anatomic factors that might influence a treatment planning choice. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with lymphoma of the stomach (14 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) were categorized into 3 types, depending on the geometric relationship between the planning target volume (PTV) and kidneys. AP/PA and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans were generated for each patient. IMRT was planned for 4 patients with challenging geometric relationship between the PTV and the kidneys to determine whether it was advantageous to use IMRT. Results: For type I patients (no overlap between PTV and kidneys), there was essentially no benefit from using 3DCRT over AP/PA. However, for patients with PTVs in close proximity to the kidneys (type II) or with high degree of overlap (type III), the 4-field 3DCRT plans were superior, reducing the kidney V {sub 15Gy} by approximately 90% for type II and 50% for type III patients. For type III, the use of a 3DCRT plan rather than an AP/PA plan decreased the V {sub 15Gy} by approximately 65% for the right kidney and 45% for the left kidney. In the selected cases, IMRT led to a further decrease in left kidney dose as well as in mean liver dose. Conclusions: The geometric relationship between the target and kidneys has a significant impact on the selection of the optimum beam arrangement. Using 4-field 3DCRT markedly decreases the kidney dose. The addition of IMRT led to further incremental improvements in the left kidney

  12. Cell proliferation in type C gastritis affecting the intact stomach

    PubMed Central

    Mac, D; Willis, P; Prescott, R; Lamonby, S; Lynch, D

    2000-01-01

    Aims—Type C gastritis caused by bile reflux has a characteristic appearance, similar to that seen in other forms of chemical gastritis, such as those associated with NSAIDs or alcohol. An increase in mucosal cell proliferation increases the likelihood of a neoplastic clone of epithelial cells emerging, particularly where there is chronic epithelial injury associated with bile reflux. It has been shown previously that type C gastritis is associated with increased cell proliferation in the postsurgical stomach. The aim of this study was to determine cell proliferation in type C gastritis caused by bile reflux affecting the intact stomach. Methods—Specimens from 15 patients with a histological diagnosis of type C gastritis on antral biopsy were obtained from the pathology archives between 1994 and 1997. A control group of nine normal antral biopsies was also selected and all underwent MIB-1 immunostaining. The gastric glands were divided into three zones (zone 1, gastric pit; zone 2, isthmus; and zone 3, gland base) and the numbers of positively staining nuclei for 500 epithelial cell nuclei were counted in each zone to determine the percentage labelling index (LI%). Results—Cell proliferation was significantly higher in all three zones of the gastric glands with type C gastritis compared with controls as follows: zone 1, median LI% in type C gastritis 64.7 (range, 7.8–99.2), controls 4.7 (range, 2.0–11.3); zone 2, median LI% in type C gastritis 94.7 (range, 28.8–98.7), controls 40.2 (range, 23.1–70.3); and zone 3, median LI% in type C gastritis 20.0 (range, 1.3–96.0), controls 2.6 (range, 0.9–8.7). Conclusions—Bile reflux is thought to act as a promoter of gastric carcinogenesis in the postsurgical stomach. The same may be true in the intact stomach. Key Words: cell proliferation • epithelial kinetics • chemical gastritis PMID:11064674

  13. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  14. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (P<0.05). The calcium ion concentration was increased in low-intensity 2-h group but decreased in high-intensity 4-h group as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was found in mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells between low- or mid-intensity groups and the normal control group, indicating stronger intensity of the electromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely

  15. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  16. Morphology of a novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity in the ant Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W; Billen, Johan

    2004-10-01

    A novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity and anterior pharynx is described in both workers and queens of the pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis. The infrabuccal cavity, connected with the buccal tube, forms a ventral outgrowth of the anterior pharynx, and as such displays the tegumental lining with a cuticle and an epithelial layer. In its dorsal region, the cavity's epithelium reaches a thickness of approx. 11-12mum in both workers and queens, which is considerably thicker than the epithelium lining the rest of the infrabuccal cavity. Also the possible role of the infrabuccal gland is discussed.

  17. The Key Role of Peltate Glandular Trichomes in Symbiota Comprising Clavicipitaceous Fungi of the Genus Periglandula and Their Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A.; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant. PMID:25894995

  18. High salt diets dose-dependently promote gastric chemical carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils associated with a shift in mucin production from glandular to surface mucous cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Sosuke; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Harunari; Kumagai, Toshiko; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Asaka, Masahiro; Tatematsu, Masae

    2006-10-01

    Intake of salt and salty food is known as a risk factor for gastric carcinogenesis. To examine the dose-dependence and the mechanisms underlying enhancing effects, Mongolian gerbils were treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), Helicobacter pylori and food containing various concentrations of salt, and were sacrificed after 50 weeks. Among gerbils treated with MNU and H. pylori, the incidences of glandular stomach cancers were 15% in the normal diet group and 33%, 36% and 63% in the 2.5%, 5% and 10% NaCl diet groups, showing dose-dependent increase (p < 0.01). Intermittent intragastric injection of saturated NaCl solution, in contrast, did not promote gastric carcinogenesis. In gerbils infected with H. pylori, a high salt diet was associated with elevation of anti-H. pylori antibody titers, serum gastrin levels and inflammatory cell infiltration in a dose-dependent fashion. Ten percent NaCl diet upregulated the amount of surface mucous cell mucin (p < 0.05), suitable for H. pylori colonization, despite no increment of MUC5AC mRNA, while H. pylori infection itself had an opposing effect, stimulating transcription of MUC6 and increasing the amount of gland mucous cell mucin (GMCM). High salt diet, in turn, decreased the amount of GMCM, which acts against H. pylori infection. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated dose-dependent enhancing effects of salt in gastric chemical carcinogenesis in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils associated with alteration of the mucous microenvironment. Reduction of salt intake could thus be one of the most important chemopreventive methods for human gastric carcinogenesis.

  19. A gene expression fingerprint of mouse stomach ECL cells.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Niklas; Skrtic, Sofia Movérare; Håkanson, Rolf; Ohlsson, Claes

    2005-07-01

    Many of the endocrine cells in the stomach are poorly characterized with respect to physiological significance. In some cases, the anticipated hormone has not yet been identified. Global gene expression analysis of mouse stomach was performed in an attempt to identify the ECL-cell peptide/protein. Specific functional activation (omeprazole-induced hypergastrinaemia) was used as a tool to generate a gene expression fingerprint of the ECL cells. The proposed fingerprint includes 14 genes, among them six are known to be expressed by ECL cells (=positive controls), and some novel ones, which are likely to be ECL-cell-related. The known ECL-cell-related genes are those encoding histidine decarboxylase, chromogranin A and B, vesicular monoamine transporter 2, synaptophysin, and the cholecystokinin-B receptor. In addition, the fingerprint included five genes, which might be involved in the process of secretion and three ESTs with unknown function. Interestingly, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) was identified as a candidate ECL-cell peptide hormone.

  20. Paraneoplastic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder associated with stomach carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Talal; Al-Sarawi, Adnan; Binfalah, Mohamed; Dermime, Said

    2014-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or Devic's syndrome, is an autoimmune central nervous system demyelinating disorder primarily affecting the spinal cord and the optic nerves. It is characterized by the presence of NMO antibodies, alongside clinical and radiological findings. NMO and NMO-spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) have been reported in autoimmune disorders, and are infrequently described as a paraneoplastic syndrome with cancers of lung, breast, and carcinoid tumors of the thyroid. We report a patient who presented with severe vomiting, blurring of vision, vertigo, diplopia, left hemiparesis and hemisensory loss and ataxia. She was found to have a longitudinally-extensive demyelinating lesion extending from the medulla to the upper cervical spinal cord on MRI. Her gastric endoscopy revealed carcinoid tumor of the stomach, and classic paraneoplastic antibodies in the serum were negative. She had extremely high serum gastrin level and high titer of NMO IgG autoantibody. The patient made an excellent recovery with tumor resection and immunotherapy, with both clinical and radiological improvement. On rare instances, NMO or NMO-SD may present as a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome associated with carcinoid tumor of the stomach.

  1. Nardilysin regulates inflammation, metaplasia, and tumors in murine stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuto; Ikuta, Kozo; Kimura, Takeshi; Chiba, Tsutomu; Oshima, Hiroko; Oshima, Masanobu; Nishi, Eiichiro; Seno, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to a wide variety of human disorders. In the stomach, longstanding gastritis often results in structural alterations in the gastric mucosa, including metaplastic changes and gastric cancers. Therefore, it is important to elucidate factors that are involved in gastric inflammation. Nardilysin (N-arginine dibasic convertase; Nrdc) is a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family that promotes ectodomain shedding of the precursor forms of various growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the protease activities of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) proteins. Here, we have demonstrated that Nrdc crucially regulates gastric inflammation caused by Helicobacter felis infection or forced expression of prostaglandin E2 in K19-C2mE mice. Metaplastic changes following gastric inflammation were suppressed by the deletion of Nrdc. Furthremore, the deletion of Nrdc significantly suppressed N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced gastric tumorigenesis in the murine stomach. These data may lead to a global therapeutic approach against various gastric disorders by targeting Nrdc. PMID:28230087

  2. Peristalsis-induced Flow and Mixing in the Stomach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anupam; Indireshkumar, Keshavamurthy; Brasseur, James G.; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Schwizer, Werner

    2003-11-01

    Peristaltic contraction waves (PCWs) on the stomach wall induce flow that mixes gastric content. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship among PCWs, flow structure and mixing efficiency. We used 2D lattice Boltzmann method with realistic stomach geometry model and a moving boundary condition algorithm. PCWs generate two dominant viscous flow patterns: jet-like retrograde flow through a PCW driven by only fractions of a mmHg pressure drop, and recirculating eddying flow. Both flow patterns are important in mixing, i.e., the rate of spreading of fluid particles. The jet-like flow induces high strain that rapidly separates particles, whereas the eddying motions transport particles across the flow domain. Both flow strength and mixing are sensitive to occlusion and width of the PCWs; retrograde flow was also sensitive to downstream details. We conclude that PCWs drive eddying motions and generate small pressure gradients that drive fluid retrograde against frictional resistance. Both the retrograde jets and the eddying motions contribute to mixing, albeit in different ways. Flow, and consequently mixing, is sensitive to details of PCW geometry.

  3. Real-time monitoring of ischemia inside stomach.

    PubMed

    Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan; Mir, Mònica; Samitier, Josep

    2013-02-15

    The low pH in the gastric juice of the stomach makes it difficult to fabricate stable and functional all-solid-state pH ISE sensors to sense ischemia, mainly because of anion interference and adhesion problem between the ISE membrane and the electrode surface. In this work, the adhesion of ISE membrane on solid surface at low pH was improved by modifying the surface with a conductive substrate containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. This creates a stable and robust candidate for low pH applications. Moreover, anion interference problem at low pH was solved by integration of all-solid-state ISE and internal reference electrodes on an array. So, the same tendencies of anion interferences for all-solid-state ISE and all-solid-state reference electrodes cancel each other in differential potentiometric detection. The developed sensor presents a novel all-solid-state potentiometric, miniaturized and mass producible pH ISE sensor for detecting ischemia on the stomach tissue on an array designed for endoscopic applications.

  4. Ectopic Pancreas Imitating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) In The Stomach.

    PubMed

    Zińczuk, Justyna; Bandurski, Roman; Pryczynicz, Anna; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Kemona, Andrzej; Kędra, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital disorder defined as pancreatic tissue lacking vascular or anatomic communication with the normal body of the pancreas. Most cases of ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic, but it may become clinically evident depending on the size, location and the pathological changes similar to those observed in case of the normal pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be located at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common locations are: the stomach, duodenum or the proximal part of small intestine. The risk of malignancy, bleeding and occlusion are the most serious complications. Despite the development in diagnostics, it still remains a challenge for the clinician to differentiate it from neoplasm. In this report, we described a case of 28-years old woman who presented recurrent epigastric pain. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumor on the border of the body and antrum of the back wall of great curvature of the stomach. The histopathological examination after surgery showed heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Ectopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric mass lesions.

  5. Absorption of the mycotoxin patulin from the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Michael; Kircher, Florian; Schusdziarra, Volker; Lippl, Florian

    2004-05-01

    The mycotoxin patulin (PAT), which frequently occurs in apple juices, has previously been shown to be toxic and teratogenic. However, there is almost no data about its absorption and metabolism. Therefore, the enrichment of PAT in the tissue of perfused rat stomachs after luminal application and its vascular appearance was quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. After application of juices enriched with PAT at concentrations of 350 and 3.5 mg/l, respectively, the mycotoxin appeared almost instantly in the perfusate. Twenty-six to twenty-nine percent of PAT were removed from the gastric lumen over 55 min. From this quantity, 17% and 2% were transferred into vascular circulation and 3% and 0.06% were detectable in gastric tissue for the high and the low PAT dose, respectively. The disappearance of 8400 microg and 700 microg PAT, respectively, could be attributed in part to its reaction with intracellular glutathione (GSH). Regarding the GSH content in the tissue, a decrease of 87% compared to that of control stomachs was observed for the high PAT dose, whereas in the case of the low PAT dose no significant GSH degradation occurred. Thus our results show that even low concentrations of patulin penetrate the gastric wall. Toxic effects, however, are unlikely as most of the patulin is disintegrated.

  6. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Khuri, Safi; Gilshtein, Hayim; Sayidaa, Sa'd; Bishara, Bishara; Kluger, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation). These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation) was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery. PMID:27920700

  7. Laser-induced fluorescence detection of stomach cancer using hypericin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Buryi, Alexander N.; Melnik, Ivan S.; Joffe, Alexander Y.; Rusina, Tatyana V.

    1996-12-01

    Natural photodynamic pigment hypericin having intrinsic antitumor properties was applied for fluorescence detection of cancer. Clinical investigation of hypericin was performed to ensure high tumor/normal fluorescence contrast in digestion organs. Laser-induced autofluorescence and exogenous fluorescence analysis of normal tissue and stomach adenocarcinoma was performed using helium-cadmium laser (8 mW, 442 nm). Twenty-one patients have undergone procedure of fluorescence detection of tumors before and after photosensitization. For sensitization of patients we used five or seven capsules containing hypericin in amount of 1 mg which have been administered orally. Strong yellow-red fluorescence of hypericin in tissue with maximum at 603 nm and autofluorescence peak at 535 nm gives an intensity ratio I(603 nm)/I(535 nm) of 2 - 2.5 from cancerous tissue and provides 85% specificity. Preliminary in vivo results of auto- and fluorescence analysis using hypericin photosensitization from one patient with esophageal cancer and eleven patients with stomach cancer proven histologically are encouraging and indicate the high reliability of laser-induced fluorescence technique with hypericin in detection of early stage malignant lesions.

  8. Plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor of stomach: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Jonaitis, Laimas; Kiudelis, Mindaugas; Slepavicius, Paulius; Poskienė, Lina; Kupcinskas, Limas

    2016-01-01

    Plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor (PAMT) is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of stomach. Rarity of this kind of tumors and scarce review articles may cause underrecognition of this entity and pose a real diagnostic challenge to gastroenterologists, pathologists and surgeons when encountering such patients and differentiating PAMT from other gastric intramural tumors. We report a case of 28-year-old woman, who presented with epigastric pain after meals, iron-deficiency anaemia and weight loss. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed submucosal tumor-like elevated lesion in the anterior wall of the antrum with intact overlying mucosa. Endoscopic ultrasound showed a 3-cm hypoechoic homogenous mass, originating from the third layer of the gastric wall. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was not informative. Endoscopic buttonhole biopsy was performed to obtain specimens. Following this, the unexpected prolapse of the tumor occurred into the lumen of the stomach, causing gastric outlet obstruction - the biopsy was obtained. Pathomorphological features suggested the diagnosis of PAMT. Gastric resection of the Billroth I type was performed. Diagnosis was confirmed by histological analysis of the surgical specimen. PMID:27803775

  9. Identification of Helicobacter pylori genes that contribute to stomach colonization.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David N; Shepherd, Benjamin; Kraemer, Petra; Hall, Michael K; Sycuro, Laura K; Pinto-Santini, Delia M; Salama, Nina R

    2007-02-01

    Chronic infection of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori leads to a variety of pathological sequelae, including peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, resulting in significant human morbidity and mortality. Several genes have been implicated in disease related to H. pylori infection, including the vacuolating cytotoxin and the cag pathogenicity island. Other factors important for the establishment and maintenance of infection include urease enzyme production, motility, iron uptake, and stress response. We utilized a C57BL/6 mouse infection model to query a collection of 2,400 transposon mutants in two different bacterial strain backgrounds for H. pylori genetic loci contributing to colonization of the stomach. Microarray-based tracking of transposon mutants allowed us to monitor the behavior of transposon insertions in 758 different gene loci. Of the loci measured, 223 (29%) had a predicted colonization defect. These included previously described H. pylori virulence genes, genes implicated in virulence in other pathogenic bacteria, and 81 hypothetical proteins. We have retested 10 previously uncharacterized candidate colonization gene loci by making independent null alleles and have confirmed their colonization phenotypes by using competition experiments and by determining the dose required for 50% infection. Of the genetic loci retested, 60% have strain-specific colonization defects, while 40% have phenotypes in both strain backgrounds for infection, highlighting the profound effect of H. pylori strain variation on the pathogenic potential of this organism.

  10. EST analysis of hop glandular trichomes identifies an O-methyltransferase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of xanthohumol.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jana; Culley, Lana K; Lu, Yuping; Liu, Enwu; Matthews, Paul D; Stevens, Jan F; Page, Jonathan E

    2008-01-01

    The glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) of hop (Humulus lupulus) synthesize essential oils and terpenophenolic resins, including the bioactive prenylflavonoid xanthohumol. To dissect the biosynthetic processes occurring in lupulin glands, we sequenced 10,581 ESTs from four trichome-derived cDNA libraries. ESTs representing enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis, including all of the steps of the methyl 4-erythritol phosphate pathway, were abundant in the EST data set, as were ESTs for the known type III polyketide synthases of bitter acid and xanthohumol biosynthesis. The xanthohumol biosynthetic pathway involves a key O-methylation step. Four S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) with similarity to known flavonoid-methylating enzymes were present in the EST data set. OMT1, which was the most highly expressed OMT based on EST abundance and RT-PCR analysis, performs the final reaction in xanthohumol biosynthesis by methylating desmethylxanthohumol to form xanthohumol. OMT2 accepted a broad range of substrates, including desmethylxanthohumol, but did not form xanthohumol. Mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed it methylated xanthohumol to 4-O-methylxanthohumol, which is not known from hop. OMT3 was inactive with all substrates tested. The lupulin gland-specific EST data set expands the genomic resources for H. lupulus and provides further insight into the metabolic specialization of glandular trichomes.

  11. Evidence for estrogen-dependent uterine serpin (SERPINA14) expression during estrus in the bovine endometrial glandular epithelium and lumen.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Frohlich, Thomas; Schulke, Katy; Englberger, Eva; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Uterine secretions have a dominant impact on the environment in which embryo development takes place. The uterine serpins (SERPINA14, previously known as UTMP) are found most abundantly during pregnancy in the uterus of ruminants. Although progesterone is currently assumed to be the major regulator of SERPINA14 expression, our recent study of transcriptome changes in bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle unexpectedly detected a marked upregulation of SERPINA14 mRNA levels at estrus. The present study describes the full-length mRNA sequence, genomic organization, and putative promoter elements of the SERPINA14 gene. The SERPINA14 mRNA abundance was quantified by real-time RT-PCR in intercaruncular endometrium at several time points during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Highest levels were found at estrus, followed by a dramatic decrease and a moderate expression during the luteal phase. Transcript levels were higher in pregnant endometrium compared with controls at Day 18. At estrus, immunoreactive protein was localized in deep glandular epithelium, and Western blotting concomitantly showed the 52-kDa form in uterine flushings. SERPINA14 mRNA was significantly upregulated in glandular endometrial cells in vitro after stimulation with estradiol-17beta and progesterone, but not after interferon-tau treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that SERPINA14 appears distinctly in bovine endometrium during the estrus phase. A supporting role toward providing a well-prepared endometrial environment for passing gametes, especially sperm, is assumed.

  12. Ablation of beta1 integrin in mammary epithelium reveals a key role for integrin in glandular morphogenesis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Matthew J; Li, Na; Cheung, Julia; Lowe, Emma T; Lambert, Elise; Marlow, Rebecca; Wang, Pengbo; Schatzmann, Franziska; Wintermantel, Timothy; Schüetz, Günther; Clarke, Alan R; Mueller, Ulrich; Hynes, Nancy E; Streuli, Charles H

    2005-11-21

    Integrin-mediated adhesion regulates the development and function of a range of tissues; however, little is known about its role in glandular epithelium. To assess the contribution of beta1 integrin, we conditionally deleted its gene in luminal epithelia during different stages of mouse mammary gland development and in cultured primary mammary epithelia. Loss of beta1 integrin in vivo resulted in impaired alveologenesis and lactation. Cultured beta1 integrin-null cells displayed abnormal focal adhesion function and signal transduction and could not form or maintain polarized acini. In vivo, epithelial cells became detached from the extracellular matrix but remained associated with each other and did not undergo overt apoptosis. beta1 integrin-null mammary epithelial cells did not differentiate in response to prolactin stimulation because of defective Stat5 activation. In mice where beta1 integrin was deleted after the initiation of differentiation, fewer defects in alveolar morphology occurred, yet major deficiencies were also observed in milk protein and milk fat production and Stat5 activation, indicating a permissive role for beta1 integrins in prolactin signaling. This study demonstrates that beta1 integrin is critical for the alveolar morphogenesis of a glandular epithelium and for maintenance of its differentiated function. Moreover, it provides genetic evidence for the cooperation between integrin and cytokine signaling pathways.

  13. EST Analysis of Hop Glandular Trichomes Identifies an O-Methyltransferase That Catalyzes the Biosynthesis of Xanthohumol[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Jana; Culley, Lana K.; Lu, Yuping; Liu, Enwu; Matthews, Paul D.; Stevens, Jan F.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    The glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) of hop (Humulus lupulus) synthesize essential oils and terpenophenolic resins, including the bioactive prenylflavonoid xanthohumol. To dissect the biosynthetic processes occurring in lupulin glands, we sequenced 10,581 ESTs from four trichome-derived cDNA libraries. ESTs representing enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis, including all of the steps of the methyl 4-erythritol phosphate pathway, were abundant in the EST data set, as were ESTs for the known type III polyketide synthases of bitter acid and xanthohumol biosynthesis. The xanthohumol biosynthetic pathway involves a key O-methylation step. Four S-adenosyl-l-methionine–dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) with similarity to known flavonoid-methylating enzymes were present in the EST data set. OMT1, which was the most highly expressed OMT based on EST abundance and RT-PCR analysis, performs the final reaction in xanthohumol biosynthesis by methylating desmethylxanthohumol to form xanthohumol. OMT2 accepted a broad range of substrates, including desmethylxanthohumol, but did not form xanthohumol. Mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed it methylated xanthohumol to 4-O-methylxanthohumol, which is not known from hop. OMT3 was inactive with all substrates tested. The lupulin gland-specific EST data set expands the genomic resources for H. lupulus and provides further insight into the metabolic specialization of glandular trichomes. PMID:18223037

  14. Effect of prolonged water stress on specialized secondary metabolites, peltate glandular trichomes, and pathway gene expression in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ritesh K; Sangwan, Rajender S; Sabir, Farzana; Srivastava, Awadesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. accumulates substantial quantities of unique sesquiternoid artemisinin and related phytomolecules and characteristic essential oil in glandular trichomes, present on its leaves and inflorescence. Water stress is a major concern in controlling plant growth and productivity. In this study, our aim was to find out the modulation of artemisinin and essential oil constituents in plants grown under prolonged water stress conditions. A. annua CIM-Arogya plants grown in pots were subjected to mild (60% ± 5) and moderate (40% ± 5) water stress treatment and continued during entire developmental period. Results revealed that artemisinin, arteannuin-B, artemisinic acid, dihydroartemisinic acid and essential oil content were positively controlled by the growth and development however negatively modulated by water deficit stress. Interestingly, some of minor monoterpenes, all sesquiterpenes and other low molecular weight volatiles of essential oil components were induced by water deficit treatment. Camphor which is the major essential oil constituents did not alter much while 1, 8 cineole was modulated during development of plant as well as under water stress conditions. Water deficit stress induces a decrease in glandular trichome density and size as well. The dynamics of various secondary metabolites is discussed in the light of growth responses, trichomes and pathway gene expression in plants grown under two levels of prolonged water stress conditions.

  15. A Monte Carlo study of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Di Lillo, Francesca; Russo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of model assumptions in GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the calculation of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) in mammography, focussing on the effect of the skin thickness and composition, of the role of compression paddles and of the bremsstrahlung processes. We showed that selecting a skin thickness of 4 mm instead of 1.45 mm produced DgN values with deviations from 9% to 32% for x-ray spectra routinely adopted in mammography. Consideration of the bremsstrahlung radiation had a weak influence on monoenergetic DgN. Simulations (in the range 8-40 kVp) which included consideration of bremsstrahlung radiation, a skin thickness of 1.45 mm and a 2 mm thick compression paddles produced polyenergetic DgN coefficients up to 19% higher than corresponding literature data. Adding a 2 mm thick adipose layer between the skin layer and the radiosensitive portion of the breast produces polyenergetic DgN values up to 15% higher than those routinely adopted. These findings provide a quantitative estimate of the influence of model parameters on the calculation of the mean glandular dose in mammography.

  16. The Flavonoid Biosynthetic Enzyme Chalcone Isomerase Modulates Terpenoid Production in Glandular Trichomes of Tomato1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E.; Jones, A. Daniel; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments. PMID:24424324

  17. Saracatinib in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Stomach or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-19

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  18. Ultrastructural characterization of male and female Physaloptera rara (Spirurida: Physalopteridae): feline stomach worms.

    PubMed

    Naem, Soraya; Asadi, Reza

    2013-05-01

    Physaloptera rara (Spirurida: Physalopteridae) has been found in dogs, coyotes, raccoons, wolves, foxes, cats, and bobcats in North America. The parasites' developmental cycles involve insects, including beetles, cockroaches, and crickets, as intermediate hosts. The nematodes firmly attach to the wall of the stomach and duodenum, where they feed on the mucosa and suck blood. Frequent movement of these nematodes results in erosions and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study reports the morphological features of adult P. rara using scanning electron microscopy. Adult worms were removed from the stomach of an infected domestic cat. Male and female worms measured 25-29 and 27-41 mm, respectively. The worms were stout and the cuticle was reflected over the lips to form a large cephalic collarette with fine transverse striations. The worms possessed two large, simple triangular lateral pseudolabia, each armed with one external tooth, three internal teeth, two submedian cephalic papillae, an amphid, and three porous-like circumscribed regions. The internal margins of the lips had a pair of cuticular folds. At the anterior end of both male and female worms, an excretory pore was located on the ventral side and a pair of lateral ciliated cervical papillae was seen. The vulva was anterior to the middle of the body of female worms. The tail ends of the female worms were stumpy, with two large phasmids near their extremities. The males' tails bore large lateral alae. Ventral ornamentation, in male worms, was composed of three different cuticular patterns; coblestone-like formations, longitudinal cuticular ridges, and rows of bead-like structures. The spicules were unequal and dissimilar; the right spicule had a thick end and the left spicule had a sharp tip. At the posterior end of the males, four pairs of stalked precloacal papillae, three pairs of postcloacal papillae, and two phasmids were present. Three and four sessile papillae were seen directly

  19. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number— in an inertialess environment—is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the “belly phase,” peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing. PMID:26154384

  20. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  1. Voluminous bleeding stomach GIST: reflections on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Caracino, Valerio; Maggi, Gustavo; Altobelli, Simone; Lambiase, Carlo; Danza, Costantina; D'Amico, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms which, although rare (around 1% of the total number of malignant tumours), are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. In the past they were not very well known, whereas today, thanks to the remarkable progress made in the immunohistochemical and molecular fields, considerable knowledge has been acquired, offering new opportunities for classification and, above all, for a more adequate multidisciplinary treatment of this pathology. In this study, the authors report a case of a bleeding GIST of the stomach which they recently observed and discuss it in the light of recent reflections on the aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of these tumours in the literature.

  2. Medical management of acid-peptic disorders of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Eswaran, Sheila; Roy, Michael A

    2005-10-01

    In the past 30 years, medicine has witnessed an unprecedented evolution in acid-peptic disorder management, fueled by major advances in our understanding of the physiology of acid secretion and the gastric mucosal barrier. The other pivotal development in understanding these disorders has been the recognition of Helicobacter pylori's role in the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease,chronic gastritis, and even gastric malignancy. This evolution continues as H pylori wanes in significance, and medicine is challenged by treating iatrogenic conditions brought on by ulcerogenic anti-inflammatory drugs. Following a description of the relevant physiology and biochemistry of gastric acid secretion and the gastric mucosal barrier, this article describes the current medicinal arsenal available to treat acid-peptic disorders of the stomach.

  3. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-03-05

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using /sup 3/H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined.

  4. Having the stomach for it: a contribution to Neanderthal diets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Laura T.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2014-07-01

    Due to the central position of diet in determining ecology and behaviour, much research has been devoted to uncovering Neanderthal subsistence strategies. This has included indirect studies inferring diet from habitat reconstruction, ethnographic analogy, or faunal assemblages, and direct methods, such as dental wear and isotope analyses. Recently, studies of dental calculus have provided another rich source of dietary evidence, with much potential. One of the most interesting results to come out of calculus analyses so far is the suggestion that Neanderthals may have been eating non-nutritionally valuable plants for medicinal reasons. Here we offer an alternative hypothesis for the occurrence of non-food plants in Neanderthal calculus based on the modern human ethnographic literature: the consumption of herbivore stomach contents.

  5. The Stomach-Derived Hormone Ghrelin Increases Impulsive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Anderberg, Rozita H; Hansson, Caroline; Fenander, Maya; Richard, Jennifer E; Dickson, Suzanne L; Nissbrandt, Hans; Bergquist, Filip; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-04-01

    Impulsivity, defined as impaired decision making, is associated with many psychiatric and behavioral disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as well as eating disorders. Recent data indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between food reward behavior and impulsivity, but the mechanisms behind this relationship remain unknown. Here we hypothesize that ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach and known to increase food reward behavior, also increases impulsivity. In order to assess the impact of ghrelin on impulsivity, rats were trained in three complementary tests of impulsive behavior and choice: differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL), go/no-go, and delay discounting. Ghrelin injection into the lateral ventricle increased impulsive behavior, as indicated by reduced efficiency of performance in the DRL test, and increased lever pressing during the no-go periods of the go/no-go test. Central ghrelin stimulation also increased impulsive choice, as evidenced by the reduced choice for large rewards when delivered with a delay in the delay discounting test. In order to determine whether signaling at the central ghrelin receptors is necessary for maintenance of normal levels of impulsive behavior, DRL performance was assessed following ghrelin receptor blockade with central infusion of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Central ghrelin receptor blockade reduced impulsive behavior, as reflected by increased efficiency of performance in the DRL task. To further investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the impulsivity effect of ghrelin, we microinjected ghrelin into the ventral tegmental area, an area harboring dopaminergic cell bodies. Ghrelin receptor stimulation within the VTA was sufficient to increase impulsive behavior. We further evaluated the impact of ghrelin on dopamine-related gene expression and dopamine turnover in brain areas key in impulsive behavior control. This study provides the first

  6. Stomach cancer and occupation in Sweden: 1971–89

    PubMed Central

    Aragones, N; Pollan, M; Gustavsson, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between gastric cancer and occupation among men and women gainfully employed in 1970 in Sweden for the period 1971–89 and, more specifically, to evaluate whether any excess of incidence of gastric cancer had also occurred among the subcohort of people reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. Methods: In both sexes and cohorts, relative risks adjusted for age, period of diagnosis, and geographical risk area were computed for occupational codes specified at one, two, or three level (occupational sector, occupational group, and occupation, respectively). Relative risks were calculated with all other occupations as reference and then, to take socioeconomic status into account, solely other occupations within the same occupational sector were used. Results: Among men, occupations with increased risk included miners and quarrymen, construction and metal processing workers, supporting the possible causative role of dusty environments in stomach cancer. In men, the results also provide support for increased risks among electrical and mechanical engineers, fishermen, petrol station workers, motor vehicle drivers, butchers and meat preparers, dockers, freight handlers, launderers and dry cleaners. Furthermore, it is worth noting interesting results for women, whose occupational risks have been studied less. Excess risks were found for practical nurses, cashiers, bank employees, engineering and electronic industry workers, food industry, housekeeping and cleaning workers. Due to the many occupations studied, several significant associations may be expected by chance. Conclusions: The study is explorative but provides support for the relations suggested previously between occupational exposure to dusty environments and stomach cancer, together with some new high risk occupations which should be further studied. PMID:11983848

  7. Functional properties of submucosal venules in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Retsu; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2015-06-01

    Venules in the stomach may have intrinsic properties for maintaining active microcirculation drainage even during gastric filling. Properties of spontaneous and nerve-mediated activity of submucosal venules in the rat stomach were investigated. Changes in vasodiameter and intracellular Ca(2+) in venular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were monitored by video tracking and Fluo-8 Ca(2+) imaging, respectively. Venular SMCs developed synchronous spontaneous Ca(2+) transients and corresponding rhythmic constrictions of the venules. Nominally Ca(2+)-free solution or an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker (1 μM nifedipine) disrupted the Ca(2+) transient synchrony and abolished spontaneous constrictions. Spontaneous constrictions were also prevented by inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (10 μM cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)), IP3 receptors (100 μM 2-APB) or Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (100 μM niflumic acid). Transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) induced a long-lasting venular constriction that was abolished by α-adrenoceptor antagonist (1 μM phentolamine), while TNS evoked a sympathetic transient constriction of arterioles that was abolished by a combination of phentolamine and a P2 purinoceptor antagonist (10 μM pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS)). Consistently, P2X1 purinoceptor immunoreactivity was detected in arteriolar but not venular SMCs. Primary afferent nerve stimulation (300 nM capsaicin) caused a venular dilatation by releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide. Thus, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum may play a fundamental role in the generation of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, while electrical coupling amongst venular SMCs via L-type Ca(2+) channel activation appears to be critical for Ca(2+) transient synchrony as well as spontaneous contractions. Sympathetic venular constrictions appear to be exclusively mediated by noradrenaline due to the lack of P2X1 receptor in venular SMCs.

  8. Gastric emptying is involved in Lactobacillus colonisation in mouse stomach.

    PubMed

    Sahasakul, Yuraporn; Takemura, Naoki; Sonoyama, Kei

    2014-08-14

    Lactobacilli are indigenous microbes of the stomach of rodents, with much lower numbers being present in mice fed a purified diet than in those fed a non-purified diet. We postulated that gastric emptying (GE) is responsible for the different colonisation levels of lactobacilli and tested this hypothesis in the present study. BALB/cCr Slc mice were fed either a non-purified diet or a purified diet for 2 weeks. The number of gastric tissue-associated lactobacilli was lower in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet. GE, estimated by measuring the food recovered from the stomach, was higher in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet and correlated negatively with the number of lactobacilli. Mice fed the non-purified diet exhibited lower GE rates even when lactobacilli were eliminated by ampicillin administration through the drinking-water, suggesting that GE is the cause but not the consequence of different Lactobacillus colonisation levels. The plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, a gastric hormone that promotes GE, were higher in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet. There was a negative correlation between GE and the number of lactobacilli in mice fed the non-purified diet, the purified diet, and the purified diet supplemented with sugarbeet fibre (200 g/kg diet) or carboxymethyl cellulose (40 g/kg diet). We propose that a higher GE rate contributes, at least in part, to lower gastric colonisation levels of lactobacilli in mice fed a purified diet.

  9. Dietary nitrite induces occludin nitration in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Correia, Mariana G; Fernandes, Rita C; Gonçalves, João S; Laranjinha, João

    2016-01-01

    The clinical implications of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway have been extensively studied in recent years. However, the physiological impact of bioactive nitrogen oxides produced from dietary nitrate has remained largely elusive. Here, we report a hitherto unrecognized nitrite-dependent nitrating pathway that targets tight junction proteins in the stomach. Inorganic nitrate, nitrite or saliva obtained after the consumption of lettuce were administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats. The enterosalivary circulation of nitrate was allowed to occur for 4 h after which the animals were euthanized and the stomach collected. Nitrated occludin was detected by immunoprecipitation in the gastric epithelium upon inorganic nitrite administration (p < .05) but was not observed in the case of inorganic nitrate or human saliva administration. This observation, along with differences in (•)NO production rates from inorganic and salivary nitrite under simulated gastric conditions, suggests that competing reactions at acidic pH determine the production of nitrating agents ((•)NO2) or other, more stable, oxides. Accordingly, it is shown in vitro that salivary nitrite yields higher steady state concentrations of (•)NO (0.37 ± 0.01 μM) than sodium nitrite (0.12 ± 0.03 μM). Dietary-dependent reactions involving the production of nitrogen oxides should be further investigated as, in the context of occludin nitration, the consumption of green leafy vegetables (with high nitrate content), if able to modulate gut barrier function, may have important implications in the context of leaky gut disorders.

  10. Attributable risks for stomach cancer in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; D'Avanzo, B; Negri, E; Decarli, A; Benichou, J

    1995-03-16

    The proportions of gastric cancer cases attributable (or attributable risks, AR) to consumption of traditional foods (i.e., pasta, rice and maize), low intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C, short duration of use of an electric refrigerator, low educational level, and family history of gastric cancer were computed using data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy. Between 1985 and June 1993 a total of 746 incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer cases and 2,053 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic, non-digestive-tract diseases, unrelated to long-term modifications of diet, were interviewed. The ARs were 48% for low intake of beta-carotene, 40% for high consumption of traditional foods, and 16% for low intake of vitamin C. Overall, these 3 dietary factors explained 73% of the gastric cancer cases in the population. Five percent of all cases were attributable to less than 30 years' use of an electric refrigerator, 15% to low educational level, and 5% to family history of gastric cancer. In individuals over age 60, a greater proportion of cases was attributable to traditional foods, low education and late adoption of electric refrigeration (58% vs. 32% aged under 60), suggesting that correlates of lower social class, influenced lifestyle, and dietary habits more markedly in earlier than in more recent generations. According to our estimates, over 3 quarters of the gastric cancer cases in this area are explainable in terms of the risk factors considered. Increased consumption of vitamin C and beta-carotene, and reduced consumption of traditional foods, would help to avoid over 10,000 out of 14,000 stomach-cancer deaths in Italy every year. Consequently, stomach cancer, which is still the third leading cause of cancer death in Italy, would represent only about 2% of all cancer deaths.

  11. Mean glandular dose coefficients (D(g)N) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z; Yaffe, Martin J; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

    2015-09-21

    To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients D(g)N for a range of anode-filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Previously published mono-energetic D(g)N values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute D(g)N coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; molybdenum and rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial half value layer (HVL) calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, D(g)N coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (D(g)N) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published D(g)N values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values.Over 200 pages of D(g)N coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values.

  12. Mean Glandular dose coefficients (DgN) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients DgN for a range of anode–filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Methods Previously published mono-energetic DgN values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute DgN coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; Molybdenum and Rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPx Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial HVL calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, DgN coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Results Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published DgN values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values. Conclusion Over 200-pages of DgN coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values. PMID:26348995

  13. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  14. Depletion of mitochondrial enzyme system in liver, lung, brain, stomach and kidney induced by benzo(a)pyrene.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoying; Li, Yongfei; He, Jianlong; Shah, Walayat; Xue, Xiaochang; Feng, Guodong; Zhang, Huqin; Gao, Meili

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has recently received considerable attention as it plays an important role in adult human pathology caused by various drugs, endogenous agents and environmental agents. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant mainly derived from anthropogenic activity during incomplete combustion of organic materials from various sources. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on mitochondrial enzymes in the multiple organs including liver, lung, brain, stomach and kidney. ICR mice were exposed to different doses of BaP (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg body weight) through oral gavage and intraperitoneal injection treatment for 13 weeks consecutively. The induced mitochondrial damage in the examined organs was assayed in terms of significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and prominent decrease in antioxidant enzymes. Non enzymatic antioxidants and Krebs cycle's enzymes were also significantly decreased in mitochondria. Additionally, BaP induced the body growth retardation and decrease in relative liver weight, increase in relative lung, stomach, kidney and brain weights, and this was further certified through histopathological lesions. Liver and lungs were more prominently damaged by BaP. The mitochondrial depletion increased in BaP dose-dependent manner.

  15. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  16. [Application of "disharmony of stomach leads to insomnia" theory in acupuncture treatment for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Li; Liu, Jian-Wu; Chen, Li-Guo; Wang, Chen-Guang; Zhang, Yan-Hong

    2014-12-01

    When looking back to the literature regarding insomnia, it is believed that "disharmony of stomach leads to insomnia" is an important mechanism for the attack of insomnia. This theory is widely accepted in clinical practices by ancient and modern acupuncturists, thus the method treating insomnia from the stomach is developed. But deeper research on its mechanism is still lacking. Through correlation between stomach meridian and heart meridian, spleen and stomach being the pivot of rise and decline of qi movement and yin-yang and being the pivot of five zang-viscera housing spirit, modern abdomen-brain theory and experimental research, the mechanism of treating insomnia from the stomach is discussed in this paper, so as to be better to guide clinical acupoint-selection and treatment.

  17. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  18. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality.

  19. Recurrent upside-down stomach after endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy treated by laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Yuji; Hatano, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Patients with an upside-down stomach usually receive surgical treatment. In high-risk patients, endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy can be performed. However, the risk of recurrence after endoscopic treatment is not known. We treated a case of recurrent upside-down stomach after endoscopic therapy that indicated the limits of endoscopic treatment and risk of recurrence. An 88-year-old woman was treated three times for vomiting in the past. She presented to our hospital with periodic vomiting and an inability to eat, and a diagnosis of upside-down stomach was made. Endoscopic repositioning and gastropexy were performed. The anterior stomach wall was fixed to the abdominal wall in three places as widely as possible. Following treatment, she became symptom-free. Three months later, she was hospitalized again because of a recurrent upside-down stomach. Laparoscopic repair of hernias and gastropexy was performed. Using a laparoscope, two causes of recurrence were found. One cause was that the range of adherence between the stomach and the abdominal wall was narrow (from the antrum only to the lower corpus of stomach), so the upper corpus of stomach was rotated and herniated into the esophageal hiatus. The other cause was adhesion between the omentum and the esophageal hiatus which caused the stomach to rotate and repeatedly become herniated. Although endoscopic treatment for upside-down stomach can be a useful alternative method in high-risk patients, its ability to prevent recurrence is limited. Moreover, a repeated case caused by adhesions has risks of recurrence.

  20. Proteomics of the human endometrial glandular epithelium and stroma from the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Hood, Brian L; Liu, Baoquan; Alkhas, Addie; Shoji, Yutaka; Challa, Rusheeswar; Wang, Guisong; Ferguson, Susan; Oliver, Julie; Mitchell, Dave; Bateman, Nicholas W; Zahn, Christopher M; Hamilton, Chad A; Payson, Mark; Lessey, Bruce; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Maxwell, G Larry; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance in reproductive biology and women's health, a detailed molecular-level understanding of the human endometrium is lacking. Indeed, no comprehensive studies have been undertaken to elucidate the important protein expression differences between the endometrial glandular epithelium and surrounding stroma during the proliferative and midsecretory phases of the menstrual cycle. We utilized laser microdissection to harvest epithelial cells and stromal compartments from proliferative and secretory premenopausal endometrial tissue and performed a global, quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis. This analysis identified 1224 total proteins from epithelial cells, among which 318 were differentially abundant between the proliferative and secretory phases (q < 0.05), and 1005 proteins from the stromal compartments, 19 of which were differentially abundant between the phases (q < 0.05). Several proteins were chosen for validation by immunohistochemistry in an independent set of uterine tissues, including carboxypeptidase M, tenascin C, neprilysin, and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 3 (ENPP3). ENPP3, which was elevated in epithelial glandular cells in the secretory phase, was confirmed to be elevated in midsecretory-phase baboon uterine lavage samples and also observed to have an N-linked glycosylated form that was not observed in the proliferative phase. This study provides a detailed view into the global proteomic alterations of the epithelial cells and stromal compartments of the cycling premenopausal endometrium. These proteomic alterations during endometrial remodeling provide a basis for numerous follow-up investigations on the function of these differentially regulated proteins and their role in reproductive biology and endometrial pathologies.

  1. Paracrine Hedgehog signaling in stomach and intestine: new roles for Hedgehog in gastrointestinal patterning

    PubMed Central

    Kolterud, Åsa; Grosse, Ann S.; Zacharias, William J.; Walton, Katherine D.; Kretovich, Katherine E.; Madison, Blair; Waghray, Meghna; Ferris, Jennifer E.; Hu, Chunbo; Merchant, Juanita L.; Dlugosz, Andrzej; Kottmann, Andreas H.; Gumucio, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Hedgehog signaling is critical in gastrointestinal patterning. Mice deficient in Hedgehog signaling exhibit abnormalities that mirror deformities seen in the human VACTERL (vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheal, esophageal, renal, limb) association. However, the direction of Hedgehog signal flow is controversial and the cellular targets of Hedgehog signaling change with time during development. We profiled cellular Hedgehog response patterns from embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) to adult in murine antrum, pyloric region, small intestine and colon. Methods Hedgehog signaling was profiled using Hedgehog pathway reporter mice and in situ hybridization. Cellular targets were identified by immunostaining. Ihh-overexpressing transgenic animals were generated and analyzed. Results Hedgehog signaling is strictly paracrine from antrum to colon throughout embryonic and adult life. Novel findings include: mesothelial cells of the serosa transduce Hedgehog signals in fetal life; the hindgut epithelium expresses Ptch but not Gli1 at E10.5; the two layers of the muscularis externa respond differently to Hedgehog signals; organogenesis of the pyloric sphincter is associated with robust Hedgehog signaling; dramatically different Hedgehog responses characterize stomach and intestine at E16; after birth, the muscularis mucosa and villus smooth muscle (SM) consist primarily of Hedgehog responsive cells and Hh levels actively modulate villus core SM. Conclusions These studies reveal a previously unrecognized association of paracrine Hedgehog signaling with several gastrointestinal patterning events involving the serosa, pylorus and villus smooth muscle. The results may have implications for several human anomalies and could potentially expand the spectrum of the human VACTERL association. PMID:19445942

  2. Histochemical evidence of β-chitin in parapodial glandular organs and tubes of Spiophanes (Annelida, Sedentaria: Spionidae), and first studies on selected Annelida.

    PubMed

    Guggolz, Theresa; Henne, Stephan; Politi, Yael; Schütz, Roman; Mašić, Admir; Müller, Carsten H G; Meißner, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A generic character of the genus Spiophanes (Annelida, Sedentaria: Spionidae) is the presence of parapodial glandular organs. Parapodial glandular organs in Spiophanes species include secretory cells with cup-shaped microvilli, similar to those present in deep-sea inhabiting vestimentiferans and frenulate Siboglinidae. These cells are supposed to secrete β-chitin for tube-building. In this study, transverse histological and/or ultrathin sections of parapodial glandular organs and tubes of Spiophanes spp. as well as of Glandulospio orestes (Spionidae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae) were examined. Fluorescent markers together with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to detect chitin in the parapodial glandular organs of Spiophanes and/or in the glands of Owenia and Glandulospio. Tubes of these taxa were tested for chitin to elucidate the use of it for tube-building. The examinations revealed a distinct labelling of the gland contents. Raman spectroscopy documented the presence of β-chitin in both gland types of Spiophanes. The tubes of Spiophanes were found to have a grid-like structure that seems to be built with this β-chitin. Tests of tubes of Dipolydora quadrilobata (Spionidae) for chitin were negative. However, the results of our study provide strong evidence that Spiophanes species, O. fusiformis and probably also G. orestes produce chitin and supposedly use it for tube-building. This implies that the production of chitin and its use as a constituent part of tube-building is more widespread among polychaetes as yet known. The histochemical data presented in this study support previous assumptions inferring homology of parapodial glandular organs of Spionidae and Siboglinidae based on ultrastructure. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy-based evidence of secretory cells with nail-headed microvilli in O. fusiformis suggests homology of parapodial grandular organs across annelids including Sipuncula.

  3. Eustrongylides sp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatoidea) from the stomach of a Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Bain, O; Boomker, J

    2006-12-01

    During a study conducted between 2003 and 2005 on the diet of Nile crocodiles in Botswana, two young adult nematodes, one male and one female, belonging to the genus Eustrongylides Jägerskiöld, 1909 were recovered from the stomach contents of one of these animals. The caudal bursa of the male is present and the ejaculatory duct could be identified, but the spicule could not be seen. The vulva of the female has opened and the anus is situated on a terminal protruberance. Measurements and drawings of these specimens are provided, together with some data on the occurrence and life-cycles of members of the genus Eustrongylides in crocodilians world-wide and in African hosts in particular. Piscivorous birds are the usual final hosts of these nematodes. It is probable that the specimens described herein had developed in a paratenic fish host, and that the latter had been eaten by the crocodile.

  4. Food habits and seasonal variation of stomach contents of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis (Günther) in the Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Shuozeng

    1993-03-01

    Examination of the food habits and seasonal variation of the stomach contents of adult tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis (Günther) taken in July 1982 July 1983 from Laizhou Bay and the Huanghe River estuary of the Bohai Sea showed crustacea, bivalvia and small fishes comprised the main prey. Invertebrates such as polychaeta, cephalopoda, gastropoda, echinodermata and actiniaria were also intermittently found in them. They intensively fed all the year found (monthly feeding rate of over 80%). The main food items were Alpheus japonica, Alpheus distinguendus. Oratosquilla oratoria, Eucrate crenata and Carcinoplax vestitus, etc. In summer and autumn, the portion of bivalvia such as Cultellus attenuatus and Musculus senhousei increased steadily. From summer to winter, a stable proportion of small fishes such as Rhinogobius pflaumi and Setipinna taty was in the diet.

  5. A Novel Endoscopic Technique to Diagnose Gastric Cancer in Excluded Stomach after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Pitea, Teodor C.

    2017-01-01

    Access to the bypassed portion of the stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass remains a challenge. We present a case of 64-year-old woman who presented with gastric outlet obstruction. We used a novel endoscopic technique to access the bypassed stomach by creating a jejunogastrostomy using a specialized stent, which allowed the insertion of a pediatric gastroscope to examine the bypassed portion of the stomach. Stomach biopsies revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet cell features. PMID:28331875

  6. Morphogenesis and three-dimensional movement of the stomach during the human embryonic period.

    PubMed

    Kaigai, N; Nako, A; Yamada, S; Uwabe, C; Kose, K; Takakuwa, T

    2014-05-01

    The stomach develops as the local widening of the foregut after Carnegie stage (CS) 13 that moves in a dramatic and dynamic manner during the embryonic period. Using the magnetic resonance images of 377 human embryos, we present the morphology, morphometry, and three-dimensional movement of the stomach during CS16 and CS23. The stomach morphology revealed stage-specific features. The angular incisura and the cardia were formed at CS18. The change in the angular incisura angle was approximately 90° during CS19 and CS20, and was <90° after CS 21. The prominent formations of the fundus and the pylorus differentiate at around CS20. Morphometry of the stomach revealed that the stomach gradually becomes "deflected" during development. The stomach may appear to move to the left laterally and caudally due to its deflection and differential growth. The track of the reference points in the stomach may reflect the visual three-dimensional movement. The movement of point M, representing the movement of the greater curvature, was different from that of points C (cardia) and P (pyloric antrum). The P and C were located just around the midsagittal plane in all the stages observed. Point M moved in the caudal-left lateral direction until CS22. Moreover, the vector CP does not rotate around the dorsoventral axis, as widely believed, but around the transverse axis. The plane CPM rotated mainly around the longitudinal axis. The data obtained will be useful for prenatal diagnosis in the near future.

  7. Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA

    SciTech Connect

    King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Smith, Conor

    2012-12-12

    In this paper, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strain dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. Finally, a comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish.

  8. Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA

    DOE PAGES

    King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; ...

    2012-12-12

    In this paper, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strainmore » dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. Finally, a comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish.« less

  9. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  10. [Action mechanism of sodium polyacrylates against stomach ulcer].

    PubMed

    Kokue, E; Hayama, T

    1975-05-01

    Three sodium polyacrylates (PAS) with different viscosities were examined for antiulcerogenic properties. Rats were fed with sugar containing a PAS for 4 hr and subjected to 12 hr reserpinization or stress by water immersion. Lower incidence of ulceration and larger amount of stomach content after the experiment were found in the PAS administered groups. The higher viscous PAS was more effective in prevention of ulceration and in prolongation of gastric emptying. Intragastric administration of the drugs to pylorus ligated rats reduced forestomach ulceration. However, differences in the antiulcerogenic activity of three drugs were not observed. The effects on the gastric secretion of three PAS (50 mg) were also examined, using pylorus ligated (6 hr) rats. In PAS groups, the free acid in the gastric juice was reduced to some extent. There was, however, no relation between the antiacid effect and viscosity. The drugs inhibited the peptic digestion in vitro, but the difference of viscosity was not related to the antipeptic effect. It is concluded that prolongation of gastric emptying may be a major factor in the antiulcerogenic activity of PAS.

  11. [Watermelon stomach: Chronic renal failure and/or imatinib?].

    PubMed

    Montagnac, Richard; Blaison, Dominique; Brahimi, Saïd; Schendel, Adeline; Levasseur, Thomas; Takin, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    Watermelon stomach or gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is an uncommon cause of sometimes severe upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Essentially based on a pathognomonic endoscopic appearance, its diagnosis may be unrecognised because mistaken with portal hypertensive gastropathy, while treatment of these two entities is different. Its etiopathogeny remains still unclear, even if it is frequently associated with different systemic illnesses as hepatic cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal failure. The mechanism inducing these vascular ectasia may be linked with mechanical stress on submucosal vessels due to antropyloric peristaltic motility dysfunction modulated by neurohormonal vasoactive alterations. Because medical therapies are not very satisfactory, among the endoscopic modalities, argon plasma coagulation seems to be actually the first-line treatment because the most effective and safe. However, surgical antrectomy may be sometimes necessary. Recently GAVE syndrome appeared as a new adverse reaction of imatinib mesylate, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia, and we report here the observation of such a pathology in one patient treated at the same time by haemodialysis and by imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia.

  12. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years.

  13. The sensitivity of radiography of the postoperative stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.; Gelfand, D.W.; Lane, T.G.; Wu, W.C.

    1982-09-01

    The results of radiology and endoscopy were compared in 140 patients who had undergone gastric surgery for ulcer disease. Of 74 patients who were examined with single-contrast radiography, 37 had abnormalities that were demonstrated endoscopically. The radiographic sensitivities in these patients were: gastritis 2/22 (9%); ulcer 3/5 (60%); obstruction 8/8 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 2/2 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnois of ulcer was 38%. Of the 66 patients who were examined with double-contrast radiography, 33 abnormalities were found with endoscopy. The radiographic sensitivities were: gastritis 3/13 (23%); ulcer 7/10 (70%); obstruction 4/4 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 6/6 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnosis of ulcer was 44%. Radiology appears to be unreliable in diagnosing gastritis and recurrent ulceration in the post-operation stomach. The double-contrast technique does not offer significant improvement over the single-contrast method in evaluating these postoperative problems.

  14. Contribution of the stomach to ethanol oxidation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Caballeria, J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-08-24

    To estimate the amount of ethanol that can be oxidized in the stomach, steady-state conditions were created in a group of fed rats by giving a loading dose of ethanol (2 g/kg body wt I.V.) followed by continuous infusion either intravenously or intragastrically. The rate of ethanol oxidation was calculated from the rate of infusion required to maintain steady blood levels of approximately 30 mM for at least 3 hours. Gastrointestinal ethanol concentrations and total contents also remained steady. The rate of ethanol oxidation was 19.3% faster during intragastric than during intravenous infusion (p<0.01). When measured at the prevailing luminal ethanol concentration (145 mM) and expressed per body weight, the gastric ADH activity represented 14% of the hepatic activity at 30 mM ethanol, suggesting that gastric ADH activity could account for most of the increased rate of oxidation when ethanol is given intragastrically. Thus, gastric ethanol oxidation by a high Km ADH in the rat represents a significant fraction of the total rate of ethanol oxidation and it is therefore one of the factors which determines the bioavailability of orally administered ethanol. 22 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  15. Brush cells of rodent gallbladder and stomach epithelia express neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Liliana; Groos, Stephanie; Reale, Enrico

    2003-02-01

    It has been suggested that brush cells (BCs), a distinct type of cell occurring in various epithelia of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, may function as receptor cells. The major characteristics of BCs are a prominent brush border and an unusually highly ordered arrangement of cytoskeletal elements (F-actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments). In this study we aimed to characterize the nature of the intermediate filaments in BCs by light and electron microscopic immunostaining. Gallbladder and stomach specimens from mice and rats, respectively, were fixed in various solutions, embedded either in paraffin or epoxy resin, and processed for immunodetection. Commercially available, well-characterized antibodies against neurofilaments, peripherin, and cytokeratin peptide 18 were used. The polyclonal antiserum cocktail to neurofilaments was applied as a supplement in a double-labeling procedure with anti-actin and anti-cytokeratin 18 antibodies. The results demonstrate that the BCs of both organs express two types of intermediate filaments, i.e., neurofilaments and cytokeratin 18 filaments, and that these have a compartmentalized distribution in the cytoplasm. BCs do not express peripherin. The immunodetection of intermediate filaments distinctive for mature neurons in BCs supports their putative receptor function. The co-expression of neurofilaments and cytokeratins is shown for the first time in healthy tissues.

  16. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  17. The gastrointestinal microbiome - functional interference between stomach and intestine.

    PubMed

    Lopetuso, Loris R; Scaldaferri, Franco; Franceschi, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex and dynamic network with interplay between various gut mucosal cells and their defence molecules, the immune system, food particles, and the resident microbiota. This ecosystem acts as a functional unit organized as a semipermeable multi-layer system that allows the absorption of nutrients and macromolecules required for human metabolic processes and, on the other hand, protects the individual from potentially invasive microorganisms. Commensal microbiota and the host are a unique entity in a continuum along the GI tract, every change in one of these players is able to modify the whole homeostasis. In the stomach, Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. In this scenario, H. pylori infection is associated with changes in the gastric microenvironment, which in turn affects the gastric microbiota composition, but also might trigger large intestinal microbiota changes. It is able to influence all the vital pathways of human system and also to influence microbiota composition along the GI tract. This can cause a change in the normal functions exerted by intestinal commensal microorganisms leading to a new gastrointestinal physiological balance. This review focuses and speculates on the possible interactions between gastric microorganisms and intestinal microbiota and on the consequences of this interplay in modulating gut health.

  18. Ornithine decarboxylase as a marker for premalignancy in the stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Patchett, S E; Alstead, E M; Butruk, L; Przytulski, K; Farthing, M J

    1995-01-01

    Assessment of mucosal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in the human large bowel may be of value as a marker of potential malignant risk. Its value as a marker of premalignancy in the upper gastrointestinal tract is less clear. Using a [14C]-ornithine bioassay, gastric mucosal ODC activity was measured in 32 normal subjects and 22 patients with confirmed gastric cancer. These results were compared with 47 patients at increased risk of upper gastrointestinal malignancy, (32 patients with partial gastric resection, 15 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis). Median ODC activity in normal subjects was 371 pmol/mg protein/h, (interquartile range (IQR), 230-617). There was no variation with age or sex and no relation to Helicobacter pylori status. Normal subjects had significantly lower ODC activity than patients with a gastric resection or confirmed gastric cancer, but similar to patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Furthermore, no difference in activity was identified between patients with a gastric resection and established gastric cancer. ODC activity was, however, significantly increased in areas of gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia, regardless of the clinical group from which the samples were obtained. It is concluded that measurement of mucosal ODC activity does not provide additional predictive information of malignant risk in the stomach and investigation of other potential biomarkers of malignancy is warranted. PMID:7672662

  19. C-Met Inhibitor AMG 337, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin Calcium, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach or Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  20. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  1. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  2. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  3. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  4. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  5. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  6. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  7. [THE INFLUENCE OF LEU-ENKEPHALIN AND MEDICAL PLANTS ON MOTOR ACTIVITY OF STOMACH IN DOGS].

    PubMed

    Vymjatnina, Z K; Prosekina, E Y; Tomova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the real research was a study influence of leu-enkephalin and extracts from the leaves of goose-grass large, of burdock of felted and root of chicory on the motor function of stomach for dogs. The study was carried out on 6 outbred dogs-males, by mass 14-17 kg, with the fistula of stomach by Basov. A leu-enkephalin ("Vector", Russia) was entered intravenously in a dose 7 mcg/kg. The corresponding plant-based preparations entered perorally during 10-14 days to beginning of experiments, on an empty stomach, in a volume a no more than 20 ml. Experiments put in a morning clock, in 16-18 hours after eating, after the careful washing of stomach. For 30 mines to the record of motive activity of stomach an animal was enter a peptide or gave a corresponding extract as water or spirit infusion. At the choice of doses of vegetable preparations came from the before obtained data about the antiulcerous action of the used plants. The conduct of peptide rendered considerable stimulant influence on motor activity of stomach, that was expressed in the increase of period of work and increase of force of reductions especially tonic. All used plants preparations rendered modulating influence on motive activity of stomach. Changes consisted in strengthening of tonic and oppressing of phase component. The most considerable decline of amount of phase reductions caused application of extract of goose-grass. Not only an amount but also force of phase reductions diminished thus. An extract from the root of chicory less considerably reduced the arnount of Phase reJuctions, but here substantially increased their force. All used herbal medicines stimulated tonic activity. Thus, peptide and all studied herbal medicines stimulated motion activity of the stomach that could cause acceleration of evacuation of food to duodenum. Such effect should be considered while choosing the medicine for correction of stomach functional activity.

  8. Parotid salivary duct sialocele associated with glandular duct stenosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Vallefuoco, Rosario; Jardel, Nicolas; El Mrini, Meryem; Stambouli, Fouzia; Cordonnier, Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    Feline parotid salivary duct sialocele is an uncommon disorder that has been previously reported in association with traumatic rupture of the duct in only two cats. Both cases were successfully treated by proximal duct ligation. We describe the successful surgical treatment of a parotid duct sialocele, secondary to spontaneous salivary duct stenosis, in an adult domestic shorthair cat. The cat was referred for assessment of a recurrent fluid-filled swelling on the left side of the face. Cytology of the aspirated fluid was consistent with serous saliva. The anatomical localisation of the lesion and the nature of the fluid were indicative of parotid gland/duct involvement. Retrograde sialography by parotid duct cannulation was unsuccessful because the left parotid duct opening was stenosed and obstructed by scar tissue. Surgical exploration revealed a parotid salivary duct sialocele, which was completely removed along with the parotid gland without complications.

  9. Stomach arteriovenous malformation resected by laparoscopy-assisted surgery: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Cho, Kazumitsu; Takao, Yoshimune; Fukuoka, Takeshi; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    Arteriovenous malformations of the stomach are an uncommon cause of upper GI bleeding. We report a case of stomach arteriovenous malformation in an 85-year-old Asian man who presented with massive hematemesis. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy did not detect this lesion, but contrast multi-detector CT confirmed GI bleeding. Multi-detector CT revealed a mass of blood vessels underlying the submucosa that arose from the right gastroepiploic artery. Repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed that the lesion was a submucosal tumor with erosion and without active bleeding in the lower body of the stomach on the greater curvature. We performed partial gastrectomy via laparoscopy-assisted surgery. The histopathological diagnosis was arteriovenous malformation.

  10. Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  11. Structure and properties of the glandular surface in the digestive zone of the pitcher in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes ventrata and its role in insect trapping and retention.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena; Kastner, Victoria; Peressadko, Andrei; Arzt, Eduard; Gaume, Laurence; Rowe, Nick; Gorb, Stanislav

    2004-08-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes grow in nutrient-poor habitats and have evolved specialised trapping organs, known as pitchers. These are composed of different surface zones serving the functions of attraction, capture and digestion of insects, which represent a main source of nitrogen. To investigate the role of the glandular digestive zone in the trapping mechanism of the pitcher, structural, mechanical and physico-chemical studies were applied to N. ventrata and combined with insect behavioural experiments. It was found that the glandular surface is microscopically rough since it is regularly structured with multicellular glands situated in epidermal depressions. The presence of downward-directed 'hoods' over the upper part of glands and sloped depressions in the proximal direction of the pitcher causes a marked anisotropy of the surface. The glandular zone surface is composed of relatively stiff material (Young's modulus, 637.19+/-213.44 kPa). It is not homogeneous, in terms of adhesive properties, and contains numerous areas without adhesion as well as adhesive areas differing greatly in tenacity values (range, 1.39-28.24 kPa). The surface is readily wettable with water (contact angle, 31.9-36.0 degrees C) and has a high surface free energy (56.84-61.93 mN m(-1)) with a relatively high polar component (33.09-52.70 mN m(-1)). To examine the effect of the glandular secretion on attachment systems of insects having hairy and smooth adhesive pads, forces generated on different surfaces by Calliphora vicina flies and Pyrrhocoris apterus bugs, respectively, were measured. Flies attached equally well to both fresh and air-dried glandular surfaces whereas bugs generated a significantly lower force on the fresh glandular surface compared with the air-dried one. It is assumed that the contribution of the glandular surface to insect retention, due to its effect on insect attachment, differs depending on insect weight and the type of insect attachment system

  12. Alterations of neurochemical expression of the coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach following partial stomach resection.

    PubMed

    Palus, Katarzyna; Całka, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the response of the porcine coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons projecting to the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach to peripheral neuronal damage following partial stomach resection. To identify the sympathetic neurons innervating the studied area of stomach, the neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to control and partial stomach resection (RES) groups. On the 22nd day after FB injection, following laparotomy, the partial resection of the previously FB-injected stomach prepyloric area was performed in animals of RES group. On the 28th day, all animals were re-anaesthetized and euthanized. The CSMG complex was then collected and processed for double-labeling immunofluorescence. In control animals, retrograde-labelled perikarya were immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL). Partial stomach resection decreased the numbers of FB-positive neurons immunopositive for TH and DβH. However, the strong increase of NPY and GAL expression, as well as de novo-synthesis of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and leu5-Enkephalin (LENK) was noted in studied neurons. Furthermore, FB-positive neurons in all pigs were surrounded by a network of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART)-, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, and substance P (SP)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-, LENK- and nNOS- immunoreactive nerve fibers. This may suggest neuroprotective contribution of these neurotransmitters in traumatic responses of sympathetic neurons to peripheral axonal damage.

  13. A Novel Murine Candidiasis Model with Severe Colonization in the Stomach Induced by N-acetylglucosamine-treatment and Its Scoring System Based on Local Characteristic Stomach Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Sanae A; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel murine candidiasis model of the gastrointestinal tract using N-acetylglucosamine ( GlcNAc ) as a tool to aggravate symptoms. Forty-eight hours after intragastrically inoculating Candida albicans cells to immunosuppressed and GlcNAc-treated mice, vigorously accumulating patchy whitish plaques were observed on their inner stomach surface. Candida cells colonizing the plaques consisted of both yeast and mycelia, and were directly stained with Calcofluor White M2R. Aggravation of the candidiasis symptoms was dependent on GlcNAc concentration in drinking water, wherein administration of 50 mM GlcNAc not only severely worsened stomach symptoms, but also significantly increased Candida cell number in the stomach and small intestine. The aggravation effect of GlcNAc was enhanced by addition of sedative chemical chlorpromazine chloride after inoculation. In order to semi-quantitatively assess colonization by Candida in the stomach, we devised a new symptom scoring system that represents the extent of the patchy whitish plaques on the mucosal epithelium of the stomach. Histochemical analysis of Candida-infected tissues revealed not only a large amount of thick Candida mycelia invading mucosal epithelial stomach tissues but also infiltrating inflammatory cells. These results suggest that this murine gastrointestinal candidiasis model could serve as a useful tool for evaluating the protective activity of antifungal agents, probiotics, or functional foods against gastrointestinal candidiasis. Furthermore, from another point of view, this novel murine model could also be used to analyze the pathological mechanisms behind the translocation of C. albicans across intestinal barriers, which results in systemic Candida dissemination and infection.

  14. A rare case of metastatic germ cell tumor to stomach and duodenum masquerading as signet ring cell adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sridhar; Patil, Prachi; Mehta, Shaesta; Ramadwar, Mukta

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas are the most common cancers affecting stomach. However gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), lymphomas and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can also affect the stomach. But stomach is relatively rare site of involvement by metastasis. In this case report a rare metastasis of germ cell tumor (GCT) into stomach is described which clinically and endoscopically masquerade as primary gastric cancers. But detailed clinical examination and vigilant histopathological reporting proves the origin of tumor distant from stomach and thereby change the whole approach of management. PMID:27668229

  15. [Could Helicobacter pylori treatment reduce stomach cancer risk?].

    PubMed

    Bretagne, Jean-François

    2003-03-01

    Despite its dramatic decline in incidence in developed countries, gastric cancer is a major public health issue in the world. Accumulating evidence for considering H. pylori as a causal factor for gastric cancer comes from recent epidemiologic studies, the advent of an animal model of gastric cancer and from new insights into the biological mechanisms for gastric carcinogenesis. The stomach cancer risk for people infected with H. pylori is rather low, inferior to 1%. It depends on genotypic polymorphisms of both the bacterium and the host. Environmental risk factors such as smoking habits, salt intake, and the amount of antioxidants in diet may interfere with H. pylori and modify the cancer risk. There is no definite clinical evidence of the benefit of eradication on cancer risk in humans due to the lack of randomized controlled studies in large populations. The occurrence of gastric adenocarcinomas in patients after complete remission of gastric MALT lymphoma induced by H. pylori eradication suggests also the limits of the preventive strategy against gastric cancer. Furthermore, the effectiveness of eradication to reverse precancerous gastric lesions such as severe atrophy and intestinal metaplasia is questionable. For many reasons discussed in our review, population-based screening and routine eradication of H. pylori infection seem to be an unrealistic goal and cannot be recommended in France. By waiting for effective anti-H. pylori vaccine, public health measures such as dietary modification should be promoted to further decrease the gastric cancer incidence. On the individual basis the specialist has a role in the diagnosis of gastric precancerous lesions by endoscopy and also in the prevention of gastric cancer by selecting indications for H. pylori therapy.

  16. Does the risk of stomach cancer remain among second-generation immigrants in Sweden?

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari

    2012-04-01

    The observed increased risks of noncardia stomach cancer among foreign-born second-generation immigrants compared to the Swedes suggest that these immigrants were infected by Helicobacter pylori before immigration.

  17. Large hiatal hernia in infancy with right intrathoracic stomach along with left sided morgagni hernia.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Uzma; Mazhar, Naveed; Zameer, Shahla

    2014-11-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a very common intrathoracic fetal anomaly with Morgagni hernia typically seen on right side anteriorly and Bochdalek hernia on left side posteriorly, because of the protective effects of liver and heart on either side respectively. Hiatal hernias range from herniation of a small portion of stomach into thoracic cavity to herniation of entire stomach into the left thoracic cavity. Very rarely the herniated stomach has been reported in the right thoracic cavity. Early diagnosis and treatment of all diaphragmatic hernias is essential to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. We present a very rare and interesting case of an 18 months old baby girl with reverse scenarios. She had a large hiatal hernia with right intrathoracic stomach along with a left sided Morgagni hernia in combination.

  18. Stomach contents of cetaceans incidentally caught along Mangalore and Chennai coasts of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anoop A.; Yousuf, K. S.; Kumaran, P. L.; Harish, N.; Anoop, B.; Afsal, V. V.; Rajagopalan, M.; Vivekanandan, E.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Jayasankar, P.

    2008-03-01

    The stomachs of 32 individuals of seven cetacean species incidentally caught in gill net and purseseine fisheries along Mangalore and Chennai coasts (India) between 2004 and 2006 were examined. The whole stomach (fore-gut, mid-gut and hind-gut) was examined in all cases. Prey remains (666 prey items comprising six species of teleosts, one crustacean and one squid species) were found in the stomachs of eight individuals (the remaining 24 stomachs were found to be empty). All cetaceans were found to feed mostly on teleosts with wide range of trophic levels. Based on an index that included frequency of occurrence, percentage by number and by weight, the oil sardine Sardinella longiceps was the main prey in the sample. Cetaceans appear to favour both pelagic as well as demersal prey, possibly indicating surface and benthic feeding habits.

  19. Effects of a hydrogen sulfide donor on spontaneous contractile activity of rat stomach and jejunum.

    PubMed

    Shafigullin, M Y; Zefirov, R A; Sabirullina, G I; Zefirov, A L; Sitdikova, G F

    2014-07-01

    We studied the effect of sodium hydrosulfite (NaHS), a donor of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), on spontaneous contractive activity of isolated preparations of rat stomach and jejunum under isometric conditions. NaHS in concentrations of 10-200 μM reduced the amplitude, tonic tension, and frequency of contractions of the preparations. Blockade of K(+) channels with a non-specific antagonist tetraethylammonium (10 mM) increased contraction amplitude in the stomach strip and jejunum segment. The effects of NaHS on all parameters of contractile activity of the stomach and jejunum were fully preserved against the background of tetraethylammonium application. These data suggest that H2S in physiologically relevant concentrations inhibited spontaneous contractile activity of smooth muscle cells in rat stomach and jejunum by reducing the amplitude and frequency of contractions and decreased tonic tension without affecting the function of voltage- and calcium-dependent K(+) channels.

  20. Efficacy of cimetidin in the prevention of ulcer formation in the stomach during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorofeyev, G. I.; Litovskiy, I. A.; Gavrovskaya, L. K.; Ivashkin, V. T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of stress on the formation of ulcers in the mucous membrane of the stomach, the increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in the gastric tissues, and parietal cell structure alteration. Use of cimetidin prevents these effects

  1. Side to Side Esophagogastrojejunoplasty in Post-corrosive Stricture of Distal Esophagus and Proximal Stomach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praveen; Pancholi, Mukesh; Patel, Gulab; Sharma, Anju

    2015-12-01

    A four years old female child presented after 2 months of ingestion of battery fluid (sulfuric acid) accidently with stricture of the distal esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and fundus as well as proximal portion of the body of the stomach. Corrosive stricture involving the distal esophagus with the proximal stomach is not a frequently encountered condition. Side to side esophagogastrojejunostomy without removal of the strictured esophagus or stomach (side to side esophagogastrojejunoplasty) can be done in such patient hence preserving the stomach which is important physiologically as a reservoir and for the secretion of gastric juices. In review of literature in search engines like MD Consult, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase and standard textbooks of surgery, we could not find such procedure had been performed till date, so that it is the innovative approach with support of literature and surgical principles.

  2. A microfluidic in vitro system for the quantitative study of the stomach mucus barrier function.

    PubMed

    Li, Leon; Lieleg, Oliver; Jang, Sae; Ribbeck, Katharina; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-10-21

    In the stomach, a layer of gastric mucus protects the epithelial cells of the stomach wall against damage by the acidic digestive juices in the gastric lumen. Despite considerable research, the biophysical mechanisms for this acid barrier are not understood. We present an in vitro microfluidic tool to characterize the stomach acid barrier, in which purified mucin polymers are "secreted" against an acidic zone on chip, mimicking the in vivo secretion of gastric mucus into an acidic stomach lumen. This device reconstitutes both the H(+) concentration gradient and outward flow environment of the mucus layer in vivo. Our experiments demonstrate that a continuously secreted mucin layer hinders acid diffusion, suggesting novel insights into the barrier role of mucins. More broadly, our system may serve as a platform tool for studying the barrier functions provided by mucus layers in the body and for studying mucus drug interactions.

  3. Breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Kwangil; Ro, Sang Mi; Lee, Jieun

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer with stomach metastasis rare with an incidence of 1% or less among metastatic breast cancer patients. We experienced a case of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach in 65-year-old female patient. She experienced dyspepsia and poor oral intake before visiting the clinic. Diffuse infiltration with nodular mucosal thickening of the stomach wall was observed, suggesting advanced gastric cancer based on gross endoscopic finding. Spread of poorly cohesive tumor cells in the gastric mucosa observed upon hematoxylin and eosin stain resembled signet ring cell carcinoma, but diffuse positive staining for GATA3 in immunohistochemical stain allowed for a conclusive diagnosis of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach. Based on the final diagnosis, systemic chemotherapy was administered instead of primary surgical resection. After 2 cycles of docetaxel administration, she showed a partial response based on abdominal computed tomography scan. This case is an unusual presentation of breast cancer metastasizing to the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Gross anatomy of the arterial supply of the stomach of the North American beaver (Castor canadensis).

    PubMed

    Bisaillon, A; Bhérer, J

    1979-01-01

    The arterial pattern of the stomach of the North American beaver is studied by dissection of height specimens. The arrangement of the arteries resembles the typical mammalian pattern, although some variations are described. For example, the celiac artery gives off two large vessels, the cardiac and fundic arteries, which supply the corresponding regions of the stomach. Also, the right gastric artery originates from the gastroduodenal vessel instead of the hepatic artery.

  5. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1.

    PubMed

    Jayewickreme, Chenura D; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2015-09-01

    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1(-/)(-) embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1(+) intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1(-/-) stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors.

  6. Roles of Radiation Dose and Chemotherapy in the Etiology of Stomach Cancer as a Second Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W. van den; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Besseling, Gijs; Bruin, Marie L. de; Hauptmann, Michael; Veer, Mars B. van't; Wit, Ronald de; Ribot, Jacques G.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Kerst, J. Martijn; Gietema, Jourik A.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treated in the Netherlands between 1965 and 1995. In a nested case-control study, detailed information on treatment, smoking, gastrointestinal diseases, and family history was collected for 42 patients with stomach cancer and 126 matched controls. For each subject, the mean radiation dose to the stomach was estimated. Relative risks (RRs) of stomach cancer and the radiation-related excess relative risk (ERR) per gray were calculated by conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: The risk of stomach cancer was 3.4-fold increased compared with the general population. The risk increased with increasing mean stomach dose (p for trend, <0.001), at an ERR of 0.84 per Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-15.6). Mean stomach doses of more than 20 Gy were associated with a RR of 9.9 (95% CI, 3.2-31.2) compared with doses below 11 Gy. The risk was 1.8-fold (95% CI, 0.8-4.4) increased after chemotherapy and 5.4-fold (95% CI, 1.2-23.9) increased after high doses of procarbazine (>=13,000 mg) vs. <10,000 mg. The RR of smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day vs. no smoking was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.6-4.2). Conclusions: Stomach cancer risk is strongly radiation dose dependent. The role of chemotherapy, particularly of procarbazine and related agents, needs further study, because of the relatively small numbers of chemotherapy-treated subjects.

  7. MRI of the stomach: a pictorial review with a focus on oncological applications and gastric motility.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Arman; Menias, Christine O; Luna, Antonio; Fowler, Kathryn J; Hara, Amy Kiyo; Silva, Alvin C; Yano, Motoyo; Sandrasegaran, Kumar

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to demonstrate gastric pathology seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discuss the essential MRI sequences for the evaluation of benign and malignant gastric pathologies. Common tumors of the stomach, polyposis syndromes, iatrogenic conditions, as well as other conditions of the stomach will be reviewed. The utility of MRI in the evaluation of patients with gastric malignancies and disorders of gastric motility will also be discussed.

  8. In vivo formation of nitrosocarbamates in the stomach of rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, R.W.; Dorough, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    The N-nitrosocarbamates are potent mutagens and carcinogens and have been synthesized under acid conditions that prevail in the human stomach. However, it has never been documented that nitrosocarbamates are actually formed in vivo in the stomach of any mammalian species. Using /sup 14/C-labeled carbaryl and carbofuran, attempts were made to isolate the nitroso derivatives from the stomach contents of rats and guinea pigs treated orally with the carbamate and sodium nitrite. Only trace quantities of nitrocarbamate were recovered from the rat stomach, whereas 0.5 to 2.0% of the carbamate doses were isolated as the nitroso derivative from the contents of the guinea pig stomach. The rather low apparent yields resulted in part from the instability of the nitrosocarbamates and from absorption of the carbamate and/or nitrosocarbamate from the stomach. Higher rates of synthesis were indicated by incubating the carbamates with sodium nitrite in the presence of the stomach contents at 37/sup 0/C for 15 min. About 30% nitrosation occurred with the guinea pig and about 0.5% with the rat. The difference was attributed to the pH of the gastric contents. For the rat, the pH ranged from 3 to 5; gastric contents of the guinea pig had a pH between 1 and 2. Since the pH of the human stomach is also in the pH 1-2 range, it is likely that nitrosation of carbamates in humans would be very similar to that in the guinea pig. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Quantitative study of the myenteric plexus of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, C E; Miranda-Neto, M H; Molinari, S L; Zanoni, J N

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the morphological and quantitative alterations of the myenteric plexus neurons of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetes and compare them to those of non-diabetic animals. Samples from the body of the stomach were used for whole-mount preparations stained with NADH-diaphorase and for histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. It was observed that diabetes cause a significant decrease on the number of neurons.

  10. The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Beasley, DeAnna E; Koltz, Amanda M; Lambert, Joanna E; Fierer, Noah; Dunn, Rob R

    2015-01-01

    Gastric acidity is likely a key factor shaping the diversity and composition of microbial communities found in the vertebrate gut. We conducted a systematic review to test the hypothesis that a key role of the vertebrate stomach is to maintain the gut microbial community by filtering out novel microbial taxa before they pass into the intestines. We propose that species feeding either on carrion or on organisms that are close phylogenetic relatives should require the most restrictive filter (measured as high stomach acidity) as protection from foreign microbes. Conversely, species feeding on a lower trophic level or on food that is distantly related to them (e.g. herbivores) should require the least restrictive filter, as the risk of pathogen exposure is lower. Comparisons of stomach acidity across trophic groups in mammal and bird taxa show that scavengers and carnivores have significantly higher stomach acidities compared to herbivores or carnivores feeding on phylogenetically distant prey such as insects or fish. In addition, we find when stomach acidity varies within species either naturally (with age) or in treatments such as bariatric surgery, the effects on gut bacterial pathogens and communities are in line with our hypothesis that the stomach acts as an ecological filter. Together these results highlight the importance of including measurements of gastric pH when investigating gut microbial dynamics within and across species.

  11. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-08-29

    Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1-11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines.

  12. Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach confirmed using gastroscopy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    TAN, LINSHEN; PIAO, YING; LIU, ZHAOZHE; HAN, TAO; SONG, FULIN; GAO, FEI; HAN, YALING; XIE, XIAODONG

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach is relatively rare. Unlike infiltrating ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) has a high tendency to metastasize to the stomach. The present study reports a case of a 53-year-old female who had undergone a modified radical mastectomy of the left breast for ILC eight years previously and presented at the clinic seeking treatment for epigastric discomfort from sour regurgitation and belching that had persisted for one month. Gastroscopy revealed multiple apophysis lesions in the stomach, which were diagnosed as metastatic tumors to the stomach. The diagnosis was further established using histological and immunohistochemical analyses for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CK20. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy without surgery. During the treatment, two gastroscopy procedures revealed that the apophysis lesions in the gastric body had narrowed significantly. Few cases of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach have been reported, particularly those that have been confirmed using gastroscopy. The present study reports a case of breast cancer metastasis to the stomach to raise awareness of the condition. PMID:25120688

  13. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding.

  14. Stomach fullness modulates prey size choice in the frillfin goby, Bathygobius soporator.

    PubMed

    Tomida, Leonardo; Lee, James T; Barreto, Rodrigo E

    2012-10-01

    Behaviours related to foraging and feeding in predator-prey systems are fundamental to our understanding of food webs. From the perspective of a predator, the selection of prey size depends upon a number of factors including prey vulnerability, prey size, and the predator's motivation to eat. Thus, feeding motivation and prey visual cues are supposed to influence predator decisions and it is predicted that prey selection by visual cues is modulated by the predator's stomach fullness prior to attacking a prey. This study was conducted using an animal model from the rocky shores ecosystem, a predatory fish, the frillfin goby Bathygobius soporator, and a benthic prey, the mottled shore crab Pachygrapsus transversus. Our results demonstrate that frillfin gobies are capable of visually evaluating prey size and that the size evaluation process is modulated by the level of stomach fullness. Predators with an empty stomach (0% fullness) attacked prey that was larger than the predicted optimal size. Partially satiated predators (50% stomach fullness) selected prey close to the optimal size, while fully satiated predators (100% stomach fullness) showed no preference for size. This finding indicates an integrative response of the predator that depends on the input of both internal and external sensory information when choosing prey. Predator perceptions of visual cues (prey size) and stomach fullness modulate foraging decisions. As a result, a flexible feeding behaviour emerges, evidencing a clearly adaptive response in line with optimal foraging theory predictions.

  15. The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, DeAnna E.; Koltz, Amanda M.; Lambert, Joanna E.; Fierer, Noah; Dunn, Rob R.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric acidity is likely a key factor shaping the diversity and composition of microbial communities found in the vertebrate gut. We conducted a systematic review to test the hypothesis that a key role of the vertebrate stomach is to maintain the gut microbial community by filtering out novel microbial taxa before they pass into the intestines. We propose that species feeding either on carrion or on organisms that are close phylogenetic relatives should require the most restrictive filter (measured as high stomach acidity) as protection from foreign microbes. Conversely, species feeding on a lower trophic level or on food that is distantly related to them (e.g. herbivores) should require the least restrictive filter, as the risk of pathogen exposure is lower. Comparisons of stomach acidity across trophic groups in mammal and bird taxa show that scavengers and carnivores have significantly higher stomach acidities compared to herbivores or carnivores feeding on phylogenetically distant prey such as insects or fish. In addition, we find when stomach acidity varies within species either naturally (with age) or in treatments such as bariatric surgery, the effects on gut bacterial pathogens and communities are in line with our hypothesis that the stomach acts as an ecological filter. Together these results highlight the importance of including measurements of gastric pH when investigating gut microbial dynamics within and across species. PMID:26222383

  16. Rationale in diagnosis and screening of atrophic gastritis with stomach-specific plasma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro; Sung, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Results In AG of the gastric corpus and fundus, the plasma levels of pepsinogen I and/or the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio are always low. The fasting level of gastrin-17 is high in AG limited to the corpus and fundus, but low or non-elevated if the AG occurs in both antrum and corpus. A low fasting level of G-17 is a sign of antral AG or indicates high intragastric acidity. Differentiation between antral AG and high intragastric acidity can be done by assaying the plasma G-17 before and after protein stimulation, or before and after administration of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Amidated G-17 will rise if the antral mucosa is normal in structure. H. pylori antibodies are a reliable indicator of helicobacter infection, even in patients with AG and hypochlorhydria. Conclusions Stomach-specific biomarkers provide information about the stomach health and about the function of stomach mucosa and are a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and screening of AG and acid-free stomach. PMID:22242613

  17. Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk: epidemiological and biological evidence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Terry, Paul-D; Yan, Hong

    2009-05-14

    Stomach cancer is still the fourth most common cancer; thus, it remains an important public health burden worldwide, especially in developing countries. The remarkable geographic variations in the rates of stomach cancer indicate that dietary factors, including a range of food groups to which salt and/or nitrates have been added, may affect stomach cancer risk. In this paper, we review the results from ecologic, case-control and cohort studies on the relationship between salt or salted foods and stomach cancer risk. The majority of ecological studies indicated that the average salt intake in each population was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Most case-control studies showed similar results, indicating a moderate to high increase in risk for the highest level of salt or salted food consumption. The overall results from cohort studies are not totally consistent, but are suggestive of a moderate direct association. Since salt intake has been correlated with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, it is possible that these two factors may synergize to promote the development of stomach cancer. Additionally, salt may also cause stomach cancer through directly damaging gastric mucus, improving temporary epithelial proliferation and the incidence of endogenous mutations, and inducing hypergastrinemia that leads to eventual parietal cell loss and progression to gastric cancer. Based on the considerable evidence from ecological, case-control and cohort studies worldwide and the mechanistic plausibility, limitation on salt and salted food consumption is a practical strategy for preventing gastric cancer.

  18. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-01-01

    Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1–11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines. PMID:27589719

  19. Quantitative determination of enhydrin in leaf rinse extracts and in glandular trichomes of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Karin; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2005-01-01

    A simple, reliable and rapid reversed-phase HPLC-PAD procedure for the characterisation and quantitative determination of the anti-diabetic sesquiterpene lactone enhydrin (1) from Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón) has been evaluated and validated. The approach focused on the analysis of various leaf rinse extracts, as well as the glandular trichomes of intact leaves, in which 1 was the major compound detected. The best sample preparation of a rinse extract yielded 0.67 mg/mL of 1, whilst a rapid rinse of a small piece of one dried leaf gave 0.09 mg/mL of 1; the highest concentration obtained from a glandular extract was 0.07 mg/mL. The dried leaves of S. sonchifolius were found to contain a total of 0.97% of 1.

  20. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase.

  1. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, K; Croteau, R

    1996-05-01

    Solubilized NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes by dye-ligand interaction chromatography on Matrex-Gel Red A and affinity chromatography on 2', 5'-adenosine diphosphate agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme preparation revealed the presence of two similar proteins with masses of 82 kDa (major) and 77 kDa (minor) that crossreacted on immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies directed against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke and from mung bean. Complete immunoinhibition of reductase activity was observed with both types of polyclonal antibodies, while only partial inhibition of activity resulted using a family of monoclonal antibodies directed against the Jerusalem artichoke cytochrome P450 reductase. Inhibition of the spearmint oil gland cytochrome c reductase was also observed with the diphenyliodonium ion. The K(m) values for the cosubstrates NADPH and cytochrome c were 6.2 and 3.7 microM, respectively, and the pH optimum for activity was at 8.5. The NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reconstituted NADPH-dependent (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase activity in the presence of cytochrome P450, purified from the microsomal fraction of spearmint oil gland cells and dilauroyl phosphatidyl choline. These characteristics establish the identity of the purified enzyme as a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  2. Loss of vitamin D receptor signaling from the mammary epithelium or adipose tissue alters pubertal glandular development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Abby L; Zinser, Glendon M; Waltz, Susan E

    2014-10-15

    Vitamin D₃ receptor (VDR) signaling within the mammary gland regulates various postnatal stages of glandular development, including puberty, pregnancy, involution, and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D₃ treatment induces cell-autonomous growth inhibition and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Furthermore, mammary adipose tissue serves as a depot for vitamin D₃ storage, and both epithelial cells and adipocytes are capable of bioactivating vitamin D₃. Despite the pervasiveness of VDR in mammary tissue, individual contributions of epithelial cells and adipocytes, as well as the VDR-regulated cross-talk between these two cell types during pubertal mammary development, have yet to be investigated. To assess the cell-type specific effect of VDR signaling during pubertal mammary development, novel mouse models with mammary epithelial- or adipocyte-specific loss of VDR were generated. Interestingly, loss of VDR in either cellular compartment accelerated ductal morphogenesis with increased epithelial cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within terminal end buds. Conversely, VDR signaling specifically in the mammary epithelium modulated hormone-induced alveolar growth, as ablation of VDR in this cell type resulted in precocious alveolar development. In examining cellular cross-talk ex vivo, we show that ligand-dependent VDR signaling in adipocytes significantly inhibits mammary epithelial cell growth in part through the vitamin D₃-dependent production of the cytokine IL-6. Collectively, these studies delineate independent roles for vitamin D₃-dependent VDR signaling in mammary adipocytes and epithelial cells in controlling pubertal mammary gland development.

  3. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-06-30

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.

  4. Determination of Tube Output (kVp) and Exposure Mode for Breast Phantom of Various Thicknesses/Glandularity for Digital Mammography

    PubMed Central

    IZDIHAR, Kamal; KANAGA, Kumari Chelliah; KRISHNAPILLAI, Vijayalakshimi; SULAIMAN, Tamanang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimisation of average glandular dose (AGD) for two-dimensional (2D) mammography is important, as imaging using ionizing radiation has the probability to induce cancer resulting from stochastic effects. This study aims to observe the effects of kVp, anode/filter material, and exposure mode on the dose and image quality of 2D mammography. Methods: This experimental study was conducted using full-field digital mammography. The entrance surface air kerma was determined using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) 100H and ionization chamber (IC) on three types of Computerized Imaging Reference System (CIRS) phantom with 50/50, 30/70, and 20/80 breast glandularity, respectively, in the auto-time mode and auto-filter mode. The Euref protocol was used to calculate the AGD while the image quality was evaluated using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), figure of merit (FOM), and image quality figure (IQF). Results: It is shown that AGD values in the auto-time mode did not decrease significantly with the increasing tube voltage of the silver filter (r = −0.187, P > 0.05) and rhodium filter (r = −0.131, P > 0.05) for all the phantoms. The general linear model showed that AGD for all phantoms had a significant effect between different exposure factors [F (6,12.3) = 4.48 and mode of exposure F (1,86) = 4.17, P < 0.05, respectively] but there is no significant difference between the different anode/filter combination [F (1,4) = 0.571]. Conclusion: In summary, the 28, 29, and 31 kVp are the optimum kVp for 50%, 30%, and 20% breast glandularity, respectively. Besides the auto-filter mode is suitable for 50%, 30%, and 20% breast glandularity because it is automatic, faster, and may avoid error done by the operator. PMID:25892949

  5. Human glandular organoid formation in murine engineering chambers after collagenase digestion and flow cytometry isolation of normal human breast tissue single cells.

    PubMed

    Huo, Cecilia W; Huang, Dexing; Chew, Grace L; Hill, Prue; Vohora, Ambika; Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Godde, Nathan; Henderson, Michael A; Thompson, Erik W; Britt, Kara L

    2016-11-01

    Women with high mammographic density (MD) are at increased risk of breast cancer (BC) after adjustment for age and body mass index. We have developed a murine biochamber model in which both high MD (HMD) and low MD (LMD) tissue can be propagated. Here, we tested whether cells isolated by collagenase digestion and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from normal breast can be reconstituted in our biochamber model, which would allow cell-specific manipulations to be tested. Fresh breast tissue was collected from women (n = 7) undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. The tissue underwent collagenase digestion overnight and, in some cases, additional FACS enrichment to obtain mature epithelial, luminal progenitor, mammary stem, and stromal cells. Cells were then transferred bilaterally into biochambers in SCID mice (n = 5-7) and incubated for 6 weeks, before harvesting for histological analyses, and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, Ki-67, murine macrophages, and Cleaved Caspase-3. Biochambers inoculated with single cells after collagenase digestion or with flow cytometry contained glandular structures of human origin (human vimentin-positive), which expressed CK-14 and pan-CK, and were proliferating (Ki-67-positive). Glandular structures from the digested tissues were smaller than those in chambers seeded with finely chopped intact mammary tissue. Mouse macrophage infiltration was higher in the chambers arising from digested tissues. Pooled single cells and FACS fractionated cells were viable in the murine biochambers and formed proliferating glandular organoids of human origin. This is among the first report to demonstrate the success of formed human glandular organoids from isolated primary mammary cells in the murine biochamber model.

  6. Polyploidization in the trophoblast and uterine glandular epithelium of the endotheliochorial placenta of silver fox (Vulpes fulvus Desm.), as revealed by the DNA content.

    PubMed

    Zybina, T G; Zybina, E V; Kiknadze, I I; Zhelezova, A I

    2001-05-01

    Dynamics of genome multiplication during establishment of interrelations between trophoblast and glandular epithelium of the endometrium has been studied in the course of formation of placenta in the silver fox. During formation of the placenta, penetration of the trophoblast into the zone of the endometrial glandular epithelium and of endometrial blood vessels into the zone of expanding trophoblast occurs. The trophoblast, which gradually replaces epithelium and a part of the stroma of the endometrium, closely adjoins endometrial vessels but does not disrupt them, thereby the endotheliochorial placenta is formed. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in trophoblast nuclei have shown that most of them are polyploid: predominantly 4-64c, occasionally 128c and 256c. Polyploidy of the trophoblast may be a consequence of various types of polyploidizing mitoses. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in mitotic figures have revealed the presence of mitoses of diploid cells, i.e. with the DNA amount of 4c (2n), and polyploid cells, i.e. 8c (4n), and 16c (8n), therefore trophoblast cells in the silver fox placenta are able to enter mitosis up to the octaploid level. Higher degrees of polyploidy in the trophoblast cells seem to be achieved by endoreduplication. Polyploidization of the uterine glandular epithelial cells during placentation in the silver fox occurs until the level of 8c. Thus, the tissue-specific response of the uterus to the implanting embryo consists of active proliferation and polyploidization of the glandular epithelium, which may compensate formation of prominent population of decidual cells (i.e., connective tissue cells). In the endotheliochorial placenta of the silver fox the regularity is confirmed that cells of both maternal and fetal origin are, as a rule, polyploid in sites of their contact in placenta, which may be of protective significance in the contact of allogenic organisms.

  7. Ultrastructural changes in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during the oestrous cycle of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum).

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Kress, Annetrudi

    2002-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in the endometrium associated with the oestrous cycle were studied in the South American marsupial Monodelphis domestica. The most conspicuous changes include the height and the differentiation of the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium, which consists of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. The glandular epithelium attains its maximum development during oestrus, the luminal epithelium at postoestrus. A distinct increase in the number of ciliated cells can be observed during pro-oestrus, reaching a maximum number at oestrus; this is followed by a process of deciliation. The presence of solitary cilia on the apices of non-ciliated cells is very conspicuous during all oestrous stages and can best be seen on the luminal epithelium. These findings differ from the observations in eutherian mammals, where solitary cilia are only found in the immature uterus or after ovariectomy. The secretory activity of non-ciliated cells of the luminal epithelium is hardly noticeable along the apical membrane and stains only very faintly with Alcian blue. The glandular epithelium cells are filled apically with exocytotic vesicles at oestrus and early postoestrus. However, in contrast to the cervical gland cells, they hardly stain with Alcian blue, indicating that mucins of a different type must be present. Mechanisms for the remodelling of the luminal and glandular epithelium are especially conspicuous at metoestrus and early pro-oestrus and include the presence of autolysosomes, residual bodies and apoptotic bodies. In the endometrial stroma, around the uterine glands, macrophages accumulate and attain a typical oestrous stage-dependent appearance during their phagocytotic activities.

  8. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21–24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26406988

  9. A new simplex approach to highlight multi-scale feeding behaviors in forager species from stomach contents: application to insectivore lizard population.

    PubMed

    Semmar, Nabil; Roux, Maurice

    2014-04-01

    Stomach contents represent complex mixture systems which depend on feeding mode and level of forager species (carnivores, herbivores) as well as on natural availability/distribution of food resources (preys, plants). Such mixture systems can be considered as small black boxes condensing wide ecological information on (i) feeding behaviors of predator (or herbivore) and (ii) local diversity of preys (or host plants). Feeding behaviors of a hunter species toward different prey taxa show a complex variability whose investigation requires multivariate statistical tools. This paper presents a new computational approach which statistically analyzes stomach contents' variability in a predator population to graphically highlight different feeding behaviors. It is a simulation approach iteratively combining the variability of different diet patterns by using a simplex mixture design. Average combinatorial results are graphically visualized to highlight scale-dependent relationships between consumption rates of different food types found in the stomachs. The simplex approach was applied on different subpopulations of Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre, an insectivore lizard species. These subpopulations were initially defined by different criteria including statistical clusters, gender and sampling periods. Results highlighted successive trade-offs over months of captured potential preys switching from small and less mobile preys to large and flying ones. In these dietary transitions, P. douglassi manifested a systematic memorization of previous preys and a gradual foraging learning of the next ones. These results highlighted lightness on dietary flexibility helping this specialist predator to switch between diets based on different potential preys. Adult male and adult female lizards showed different feeding behaviors due to some predation lag-time between them and different dietary ratios toward the same considered preys.

  10. Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; May, Bianca; Lankes, Christa; Wüst, Matthias

    2014-03-19

    The biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol glycosides rebaudioside A and stevioside in nonrooted cuttings of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated by feeding experiments using the labeled key precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). Labeled glycosides were extracted from the leaves and stems and were directly analyzed by LC-(-ESI)-MS/MS and by GC-MS after hydrolysis and derivatization of the resulting isosteviol to the corresponding TMS-ester. Additionally, the incorporation of the proffered d2-MVL and d2-DOX into volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes on leaves and stems was investigated by headspace-solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Incorporation of the labeled precursors indicated that diterpenes in leaves and monoterpenes and diterpenes in glandular trichomes are predominately biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas both the MEP and mevalonate (MVA) pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes at equal rates in glandular trichomes. These findings give evidence for a transport of MEP pathway derived farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol. Contrarily, the transport of MVA pathway derived geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursors from the cytosol to the plastid is limited.

  11. Non-glandular trichomes of Solanum carolinense deter feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars and cause damage to the gut peritrophic matrix.

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Smith, Jason D; Stephenson, Andrew G; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2017-02-22

    Plant trichomes constitute a first line of defence against insect herbivores. The pre- and post-ingestive defensive functions of glandular trichomes are well documented and include direct toxicity, adhesion, antinutrition and defence gene induction. By contrast, the defensive functions of non-glandular trichomes are less well characterized, although these structures are thought to serve as physical barriers that impede herbivore feeding and movement. We experimentally varied the density of stellate non-glandular trichomes in several ways to explore their pre- and post-ingestive effects on herbivores. Larvae of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) initiated feeding faster and gained more weight on Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae) leaves having lower trichome densities (or experimentally removed trichomes) than on leaves having higher trichome densities. Adding trichomes to artificial diet also deterred feeding and adversely affected caterpillar growth relative to controls. Scanning electron and light microscopy revealed that the ingestion of stellate trichomes by M. sexta caterpillars caused extensive damage to the peritrophic membrane, a gut lining that is essential to digestion and pathogen isolation. These findings suggest that, in addition to acting as a physical barrier to deter feeding, trichomes can inhibit caterpillar growth and development via post-ingestive effects.

  12. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B.

    2003-07-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions.

  13. Processed meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines and stomach cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2006-08-15

    Processed meat consumption has been associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer in some epidemiological studies (mainly case-control). Nitrosamines may be responsible for this association, but few studies have directly examined nitrosamine intake in relation to stomach cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the associations between intakes of processed meat, other meats and N-nitrosodimethylamine (the most frequently occurring nitrosamine in foods) with risk of stomach cancer among 61,433 women who were enrolled in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Information on diet was collected at baseline (between 1987 and 1990) and updated in 1997. During 18 years of follow-up, 156 incident cases of stomach cancer were ascertained. High consumption of processed meat, but not of other meats (i.e., red meat, fish and poultry), was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of stomach cancer. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios for the highest compared with the lowest category of intake were 1.66 (95% CI = 1.13-2.45) for all processed meats, 1.55 (95% CI = 1.00-2.41) for bacon or side pork, 1.50 (95% CI = 0.93-2.41) for sausage or hotdogs and 1.48 (95% CI= 0.99-2.22) for ham or salami. Stomach cancer risk was 2-fold higher among women in the top quintile of N-nitrosodimethylamine intake when compared with those in the bottom quintile (hazard ratio = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.08-3.58). Our findings suggest that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Dietary nitrosamines might be responsible for the positive association.

  14. Effect of glandular kallikrein on distal bicarbonate transport. Role of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Manucha, W; Vallés, P

    1999-12-01

    The luminal membrane of collecting duct cells, specially the intercalated cells, is normally exposed to active kallikrein. This is due to the specific localization of renal kallikrein in the connecting tubule cells. We have previously reported inhibition of distal bicarbonate secretion by renal kallikrein. The present study was performed to evaluate the participation of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and luminal H(+)-ATPase activity of cortical collecting duct segments (CCD) in the mechanism involved in the inhibition of bicarbonate secretion induced by the enzyme. The effect of orthograde injections of 1 microgram/ml (250 U/6.3 mg) pig pancreatic kallikrein, in the absence and presence of 1 mM DIDS (stilbene-disulfonic acid) in the renal tubule system, was evaluated. Urine fractions were collected after two-minutes stop-flow. Changes in the urine fraction (Fr) related to those in free-flow urine samples (Ff) were related to the respective polyfructosan (Inutest) ratio. Renal kallikrein activity (Fr:Ff kallikrein/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) increased significantly in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected after glandular 1 microgram/ml kallikrein, P < 0.05, (first stop-flow) and after glandular 1 microgram/ml kallikrein plus 1 mM. DIDS P < 0.05 (second stop flow). Bicarbonate secretion rate (Fr:Ff HCO3-/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) of collecting ducts was significantly reduced in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected, related to control, during the first and second stop-flow periods. No difference was shown in bicarbonate excretion between the first 120 microliters urine fractions collected after administration of glandular kallikrein and glandular kallikrein plus DIDS. To measure H(+)-ATPase activity, rat microdissected cortical collector tubules (CCD) were incubated in the presence of increasing glandular kallikrein doses (A: 93, B: 187 and C: 375 mU/200 microL) in the presence of ouabain (4 microM) and omeprazole (100 microM) to inhibit Na

  15. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Pateraki, Irini; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric C H; Kanellis, Angelos K; Tissier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split.

  16. Protective effect of Anzer honey against ethanol-induced increased vascular permeability in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Asli; Kolankaya, Dürdane

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of Anzer honey on ethanol-induced increased vascular permeability in rats. Evan's Blue (EB) dye, administered intracardiacly and extravasation of EB into the stomach, served as an indicator of vascular permeability following exposure to alcohol. Ethanol was given orally to the ethanol group for 90 days, and N-etylmaleimide (NEM) was given subcutaneously to the NEM group, and we observed increased extravasation of EB in the stomach in both groups. For this reason, we used NEM as a positive control for ethanol. Anzer honey, which contains 25.44 mg/g ascorbic acid, was given to the honey+ethanol group orally 30 min before beginning the 90-day ethanol administration. The mean amount of EB that leaked into the stomach of rats in the ethanol group and the NEM group was higher than that of the control group. Furthermore, if compared to the control, EB values in the stomachs were significantly reduced when receiving honey before administration of ethanol in rats. Histopathologically, the incidence and severity of gastric mucosal congestion were significantly reduced in the honey+ethanol group when compared to the ethanol group. These result indicate that Anzer honey is able to protect the stomach of the rat against ethanol-induced increased vascular permeability, which may be correlated with the ascorbic acid content.

  17. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Warneboldt, Franziska; Sander, Saara J.; Beineke, Andreas; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Kamphues, Josef; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 1010 CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified. PMID:27509526

  18. A model stomach system to investigate disintegration kinetics of solid foods during gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Kong, F; Singh, R P

    2008-06-01

    Knowledge of the disintegration kinetics of food particulates in the human stomach is essential for assessing the bioaccessibility of nutrients in solid foods and understanding stomach emptying. The objective of this study was to develop a model stomach system and to investigate the kinetics of food disintegration. Our system consisted mainly of a turntable and a jacketed glass chamber containing simulated gastric juice in which plastic beads were added to simulate food particulates as well as provide a suitable mechanical destructive force on food samples. The mechanical force on the samples was simultaneously measured using the load cell of a TA-XT2 texture analyzer. Cylindrical carrots and ham samples were used as representative foods. The system is capable of simulating the in vivo stomach in terms of providing a wide range of continuous and periodic forces comparable to those measured in vivo. The modified power exponential function of the form y(t)= 1 - (1 -e(-kt))(beta), where y(t) is the mass retention ratio at time t, provided a reasonable description for the disintegration performance of tested foods. The mass retention curve can be either a sigmoidal decay with an initial delay or an exponential decay, which are decided largely by the hardness of the foods during digestion and the extent of physical force acting on the foods. A good match was observed between the kinetics of food disintegration and in vivo stomach emptying.

  19. Intestinal and diffuse carcinoma of the stomach among the ethnic and dialect groups in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Teh, M; Lee, Y S

    1987-08-15

    This study attempts to determine the relative prevalence of intestinal-type and diffuse-type carcinomas (using a modified Lauren classification of gastric carcinomas) and to evaluate its significance in relation to the difference in stomach cancer risks among the different ethnic and Chinese dialect groups in Singapore. Of the 648 cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the stomach studied, 405 (62.5%) were of the intestinal type, 206 (31.8%) of the diffuse type, and 37 (5.7%) of the mixed type. Men had higher proportions of intestinal-type carcinoma than women. The intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio increased progressively with age. Although the relative intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratios in women appeared to reflect the relative incidence rates of stomach cancer of the different ethnic and dialect groups, the ratios in men were inconsistent. Indian men had a higher intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio than Chinese men despite a lower incidence of stomach cancer. Hokkien men had the highest incidence of stomach cancer and the lowest intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio among the Chinese dialect groups. The use of the ratio as an indicator of relative risks for gastric cancer between populations of different genetic makeup is inconsistent and unreliable.

  20. FNDC5 is produced in the stomach and associated to body composition.

    PubMed

    Barja-Fernández, S; Folgueira, C; Castelao, C; Al-Massadi, O; Bravo, S B; Garcia-Caballero, T; Leis, R; Pardo, M; Casanueva, F F; Seoane, L M

    2016-03-10

    The fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) discovered in 2002 has recently gained attention due to its potential role in protecting against obesity. In rat, no data exist regarding FNDC5 production and regulation in the stomach. The aim of the present work was to determine the expression of FNDC5 in the rat stomach and its potential regulation by body composition. The present data shows FNDC5 gene expression in the gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemical studies found FNDC5 immunopositivity in chief cells of gastric tissue. By the use of three different antibodies FNDC5 was found expressed in gastric mucosa and secreted by the stomach. The rate of gastric FNDC5 secretion parallels the circulating levels of FNDC5. The body fat mass increase after intervention with high fat diet coincided with a decrease in the secretion of FNDC5 from the stomach and a diminution in the FNDC5 circulating levels. In summary, the present data shows, for the first time, the expression of FNDC5 in the stomach of rats and its regulation by body composition, suggesting a potential role of gastric FNDC5 in energy homeostasis.

  1. Recurrent gene loss correlates with the evolution of stomach phenotypes in gnathostome history.

    PubMed

    Castro, L Filipe C; Gonçalves, Odete; Mazan, Sylvie; Tay, Boon-Hui; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2014-01-22

    The stomach, a hallmark of gnathostome evolution, represents a unique anatomical innovation characterized by the presence of acid- and pepsin-secreting glands. However, the occurrence of these glands in gnathostome species is not universal; in the nineteenth century the French zoologist Cuvier first noted that some teleosts lacked a stomach. Strikingly, Holocephali (chimaeras), dipnoids (lungfish) and monotremes (egg-laying mammals) also lack acid secretion and a gastric cellular phenotype. Here, we test the hypothesis that loss of the gastric phenotype is correlated with the loss of key gastric genes. We investigated species from all the main gnathostome lineages and show the specific contribution of gene loss to the widespread distribution of the agastric condition. We establish that the stomach loss correlates with the persistent and complete absence of the gastric function gene kit--H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Atp4A and Atp4B) and pepsinogens (Pga, Pgc, Cym)--in the analysed species. We also find that in gastric species the pepsinogen gene complement varies significantly (e.g. two to four in teleosts and tens in some mammals) with multiple events of pseudogenization identified in various lineages. We propose that relaxation of purifying selection in pepsinogen genes and possibly proton pump genes in response to dietary changes led to the numerous independent events of stomach loss in gnathostome history. Significantly, the absence of the gastric genes predicts that reinvention of the stomach in agastric lineages would be highly improbable, in line with Dollo's principle.

  2. In silico analysis of stomach lineage specific gene set expression pattern in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Pandi, Narayanan Sathiya; Suganya, Sivagurunathan; Rajendran, Suriliyandi

    2013-10-04

    Stomach lineage specific gene products act as a protective barrier in the normal stomach and their expression maintains the normal physiological processes, cellular integrity and morphology of the gastric wall. However, the regulation of stomach lineage specific genes in gastric cancer (GC) is far less clear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the role and regulation of stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) in GC. SLSGS was identified by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal stomach tissue with other organ tissue. The obtained SLSGS was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the SLSGS was enriched for digestive function and gastric epithelial maintenance. Employing a single sample prediction method across GC mRNA expression profiles identified the under expression of SLSGS in proliferative type and invasive type gastric tumors compared to the metabolic type gastric tumors. Integrative pathway activation prediction analysis revealed a close association between estrogen-α signaling and SLSGS expression pattern in GC. Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. In conclusion, our results highlight that estrogen mediated regulation of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type GC and prognostic factor in GC.

  3. FNDC5 is produced in the stomach and associated to body composition

    PubMed Central

    Barja-Fernández, S.; Folgueira, C.; Castelao, C.; Al-Massadi, O.; Bravo, S. B.; Garcia-Caballero, T.; Leis, R.; Pardo, M.; Casanueva, F. F.; Seoane, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) discovered in 2002 has recently gained attention due to its potential role in protecting against obesity. In rat, no data exist regarding FNDC5 production and regulation in the stomach. The aim of the present work was to determine the expression of FNDC5 in the rat stomach and its potential regulation by body composition. The present data shows FNDC5 gene expression in the gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemical studies found FNDC5 immunopositivity in chief cells of gastric tissue. By the use of three different antibodies FNDC5 was found expressed in gastric mucosa and secreted by the stomach. The rate of gastric FNDC5 secretion parallels the circulating levels of FNDC5. The body fat mass increase after intervention with high fat diet coincided with a decrease in the secretion of FNDC5 from the stomach and a diminution in the FNDC5 circulating levels. In summary, the present data shows, for the first time, the expression of FNDC5 in the stomach of rats and its regulation by body composition, suggesting a potential role of gastric FNDC5 in energy homeostasis. PMID:26961074

  4. Expression of neuropeptide W in rat stomach mucosa: regulation by nutritional status, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Caminos, Jorge E; Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Ruth González, C; Garcés, Maria F; Cepeda, Libia A; Lage, Ricardo; Suárez, Miguel A; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos

    2008-02-07

    Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.

  5. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria.

  6. Participation of cholinergic pathways in α-hederin-induced contraction of rat isolated stomach strips.

    PubMed

    Mendel, M; Chłopecka, M; Dziekan, N; Karlik, W; Wiechetek, M

    2012-05-15

    The dry extract of Hedra helix leaves and its main active compounds, predominantly α-hederin and hederacoside C, has been traditionally believed to act spasmolytic. However, it has been recently proved that both, the extract of ivy and triterpenoid saponins, exhibit strong contractile effect on rat isolated stomach smooth muscle strips. It turned out that the most potent contractile agent isolated from the extract of ivy leaves is α-hederin. Thus, it seems reasonable to estimate the mechanism of the contractile effect of this saponin. The presented study was aimed at verifying the participation of cholinergic pathways (muscarinic and nicotine receptors) in α-hederin-induced contraction. The experiments were carried out on rat isolated stomach corpus and fundus strips under isotonic conditions. The preparations were preincubated with either atropine or hexamethonium and then exposed to α-hederin. All results are expressed as the percentage of the response to acetylcholine - a reference contractile agent. The obtained results revealed that the pretreatment of isolated stomach strips (corpus and fundus) with atropine neither prevented nor remarkably reduced the reaction of the preparations to α-hederin. Similarly, if the application of saponin was preceded by the administration of hexamethonium, the strength of the contraction of stomach fundus strips induced by α-hederin was not modified. Concluding, it can be assumed that the cholinergic pathways do not participate in α-hederin-evoked contraction of rat isolated stomach preparations.

  7. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Warneboldt, Franziska; Sander, Saara J; Beineke, Andreas; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Kamphues, Josef; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2016-08-06

    Streptococcus (S.) suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 10(10) CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified.

  8. A method for generating unfolded views of the stomach based on volumetric image deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kensaku; Oka, Hiroki; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a method for virtually generating unfolded views of the stomach using volumetric image deformation. When we observe an organ with a large cavity in it, such as the stomach or the colon, by using a virtual endoscopy system, many changes of viewpoint and view direction are required. If virtually unfolded views of a target organ could be generated, doctors could easily diagnose the organ's inner walls only by one or a several views. In the proposed method, we extract a stomach wall region from a 3-D abdominal CT images and the obtained region is shrunken. For every voxel of the shrunken image, we allocate a hexahedron. In the deformation process, nodes and springs are allocated on the vertices, edges, and diagonals of each hexahedron. Neighboring hexahedrons share nodes and springs, except for the hexahedrons on the cutting line that a user specifies. The hexahedrons are deformed by adding forces that direct the nodes to the stretching plane to the nodes existing on the cutting line. The hexahedrons are deformed using iterative deformation calculation. By using the geometrical relations between hexahedrons before and after deformation, a volumetric image in which the stomach region is unfolded. Finally, the unfolded views are obtained by visualizing the reconstructed volume can be constructed. We applied the proposed method to eleven cases of 3-D abdominal CT images. The results show that the proposed method can accurately reproduce folds and lesions on the stomach.

  9. American alligator digestion rate of blue crabs and its implications for stomach contents analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nifong, James C.; Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Barichivich, William; Silliman, Brian; Heithaus, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Stomach contents analysis (SCA) provides a snap-shot observation of a consumer's diet. Interpretation of SCA data can be complicated by many factors, including variation in gastric residence times and digestion rates among prey taxa. Although some SCA methods are reported to efficiently remove all stomach contents, the effectiveness of these techniques has rarely been tested for large irregular shaped prey with hard exoskeletons. We used a controlled feeding trial to estimate gastric residency time and decomposition rate of a large crustacean prey item, the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), which is consumed by American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), an abundant apex predator in coastal habitats of the southeastern United States. The decomposition rate of C. sapidus in the stomachs of A. mississippiensis followed a predictable pattern, and some crab pieces remained in stomachs for at least 14 days. We also found that certain portions of C. sapidus were prone to becoming caught within the stomach or esophagus, meaning not all crab parts are consistently recovered using gastric lavage techniques. However, because the state of decomposition of crabs was predictable, it is possible to estimate time since consumption for crabs recovered from wild alligators. This information, coupled with a detailed understanding of crab distributions and alligator movement tactics could help elucidate patterns of cross-ecosystem foraging by the American Alligator in coastal habitats

  10. Diaphragmatic Hernia of the Stomach with Gastric Rupture in a Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Lori R; Huang, Steven Y; Gagea, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    A 5.5-mo-old castrated, male Red Duroc pig presented acutely with depression and abdominal pain 9 d after an altercation with another pig. A CT examination indicated right pneumothorax and herniation of the stomach into the thoracic cavity. Due to a poor prognosis, the pig was euthanized. A necropsy and gross examination revealed a tear of the diaphragmatic muscle in the region of the esophageal hiatus through which the stomach was displaced into the right side of the thoracic cavity. In addition, the herniated stomach had a rupture of the stomach wall through which the gastric mucosa was everted and exposed into the right thoracic cavity. The right thoracic cavity had acute fibrinous pleuritis, and the right lung was collapsed. CT scans performed every 1 to 2 wk for 2 mo prior to the pig's death did not reveal any abnormalities in the diaphragm. Trauma was considered the most likely cause of the diaphragmatic tear and subsequent herniation and rupture of the stomach. PMID:27780007

  11. A model of slow wave propagation and entrainment along the stomach.

    PubMed

    Buist, Martin L; Corrias, Alberto; Poh, Yong Cheng

    2010-09-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from different regions of the stomach generate spontaneous electrical slow wave activity at different frequencies, with cells from the proximal stomach pacing faster than their distal counterparts. However, in vivo there exists a uniform pacing frequency; slow waves propagate aborally from the proximal stomach and subsequently entrain distal tissues. Significant resting membrane potential (RMP) gradients also exist within the stomach whereby membrane polarization generally increases from the fundus to the antrum. Both of these factors play a major role in the macroscopic electrical behavior of the stomach and as such, any tissue or organ level model of gastric electrophysiology should ensure that these phenomena are properly described. This study details a dual-cable model of gastric electrical activity that incorporates biophysically detailed single-cell models of the two predominant cell types, the ICC and smooth muscle cells. Mechanisms for the entrainment of the intrinsic pacing frequency gradient and for the establishment of the RMP gradient are presented. The resulting construct is able to reproduce experimentally recorded slow wave activity and provides a platform on which our understanding of gastric electrical activity can advance.

  12. Recurrent gene loss correlates with the evolution of stomach phenotypes in gnathostome history

    PubMed Central

    Castro, L. Filipe C.; Gonçalves, Odete; Mazan, Sylvie; Tay, Boon-Hui; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Wilson, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    The stomach, a hallmark of gnathostome evolution, represents a unique anatomical innovation characterized by the presence of acid- and pepsin-secreting glands. However, the occurrence of these glands in gnathostome species is not universal; in the nineteenth century the French zoologist Cuvier first noted that some teleosts lacked a stomach. Strikingly, Holocephali (chimaeras), dipnoids (lungfish) and monotremes (egg-laying mammals) also lack acid secretion and a gastric cellular phenotype. Here, we test the hypothesis that loss of the gastric phenotype is correlated with the loss of key gastric genes. We investigated species from all the main gnathostome lineages and show the specific contribution of gene loss to the widespread distribution of the agastric condition. We establish that the stomach loss correlates with the persistent and complete absence of the gastric function gene kit—H+/K+-ATPase (Atp4A and Atp4B) and pepsinogens (Pga, Pgc, Cym)—in the analysed species. We also find that in gastric species the pepsinogen gene complement varies significantly (e.g. two to four in teleosts and tens in some mammals) with multiple events of pseudogenization identified in various lineages. We propose that relaxation of purifying selection in pepsinogen genes and possibly proton pump genes in response to dietary changes led to the numerous independent events of stomach loss in gnathostome history. Significantly, the absence of the gastric genes predicts that reinvention of the stomach in agastric lineages would be highly improbable, in line with Dollo's principle. PMID:24307675

  13. [Impact of isovolumic hemodilution on the local hemodynamics of the resected stomach in patients with ulcer disease].

    PubMed

    Khalimov, E V; Strelkov, N S; Kapustin, B B

    2005-01-01

    The influence of isovolumic hemodilution on the local hemodynamics of the resected stomach in patients with a complicated course of duodenal ulcer was studied. In the course of the analysis of parameters of the local blood flow of the intact and resected stomach, the best indices were received in patients with preoperative isovolumic hemodilution. Preoperative isovolumic hemodilution in patients with a complicated course of duodenal ulcer after the stomach resection reduces the risk of early postoperative complications.

  14. [Disturbances of gastrointestinal motility of the stomach in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease].

    PubMed

    Svintsitskyĭ, A S; Solovĭova, H A

    2012-12-01

    Article dwells on comparison data about motor function of the stomach in the three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, duodenal ulcer disease, chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by slower evacuation function of the stomach, hypotonus of the stomach. Frequency of duodenal reflux in this group of patients is very high (85,9 %).

  15. Quantitation and identification of organic N-chloramines formed in stomach fluid on ingestion of aqueous hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, F.E. Jr.; Mazina, K.; Sonenshine, D.; Kopfler, F.

    1986-11-01

    The chemical reactions that hypochlorite undergoes in the body when chlorinated water is ingested have received very little attention. Because amino nitrogen compounds are important components of the average diet, the reactions of hypochlorite with amino compounds in the stomach were investigated. Stomach fluid was recovered from Sprague-Dawley rats that had been fasted for 48 hr and administered 4 mL deionized water. The chlorine demand of the stomach fluid was determined. At least part of the chlorine demand is associated with amino acids present in the stomach fluid. Amino acids were identified and quantified in the stomach fluid by precolumn derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When stomach fluid is chlorinated to concentrations of chlorine between 200 and 1000 mg/L, organic N-chloramines are formed. After derivatization of chlorinated stomach fluid with dansyl sulfinic acid, fluorescent derivatives of chloramines were separated by HPLC. Three chloramino acid derivatives, N-chloroalanine, N-chloroglycine, and N-chlorophenylalanine, were identified by cochromatography with known standards using two chromatographic methods. The yield of a chloramine that would form in stomach fluid on administration of hypochlorite to animals as determined using tritiated piperidine and doses of 200 and 1000 mg/L chlorine. Yields of tritiated N-chloropiperidine in recovered stomach fluid were 70% and 42%, respectively, of the theoretical amount expected.

  16. Mechanism for distribution of acotiamide, a novel gastroprokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, in rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Kazuyoshi; Hirayama, Masamichi; Nakamura, Toshifumi; Toda, Ryoko; Hasegawa, Junko; Takei, Mineo; Mera, Yukinori; Kawabata, Yoshihiro

    2011-11-01

    The novel gastroprokinetic agent acotiamide improves gastric motility by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity in stomach; however, the mechanism of distribution of acotiamide from blood to stomach has not been clarified. Here, the tissue distribution of acotiamide was investigated in rats. The tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio (K(p,app,in vivo)) for stomach decreased from 4.1 to 2.4 mL/g of tissue at steady state with increasing plasma concentrations, whereas the K(p,app,in vivo) for skeletal muscle was much lower and constant, regardless of the concentration of acotiamide in plasma. In vitro binding to stomach tissue protein exhibited a linear profile, with a predicted K(p,app,in vitro) of 2.2 from free fractions under linear conditions. Therefore, protein binding to stomach tissue might only play a limited role in the stomach distribution of acotiamide. The influx permeability (f (u,b) × PS(inf,app)) in the stomach exhibited dose-dependent saturation at the lowest range of examined blood unbound concentrations of acotiamide, whereas that in skeletal muscle exhibited only minimal dose dependence. In addition, the unbound concentration ratio of stomach to plasma (2.8) at steady state was markedly higher than unity. Taken together, these results suggest that carrier-mediated concentrative uptake processes play an important role in the distribution of acotiamide to the stomach but not skeletal muscle.

  17. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Vismodegib in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach Cancer or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  18. Virtual Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Exploration of Stomach Wall Based on a Cadaver's Sectioned Images.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Koojoo; Shin, Dong Sun; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Jang, Hae Gwon; Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk

    2015-05-01

    We intended to determine that virtual endoscopy and laparoscopy of the stomach based on serially sectioned cadaver images is beneficial. Therefore, the outlines between the gastric wall and lumen were traced using the new female data of the Visible Korean to build a volume model. While the outlines were expanded at appropriate thicknesses, the stomach was observed endoscopically and laparoscopically in comparison with a chosen sectioned image. Four layers (mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, and serosa) of the stomach were discernible by their proper colors in the sectioned images. All layers except the submucosa were identified in the endoscopic and laparoscopic views by using consistent colors. The stepwise expansion of the outlines revealed thickness of each layer as well as whether the thickness was uniform. Our ideas and the Visible Korean images could be a robust resource of virtual reality learning for medical students and clinicians.

  19. Double Common Bile Duct with Ectopic Drainage into the Stomach Found in Asymptomatic.

    PubMed

    Arase, Yoshitaka; Deguchi, Ryuzo; Tsukune, Yoko; Dekiden, Makiko; Shiraishi, Koichi; Ogimi, Takashi; Miyakita, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hideo; Myoujin, Kazunori; Mine, Tetsuya

    2016-09-20

    The case of a patient with asymptomatic double common bile duct that was identified by chance is presented. A 41-year-old man underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy(EGD) as part of a regular health checkup, during which he was found to have an elevated lesion in the lesser curvature of the upper gastric corpus with bile draining from its tip. Further examination led to a diagnosis of double common bile duct from the left intrahepatic bile duct to the opening into the stomach. Morphological abnormalities of the biliary tree are commonly encountered in everyday gastroenterological practice, but a double common bile duct with an ectopic opening into the stomach is comparatively rare. It is also associated with an increased risk of developing cancer of the stomach or bile duct, and as such is a biliary abnormality that must be treated with caution. This case is reported together with a discussion of the literature.

  20. Three cases of laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy for gastric cancer in remnant stomach.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu; Mou, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Cai, Jia-Qin; Wu, Di; Zhou, Yu-Cheng

    2014-11-13

    Gastric cancer in remnant stomach is a rare tumor but with poor prognosis. Compared with conventional open surgery, laparoscopic gastrectomy has potential benefits for these patients due to advantages resulting from its minimally invasive approach. Herein, we report on three patients with gastric cancer in remnant stomach who underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy successfully. The operative time was 280, 250 and 225 minutes, the estimated blood loss was 100, 80 and 50 ml and the length of postoperative hospital stay was seven, eight and nine days respectively. Our experience has suggested that laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy can be a safe, feasible and promising option for patients with gastric cancer in remnant stomach.

  1. Body conditions and stomach contents of subadult trout during fall and winter in three Wyoming tailwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hebdon, J.L.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    We studied three tailwaters in Wyoming from October 1997 through February 1998 to determine whether body conditions of stocked, subadult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarki declined from fall through winter and to assess whether lack of food in stomachs might be related to any declines. Body conditions of rainbow trout in two tailwaters remained high through the winter. Body conditions of cutthroat trout in a third tailwater declined between October and February but not to levels anticipated to affect the overwinter survival of the fish. Trout with substantial amounts of food in their stomachs were found throughout the fall and winter in all three tailwaters. In no subadult trout in any of the three tailwaters did we observe rapid declines in body conditions during fall or continuous declines in body conditions to very low levels by the end of winter in association with low biomass of food in stomachs.

  2. [Muriatic secretion and acid-proteolytic activity of the stomach in vivo].

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, V A; Zhigalova, T N; Avalueva, E B

    2005-01-01

    The study of the basal (BAP) and stimulated (SAP) acid production effect on the average daily acidity and speed of proteolysis in the stomach in vivo was conducted in 498 patients with various functional states of the stomach. It was established that the aforesaid muriatic secretion indices influence the acidity and speed of proteolysis in natural conditions of digestion only within the low and normal range of their values. In the condition of HCl hypersecretion, the dependence between the muriatic secretion and acidity and proteolytic stomach activity in vivo gets lost. This can be explained by the autoregulation effect supporting the introgastral pH optimal for pepsin activity irrespective of the intensity of the acid glands hyperplasia.

  3. [Clinico-endoscopic classification of acute anastomositis after resection of the stomach].

    PubMed

    Zhizhin, F S; Kapustin, B B

    2002-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the results of resection of the stomach in 106 patients with a complicated course of ulcer disease of the stomach and duodenum. Based on a complex investigation of regeneration of the gastrointestinal anastomoses formed by different methods and a comparison of the endoscopic picture with the clinical course of the early postoperative period the authors propose a clinico-endoscopic classification of acute postgastroresectional anastomosites. Comparison of the frequency and severity of the anastomosites has shown advantages of a one-raw seroserous musculo-submucous suture in the resectional surgery of the stomach when forming gastro-intestinal anastomoses. The classification of acute anastomosites allows the timely detection and correction of the operation complications.

  4. [Secretory activity of the stomach during modeling of increased filling of abdominal veins].

    PubMed

    Afonin, B V; Goncharova, N P

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the stomach secretory activity and ultrasonic investigation of the gastroduodenal organs and vessels were performed in test-subjects tilted at -12 degrees and -15 degrees. Short HDT(12-24 hrs.) as a hypokinesia factor was minimized which caused enlargement of the parenchymatous and thickening of walls of the hollow organs. Increased filling of the abdominal veins was paralleled by rise in pepsinogen levels in blood and urine, and increase in the intravitelline content in fasting subjects. Elevated tone of the pylorus and retarded evacuation from the stomach indicated active hydrochloric acid secretion. Concurrently, bile and pancreas juices were secreted more profusely and intestinal content in the duodenum increased. It was shown that modeled increase of abdominal vein filling stimulates secretion as by fasting stomach so by the liver and pancreas.

  5. Tetracycline residues in porcine stomach after administration via drinking water on a swine farm.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Danielle; Wu, Huali; Mason, Sharon; Yeatts, Jim; Brooks, Jim; Barlow, Beth; Schill, Kaitlyn; Baynes, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat infections in swine. The maximum residue levels of tetracycline in pork stomach tissue in Russia, Europe, and the United States are 10, 200, and 2,000 ppb, respectively. This difference in accepted safety levels may be the reason why stomach tissues that the United States exports continue to be residue violators in overseas markets. In this study, 30 pigs at two different stages of production (weanling and finisher) were treated with tetracycline at 22 mg/kg of body weight per day for a total of 5 days via a water medicator. Blood samples were collected at 0, 72, 78, 96, and 102 h after the start of medication. The medication was stopped at 120 h, and blood samples were again collected at 126, 144, 168, 192, and 216 h after exposure. Five animals were slaughtered for stomach tissue 0, 24, 48, 96, and 192 h after the drug was flushed from the water line. All blood and tissue samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV methods. The tetracycline levels in plasma were below the level of detection after the U.S.-labeled withdrawal time of 4 days. The stomach tissue residues averaged 671.72, 330.31, 297.77, 136.36, and 268.08 ppb on withdrawal days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8, respectively. Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tolerance limit method and a population-based pharmacokinetic model with Monte Carlo simulation, a withdrawal interval was estimated. This study demonstrated that tetracycline residues are still detectable in the stomach tissues after the established United States withdrawal time of 4 days. These residue levels may explain why stomach tissues tested in Russia and Europe show positive residues for tetracycline, even though the meat may pass inspection here in the United States prior to export.

  6. In silico analysis of stomach lineage specific gene set expression pattern in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pandi, Narayanan Sathiya Suganya, Sivagurunathan; Rajendran, Suriliyandi

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Identified stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type gastric cancer. •In silico pathway scanning identified estrogen-α signaling is a putative regulator of SLSGS in gastric cancer. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. -- Abstract: Stomach lineage specific gene products act as a protective barrier in the normal stomach and their expression maintains the normal physiological processes, cellular integrity and morphology of the gastric wall. However, the regulation of stomach lineage specific genes in gastric cancer (GC) is far less clear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the role and regulation of stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) in GC. SLSGS was identified by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal stomach tissue with other organ tissue. The obtained SLSGS was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the SLSGS was enriched for digestive function and gastric epithelial maintenance. Employing a single sample prediction method across GC mRNA expression profiles identified the under expression of SLSGS in proliferative type and invasive type gastric tumors compared to the metabolic type gastric tumors. Integrative pathway activation prediction analysis revealed a close association between estrogen-α signaling and SLSGS expression pattern in GC. Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. In conclusion, our results highlight that estrogen mediated regulation of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type GC and prognostic factor in GC.

  7. An evaluation of in vivo models for toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, A.F. Schlosser, P.M.

    2015-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6) is a drinking water contaminant that has been detected in most of the water systems throughout the United States. In 2-year drinking water bioassays, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats and mice. Because reduction of Cr6 to trivalent chromium (Cr3) is an important detoxifying step in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract prior to systemic absorption, models have been developed to estimate the extent of reduction in humans and animals. The objective of this work was to use a revised model of ex vivo Cr6 reduction kinetics in gastric juice to analyze the potential reduction kinetics under in vivo conditions for mice, rats and humans. A published physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was adapted to incorporate the new reduction model. This paper focuses on the toxicokinetics of Cr6 in the stomach compartment, where most of the extracellular Cr6 reduction is believed to occur in humans. Within the range of doses administered by the NTP bioassays, neither the original nor revised models predict saturation of stomach reducing capacity to occur in vivo if applying default parameters. However, both models still indicate that mice exhibit the lowest extent of reduction in the stomach, meaning that a higher percentage of the Cr6 dose may escape stomach reduction in that species. Similarly, both models predict that humans exhibit the highest extent of reduction at low doses. - Highlights: • We outline a new in vivo model for hexavalent chromium reduction in the stomach. • We examine in vivo reduction for mice, rats, and humans under varying conditions. • Species differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility. • We show that a simplified stomach reduction model is adequate for extrapolation. • Internal dose uncertainties still exist.

  8. Identifying and quantifying prey consumption using stomach temperature change in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Carey E; Costa, Daniel P

    2006-11-01

    For many marine predators knowledge of foraging behavior is limited to inferences based on changes in diving or movement patterns at sea. This results in an incomplete and potentially inaccurate view of the foraging ecology of a species. This study examined the use of stomach temperature telemetry to identify and quantify prey consumed in both a phocid (northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris) and an otariid (California sea lion Zalophus californianus) species. In addition, we used opportunistic water consumption by northern elephant seals to test a method to distinguish between prey and water ingestion. Over 96% of feedings could be identified based on a decline in stomach temperature, even when meals were separated by as little as 70 min. Water consumption was distinguishable from prey consumption, as the rate of recovery in stomach temperature was significantly faster for water (F(1,142) = 79.2, P < 0.01). However, using this method, the overlap in recovery rates between prey and water resulted in 30.6% of water ingestion events being misclassified as prey ingestion. For both species, the integral calculated from the decline in stomach temperature over time (area above the curve) could be used to estimate mass consumed, when adjusted for the temperature difference between the prey and core body temperature. For California sea lions, there was a significant effect of individual on the ability to quantify prey consumed, which was not related to their mass or sex. Although many factors may influence the ability to use stomach temperature change to identify and quantify prey consumed, this study has shown measures of stomach temperature can accurately identify prey consumption and provide an estimate of meal mass, allowing for a greater understanding of the feeding behavior of marine mammals.

  9. Vascular conditioning of the stomach before esophageal reconstruction by gastric interposition.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Duranceau, A; Ferraro, P; Martin, J; Liberman, M

    2012-01-01

    Gastric interposition with intrathoracic or cervical esophagogastrostomy is currently the preferred operation for reconstruction after esophagectomy. Anastomotic leaks however result from poor vascular supply to the proximal stomach. They are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. 'Ischemic conditioning' of the interposed stomach has been proposed as a technique where the 'delay phenomenon' aims at improving the microcirculation of the gastric conduit and preventing anastomotic leakage. Experimental observations and clinical studies have been conducted to document the immediate effects and results of this approach. The aim of this work is to review the principles, pathophysiology, experimental, and clinical evidence related to vascular conditioning of the stomach prior to esophagectomy with gastric interposition and esophagogastric anastomosis. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched to identify articles related to vascular conditioning of the stomach. Cross references were added and reviewed to complete the reference list. The anatomic basis of ischemic conditioning, the prevalence of ischemic events on the gastric conduit, the methodology to assess the microcirculation before and after gastric devascularization, animal experiments, and clinical studies reported on this approach were reviewed. Ten experimental works, eleven clinical observations, four reviews, and two editorial commentaries addressing ischemic conditioning of the stomach were identified and reviewed. Experimental observations document improved microcirculation to the proximal stomach following partial gastric devascularization. Clinical reports show the feasibility and relative safety of gastric ischemic conditioning. Preliminary observations suggest potential improvements to the gastric microcirculation resulting from gastric ischemic conditioning. This approach may help prevent complications at the esophagogastric anastomosis. The actual level of evidence however cannot promote its use

  10. [Metastatic breast cancer to the stomach: An uncommon evolution of breast carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Hild, C; Talha-Vautravers, A; Hoefler, P; Zirabe, S; Bellocq, J-P; Mathelin, C

    2014-01-01

    Breast carcinoma exceptionally leads to metastatic linitis plastica. Distinguishing a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from a primary gastric cancer on the basis of clinical and radiological signs is very challenging. Thanks to being cognizant of the previous history of invasive lobular carcinoma and the gastric biopsy followed by immunohistochemical analysis, gastric metastasis can be diagnosed. Despite the use of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, gastric metastasis remains often associated with poor prognosis. We present a case where gastric biopsy allowed a metastatic breast cancer to the stomach to be diagnosed and we discuss its clinical, diagnostic, pathological and therapeutic particularities.

  11. In vivo and in situ measurement of electrical impedance for determination of distention in proximal stomach of rats.

    PubMed

    Garay, L; Ramos, E G; Cardiel, E; Muñoz, R; Hernández, P R

    2006-09-01

    We present a non-invasive, in vivo and in situ study of proximal stomach (PS) distention based on electrical impedance measurements that could be used together with distal stomach (DS) motility measurements as a response to different boluses. Stomach motility has been reported in the literature, as a response to different boluses, under in vivo conditions. However, previous studies on stomach motility have been mainly considered clinical parameters of the digestive process. The physiological complexity of the stomach requires the use of biological models when a detailed analysis of stomach function due to bolus ingestion is required. In this work, the determination of the PS distention in rats is presented. It is based on electrical resistive impedance measurements of the external stomach wall, related to different liquid bolus volumes. Trials were performed under in vivo and in situ conditions. A four-point technique with a vacuum-affixed linear electrode array was used for impedance measurements. A pouch was created in the stomach to retain the saline solution bolus in the PS for a longer time. Resulting impedance changes were directly related to the bolus volumes introduced into the PS and dependent on initial conditions and compensation mechanisms of the in vivo system. With the stomach pouch, a direct relationship between resistive impedance and bolus volume was obtained in all measurements. With no stomach pouch, 93% of the cases showed this relationship. Therefore, the obtained relationship will permit new non-invasive studies in the stomach about the effects of different types of bolus on the distention in the PS of rats.

  12. Treatment with eCG decreases the vascular density and increases the glandular density of the bovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Mona e Pinto, J; Pavanelo, V; Alves de Fátima, L; Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, L M; Pacheco Mendes, G; Machado Ferreira, R; Ayres, H; Sampaio Baruselli, P; Palma Rennó, F; de Carvallo Papa, P

    2014-06-01

    The uterus plays an essential role in mammalian reproduction and is a target of several hormonal protocols used to improve fertility in cattle. Many studies highlighted the importance of eCG treatment following fixed-time artificial insemination in improving follicular growth, ovulation and pregnancy rates in cattle. Moreover, eCG has been implicated in angiogenesis, leading to important changes in uterine blood flow and vascularisation. However, there is still a lack of information regarding the specific alterations induced by eCG upon glandular and vascular characteristics of bovine uterus. To investigate the influence of eCG on: uterine thickness and area; uterine artery diameter and area; uterine vascular and gland density; and the expression of the VEGFA-system, the uteri of crossbred beef cows were collected. All cows were submitted to follicular wave emergence synchronization. On day four of protocol, cows submitted to superovulation (n = 6) received 2000 IU eCG, on day eight, after expected follicular deviation, cows submitted to stimulatory treatment (n = 5) received 400 IU eCG. Control cows (n = 5) did not receive eCG. On day five po cows were subjected to ultrassonographic evaluation and slaughtered for uterine tissue sampling on day six po. Uterine vessels and glands were quantified by the counting point stereological method. The VEGFA-system was localized in different cellular types, showing no qualitative or quantitative differences in the site of expression or the intensity of the positive signal among the groups. Vascular density was decreased in the endometrium of stimulated and myometrium of superovulated cows compared with the control ones, which showed higher vascular density in the myometrium and endometrium of the ipsilateral uterine horn. The uterine gland density was higher in superovulated compared with stimulated and control cows. Thus, we can infer that stimulatory or superovulatory treatments with eCG influence the vascular

  13. Estimation of mean glandular dose for contrast enhanced digital mammography: factors for use with the UK, European and IAEA breast dosimetry protocols.

    PubMed

    Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2014-05-07

    The UK, European and IAEA protocols for breast dosimetry in mammography use tabulations of conversion factors, which relate measurements of incident air kerma to the mean glandular dose to the breast. To supplement the existing tabulations, a Monte Carlo computer program has been used to calculate conversion factors for the high-energy spectra used for contrast enhanced digital mammography. The calculations were made for the x-ray spectra from a tungsten target (tube voltage range 40-50 kV) filtered by 0.28, 0.30 and 0.32 mm of copper, and from molybdenum and rhodium targets (tube voltage range 40-49 kV), each filtered by 0.30 mm of copper. The g-factors for all of these spectra were plotted for each breast thickness as a function of half value layer (HVL) and were found to lie on smooth curves within 0.3%. These reflect the fact that the characteristic x-rays present in the spectra from molybdenum and rhodium are heavily filtered and all the spectra are essentially Bremsstrahlung. As a consequence, the s-factor previously used in the dosimetry protocols to adjust for different target/filter combinations can be taken as unity for all of the spectra considered. Tables of g-factors and c-factors are provided for breast thicknesses in the range 20-110 mm and HVLs in the range 2.4-3.6 mm of aluminium. The tables of c-factors are given for breast glandularities in the range 0.1%-100% and for typical glandularities for women in the age bands 40-49 and 50-64 attending the UK national breast screening programme.

  14. Characterization of the formation of branched short-chain fatty acid:CoAs for bitter acid biosynthesis in hop glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyang; Zhang, Fengxia; Liu, Baoxiu; Huhman, David V; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A; Wang, Guodong

    2013-07-01

    Bitter acids, known for their use as beer flavoring and for their diverse biological activities, are predominantly formed in hop (Humulus lupulus) glandular trichomes. Branched short-chain acyl-CoAs (e.g. isobutyryl-CoA, isovaleryl-CoA and 2-methylbutyryl-CoA), derived from the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are essential building blocks for the biosynthesis of bitter acids in hops. However, little is known regarding what components are needed to produce and maintain the pool of branched short-chain acyl-CoAs in hop trichomes. Here, we present several lines of evidence that both CoA ligases and thioesterases are likely involved in bitter acid biosynthesis. Recombinant HlCCL2 (carboxyl CoA ligase) protein had high specific activity for isovaleric acid as a substrate (K cat /K m = 4100 s(-1) M(-1)), whereas recombinant HlCCL4 specifically utilized isobutyric acid (Kcat/K m = 1800 s(-1) M(-1)) and 2-methylbutyric acid (Kcat/K m = 6900 s(-1) M(-1)) as substrates. Both HlCCLs, like hop valerophenone synthase (HlVPS), were expressed strongly in glandular trichomes and localized to the cytoplasm. Co-expression of HlCCL2 and HlCCL4 with HlVPS in yeast led to significant production of acylphloroglucinols (the direct precursors for bitter acid biosynthesis), which further confirmed the biochemical function of these two HlCCLs in vivo. Functional identification of a thioesterase that catalyzed the reverse reaction of CCLs in mitochondria, together with the comprehensive analysis of genes involved BCAA catabolism, supported the idea that cytosolic CoA ligases are required for linking BCAA degradation and bitter acid biosynthesis in glandular trichomes. The evolution and other possible physiological roles of branched short-chain fatty acid:CoA ligases in planta are also discussed.

  15. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  16. Isolation of a spiral-shaped bacterium from the cat stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A; Hazell, S L; O'Rourke, J; Kouprach, S

    1988-01-01

    A spiral- or helix-shaped bacterium that colonizes the stomachs of cats has been isolated in pure culture for the first time. The organism is tightly coiled with tufts of 10 to 17 polar flagella positioned slightly off center at the end of the cell. The body of the cell is entwined with unique periplasmic fibrils that usually occur in pairs, although groupings of one and three fibrils were also seen. The organism is strongly urease, catalase, and oxidase positive and is likely to belong to an as yet unclassified group of bacteria that are specifically adapted to the ecological niche provided by gastrointestinal mucus. Isolation of this organism will allow study of the factors influencing colonization of gastric mucosae, information relevant to the association of another mucus colonizer, Campylobacter pylori, with the human stomach. Recent reports of the isolation of other bacteria with the characteristic periplasmic surface structures suggests that the group may be more widespread than was hitherto thought. Bacteria with the morphology of the organisms seen in the cat stomach have been seen in gastric biopsies from humans. The organism whose isolation is reported here has been used in previous serological studies to support the hypothesis that spiral bacteria from animals can colonize the human stomach. Images PMID:3169989

  17. Effect of stomaching on numbers of bacteria recovered from chicken skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stomaching of skin samples releases only a few more bacteria than a single rinse. Successive rinses, however, continue to remove almost as many bacteria as the first rinse. One hypothesis to explain this observation is that relatively violent treatment of skin generates smaller pieces of skin, thu...

  18. Effect of stomaching on numbers of bacteria recovered from chicken skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to rinsing, stomaching releases only a few more bacteria from a skin sample, but successive rinses continue to remove almost as many bacteria as the first rinse. One hypothesis to explain this observation is that relatively violent treatment of skin generates smaller pieces of skin thus in...

  19. Fulminant phlegmonitis of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum due to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Ogura, Hiroshi; Seki, Masafumi; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-03-28

    We report a case of phlegmonitis of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum in patient in an immunocompromised state. Culture of gastric juice and blood yielded Bacillus thuringiensis. This case showed that even low-virulence bacilli can cause lethal gastrointestinal phlegmonous gastritis in conditions of immunodeficiency.

  20. A human gastric simulator (HGS) to study food digestion in human stomach.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanbin; Singh, R Paul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro stomach model, the Human Gastric Simulator (HGS), for studying gastric digestion of foods. The HGS is designed in such a way as to simulate the continuous peristaltic movement of stomach walls, with similar amplitude and frequency of contraction forces as reported in vivo. The HGS mainly consists of a latex vessel, simulating the stomach chamber, and a series of rollers secured on belts that are driven by motor and pulleys to create a continuous contraction of the latex wall. It also incorporates gastric secretion, emptying systems, and temperature control that enable accurate simulation of dynamic digestion process for detailed investigation of the changes in the physical chemical properties of ingested foods. The simulated gastric contraction force demonstrates a similar pattern as in vivo stomach forces. The precise control of gastric secretion and emptying and the adjustable mechanical forces in the HGS provide a useful tool to study transformation of food constituents under simulated physiological conditions.

  1. Functional morphology of the honey stomach wall of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The honey bee crop, or honey stomach, is designed with cords of muscles that are numerous enough in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to fully enclose and confine the underlying, cuticle-lines epithelium. Although appressed against the inner wall of this enclosure by the crop's contents,...

  2. High-resolution manometry findings in patients with an intrathoracic stomach.

    PubMed

    Martinelo, Vanderlei; Mardiros Herbella, Fernando Augusto; Patti, Marco G

    2015-04-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare finding. The real value of the high-resolution manometry (HRM) in the preoperative evaluation of these patients has not yet being fully tested. This study aims to evaluate: 1) the HRM pattern of patients with an intrathoracic stomach; and 2) HRM findings as predictors for prosthetic reinforcement of the hiatus. We reviewed 33 patients (27 women, mean age 66 years) with an intrathoracic stomach who underwent HRM. Fifteen patients did the HRM as part of preoperative workup and were operated on in our institution. All patients were submitted to a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. HRM results show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was transposed in all patients. Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in 21 (63%) patients. The length of the hernia was 4 ± 2 cm (range, 1 to 9 cm). LES oscillation was observed in 23 (69%) patients with a mean of 1 ± 0.4 cm (range, 0.4 to 2 cm). Hiatal mesh reinforcement was necessary in five (33%) of the operated patients. HRM findings did not predict hiatal mesh reinforcement. Our results show that: 1) HRM has a poor sensibility for hiatal hernia diagnosis; 2) half of the patients with an intrathoracic stomach have a normal HRM; and 3) HRM does not predict mesh hiatal hernia repair.

  3. An evaluation of in vivo models for toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Sasso, A F; Schlosser, P M

    2015-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6) is a drinking water contaminant that has been detected in most of the water systems throughout the United States. In 2-year drinking water bioassays, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats and mice. Because reduction of Cr6 to trivalent chromium (Cr3) is an important detoxifying step in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract prior to systemic absorption, models have been developed to estimate the extent of reduction in humans and animals. The objective of this work was to use a revised model of ex vivo Cr6 reduction kinetics in gastric juice to analyze the potential reduction kinetics under in vivo conditions for mice, rats and humans. A published physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was adapted to incorporate the new reduction model. This paper focuses on the toxicokinetics of Cr6 in the stomach compartment, where most of the extracellular Cr6 reduction is believed to occur in humans. Within the range of doses administered by the NTP bioassays, neither the original nor revised models predict saturation of stomach reducing capacity to occur in vivo if applying default parameters. However, both models still indicate that mice exhibit the lowest extent of reduction in the stomach, meaning that a higher percentage of the Cr6 dose may escape stomach reduction in that species. Similarly, both models predict that humans exhibit the highest extent of reduction at low doses.

  4. Effects of coffees before and after special treatment procedure on cell membrane potentials in stomach cells.

    PubMed

    Fiebich, B L; Valente, P; Ferrer-Montiel, A; Candelario-Jalil, E; Menthe, J; Luecker, P

    2006-01-01

    Coffee, one of the most excessively used beverages worldwide, commences the risk of gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which may lead to gastric ulcers and increase the risk of gastric cancer. Many attempts have been made by the coffee industry to diminish the irritating effect on mucosa by means of altering the extraction methods concerning gerbic acids and the roasting processes. This paper describes the effect of differently produced coffees involving two brands of Darboven and two brands of other coffee roasters. The aim of this study was to prove the results of gastric potential measurements we found in literature by using human AGS gastric epithelial cells (human adenocarcinoma). All four coffee extracts tested differentially affected the membrane resting potential of AGS cells. Coffees no. 1 and no. 2 depolarized the cells, presumably by increasing the cation entry into the cytosol. In marked contrast, coffee no. 4 hyperpolarizes the cells, possibly by H(+) extrusion and/or Cl(-) influx, suggesting that this coffee might increase acidity in the stomach, which might negatively affect the stomach, especially in people with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Overall, our data suggest that different roasting methods of coffees affect the membrane potentials of AGS stomach cells, resulting in increased influx of H+ possibly resulting in decreased stomach acidity and thus reducing GER. These results are in good accordance with clinical pharmacological results from potential difference measurements in healthy volunteers we found in the literature.

  5. Stomach cancer incidence in Southern Portugal 1998-2006: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Papoila, Ana L; Riebler, Andrea; Amaral-Turkman, Antónia; São-João, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Conceição; Geraldes, Carlos; Miranda, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Stomach cancer belongs to the most common malignant tumors in Portugal. Main causal factors are age, dietary habits, smoking, and Helicobacter pylori infections. As these factors do not only operate on different time dimensions, such as age, period, or birth cohort, but may also vary along space, it is of utmost interest to model temporal and spatial trends jointly. In this paper, we analyze incidence of stomach cancer in Southern Portugal between 1998 and 2006 for females and males jointly using a spatial multivariate age-period-cohort model. Thus, we avoid age aggregation and allow the exploration of heterogeneous time trends between males and females across age, period, birth cohort, and space. Model estimation is performed within a Bayesian setting assuming (gender specific) smoothing priors. Our results show that the posterior expected rate of stomach cancer is decreasing for all counties in Southern Portugal and that males around 70 have a two times higher risk of getting stomach cancer compared with their female counterparts. We further found that, except for some few counties, the spatial influence is almost constant over time and negligible in the southern counties of Southern Portugal.

  6. Illicit drug detection with laser 1: investigation of optimal parameters in stomach tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özer, Ayşen Gürkan; Tabakoğlu, Haşim Özgür; Cengiz, Salih

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this study is to establish radiation-safe scanning of passersby at high security areas, such as airports and customs. The stomach was selected as the organ to be analyzed. In order to determine whether a substance found inside a human body as wrapped in a plastic bag is filled narcotics or not, many substances in white powder form including morphine-HCL were inspected. Inspection was carried out with on-ionizing radiation by irradiating stomach tissue with laser light. Optical transmittance of lamb stomach tissue was analyzed at different wavelengths. We showed that detection by 650-nm diode laser irradiation would be suitable for such a radiation-safe scan. Different materials were also investigated for absorptive properties, and closed system Raman studies were performed. The spectrum of a molecule found inside white powder placed behind the lamb stomach tissue was detected as a fingerprint. This allowed the detection of target substances without any physical contact or damage to the biological tissue.

  7. Detection of Anthropogenic Particles in Fish Stomachs: An Isolation Method Adapted to Identification by Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Collard, France; Gilbert, Bernard; Eppe, Gauthier; Parmentier, Eric; Das, Krishna

    2015-10-01

    Microplastic particles (MP) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Ingestion combined with food intake is generally reported. However, data interpretation often is circumvented by the difficulty to separate MP from bulk samples. Visual examination often is used as one or the only step to sort these particles. However, color, size, and shape are insufficient and often unreliable criteria. We present an extraction method based on hypochlorite digestion and isolation of MP from the membrane by sonication. The protocol is especially well adapted to a subsequent analysis by Raman spectroscopy. The method avoids fluorescence problems, allowing better identification of anthropogenic particles (AP) from stomach contents of fish by Raman spectroscopy. It was developed with commercial samples of microplastics and cotton along with stomach contents from three different Clupeiformes fishes: Clupea harengus, Sardina pilchardus, and Engraulis encrasicolus. The optimized digestion and isolation protocol showed no visible impact on microplastics and cotton particles while the Raman spectroscopic spectrum allowed the precise identification of microplastics and textile fibers. Thirty-five particles were isolated from nine fish stomach contents. Raman analysis has confirmed 11 microplastics and 13 fibers mainly made of cellulose or lignin. Some particles were not completely identified but contained artificial dyes. The novel approach developed in this manuscript should help to assess the presence, quantity, and composition of AP in planktivorous fish stomachs.

  8. What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150 year old mystery (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxon Acanthosoma chrysalis Mayer, 1844, described from Germany on a number of alleged parasites encysted in the peritoneal wall of the stomach of edible frogs, is revised and shown to be first instar larvae of blow flies (Calliphoridae). Based on the shape of mouthhooks and abdominal cuticular ...

  9. Sensitizing effects of lafutidine on CGRP-containing afferent nerves in the rat stomach

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Katsushi; Nozawa, Yoshihisa; Nakano, Motoko; Ajioka, Hirofusa; Matsuura, Naosuke

    2002-01-01

    Capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves play an important role in gastric mucosal defensive mechanisms. Capsaicin stimulates afferent nerves and enhances the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which seems to be the predominant neurotransmitter of spinal afferents in the rat stomach, exerting many pharmacological effects by a direct mechanism or indirectly through second messengers such as nitric oxide (NO). Lafutidine is a new type of anti-ulcer drug, possessing both an antisecretory effect, exerted via histamine H2 receptor blockade, and gastroprotective activities. Studies with certain antagonists or chemical deafferentation techniques suggest the gastroprotective actions of lafutidine to be mediated by capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves, but this is an assumption based on indirect techniques. In order to explain the direct relation of lafutidine to afferent nerves, we conducted the following studies. We determined CGRP and NO release from rat stomach and specific [3H]-resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding to gastric vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1), which binds capsaicin, using EIA, a microdialysis system and a radioreceptor assay, respectively. Lafutidine enhanced both CGRP and NO release from the rat stomach induced by a submaximal dose of capsaicin, but had no effect on specific [3H]-RTX and capsaicin binding to VR1. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that lafutidine modulates the activity of capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves in the rat stomach, which may be a key mechanism involved in its gastroprotective action. PMID:11906962

  10. [Subtotal esophagus resection and stomach tube transposition in laryngectomized patients without loss of esophageal speech].

    PubMed

    Lörken, M; Jansen, M; Schumpelick, V

    1999-03-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old patient who had a laryngectomy 16 years ago because of a laryngeal carcinoma and achieved voice restoration by esophageal speech. Now a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus had been diagnosed and was treated with a subtotal esophagectomy, stomach transposition, and collar anastomosis. Postoperatively, the patient remained esophageal speech without loss of quality.

  11. The human gastric microbiota: Is it time to rethink the pathogenesis of stomach diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although long thought to be a sterile organ, due to its acid production, the human stomach holds a core microbiome. Aim To provide an update of findings related to gastric microbiota and its link with gastric diseases. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Results The development of culture-independent methods facilitated the identification of many bacteria. Five major phyla have been detected in the stomach: Firmicutes, Bacteroidites, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria. At the genera level, the healthy human stomach is dominated by Prevotella, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Rothia and Haemophilus; however, the composition of the gastric microbiota is dynamic and affected by such factors as diet, drugs and diseases. The interaction between the pre-existing gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori infection might influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, including gastric cancer. Conclusions The maintenance of bacterial homeostasis could be essential for the stomach’s health and highlights the chance for therapeutic interventions targeting the gastric microbiota, even if gastric pH, peristalsis and the mucus layer may prevent bacteria colonization; and the definition of gastric microbiota of the healthy stomach is still an ongoing challenging task. PMID:26137299

  12. Female host sex-biased parasitism with the rodent stomach nematode Mastophorus muris in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Maciej; Bajer, Anna; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Al-Sarraf, Mohammed; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-02-01

    Abundance and prevalence of helminth infections often differ between host sexes, and are usually biased in favor of males. Relatively few cases of female-biased parasitism have been reported. We sampled bank voles in three woodland sites in N.E. Poland over 11 years at 3-4-year intervals, and assessed their parasite burdens. Prevalence and abundance of the stomach nematode Mastophorus muris were consistently higher among females. Among adult female bank voles from the two sites that showed the highest prevalence with M. muris, both prevalence and abundance were significantly higher in lactating bank voles, but not pregnant animals, and the effect of lactation was evident in both sites, in all four surveys, and in both age classes. Although the magnitude of the effect of lactation varied between years, it was not confounded by any significant interactions with other factors. We hypothesize that mature and reproductively active female bank voles are subject to higher exposure compared with males of similar age, as a consequence of the increased content of invertebrates in their diet, including the intermediate hosts of M. muris, required to meet the higher increased energy and protein demands of nursing litters throughout the summer months.

  13. Effect of rabeprazole on the transport and distribution of levofloxacin in rat stomachs

    PubMed Central

    BAO, JUNJUN; HU, YONGMEI; MEI, QIAO; ZHEN, HAILUN; XU, JIANMING

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transport and distribution characteristics of levofloxacin in the rat stomach and investigate the effects of combination treatment with rabeprazole. A total of 160 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: 50 mg/kg levofloxacin, 100 mg/kg levofloxacin, 50 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole and 100 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole. For two hours after intravenous administration, serum, gastric juice and stomach mucosa samples were collected at 15-min intervals, and the levofloxacin concentrations in all the samples were measured to determine the transport and distribution characteristics of levofloxacin in the rat stomach. In the 50 mg/kg levofloxacin and the 100 mg/kg levofloxacin groups, the drug concentration in the gastric juice gradually exceeded the serum concentration within 45–60 min of administration (P<0.05) and the drug concentrations in the gastric body and antrum were higher than those in the serum and the forestomach (P<0.05). At 15–30 min after administration, the drug concentrations in the gastric juice in the 50 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole and the 100 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole groups gradually exceeded the serum concentration (P<0.05). However, the levofloxacin concentration in the gastric body and in the antrum did not significantly differ between the two groups (P>0.05). The levofloxacin concentrations in each stomach region in the groups also treated with rabeprazole were higher than those treated with levofloxacin alone, but the differences were not significant. The levofloxacin transport fractions in the stomach in the 50 mg/kg levofloxacin, 100 mg/kg levofloxacin, 50 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole and 100 mg/kg levofloxacin + rabeprazole groups were 2.36, 2.52, 2.42 and 2.55, respectively, and no significant difference was identified. Levofloxacin may be actively transported in the rat stomach. The levofloxacin concentration in the gastric antrum exceeded that in

  14. Processing of vegetable-borne carotenoids in the human stomach and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Tyssandier, Viviane; Reboul, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Jean-François; Bouteloup-Demange, Corinne; Armand, Martine; Marcand, Julie; Sallas, Marcel; Borel, Patrick

    2003-06-01

    Carotenoids are thought to diminish the incidence of certain degenerative diseases, but the mechanisms involved in their intestinal absorption are poorly understood. Our aim was to obtain basic data on the fate of carotenoids in the human stomach and duodenum. Ten healthy men were intragastrically fed three liquid test meals differing only in the vegetable added 3 wk apart and in a random order. They contained 40 g sunflower oil and mashed vegetables as the sole source of carotenoids. Tomato purée provided 10 mg lycopene as the main carotenoid, chopped spinach (10 mg lutein), and carrot purée (10 mg beta-carotene). Samples of stomach and duodenal contents and blood samples were collected at regular time intervals after meal intake. all-trans and cis carotenoids were assayed in stomach and duodenal contents, in the fat and aqueous phases of those contents, and in chylomicrons. The cis-trans beta-carotene and lycopene ratios did not significantly vary in the stomach during digestion. Carotenoids were recovered in the fat phase present in the stomach during digestion. The proportion of all-trans carotenoids found in the micellar phase of the duodenum was as follows (means +/- SE): lutein (5.6 +/- 0.4%), beta-carotene (4.7 +/- 0.3%), lycopene (2.0 +/- 0.2%). The proportion of 13-cis beta-carotene in the micellar phase was significantly higher (14.8 +/- 1.6%) than that of the all-trans isomer (4.7 +/- 0.3%). There was no significant variation in chylomicron lycopene after the tomato meal, whereas there was significant increase in chylomicron beta-carotene and lutein after the carrot and the spinach meals, respectively. There is no significant cis-trans isomerization of beta-carotene and lycopene in the human stomach. The stomach initiates the transfer of carotenoids from the vegetable matrix to the fat phase of the meal. Lycopene is less efficiently transferred to micelles than beta-carotene and lutein. The very small transfer of carotenoids from their vegetable

  15. [Theoretical and clinical application of insomnia caused by "stomach disorder could lead to excess of yang-qiao meridian"].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Ning

    2013-02-01

    To explore the mechanism of insomnia caused by "stomach disorder could lead to excess of yang-qiao meridian" and clinical application of treating insomnia with acupoints in qiao meridian as the main points. From meridian theory, intersection between stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming and yang-qiao meridian is through Chengqi (ST 1). Qiao meridian for sleep is mainly because it is connected with eyes through the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang. For Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming is intersected with the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang in Jingming (BL 1), and intersected with yin and yang qiao meridian beside the mouth and under the eye, once functional disorder of the stomach, it can affect qi movements of the whole body and give rise to various pathological changes that cause insomnia. Meanwhile examples are given to explain the clinical application of treating subborn insomnia with corresponding acupoint of stomach and yang-qiao meridian.

  16. Solitary gastric Peutz-Jeghers type stomach polyp mimicking a malignant gastric tumor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Yu, Ji-Kuen; Tsao, Tang-Yi; Lin, Lien-Fu

    2012-04-21

    Most cases of Peutz-Jeghers type polyps of the stomach are associated with mucocutaneous pigmentation and multiple intestinal polyposis. A solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach is rare. We here report a case of a 71-year-old woman with a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach who presented with intolerable epigastric pain and weight loss of 5 kg over the prior two months. During the hospital treatment course for this patient, endoscopic examination revealed a bulging lesion with a central hole, mucosal ulceration, an asymmetrical wall thickness and a narrowing of the gastric lumen. A gastric biopsy further revealed ulceration with moderate dysplasia. The patient received endoscopic ultrasonography which showed a second subepithelial lesion that measured 4 cm × 3 cm. Computed tomography of the abdomen subsequently showed a thickened gastric wall with three visibly enlarged lymph nodes, all greater than 1 cm. The suspected diagnosis was malignant gastric cancer with lymph node metastases. The other lesion, which measured 2 cm × 2 cm × 1 cm was noted in the submucosa of the jejunum during surgery. The patient was treated using a subtotal gastrectomy and partial resection of the jejunal tumor. The final pathological report indicated a gastric Peutz-Jeghers type polyp with proliferation of smooth muscle bundles in the submucosal layer, and hyperplastic glands in the mucosal layer and ectopic pancreas of the jejunum. This is the first reported clinical case of a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach accompanying a lymph node enlargement and ectopic pancreas in the jejunum that simulates stomach cancer with lymph node metastases.

  17. A New Suggestion for the Radiation Target Volume After a Subtotal Gastrectomy in Patients With Stomach Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Heerim; Lim, Do Hoon Kim, Sung; Kang, Won Ki; Sohn, Tae Sung; Noh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Chan Hyung; Park, Chul Keun; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment results between the use of two different radiation fields including and excluding remnant stomach and suggest new target volumes excluding remnant stomach after subtotal gastrectomy (STG) in patients with stomach cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 291 patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after STG and D2 dissection at the Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. Eighty-three patients registered from 1995 to 1997 underwent irradiation according to the INT 0116 protocol that recommended the inclusion of remnant stomach within the target volume (Group A). After this period, we excluded remnant stomach from the target volume for 208 patients (Group B). Median follow-up was 67 months. Results: Treatment failure developed in 93 patients (32.0%). Local and regional recurrence rates for Group A vs. Group B were 10.8% vs. 5.3% (p = not significant) and 9.6% vs. 6.3% (p = not significant), and recurrence rates for remnant stomach were 7.2% vs. 1.4% (p = 0.018), respectively. Overall and disease-free survival rates were not different between the two groups. Grade 3 or 4 vomiting and diarrhea developed more frequently in Group A than Group B (4.8% vs. 1.4% and 6.0% vs. 1.9%, respectively; p = 0.012; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Exclusion of remnant stomach from the radiation field had no effect on failure rates or survival, and a low complication rate occurred in patients treated excluding remnant stomach. We suggest that remnant stomach be excluded from the radiation target volume for patients with stomach cancer who undergo STG and D2 dissection.

  18. Cooperative role between p21cip1/waf1 and p27kip1 in premature senescence in glandular proliferative lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, R A; García-Palencia, P; Suarez, C; Sánchez, M A; Gil-Gómez, G; Sánchez, B; Rollán, E; Martín-Caballero, J; Flores, J M

    2014-03-01

    Cellular senescence has been considered a novel target for cancer therapy. It has also been pointed out that p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) play a role in cellular senescence in some tumor types. Therefore, in order to address the possibility of a cooperative role between p21 and p27 proteins in senescence in vivo we analyzed cellular senescence in spontaneous glandular proliferative lesions (adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands) in a double-KO mice model, using γH2AX, p53, p16, PTEN and Ki67 as senescence markers. The results obtained showed that p21p27 double-null mice had the lowest number of γH2AX positive cells in glandular hyperplasias and benign tumors. Also, in this group, Ki67 proliferation index correlated with a lower immunohistochemical expression of γH2AX and p53. The expression of p16 and PTEN do not seem to cause synergism of senescence in the benign lesions analyzed in p21p27 double-KO mice. These observations suggest an intrinsic cooperation between p21 and p27 CKIs in the activation of stress-induced cellular senescence and tumor progression in vivo, which would be a physiological mechanism to prevent tumor cell proliferation.

  19. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum) are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes Solanum atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. and Solanum tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated Solanum anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa.

  20. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Sun, Gui-Ling; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan

    2016-01-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms. PMID:26941091

  1. Yield and forage quality of glandular-haired alfalfa under alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) pest pressure in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Theresa A; Youngman, Roger R; Laub, Curt A; Brewster, Carlyle C; Kuhar, Thomas P

    2006-08-01

    Cultivars of glandular-haired alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., such as '54H69', are currently available and marketed as being resistant to potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). 54H69 and a standard, nonglandular-haired alfalfa 'Choice' were evaluated at two locations in Virginia over a 3-yr period. Dry matter yields and concentrations of crude protein and acid detergent fiber were compared at the first, second, and third harvests. Overall, the two cultivars produced similar dry matter yields of comparable forage quality in the absence of insecticides at both locations in each year. Untreated 54H69 did not produce greater dry matter yields than untreated Choice under either light or heavier potato leafhopper pest pressure. Concentrations of crude protein did not vary between the two cultivars at any harvest. Some differences in concentrations of acid detergent fiber were detected between cultivars, but these differences were not consistent among years, harvests, or between locations. Further comparisons between untreated 54H69 and treated Choice were made, but few significant differences were detected in dry matter yields or forage quality. An economic analysis for the study indicated that a grower planting 54H69 would realize less net revenue than a grower planting Choice, largely because of the seed premium for the glandular-haired cultivar and the evident need to treat 54H69 with insecticide for control of alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and potato leafhopper.

  2. Effects of three AM fungi on growth, distribution of glandular hairs, and essential oil production in Ocimum basilicum L. var. Genovese.

    PubMed

    Copetta, Andrea; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2006-10-01

    The essential oils of basil are widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food, and flavoring industries. Little is known about the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to affect their production in this aromatic plant. The effects of colonization by three AM fungi, Glomus mosseae BEG 12, Gigaspora margarita BEG 34, and Gigaspora rosea BEG 9 on shoot and root biomass, abundance of glandular hairs, and essential oil yield of Ocimum basilicum L. var. Genovese were studied. Plant P content was analyzed in the various treatments and no differences were observed. The AM fungi induced various modifications in the considered parameters, but only Gi. rosea significantly affected all of them in comparison to control plants or the other fungal treatments. It significantly increased biomass, root branching and length, and the total amount of essential oil (especially alpha-terpineol). Increased oil yield was associated to a significantly larger number of peltate glandular trichomes (main sites of essential oil synthesis) in the basal and central leaf zones. Furthermore, Gi. margarita and Gi. rosea increased the percentage of eugenol and reduced linalool yield. Results showed that different fungi can induce different effects in the same plant and that the essential oil yield can be modulated according to the colonizing AM fungus.

  3. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum) are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes Solanum atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. and Solanum tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated Solanum anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa. PMID:28127235

  4. Stomach content analyses of Simulium perflavum Roubaud 1906 (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae from streams in Central Amazônia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Y B; Ludwig, T A; Soares, C C; Hamada, N

    2001-05-01

    Stomach contents of Simulium perflavum Roubaud larvae were analyzed and compared with plankton and periphyton collected in five streams, in Central Amazonia (Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo counties), in Sep./Oct.1996 (dry season) and Feb./Mar. 1997 (rainy season). A total of 1,400 last-instar larvae were dissected; the stomach contents were analyzed using different methods: fresh and after oxidation. A total of 87 taxa (algae, diatoms and rotifers) were found in the stomach contents. In each stream, qualitative samples of plankton and periphyton were collected; these were mounted between slides and cover slips. A total of 94 taxa of plankton and 54 taxa of periphyton were collected. One species of Rotifera was present in the stomach contents, plankton and periphyton. Cluster analysis based on species composition of the organisms present in the stomach contents grouped the streams into two major groups, each belonging to a different drainage area. Correlations based on presence/absence of species of microalgae in the stomach contents, plankton and periphyton indicated significant associations (p<0.05) between stomach contents and plankton and between plankton and periphyton (z test); the Sorensen coefficient and cluster analysis corroborate the same associations.

  5. Gastric-tube versus whole-stomach esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenxiong; Yu, Dongliang; Peng, Jinhua; Xu, Jianjun; Wei, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the gastric-tube vs. whole-stomach for esophageal cancer in order to determine the optimal surgical technique of esophagectomy. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Clinical trials that compared the gastric-tube versus whole-stomach for esophageal cancer were selected. The clinical endpoints included anastomotic leakage, anastomotic stenosis, reflux esophagitis, pneumonia, delayed gastric emptying, and thoracic stomach syndrome. Results A total of 6 articles (1571 patients) were included. Compared to the whole-stomach approach, the gastric-tube approach was associated with a lower incidence of reflux esophagitis (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16 to 0.81, p = 0.01) and thoracic stomach syndrome (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.55, p < 0.0001). The rates of anastomotic leakage, anastomotic stenosis, pneumonia, and delayed gastric emptying did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions The gastric-tube esophagectomy is superior to the whole-stomach approach, as it is associated with a lower incidence of postoperative reflux esophagitis and thoracic stomach syndrome. Our findings must be validated in large-scale randomized controlled trials. PMID:28267808

  6. Pilot Trial of CRLX101 in Treatment of Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Stomach, Gastroesophageal, or Esophageal Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  7. Self-Reported Stomach Upset in Travellers on Cruise-Based and Land-Based Package Holidays

    PubMed Central

    Launders, Naomi J.; Nichols, Gordon L.; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. Methods A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. Results From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2%) reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005). Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005). Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8%) and Turkey (8.8%). Conclusions In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards) that have reduced illness over recent years. PMID:24427271

  8. Quantitation and identification of organic N-chloramines formed in stomach fluid on ingestion of aqueous hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Scully, F E; Mazina, K; Sonenshine, D; Kopfler, F

    1986-11-01

    The chemical reactions that hypochlorite undergoes in the body when chlorinated water is ingested have received very little attention. Because amino nitrogen compounds are important components of the average diet, the reactions of hypochlorite with amino compounds in the stomach were investigated. Stomach fluid was recovered from Sprague-Dawley rats that had been fasted for 48 hr and administered 4 mL deionized water. The chlorine demand of the stomach fluid was determined. An average volume-independent demand of 2.7 mg chlorine was measured. At doses below 40 mg/L chlorine reducing reactions appeared to account for reduction of all oxidizing species within 15 min as measured by the FAS-DPD titrimetric method. At least part of the chlorine demand is associated with amino acids present in the stomach fluid. Amino acids were identified and quantified in the stomach fluid by precolumn derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When stomach fluid is chlorinated to concentrations of chlorine between 200 and 1000 mg/L, organic N-chloramines are formed. After derivatization of chlorinated stomach fluid with dansyl sulfinic acid, fluorescent derivatives of chloramines were separated by HPLC. Three chloramino acid derivatives, N-chloroalanine, N-chloroglycine, and N-chlorophenylalanine, were identified by cochromatography with known standards using two chromatographic methods. The yield of a chloramine that would form in stomach fluid on administration of hypochlorite to animals was determined using tritiated piperidine and doses of 200 and 1000 mg/L chlorine. Yields of tritiated N-chloropiperidine in recovered stomach fluid were 70% and 42%, respectively, of the theoretical amount expected.

  9. Quantification of loosely associated and tightly associated bacteria on broiler carcass skin using swabbing, stomaching, and grinding methods.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Lee, H C; Chin, K B; Ha, S D; Kang, I

    2015-12-01

    This research was conducted to quantify bacterial populations after swabbing or stomaching, followed by grinding the swabbed or stomached broiler skins. For each of 3 replications, 3 eviscerated broilers were randomly taken from a processing line in a local broiler processing plant. Ten swabs and 10 stomachs per bird were conducted on the left- and the right-side skins (10×7 cm), respectively, which were then finally ground. Results indicated that mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) in the first swabbed sample were significantly lower than those in the first stomached sample (P<0.05), with no difference seen for the remaining sampling times (P>0.05). During 10 swabbings followed by final grinding, 8, 9, and 83% of MAB were detected after the first swabbing, after the second through 10th swabbings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. During 10 stomachings followed by the final grinding, 17, 18, and 65% of MAB were detected after the first stomaching, after the second through 10th stomachings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms were significantly higher in the first stomaching than those in the first swabbing (P<0.05), with no difference seen between the 2 sampling methods for the rest sampling times (P>0.05). Populations of E. coli and coliforms decreased step-wisely from the highest after grinding to the intermediate after first and second sampling, and to the least after 10th sampling (P<0.05), regardless of swabbing or grinding. In this study, less than 35% of MAB seemed loosely associated in the skin of eviscerated broiler, whereas more than 65% of MAB looked tightly associated, which were not recovered by stomaching or swabbing even 10 times but were recovered by grinding the skin.

  10. Investigation of the excluded stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: the role of percutaneous endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kanwar-Rs; McKinney, J-Mark; Stark, Mark-E; Bouras, Ernest-P

    2008-03-28

    Accessing the bypassed portion of the stomach via conventional endoscopy is difficult following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. However, endoscopic examination of the stomach and small bowel is possible through percutaneous access into the bypassed stomach (BS) with a combined radiologic and endoscopic technique. We present a case of obscure overt gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding where the source of bleeding was thought to be from the BS. After conventional endoscopic methods failed to examine the BS, percutaneous endoscopy (PE) was used as an alternative to surgical exploration.

  11. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  12. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols.

  13. Implementation of a Magnetic Stimulator to Study the Human Stomach Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova-Fraga, T.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.

    2004-09-01

    Implementation of a magnetic stimulator, arranged in a Helmholtz configuration, to study the mechanical activity on human stomachs is presented. In this work, a biomagnetic modality was used, this include swallowed of an oral magnetic contrast made up with 2, 3, 4 or 5 g of ferromagnetic particles diluted in 250 mL of yogurt. After a volunteer had swallowed the oral contrast, a biomagnetic pulse around 15 mT was applied, and then the remanent field is relaxed by mechanical contractions produced on the stomach wall. These studies were performed in 11 health male volunteers, where peristaltic frequencies were measured and a average value of 3.18 cpm was obtained.

  14. Ménétrier disease and gastrointestinal stromal tumors: hyperproliferative disorders of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Robert J.; Washington, Mary Kay; Corless, Christopher L.; Heinrich, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ménétrier disease and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are hyperproliferative disorders of the stomach caused by dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In Ménétrier disease, overexpression of TGF-α, a ligand for the RTK EGFR, results in selective expansion of surface mucous cells in the body and fundus of the stomach. In GISTs, somatic mutations of the genes encoding the RTK KIT (or PDGFRA in a minority of cases) result in constitutive kinase activity and neoplastic transformation of gut pacemaker cells (interstitial cells of Cajal). On the basis of the involvement of these RTKs in the pathogenesis of these disorders, Ménétrier disease patients have been effectively treated with a blocking monoclonal antibody specific for EGFR and GIST patients with KIT and PDGFRA tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:17200708

  15. Effects of Acidity and Stress on Stomach Motility, Assessed by Biomagnetic Technique: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova-Fraga, T.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.

    2004-09-01

    The human stomach is a J shaped hollowed organ that undergoes a variable luminal volume without significant pressure changes. This organ has two valves: the cardiac localized in the upper part, and the pillory on the lower part of the organ respectively. The main functions of these valves are to storage, carry, triturate and empty the lumen content. However, their activity could be affected for different agents such as chemical stimulus (alcoholic beverages) and psychological stress. In this contribution we show by the first time, the importance of biomagnetic signal technique in order to measure the human stomach peristaltic frequency in healthy subjects who were evaluated in basal conditions, and after to be submitted at the effects of: acidity caused by alcoholic beverages and psychological stress.

  16. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Stomach and Small Bowel

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, Brian D.; Pan, Charlie C.; Dawson, Laura A.; Das, Shiva K.; Li, X. Allen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Miften, Moyed

    2010-03-01

    Published data suggest that the risk of moderately severe (>=Grade 3) radiation-induced acute small-bowel toxicity can be predicted with a threshold model whereby for a given dose level, D, if the volume receiving that dose or greater (VD) exceeds a threshold quantity, the risk of toxicity escalates. Estimates of VD depend on the means of structure segmenting (e.g., V15 = 120 cc if individual bowel loops are outlined or V45 = 195 cc if entire peritoneal potential space of bowel is outlined). A similar predictive model of acute toxicity is not available for stomach. Late small-bowel/stomach toxicity is likely related to maximum dose and/or volume threshold parameters qualitatively similar to those related to acute toxicity risk. Concurrent chemotherapy has been associated with a higher risk of acute toxicity, and a history of abdominal surgery has been associated with a higher risk of late toxicity.

  17. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.; Wei, J.; Zheng, Z.; Ye, J.; Zeng, S.

    2014-06-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM.

  18. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacous for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted. PMID:17207273

  19. A Rare Case of Phyllodes Tumor Metastasis to the Stomach Presenting as Anemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Do Il; Chi, Ho Seok; Lee, Sang Ho; Kwon, Youngmee; Park, Seog Yun; Sim, Sung Hoon; Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok

    2016-09-01

    Metastasis of a phyllodes tumor to the stomach is an extremely rare condition with important clinical implications. A 44-year-old woman was initially diagnosed with a phyllodes tumor in her right breast in 2008, and subsequently presented to an out-patient clinic with dizziness on December 16, 2013. We found that she had severe anemia (hemoglobin levels: 6.7 g/dL), and we quickly performed esophagogastroduodenoscopy to identify the cause. This procedure revealed large ulcerofungating masses with active bleeding in the stomach. Histopathological examination revealed that the masses were consistent with phyllodes tumor metastases. In patients with a metastatic phyllodes tumor presenting as anemia, gastric metastasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses because overlooking the possibility might have dire consequences if cytotoxic chemotherapy were administered.

  20. Prey ingestion revealed by oesophagus and stomach temperature recordings in cormorants.

    PubMed

    Ancel, A; Horning, M; Kooyman, G L

    1997-01-01

    We examined the accuracy of both stomach and oesophagus temperature sensors-deployed on captive Brandt's cormorants-for determination of the mass of food ingested and the number of prey items swallowed. The oesophageal temperature sensor was a better detector of all feeding events, including that of small prey which were missed by the stomach sensor. Adapted to free-ranging animals (and coupled to data loggers for recording seawater temperature), oesophagus temperature recorders, in conjunction with both recordings of energy expenditure (e.g. doubly labelled water, heart rate) and determination of position (e.g. Argos transmitter, time/depth recorder), should provide further important insights into the foraging success of marine endotherms.