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Sample records for adult grade ii

  1. Molecular genetics of adult grade II gliomas: towards a comprehensive tumor classification system.

    PubMed

    Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Bouvier, Corinne; de Paula, André Maues; Mokhtari, Karima; Colin, Carole; Loundou, Anderson; Chinot, Olivier; Metellus, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Adult grade II low-grade gliomas (LGG) are classified according to the WHO as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas or mixed gliomas. TP53 mutations and 1p19q codeletion are the main molecular abnormalities recorded, respectively, in astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and in mixed gliomas. Although IDH mutations (IDH1 or IDH2) are recorded in up to 85 % of low-grade gliomas, IDH negative gliomas do occur. We have searched for p53 expression, 1p19q codeletion and IDH status (immunohistochemical detection of the common R132H IDH1 mutation and IDH direct sequencing). Internexin alpha (INA) expression previously recorded to be associated with 1p19q codeletion (1p19q+) gliomas was also analysed. Low-grade gliomas were accurately classified into four groups: group 1, IDH+/p53-/1p19q-; group 2, IDH+/p53-/1p19q+; group 3, IDH+/p53+/1p19q-; and group 4, triple negative gliomas. In contrast to the WHO classification, this molecular classification predicts overall survival on uni- and multivariate analysis (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively). Group 4 carries the worst prognosis and group 2 the best. Interestingly, p53 +/INA- expression predicts lack of 1p19q codeletion (specificity 100 %, VPP 100 %). The combined use of these three molecular markers allow for an accurate prediction of survival in LGG. These findings could significantly modify LGG classification and may represent a new tool to guide patient-tailored therapy. Moreover, immunohistochemical detection of p53, INA and mR132H IDH1 expression could represent an interesting prescreening test to be performed before 1p19q codeletion, IDH1 minor mutation and IDH2 mutation detection.

  2. Gadobutrol Versus Gadopentetate Dimeglumine or Gadobenate Dimeglumine Before DCE-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Multiple Sclerosis, Grade II-IV Glioma, or Brain Metastases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-22

    Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Brain; Multiple Sclerosis; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm

  3. Hemiparesis after Operation of Astrocytoma Grade II in Adults: Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory-Motor Behavior and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haibo; Schröder, Sven; Li, Zhifeng; Yang, Ying; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xingxian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on hemiparesis and quality of life for adults with brain astrocytoma grade II, we conducted a randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial. Fifty-eight patients were randomized to standard rehabilitation (SR) therapy without acupuncture (n = 20), SR plus standard acupuncture (SA) (n = 19), and SR plus individualized acupuncture (IA) (n = 19). SA points were PC6, SP6, HT1, LU5, BL40, and ST36, while a special concept called “connecting and regulation Ren and Du” and “Jin-3-needling” served as IA. This treatment was individualized according to the clinical syndrome. The outcome was measured by the Barthel Index (BI), the Fugl-Meyer scale (FM), and the EORTC Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) with the Brain Cancer Module (BCM20). IA + SR reached significantly higher BI scores than SA + SR, which reached significantly higher BI scores than SR. IA + SR was significantly superior to SA + SR and to SR at the 8th week for the scores of FM motor and sensory assessments and most QLQ-C30-BCM20 items. In conclusion, the individualized acupuncture concept of “connecting and regulating Ren and Du” combined with “Jin-3-needling” offers a promising possibility for the treatment of hemiparesis due to astrocytoma, but further evaluation is mandatory. PMID:23864900

  4. The molecular biology of WHO grade II gliomas.

    PubMed

    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    The WHO grading scheme for glial neoplasms assigns Grade II to 5 distinct tumors of astrocytic or oligodendroglial lineage: diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Although commonly referred to collectively as among the "low-grade gliomas," these 5 tumors represent molecularly and clinically unique entities. Each is the subject of active basic research aimed at developing a more complete understanding of its molecular biology, and the pace of such research continues to accelerate. Additionally, because managing and predicting the course of these tumors has historically proven challenging, translational research regarding Grade II gliomas continues in the hopes of identifying novel molecular features that can better inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies. Unfortunately, the basic and translational literature regarding the molecular biology of WHO Grade II gliomas remains nebulous. The authors' goal for this review was to present a comprehensive discussion of current knowledge regarding the molecular characteristics of these 5 WHO Grade II tumors on the chromosomal, genomic, and epigenomic levels. Additionally, they discuss the emerging evidence suggesting molecular differences between adult and pediatric Grade II gliomas. Finally, they present an overview of current strategies for using molecular data to classify low-grade gliomas into clinically relevant categories based on tumor biology.

  5. Proton Beam Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Melanocytic Lesion; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  6. Radiation Treatment for WHO Grade II and III Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Nahed, Brian V; Brastianos, Priscilla K; Loeffler, Jay S

    2013-09-02

    The treatment of meningiomas is tailored to their histological grade. While World Health Organization (WHO) grade I lesions can be treated with either surgery or external beam radiation, WHO Grade II and III lesions often require a combination of the two modalities. For these high-grade lesions, conventional external beam radiation is delivered to either the residual tumor or the surgical resection margin. The optimal timing of radiation, either immediately following surgical resection or at the time of recurrence, is yet to be determined. Additionally, another method of radiation delivery, brachytherapy, can be administered locally at the time of surgery for recurrent lesions. Altogether, the complex nature of WHO grade II and III meningiomas requires careful treatment planning and delivery by a multidisciplinary team.

  7. Communications and Media: Grade 7. Cluster II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Communications and Media." It is divided into six units: advertising, film and photography, radio and television, journalism and publishing, library and periodicals, and transocean communications. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the…

  8. Social Studies, Grade 3. Teaching Systems II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    The overall social studies recommended program is described in SO 000 675; the nature of this guide, and the emphasis and organization of the units are described in SO 000 679. The three units in this part of the third grade course are: Tropical Rainforest, Mountain Communities, and Grassland Communities involving the typical climatic conditions,…

  9. Health Occupations: Grade 8. Cluster II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Health Occupations." It is divided into four units: the hospital, preventive medicine, drug use and abuse, and alcohol and tobacco. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's purpose, main ideas, quests, and a list of career…

  10. Home Economics II. Basic Core. Tenth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ann

    Seven home economics curriculum areas for grade 10 are presented in this guide, with each area consisting of one or more instructional units as follows: (1) Career Exploration (obtaining a job, progress on the job, business etiquette); (2) Child Development (guiding the preschool child, middle childhood); (3) Clothing and Textiles (labeling,…

  11. Adult Hispanic ESL Students and Graded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Liza E.

    2013-01-01

    Adult Hispanic ESL students in rural San Luis, Arizona, face a challenging situation. Since San Luis lies on the southwestern tip of Arizona and borders with Mexico, Spanish is the predominant language. English, on the other hand, is mostly heard in classrooms. This can be a predicament for adult Hispanics who need to be proficient in English in…

  12. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53 and micro vessel density: Grade II vs. Grade III astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Malhan, Priya; Husain, Nuzhat; Bhalla, Shalini; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Mazhar

    2010-01-01

    Histological classification and grading are prime procedures in the management of patients with astrocytoma, providing vital data for therapeutic decision making and prognostication. However, it has limitations in assessing biological tumor behavior. This can be overcome by using newer immunohistochemical techniques. This study was carried out to compare proliferative indices using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), extent of p53 expression and micro vessel morphometric parameters in patients with low grade and anaplastic astrocytoma. Twenty-five patients, each of grade II and grade III astrocytoma were evaluated using monoclonal antibodies to PCNA, p53 protein and factor VIII related antigen. PCNA, p53-labeling indices were calculated along with micro vessel morphometric analysis using Biovis Image plus Software. Patients with grade III astrocytoma had higher PCNA and p53 labeling indices as compared with grade II astrocytoma (29.14 plus/minus 9.87% vs. 16.84 plus/minus 6.57%, p 0.001; 18.18 plus/minus 6.14% vs. 6.14 plus/minus 7.23%, p 0.001, respectively). Micro vessel percentage area of patients with grade III astrocytoma was also (4.26 plus/minus 3.70 vs. 1.05 plus/minus 0.56, p 0.001), higher along with other micro vessel morphometric parameters. Discordance between histology and one or more IHC parameters was seen in 5/25 (20%) of patients with grade III astrocytoma and 9/25 (36%) of patients with grade II disease. PCNA and p53 labeling indices were positively correlated with Pearson's correlation, p less than 0.001 for both). Increased proliferative fraction, genetic alterations and neovascularization mark biological aggressiveness in astrocytoma. Immunohistochemical evaluation scores over meet the challenge of accurate prognostication of this potentially fatal malignancy.

  13. Curriculum Frameworks for Grades 9-12, Adult Basic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Public Schools.

    This manual provides Florida language arts curriculum frameworks for grades 9-12 and for adult basic education. Subject areas include: reading, semantics and logic, literature, journalism, mass media, speech, debate, writing, business English, and English as a second language. Each framework contains a header and four sections: (1) major…

  14. High expression of the stem cell marker nestin is an adverse prognostic factor in WHO grade II-III astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Foong, Chan; Raisanen, Jack M.; Oliver, Dwight; Hiemenz, Matthew C.; Burns, Dennis K.; White, Charles L.; Whitworth, L. Anthony; Mickey, Bruce; Stegner, Martha; Habib, Amyn A.; Fink, Karen; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Bachoo, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Infiltrating astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas of low to anaplastic grade (WHO grades II and III), in spite of being associated with a wide range of clinical outcomes, can be difficult to subclassify and grade by the current histopathologic criteria. Unlike oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas that can be identified by the 1p/19q codeletion and the more malignant glioblastomas (WHO grade IV astrocytomas) that can be diagnosed solely based on objective features on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections, no such objective criteria exist for the subclassification of grade II-III astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas (A+OA II-III). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of the stem cell marker nestin in adult A+OA II-III (n=50) using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted analysis on tissue microarrays. In addition, the correlation between nestin mRNA level and total survival was analyzed in the NCI Rembrandt database. The results showed that high nestin expression is a strong adverse prognostic factor for total survival (p=0.0004). The strength of the correlation was comparable to but independent of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH 1/2) mutation status. Histopathological grading and subclassification did not correlate significantly with outcome, although the interpretation of this finding is limited by the fact that grade III tumors were treated more aggressively than grade II tumors. These results suggest that nestin level and IDH 1/2 mutation status are strong prognostic features in A+OA II-III and possibly more helpful for treatment planning than routine histopathological variables such as oligodendroglial component (astrocytoma vs. oligoastrocytoma) and WHO grade (grade II vs. III). PMID:24519516

  15. High expression of the stem cell marker nestin is an adverse prognostic factor in WHO grade II-III astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Hu, Tianshen; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Foong, Chan; Raisanen, Jack M; Oliver, Dwight; Hiemenz, Matthew C; Burns, Dennis K; White, Charles L; Whitworth, L Anthony; Mickey, Bruce; Stegner, Martha; Habib, Amyn A; Fink, Karen; Maher, Elizabeth A; Bachoo, Robert M

    2014-03-01

    Infiltrating astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas of low to anaplastic grade (WHO grades II and III), in spite of being associated with a wide range of clinical outcomes, can be difficult to subclassify and grade by the current histopathologic criteria. Unlike oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas that can be identified by the 1p/19q codeletion and the more malignant glioblastomas (WHO grade IV astrocytomas) that can be diagnosed solely based on objective features on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections, no such objective criteria exist for the subclassification of grade II-III astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas (A+OA II-III). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of the stem cell marker nestin in adult A+OA II-III (n = 50) using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted analysis on tissue microarrays. In addition, the correlation between nestin mRNA level and total survival was analyzed in the NCI Rembrandt database. The results showed that high nestin expression is a strong adverse prognostic factor for total survival (p = 0.0004). The strength of the correlation was comparable to but independent of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH 1/2) mutation status. Histopathological grading and subclassification did not correlate significantly with outcome, although the interpretation of this finding is limited by the fact that grade III tumors were treated more aggressively than grade II tumors. These results suggest that nestin level and IDH 1/2 mutation status are strong prognostic features in A+OA II-III and possibly more helpful for treatment planning than routine histopathological variables such as oligodendroglial component (astrocytoma vs. oligoastrocytoma) and WHO grade (grade II vs. III).

  16. Adult Education in Israel, II-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Pinnes, Noy, Ed.

    This is the second booklet in English that deals with adult education in Israel. The following papers are included: "Editors' Notes" (Paul Kirmayer, Noy Pinnes); "Introduction" (Meir Peretz); "Defining 'Adult Education'" (Yehezkel Cohen); "Planning Study Programs for Adults" (Rachel Tokatli); "The Role…

  17. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book II: Grades 6 and 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    The document contains eight activity sets suitable for grades 6 and 7. Topics focus on governmental, social, and educational systems in foreign countries. Each activity set contains background reading materials, resources, concepts, general objectives, and instructional objectives. Grade 6 sets are "Soviet Youth Organizations,""How…

  18. Middle Grade Students' Responses to Canadian Realistic Fiction for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latshaw, Jessica L. K.

    1991-01-01

    Student responses to Canadian realistic fiction for young adults were examined for four seventh grade girls and three seventh grade boys. Interview findings support the view that students should have a role in selecting what they read, should talk about reading informally, and should construct representations less influenced by teacher responses.…

  19. Bicentennial Source Book, Level II, Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Nancy; And Others

    This study activities source book is one of a series of four developed by the Carroll County Public School System, Maryland, for celebration of the Bicentennial. It is specifically designed to generate ideas integrating the Bicentennial celebration into various disciplines, classroom activities, and school-wide events at the third grade through…

  20. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  1. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme I and Theme II. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document was designed to assist teachers who are helping ninth grade students in New York City learn scientific concepts. In addition, the guide emphasizes basic reasoning skills which underlie problem-solving processes in scientific and nonscientific disciplines. The first section of the guide contains lessons on what a scientist does,…

  2. Clinical evaluation of guided tissue regeneration procedure in the treatment of grade II mandibular molar furcations.

    PubMed

    Prathibha, P K; Faizuddin, M; Pradeep, A R

    2002-01-01

    The management of furcation defects remains a challenge in periodontal therapy, Traditionally, furcation therapy involved scaling, rootplaning, furcation plasty and resective techniques. The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the potential of guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of mandibular molar grade II furcations using a nonresorbable barrier, TefGen-GTR and compare it with open flap debridement alone. Ten patients with similar bilateral grade II furcation lesions participated in the study. TefGen-GTR was placed in the experimental sites while the contralateral sites served as controls. Treatment effects were evaluated at six months reentry. Both groups showed gain in vertical and horizontal open probing attachment and defect depth reduction when compared to baseline values, with experimental sites showing statistically significant improvement over the controls. The results suggest that the nonresorbable Teflon barrier, TefGen-GTR, may be used as an alternative for treatment of grade II furcation invasions.

  3. Changes in joint space width during Kaltenborn traction according to traction grade in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Gui-do; Kim, Tae-ho; Lim, Jin-yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the joint space width of the humeral head and glenoid fossa during traction under 2 grade conditions (grade 2/grade 3). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy male adults who had not experienced any shoulder injury. Three radiographs were obtained with the subjects in the supine position (resting, grades 2 and 3). The glenohumeral joint space was examined on radiography. Joint space width was measured by a radiologist at the points described by Petersson and Redlund-Johnell. A radiologist blinded to the variable “resting” or “traction” performed all radiographic measurements. The joint space widths were compared by using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The results of this study indicated significant differences in the changes in joint space width according to traction grade. Compared to resting, grades 2 and 3 traction significantly increased joint space width. However, no significant difference in joint space width was found between grades 2 and 3 traction. [Conclusion] Although no significant differences were found between grades 2 and 3 traction during glenohumeral joint traction, the increase in joint space width between the glenoid fossa and humeral head was highest during grade 3 traction. PMID:26957767

  4. Changes in joint space width during Kaltenborn traction according to traction grade in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Moon, Gui-do; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the joint space width of the humeral head and glenoid fossa during traction under 2 grade conditions (grade 2/grade 3). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy male adults who had not experienced any shoulder injury. Three radiographs were obtained with the subjects in the supine position (resting, grades 2 and 3). The glenohumeral joint space was examined on radiography. Joint space width was measured by a radiologist at the points described by Petersson and Redlund-Johnell. A radiologist blinded to the variable "resting" or "traction" performed all radiographic measurements. The joint space widths were compared by using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The results of this study indicated significant differences in the changes in joint space width according to traction grade. Compared to resting, grades 2 and 3 traction significantly increased joint space width. However, no significant difference in joint space width was found between grades 2 and 3 traction. [Conclusion] Although no significant differences were found between grades 2 and 3 traction during glenohumeral joint traction, the increase in joint space width between the glenoid fossa and humeral head was highest during grade 3 traction.

  5. The C. elegans adult neuronal IIS/FOXO transcriptome reveals adult phenotype regulators.

    PubMed

    Kaletsky, Rachel; Lakhina, Vanisha; Arey, Rachel; Williams, April; Landis, Jessica; Ashraf, Jasmine; Murphy, Coleen T

    2016-01-07

    Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS) is a critical regulator of an organism's most important biological decisions from growth, development, and metabolism to reproduction and longevity. It primarily does so through the activity of the DAF-16 transcription factor (forkhead box O (FOXO) homologue), whose global targets were identified in Caenorhabditis elegans using whole-worm transcriptional analyses more than a decade ago. IIS and FOXO also regulate important neuronal and adult behavioural phenotypes, such as the maintenance of memory and axon regeneration with age, in both mammals and C. elegans, but the neuron-specific IIS/FOXO targets that regulate these functions are still unknown. By isolating adult C. elegans neurons for transcriptional profiling, we identified both the wild-type and IIS/FOXO mutant adult neuronal transcriptomes for the first time. IIS/FOXO neuron-specific targets are distinct from canonical IIS/FOXO-regulated longevity and metabolism targets, and are required for extended memory in IIS daf-2 mutants. The activity of the forkhead transcription factor FKH-9 in neurons is required for the ability of daf-2 mutants to regenerate axons with age, and its activity in non-neuronal tissues is required for the long lifespan of daf-2 mutants. Together, neuron-specific and canonical IIS/FOXO-regulated targets enable the coordinated extension of neuronal activities, metabolism, and longevity under low-insulin signalling conditions.

  6. Through My Eyes: A Child's View of World War II. Appropriate for Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Margaret

    This activity book is designed for grades 5-8 to look at America at home during World War II. The work examines the efforts of the men, women, and children who supported and supplied one of the greatest mobilizations of people and material that the world has ever witnessed. The activities were planned to compliment the exhibit of the same name,…

  7. Consumer Mathematics II--M612. Grades 9-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton Township Schools, Trenton, NJ. Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Consumer Mathematics II is described as a one-year course for students in grades 9-12 who choose not to take an algebra course, but who need to broaden their mathematical understanding and skills. This curriculum guide is designed to be used in conjunction with a planbook and used as a resource in terms of long-range (semester or year) and…

  8. Recognition of Facial Expressions and Prosodic Cues with Graded Emotional Intensities in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doi, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Kanai, Chieko; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yokoi, Hideki; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of adults with Asperger syndrome to recognize emotional categories of facial expressions and emotional prosodies with graded emotional intensities. The individuals with Asperger syndrome showed poorer recognition performance for angry and sad expressions from both facial and vocal information. The group…

  9. Supratentorial extraventricular WHO grade III (anaplastic) ependymoma 17 years after total removal of WHO grade II ependymoma of the fourth ventricle.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naoya; Nishihara, Masamitsu; Harada, Tomoaki; Kidoguchi, Keiji; Hashimoto, Kimio

    2017-04-01

    We report a WHO grade III ependymoma of the supratentorial interhemispheric fissure and grew to form a large mass with anaplastic transformation without local recurrence 17 years after the total removal of a fourth ventricular WHO grade II ependymoma. We emphasize the necessity of long-term follow-up, even in benign ependymomas.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Segal, Daniel L; Coolidge, Frederick L; Cahill, Brian S; O'Riley, Alisa A

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as a self-administered screening tool for depressive symptoms were examined in a sample of community-dwelling older and younger adults. Participants completed the BDI-II, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Short Psychological Well-Being Scale. Internal reliability of the BDI-II was found to be good among older and younger adults. The average BDI-II depression score did not differ between younger and older adults. Solid evidence for convergent and discriminant validity was demonstrated by correlations between the BDI-II with the other measures. The BDI-II appears to have strong psychometric support as a screening measure for depression among older adults in the general population. Implications for using the BDI-II as an assessment instrument in behaviorally based psychotherapy are discussed.

  11. Predicting the outcome of grade II glioma treated with temozolomide using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Guillevin, R; Menuel, C; Taillibert, S; Capelle, L; Costalat, R; Abud, L; Habas, C; De Marco, G; Hoang-Xuan, K; Chiras, J; Vallée, J-N

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) for monitoring the WHO grade II glioma (low-grade glioma (LGG)) treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Methods: This prospective study included adult patients with progressive LGG that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Temozolomide was administered at every 28 days. Response to TMZ was evaluated by monthly MRI examinations that included MRI with volumetric calculations and 1H-MRS for assessing Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios. Univariate, multivariate and receiver-operating characteristic statistical analyses were performed on the results. Results: A total of 21 LGGs from 31 patients were included in the study, and followed for at least n=14 months during treatment. A total of 18 (86%) patients experienced a decrease in tumour volume with a greater decrease of metabolic ratios. Subsequently, five (28%) of these tumours resumed growth despite the continuation of TMZ administration with an earlier increase of metabolic ratios of 2 months. Three (14%) patients did not show any volume or metabolic change. The evolutions of the metabolic ratios, mean(Cho/Cr)n and mean(Cho/NAA)n, were significantly correlated over time (Spearman ρ=+0.95) and followed a logarithmic regression (P>0.001). The evolutions over time of metabolic ratios, mean(Cho/Cr)n and mean(Cho/NAA)n, were significantly correlated with the evolution of the mean relative decrease of tumour volume, mean(ΔVn/Vo), according to a linear regression (P<0.001) in the ‘response/no relapse' patient group, and with the evolution of the mean tumour volume (meanVn), according to an exponential regression (P<0.001) in the ‘response/relapse' patient group. The mean relative decrease of metabolic ratio, mean(Δ(Cho/Cr)n/(Cho/Cr)o), at n=3 months was predictive of tumour response over the 14 months of follow-up. The mean relative change between metabolic ratios, mean((Cho/NAA)n−(Cho/Cr)n)/(Cho/NAA)n, at n=4 months was

  12. Treatment of Adult Lower-Grade Glioma in the Era of Genomic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Susan M; Cahill, Daniel P; Aldape, Kenneth D; Mehta, Minesh P

    2016-01-01

    By convention, gliomas are histopathologically classified into four grades by the World Health Organization (WHO) legacy criteria, in which increasing grade is associated with worse prognosis and grades also are subtyped by presumed cell of origin. This classification has prognostic value but is limited by wide variability of outcome within each grade, so the classification is rapidly undergoing dramatic re-evaluation in the context of a superior understanding of the biologic heterogeneity and molecular make-up of these tumors, such that we now recognize that some low-grade gliomas behave almost like malignant glioblastoma, whereas other anaplastic gliomas have outcomes comparable to favorable low-grade gliomas. This clinical spectrum is partly accounted for by the dispersion of several molecular genetic alterations inherent to clinical tumor behavior. These molecular biomarkers have become important not only as prognostic factors but also, more critically, as predictive markers to drive therapeutic decision making. Some of these, in the near future, will likely also serve as potential therapeutic targets. In this article, we summarize the key molecular features of clinical significance for WHO grades II and III gliomas and underscore how the therapeutic landscape is changing.

  13. [Modern approach to WHO grade II glioma classification and treatment--review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Recławowicz, Daniel; Stempniewicz, Mirosław; Biernat, Wojciech; Słoniewski, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Although WHO grade II gliomas are slowly growing tumours, they inevitably show local recurrence and progression to higher grade counterparts. Progressive trials become time-consuming and troublesome because of relatively long survival and multimodal therapy. Recent discoveries in molecular pathology have divided patients into subgroups with different prognosis and expected response to therapy. Development did not omit surgical techniques, in particular intraoperative imaging and electrostimulation. The aim of radiotherapy development is preservation of the surroundings of the region of interest. Chemotherapy yields promising results notably with the possibility to choose patients with the best expected response. We present the current state of knowledge regarding these neoplasms.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Daniel L.; Coolidge, Frederick L.; Cahill, Brian S.; O'Riley, Alisa A.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as a self-administered screening tool for depressive symptoms were examined in a sample of community-dwelling older and younger adults. Participants completed the BDI-II, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, the Perceived…

  15. The Midwest. Grade Five (Unit II). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Unit II of regional studies for grade five is arranged into three sub-units which comprise two case studies and look at the Midwest region as a whole. The objective of the case studies is to illustrate factors which bring about changing use of the land. Sub-unit one, a case study on Twin Cities, traces the cities' development from the days when…

  16. Sixth Grade Students' Development of Historical Perspective: World War II and the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Masato

    This study investigated how the use of various teaching methods influenced perspective taking skills of sixth grade middle school students during a unit of instruction on World War II. Three questions directed the study: (1) What do students know about World War II prior to a unit of study on World War II; (2) What do students know about World War…

  17. The Impact of Gerontology Inclusion on 12th Grade Student Perceptions of Aging, Older Adults and Working with Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krout, John A.; McKernan, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the impact of including lessons on aging in a 12th grade social studies course on student perceptions of aging and older adults, working with older persons, and knowledge of "facts" on aging. Pre/post-test data were collected from approximately 650 upstate New York 12th grade students enrolled in a government…

  18. Immunotherapy for high-grade glioma: how to go beyond Phase I/II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    van Gool, Stefaan

    2013-10-01

    Evaluation of: Lasky JL 3rd, Panosyan EH, Plant A et al. Autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell immunotherapy for pediatric patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent high-grade gliomas. Anticancer Res. 33, 2047-2056 (2013). Immunotherapy for children and adults with high-grade glioma (HGG) is an emerging innovative treatment approach, which aims at stimulating the body's own immune system against HGG by using autologous dendritic cells pulsed with autologous tumor lysate as a therapeutic vaccine. This is the third report on immunotherapy for HGG in children, bringing additional knowledge and experience to the scientific community. However, at the same time, this and other manuscripts urge for the next step in treatment development.

  19. [Relationship between grade I and II inflammatory foci and certain inflammatory ophthalmic diseases].

    PubMed

    Ilewicz, L; Ciechocińska, J; Chruściel, H

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of the study was demonstration of relations between grade I and II inflammatory foci in the oral cavity and certain inflammatory diseases of the eyes. Forty-three patients of either sex were studied. They were aged 19 to 78 years and were referred with the diagnosis of optic neuritis (intraocular and retrobulbar), iritis, retinitis and keratitis. Apart from routine clinical and radiological investigations the electrocutaneous test, the test for pulp viability with faradic current, and Schüller's iodine test were done. In 31 patients the electrocutaneous test was positive.

  20. Symptomatic Adjacent Segment Pathology after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Adult Low-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Yamashita, Tomoya; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohzono, Kenji; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after fusion surgery for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) has been reported to be relatively low compared with other lumbar disease entities. However, there has been no study of symptomatic ASP incidence using posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with pedicle screw instrumentation. We investigated the incidence of symptomatic ASP after PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation for adult low-grade IS and identified significant risk factors for symptomatic ASP. We retrospectively studied records of 40 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with pedicle screw instrumentation at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Japan. The patients were followed for ≥ 4 years. Patients' medical records were retrospectively examined for evidence of symptomatic ASP. Age at time of surgery, sex, fusion level, whole lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, preexisting laminar inclination angle, and facet tropism at the cranial fusion segment were analyzed to identify risk factors for symptomatic ASP. Four patients (ASP group) developed symptomatic ASP at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion. There were no significant differences in age, sex, fusion level, lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, or facet tropism at the cranial segment adjacent to the fusion between the ASP and the non-ASP groups. In contrast, laminar inclination angle at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was significantly higher in the ASP group than in the non-ASP group. Four patients (10%) developed symptomatic ASP after PLIF with transpedicular fixation for adult low-grade IS. Preexisting laminar horizontalization at the cranial vertebra adjacent to the fusion was a significant risk factor for symptomatic ASP. PMID:24436872

  1. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. II: Graded testing.

    PubMed

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a graded approach to the testing of crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods based on concern levels in a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) and currently available testing methods. A graded approach offers the potential for more efficient use of testing resources by focusing less on lower concern GM foods, and more on higher concern foods. In this proposed approach to graded testing, products that are classified as Level I would have met baseline testing requirements that are comparable to what is widely applied to premarket assessment of GM foods at present. In most cases, Level I products would require no further testing, or very limited confirmatory analyses. For products classified as Level II or higher, additional testing would be required, depending on the type of the substance, prior dietary history, estimated exposure level, prior knowledge of toxicity of the substance, and the nature of the concern related to unintended changes in the modified food. Level III testing applies only to the assessment of toxic and antinutritional effects from intended changes and is tailored to the nature of the substance in question. Since appropriate test methods are not currently available for all effects of concern, future research to strengthen the testing of GM foods is discussed.

  2. A Probabilistic Atlas of Diffuse WHO Grade II Glioma Locations in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cédric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Yordanova, Yordanka; Blonski, Marie; Rigau, Valérie; Chemouny, Stéphane; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Paragios, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse WHO grade II gliomas are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors characterized by an unavoidable anaplastic transformation. Their management is strongly dependent on their location in the brain due to interactions with functional regions and potential differences in molecular biology. In this paper, we present the construction of a probabilistic atlas mapping the preferential locations of diffuse WHO grade II gliomas in the brain. This is carried out through a sparse graph whose nodes correspond to clusters of tumors clustered together based on their spatial proximity. The interest of such an atlas is illustrated via two applications. The first one correlates tumor location with the patient’s age via a statistical analysis, highlighting the interest of the atlas for studying the origins and behavior of the tumors. The second exploits the fact that the tumors have preferential locations for automatic segmentation. Through a coupled decomposed Markov Random Field model, the atlas guides the segmentation process, and characterizes which preferential location the tumor belongs to and consequently which behavior it could be associated to. Leave-one-out cross validation experiments on a large database highlight the robustness of the graph, and yield promising segmentation results. PMID:26751577

  3. A Probabilistic Atlas of Diffuse WHO Grade II Glioma Locations in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Parisot, Sarah; Darlix, Amélie; Baumann, Cédric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Yordanova, Yordanka; Blonski, Marie; Rigau, Valérie; Chemouny, Stéphane; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Paragios, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse WHO grade II gliomas are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors characterized by an unavoidable anaplastic transformation. Their management is strongly dependent on their location in the brain due to interactions with functional regions and potential differences in molecular biology. In this paper, we present the construction of a probabilistic atlas mapping the preferential locations of diffuse WHO grade II gliomas in the brain. This is carried out through a sparse graph whose nodes correspond to clusters of tumors clustered together based on their spatial proximity. The interest of such an atlas is illustrated via two applications. The first one correlates tumor location with the patient's age via a statistical analysis, highlighting the interest of the atlas for studying the origins and behavior of the tumors. The second exploits the fact that the tumors have preferential locations for automatic segmentation. Through a coupled decomposed Markov Random Field model, the atlas guides the segmentation process, and characterizes which preferential location the tumor belongs to and consequently which behavior it could be associated to. Leave-one-out cross validation experiments on a large database highlight the robustness of the graph, and yield promising segmentation results.

  4. Therapeutic Targeting of Histone Modifications in Adult and Pediatric High-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Maria J.; Singleton, Will G. B.; Lowis, Stephen P.; Malik, Karim; Kurian, Kathreena M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent exciting work partly through The Cancer Genome Atlas has implicated epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications in the development of both pediatric and adult high-grade glioma (HGG). Histone lysine methylation has emerged as an important player in regulating gene expression and chromatin function. Lysine (K) 27 (K27) is a critical residue in all seven histone 3 variants and the subject of posttranslational histone modifications, as it can be both methylated and acetylated. In pediatric HGG, two critical single-point mutations occur in the H3F3A gene encoding the regulatory histone variant H3.3. These mutations occur at lysine (K) 27 (K27M) and glycine (G) 34 (G34R/V), both of which are involved with key regulatory posttranscriptional modifications. Therefore, these mutations effect gene expression, cell differentiation, and telomere maintenance. In recent years, alterations in histone acetylation have provided novel opportunities to explore new pharmacological targeting, with histone deacetylase (HDAC) overexpression reported in high-grade, late-stage proliferative tumors. HDAC inhibitors have shown promising therapeutic potential in many malignancies. This review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms propagating pediatric and adult HGGs, as well as summarizing the current advances in clinical trials using HDAC inhibitors.

  5. Recombinant expressions of sweet plant protein mabinlin II in Escherichia coli and food-grade Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenliang; Xia, Qiyu; Yao, Jing; Fu, Shaoping; Guo, Jianchun; Hu, Xinwen

    2015-04-01

    Sweet plant proteins, which are safe, natural, low-calorie sweeteners, may be suitable replacements for sugars in the food and beverage industries. Mabinlin II, a sweet plant protein, shows the most pronounced heat stability and acid resistance of any of the six known types of plant sweet proteins. However, mabinlin II is difficult to extract from the Capparis masaikai plant, which is itself becoming increasingly scarce. This limits the use of naturally acquired mabinlin II. In this study, recombinant mabinlin II proteins were expressed and purified in Escherichia coli and in food-grade Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant mabinlin II proteins MBL-BH (containing the B-chains of mabinlin II downstream fused with His-tag) and MBL-ABH (containing the A- and B-chains of mabinlin II downstream fused with His-tag) were expressed in E. coli in the form of inclusion bodies. They were then purified and renatured. The refolded MBL-BH was found to be 100 times sweeter than sucrose by weight, but it was not heat-stable. Refolded MBL-ABH was neither sweet nor heat-stable. Recombinant mabinlin II proteins were secreted and expressed intracellularly in food-grade L. lactis, in which the concentrated cell samples and culture medium samples were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis with anti-mabinlin II polyclonal antibody. This study demonstrated that the single B chain of mabinlin II has a sweet taste. The recombinant mabinlin II proteins have been successfully expressed in food-grade L. lactis, which is a crucial step in the production of mabinlin II through microorganism expression systems.

  6. IDH mutation status and role of WHO grade and mitotic index in overall survival in grade II-III diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Olar, Adriana; Wani, Khalida M; Alfaro-Munoz, Kristin D; Heathcock, Lindsey E; van Thuijl, Hinke F; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S; Sulman, Erik P; Cahill, Daniel P; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Yuan, Ying; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Ylstra, Bauke; Wesseling, Pieter; Aldape, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse gliomas are up till now graded based upon morphology. Recent findings indicate that isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status defines biologically distinct groups of tumors. The role of tumor grade and mitotic index in patient outcome has not been evaluated following stratification by IDH mutation status. To address this, we interrogated 558 WHO grade II-III diffuse gliomas for IDH1/2 mutations and investigated the prognostic impact of WHO grade within IDH-mutant and IDH-wild type tumor subsets independently. The prognostic impact of grade was modest in IDH-mutant [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.21, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.91-1.61] compared to IDH-wild type tumors (HR = 1.74, 95 % CI = 0.95-3.16). Using a dichotomized mitotic index cut-off of 4/1000 tumor cells, we found that while mitotic index was significantly associated with outcome in IDH-wild type tumors (log-rank p < 0.0001, HR = 4.41, 95 % CI = 2.55-7.63), it was not associated with outcome in IDH-mutant tumors (log-rank p = 0.5157, HR = 1.10, 95 % CI = 0.80-1.51), and could demonstrate a statistical interaction (p < 0.0001) between IDH mutation and mitotic index (i.e., suggesting that the effect of mitotic index on patient outcome is dependent on IDH mutation status). Patient age, an established prognostic factor in diffuse glioma, was significantly associated with outcome only in the IDH-wild type subset, and consistent with prior data, 1p/19q co-deletion conferred improved outcome in the IDH-mutant cohort. These findings suggest that stratification of grade II-III gliomas into subsets defined by the presence or absence of IDH mutation leads to subgroups with distinct prognostic characteristics. Further evaluation of grading criteria and prognostic markers is warranted within IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild type diffuse grade II-III gliomas as independent entities.

  7. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension.

  8. Phase II Trial of Radiotherapy After Hyperbaric Oxygenation With Multiagent Chemotherapy (Procarbazine, Nimustine, and Vincristine) for High-Grade Gliomas: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Inoue, Osamu; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Saito, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Iraha, Shiro; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Ariga, Takuro; Kasuya, Goro; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term results of a Phase II trial of radiotherapy given immediately after hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) with multiagent chemotherapy in adults with high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed high-grade gliomas were administered radiotherapy in daily 2 Gy fractions for 5 consecutive days per week up to a total dose of 60 Gy. Each fraction was administered immediately after HBO, with the time interval from completion of decompression to start of irradiation being less than 15 minutes. Chemotherapy consisting of procarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine and was administered during and after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 57 patients (39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas) were enrolled from 2000 to 2006, and the median follow-up of 12 surviving patients was 62.0 months (range, 43.2-119.1 months). All 57 patients were able to complete a total radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy immediately after HBO with one course of concurrent chemotherapy. The median overall survival times in all 57 patients, 39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas, were 20.2 months, 17.2 months, and 113.4 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, histologic grade alone was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p < 0.001). During treatments, no patients had neutropenic fever or intracranial hemorrhage, and no serious nonhematologic or late toxicities were seen in any of the 57 patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy delivered immediately after HBO with multiagent chemotherapy was safe, with virtually no late toxicities, and seemed to be effective in patients with high-grade gliomas.

  9. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion versus instrumented posterolateral fusion in Grade I/II spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pooswamy, Shanmugasundaram; Muralidharagopalan, Niranjanan Raghavn; Subbaiah, Sivasubramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spondylolisthesis refers to slippage of one vertebra over the other, which may be caused by a variety of reasons such as degenerative, trauma, and isthmic. Surgical management forms the mainstay of treatment to prevent further slip and worsening. However, there is no consensus regarding the best surgical option to treat these patients. This study compares TLIF and instrumented PLF in patients with Grade I and II spondylolisthesis and analysis the outcome with respect to functional outcome, pain, fusion rate, adequacy of medial facetectomy for decompression, and complications. Materials and Methods: Forty patients operated for spondylolisthesis by instrumented posterolateral or transforaminal fusion between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012 were included in this retrospective study. They were followed up for 3 years. Twenty one cases were of instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) and 19 cases were of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The patients were asked to fill up the Oswestry disability index (ODI), Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ), and low back pain rating scale (LBPRS) preoperatively, at 1-month postoperatively, and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. Radiological parameters were assessed using radiographs. Results: No significant differences were found in DPQ, LBPRS, or ODI scores preoperative, 1-month postoperative, and at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months followup. No significant difference was found between the two groups in blood loss. The only significant difference between the two groups was in the operative time, in which the instrumented PLF group had a mean of 50 min lesser than the TLIF group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: TLIF and instrumented PLF are equally efficacious options in the treatment of Grade I and II spondylolisthesis, except lytic type.

  10. NDRG1 prognosticates the natural course of disease in WHO grade II glioma.

    PubMed

    Blaes, J; Weiler, M; Sahm, F; Hentschel, B; Osswald, M; Czabanka, M; Thomé, C M; Schliesser, M G; Pusch, S; Luger, S; Winkler, F; Radbruch, A; Jugold, M; Simon, M; Steinbach, J P; Schackert, G; Tatagiba, M; Westphal, M; Tonn, J C; Gramatzki, D; Pietsch, T; Hartmann, C; Glimm, H; Vajkoczy, P; von Deimling, A; Platten, M; Weller, M; Wick, W

    2014-03-01

    There is a lack of relevant prognostic and predictive factors in neurooncology besides mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, codeletion of 1p/19q and promoter hypermethylation of O (6) -methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase. More importantly, there is limited translation of these factors into clinical practice. The cancer genome atlas data and also clinical correlative analyses suggest a pivotal role for the epidermal growth factor receptor /protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in both biology and the clinical course of gliomas. However, attempts to stratify gliomas by activating alterations in this pathway have failed thus far. The tumors of 40 patients with WHO grade II gliomas without immediate postoperative genotoxic treatment and known progression and survival status at a median follow-up of 12.2 years were analyzed for expression of the mTOR complex 2 downstream target N-myc downstream regulated gene (NDRG)1 using immunohistochemistry. Baseline characteristics for NDRG1 absent/low versus moderate/high patients were similar. Time to reintervention was significantly longer in the NDRG1 group (P = 0.026). NDRG1 may become a novel biomarker to guide the decision which WHO°II glioma patients may be followed without postsurgical intervention and which patients should receive genotoxic treatment early on. Validation of this hypothesis will be possible with the observational arm of the RTOG 9802 and the pretreatment step of the EORTC 22033/26032 trials.

  11. Recognition of facial expressions and prosodic cues with graded emotional intensities in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Kanai, Chieko; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yokoi, Hideki; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the ability of adults with Asperger syndrome to recognize emotional categories of facial expressions and emotional prosodies with graded emotional intensities. The individuals with Asperger syndrome showed poorer recognition performance for angry and sad expressions from both facial and vocal information. The group difference in facial expression recognition was prominent for stimuli with low or intermediate emotional intensities. In contrast to this, the individuals with Asperger syndrome exhibited lower recognition accuracy than typically-developed controls mainly for emotional prosody with high emotional intensity. In facial expression recognition, Asperger and control groups showed an inversion effect for all categories. The magnitude of this effect was less in the Asperger group for angry and sad expressions, presumably attributable to reduced recruitment of the configural mode of face processing. The individuals with Asperger syndrome outperformed the control participants in recognizing inverted sad expressions, indicating enhanced processing of local facial information representing sad emotion. These results suggest that the adults with Asperger syndrome rely on modality-specific strategies in emotion recognition from facial expression and prosodic information.

  12. Learning Science in Grades 3-8 Using Probeware and Computers: Findings from the TEEMSS II Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.; Tinker, Robert; Staudt, Carolyn; Mansfield, Amie; Metcalf, Shari

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science II project (TEEMSS), funded by the National Science Foundation, produced 15 inquiry-based instructional science units for teaching in grades 3-8. Each unit uses computers and probeware to support students' investigations of real-world phenomena using probes (e.g., for temperature or…

  13. The Effects of Adult-Oriented Advertising on First, Second, and Third Grade Children across Socioeconomic Bounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Richard Jay

    The purpose of this study was to examine the socializing effect the viewing of adult-oriented commercials has on young children of differing socioeconomic backgrounds. The subjects, 227 children in the first, second, and third grades, included 109 lower-socioeconomic-level black children and 118 white children representing upper-middle-income…

  14. An immuno-wall microdevice exhibits rapid and sensitive detection of IDH1-R132H mutation specific to grade II and III gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yamamichi, Akane; Kasama, Toshihiro; Ohka, Fumiharu; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kato, Akira; Motomura, Kazuya; Hirano, Masaki; Ranjit, Melissa; Chalise, Lushun; Kurimoto, Michihiro; Kondo, Goro; Aoki, Kosuke; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Matsubara, Toshio; Senga, Takeshi; Kaneko, Mika K.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hara, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kato, Yukinari; Natsume, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas most frequently occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Gliomas are not circumscribed; tumor edges are irregular and consist of tumor cells, normal brain tissue, and hyperplastic reactive glial cells. Therefore, the tumors are not fully resectable, resulting in recurrence, malignant progression, and eventual death. Approximately 69–80% of grade II and III gliomas harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), of which 83–90% are found to be the IDH1-R132H mutation. Detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation should help in the differential diagnosis of grade II and III gliomas from other types of CNS tumors and help determine the boundary between the tumor and normal brain tissue. In this study, we established a highly sensitive antibody-based device, referred to as the immuno-wall, to detect the IDH1-R132H mutation in gliomas. The immuno-wall causes an immunoreaction in microchannels fabricated using a photo-polymerizing polymer. This microdevice enables the analysis of the IDH1 status with a small sample within 15 min with substantially high sensitivity. Our results suggested that 10% content of the IDH1-R132H mutation in a sample of 0.33 μl volume, with 500 ng protein, or from 500 cells is theoretically sufficient for the analysis. The immuno-wall device will enable the rapid and highly sensitive detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation in routine clinical practice. PMID:27877908

  15. A better surgical resectability of WHO grade II gliomas is independent of favorable molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Dominik; Gozé, Catherine; Schädelin, Sabine; Rigau, Valérie; Mariani, Luigi; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    A higher extent of resection (EOR) in WHO grade II gliomas (GIIG) is correlated with longer survival. However, the molecular markers also feature prognostic relevance. Here, we examined whether maximal EOR was related to the genetic profile. We retrospectively investigated the predictive value of 1p19q, IDH1, 53 expression and Ki67 index for the EOR in 200 consecutive GIIGs (2007-2013). Data were modeled in a linear model. The analysis was performed with two statistical methods (arcsin-sqrt and Beta-regression model with logit link). There was no deletion 1p19q in 118 cases, codeletion 1p19q (57 cases), single deletion 1p (4 cases) or19q (16 cases). 155 patients had a mutation of IDH1. p53 was graded in 4 degrees (0:92 cases, 1:52 cases, 2:31 cases, 3:8 cases). Mean Ki67 index was 5.2 % (range 1-20 %). Mean preoperative tumor volume was 60.8 cm(3) (range 3.3-250 cm(3)) and mean EOR was 0.917 (range 0.574-1). The statistical analysis was significant for a lower EOR in patients with codeletion 1p19q (OR 0.738, p = 0.0463) and with a single deletion 19q (OR 0.641, p = 0.0168). There was no significant correlation between IDH1 or p53 and the EOR. Higher Ki67 was marginally associated with higher EOR (p = 0.0603). The study demonstrates in a large cohort of GIIG that a higher EOR is not attributable to favorable genetic markers. This original result supports maximal surgical resection as an important therapeutic factor per se to optimize prognosis, independently of the molecular pattern.

  16. Elements d'une Politique en Education des Adultes 1970, II (Elements of an Adult Education Policy, 1970, II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Adult Education, Montreal (Quebec).

    Based on a work paper on adult and continuing education policy formation for Quebec, this document modifies and supplements recommendations on the unemployed and other high priority clientele groups, adult education content and methodology, the training of adult educators, responsibilities of sponsoring bodies (including the mass media), Federal…

  17. Updated therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma stratified by resection and tumor subtype.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Iseki, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Soko; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Taichi; Tamura, Manabu; Chernov, Michael; Watanabe, Atsushi; Okamoto, Saori; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    The importance of surgical resection for patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma (LGG) remains controversial. This retrospective study of patients (n = 153) treated between 2000 to 2010 at a single institution assessed whether increasing the extent of resection (EOR) was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Histological subtypes of World Health Organization grade II tumors were as follows: diffuse astrocytoma in 49 patients (32.0%), oligoastrocytoma in 45 patients (29.4%), and oligodendroglioma in 59 patients (38.6%). Median pre- and postoperative tumor volumes and median EOR were 29.0 cm(3) (range 0.7-162 cm(3)) and 1.7 cm(3) (range 0-135.7 cm(3)) and 95%, respectively. Five- and 10-year OS for all LGG patients were 95.1% and 85.4%, respectively. Eight-year OS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 70.7%, 91.2%, and 98.3%, respectively. Five-year PFS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 42.6%, 71.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups by EOR ≥90% and <90%, and OS and PFS were analyzed. Both OS and PFS were significantly longer in patients with ≥90% EOR. Increased EOR resulted in better PFS for diffuse astrocytoma but not for oligodendroglioma. Multivariate analysis identified age and EOR as parameters significantly associated with OS. The only parameter associated with PFS was EOR. Based on these findings, we established updated therapeutic strategies for LGG. If surgery resulted in EOR <90%, patients with astrocytoma will require second-look surgery, whereas patients with oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma, which are sensitive to chemotherapy, will be treated with chemotherapy.

  18. Evaluation in Adult Literacy Research. Project ALERT. Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne Williams, Ed.

    This document contains an evaluation handbook for adult literacy programs and feedback from/regarding the evaluation instruments developed during the project titled Adult Literacy and Evaluation Research Team (also known as Project ALERT), a two-phase project initiated by the Detroit Literacy Coalition (DLC) for the purpose of developing and…

  19. Seizure characteristics and outcomes in 508 Chinese adult patients undergoing primary resection of low-grade gliomas: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    You, Gan; Sha, Zhi-Yi; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Li, Shao-Wu; Sang, Lin; Wang, Zi; Li, Gui-Lin; Li, Shou-Wei; Song, Yi-Jun; Kang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Tao

    2012-02-01

    Seizure is a common presenting manifestation and plays an important role in the clinical presentation and quality of life for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The authors set out to identify factors that influence preoperative seizure characteristics and postoperative seizure control. Cases involving adult patients who had undergone initial surgery for LGGs in a single institution between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control. Of the 508 patients in the series, 350 (68.9%) presented with seizures. Age less than 38 years and cortical involvement of tumor were more likely to be associated with seizures (P = .003 and .001, respectively, multivariate logistic analysis). For the cohort of 350 patients with seizures, Engel classification was used to evaluate 6- and 12-month outcome after surgery: completely seizure free (Engel class I), 65.3% and 62.5%; not seizure free (Engel classes II, III, IV), 34.7% and 37.5%. After multivariate logistic analysis, favorable seizure prognosis was more common in patients with secondary generalized seizure (P = .006) and with calcification on MRI (.031). With respect to treatment-related variables, patients achieved much better seizure control after gross total resection than after subtotal resection (P < .0001). Ki67 was an independent molecular marker predicting poor seizure control in the patients with a history of seizure if overexpressed but was not a predictor for those without preoperative seizures. These factors may provide insight into developing effective treatment strategies aimed at prolonging patients' survival.

  20. Early Stage W.H.O. Grade I and II Follicular Lymphoma Treated with Radiation Therapy Alone

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Naseer; Owen, Timothy E.; Rubinger, Morel; Williams, Gaynor; Nugent, Zoann; Ahmed, Shahida; Cooke, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the outcome of patients with stage I or II (limited stage), grade I–II follicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (FL) treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone as initial management. Methods Patients with stage I or II and pathologically confirmed WHO grade I or II FL treated initially with RT alone between 1982 and 2008 were identified from a population based cancer registry. Results Forty patients with a mean age 61.3 years at diagnosis were identified. The median follow up was 6.9 years from the end of radiation therapy. Stage was I (n = 26) and II (n = 14). None had B symptoms. The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) was low risk in 26 patients and intermediate risk in 5. Doses ranged from 15 Gy to 48 Gy, with a median dose of 35 Gy. All patients achieved a complete clinical response (CR). 5 and 10 year overall survival (OS) was 86% and 59%, progression free survival (PFS) 67% and 54%. Age ≥60 at diagnosis was associated with reduced OS, p = 0.029, but did not affect PFS. No other clinical features including grade or FLIPI were significant for outcomes. Local failure was uncommon occurring in 8% (3/40) although this was 21% (3/14) of all recurrences. Conclusions OS and PFS outcomes for radiation alone in limited stage low grade FL patients from this single institution study are consistent with previously published data. No predictors were prognostic for PFS. A dose of ≤35 Gy may be appropriate. In this highly selected homogeneous group the FLIPI loses discriminating ability. Local control is excellent, and a majority of patients are free of disease after 5 years. PMID:23762303

  1. Comparative effects of contraction and angiotensin II on growth of adult feline cardiocytes in primary culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, H.; Zile, M. R.; Ivester, C. T.; Cooper, G. 4th; McDermott, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether angiotensin II causes growth of adult feline cardiocytes in long-term culture, 2) to compare the growth effects of angiotensin II with those resulting from electrically stimulated contraction, and 3) to determine whether the anabolic effects of contraction are exerted via the angiotensin type 1 receptor. Adult feline cardiocytes were cultured on laminin-coated trays in a serum-free medium. Cardiocytes were either electrically stimulated to contract (1 Hz, 5-ms pulse duration, alternating polarity) or were nonstimulated and quiescent. Quiescent cells were studied as controls and after treatment with angiotensin II (10(-8) M), losartan (10(-6) M; an angiotensin type 1-receptor antagonist), or angiotensin II plus losartan. Contracting cells were studied in the presence and absence of angiotensin II or losartan. In quiescent cardiocytes, angiotensin II treatment on day 7 significantly increased protein synthesis rates by 22% and protein content per cell by 17%. The effects of angiotensin II were completely blocked by losartan. Electrically stimulated contraction on days 4 and 7 in culture significantly increased protein synthesis rate by 18 and 38% and protein content per cell by 19 and 46%, respectively. Angiotensin II treatment did not further increase protein synthesis rate or protein content in contracting cardiocytes. Furthermore, losartan did not block the anabolic effects of contraction on protein synthesis rates or protein content. In conclusion, angiotensin II can exert a modest anabolic effect on adult feline cardiocytes in culture. In contracting feline cardiocytes, angiotensin II has no effect on growth. Growth caused by electrically stimulated contraction occurs more rapidly and is greater in magnitude than that caused by angiotensin II. Growth of contracting adult feline cardiocytes is not dependent on activation of the angiotensin receptor.

  2. Multiparametric MRI-based differentiation of WHO grade II/III glioma and WHO grade IV glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wiestler, Benedikt; Kluge, Anne; Lukas, Mathias; Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Schlegel, Jürgen; Meyer, Bernhard; Zimmer, Claus; Förster, Stefan; Pyka, Thomas; Preibisch, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive, imaging-based examination of glioma biology has received increasing attention in the past couple of years. To this end, the development and refinement of novel MRI techniques, reflecting underlying oncogenic processes such as hypoxia or angiogenesis, has greatly benefitted this research area. We have recently established a novel BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent) based MRI method for the measurement of relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) in glioma patients. In a set of 37 patients with newly diagnosed glioma, we assessed the performance of a machine learning model based on multiple MRI modalities including rOEF and perfusion imaging to predict WHO grade. An oblique random forest machine learning classifier using the entire feature vector as input yielded a five-fold cross-validated area under the curve of 0.944, with 34/37 patients correctly classified (accuracy 91.8%). The most important features in this classifier as per bootstrapped feature importance scores consisted of standard deviation of T1-weighted contrast enhanced signal, maximum rOEF value and cerebral blood volume (CBV) standard deviation. This study suggests that multimodal MRI information reflects underlying tumor biology, which is non-invasively detectable through integrative data analysis, and thus highlights the potential of such integrative approaches in the field of radiogenomics. PMID:27739434

  3. Characterization of a Graded Cervical Hemicontusion Spinal Cord Injury Model in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Kelly A.; Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chompoopong, Supin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Most experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents induce damage in the thoracic cord and subsequently examine hindlimb function as an indicator of recovery. In these models, functional recovery is most attributable to white-matter preservation and is less influenced by grey-matter sparing. In contrast, most clinical cases of SCI occur at the lower cervical levels, a region in which both grey-matter and white-matter sparing contribute to functional motor recovery. Thus experimental cervical SCI models are beginning to be developed and used to assess protective and pharmacological interventions following SCI. The objective of this study was to characterize a model of graded cervical hemicontusion SCI with regard to several histological and behavioral outcome measures, including novel forelimb behavioral tasks. Using a commercially available rodent spinal cord impactor, adult male rats received hemicontusion SCI at vertebral level C5 at 100, 200, or 300 kdyn force, to produce mild, moderate, or severe injury severities. Tests of skilled and unskilled forelimb and locomotor function were employed to assess functional recovery, and spinal cord tissue was collected to assess lesion severity. Deficits in skilled and unskilled forelimb function and locomotion relating to injury severity were observed, as well as decreases in neuronal numbers, white-matter area, and white-matter gliosis. Significant correlations were observed between behavioral and histological data. Taken together, these data suggest that the forelimb functional and locomotor assessments employed here are sensitive enough to measure functional changes, and that this hemicontusion model can be used to evaluate potential protective and regenerative therapeutic strategies. PMID:21087156

  4. Reproducible isolation of type II pneumocytes from fetal and adult rat lung using nycodenz density gradients.

    PubMed

    Viscardi, R M; Ullsperger, S; Resau, J H

    1992-01-01

    Isolating fresh, relatively pure type II pneumocytes from the lung, particularly of fetal origin, is a difficult process. Separation by buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used successfully to isolate adult type II cells. There is concern, however, that Percoll, a gradient medium that is commonly used for type II cell isolation, may be toxic to cells. We evaluated a new gradient medium, Nycodenz, that is (1) a true solution, (2) transparent, (3) not metabolized by cells, and (4) nontoxic to cells. Type II pneumocytes were isolated from 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult rat lung by elastase digestion and separated on preformed isotonic Nycodenz gradients (2 mL each of 27.6, 20.7, 13.8, and 4.6 (w/v) solutions). Type II pneumocytes were recovered from the density range 1.057-1.061 and identified by binding of FITC-conjugated and gold-complexed Maclura pomifera lectin. Cells derived from 19-day fetal lung contained abundant glycogen and reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are markers of the fetal type II cell. Adult type II cells reacted with antibodies to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. Type II cell purity was 79.7 +/- 2.4%, 83.8 +/- 2.8%, and 82.6 +/- 1.8% (means +/- SEM) for 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult lung preparations, respectively. Cell viability was greater than 95%. The final cell yield for adult preparations was 17.8 +/- 2.7 x 10(6)/rat (means +/- SEM). To determine if the freshly isolated type II pneumocytes were functionally active, the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine was measured. The percent saturation of phosphatidylcholine was high for both populations of freshly isolated cells. However, adult type II pneumocytes incorporated [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine more rapidly than 21-day gestation fetal cells (5.97 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h vs. 0.32 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h, P less than .005). We have demonstrated that, using the Nycodenz isolation method, it is

  5. IDH mutations as an early and consistent marker in low-grade astrocytomas WHO grade II and their consecutive secondary high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Juratli, Tareq A; Kirsch, Matthias; Robel, Katja; Soucek, Silke; Geiger, Kathrin; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Schackert, Gabriele; Krex, Dietmar

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the prognostic and predictive significance of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas (LGA). The presence and consistency of IDH mutations during the progression of LGA to secondary high-grade gliomas (sHGG) were detected. Samples of patients with LGA and sHGG were investigated. The genomic regions around IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon 172 were PCR amplified and directly sequenced. Furthermore, the MGMT promoter status was provided using the methylation-specific PCR. Our population comprised 71 patients with a total of 45 pairs of LGA and their consecutive sHGG. Median follow-up was 9.6 years. IDH mutations were found in 36/45 LGA (80%) and their sHGG without changes in the mutation status. A total of 71 patients with LGA were analyzed according to clinical and molecular tumor-related factors: 56/71 patients (78.8%) had an IDH mutation without significant influence on the progression-free or overall survival (OS), and 22/71 (31%) of the patients received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after diagnosis of LGA. Patients with early RT but without IDH mutations had the shortest survival. Our study shows that IDH mutation status is stable during the progression course of LGA to sHGG. The presence of IDH mutations fails to demonstrate a significant influence on survival in the multivariate analysis of LGA patients. Early RT appears to be beneficial only LGA patients with IDH-mutations.

  6. Communication restriction in adults who stutter: Part II.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amanda; Robb, Michael; van Dulm, Ondene; Ormond, Tika

    This article presents a follow-up study to Lee, van Dulm, Robb, and Ormond (2015). The aim was to explore communication restriction in adults with stuttering (AWS) using typical language measures and systemic functional linguistics (SFL) analyses. The article compared the pre- and post-treatment performance of AWS in language productivity and complexity, transitivity, modality, appraisal, and theme. Ten-minute conversational samples were obtained from 20 AWS before and after participation in intensive stuttering treatment. Transcripts were analysed for quantity and complexity of verbal output, and frequency of transitivity, modality, appraisal and theme resources. Between pre- and post-treatment, the following differences were observed: (1) a significant increase in frequency of modal operators, and trends approaching significance for (2) increased language complexity (3) increased language expressing appraisal. These changes suggest increased flexibility of language use in AWS following treatment, particularly towards interpersonal engagement. The value of SFL to this area of research is discussed.

  7. SPACE II. Single Parent Adults Choosing Education. Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    This Vocational Education Resource Package (VERP) was developed to provide materials useful in replicating an exemplary vocational education program for special student populations in the California Community Colleges. This VERP describes Bakersfield College's Single Parent Adults Choosing Education (SPACE) II program, (an expansion of the…

  8. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class II Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Howe, Sara C.; Kummet, Colleen; Vela, Kaci C.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class II malocclusion affects about 15 % of the US population and is characterized by a convex profile and occlusion disharmonies. The specific etiological mechanisms resulting in the range of Class II dento-skeletal combinations observed is not yet understood. Most studies describing the class II phenotypic diversity have utilized moderate sample sizes or have focused on younger individuals that later in life may outgrow their class II discrepancies; such a focus may also preclude the visualization of adult class II features. The majority have utilized simple correlation methods resulting in phenotypes that may not be generalizable to different samples and thus may not be suitable for studies of malocclusion etiology. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps by capturing the maximum phenotypic variation present in a large Caucasian sample of class II individuals selected with strict eligibility criteria and rigorously standardized multivariate reduction analyses. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 309 Class II Caucasian adults (82 males, 227 females; ages 16–60 years). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to generate comprehensive phenotypes in an effort to identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals reducing heterogeneity and improving the power of future malocclusion etiology studies. RESULTS PCA resulted in 7 principal components that accounted for 81% of the variation. The first three components represented variation on mandibular rotation, upper incisor angulation and mandibular length, respectively. The cluster analysis identified 5 distinct Class II phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive spectrum of Class II phenotypic definitions was obtained that could be generalized to other samples advancing our efforts to the identification of etiological factors underlying Class II malocclusion. PMID:24582022

  9. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H.; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided. PMID:27041908

  10. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach.

    PubMed

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a "noncompliant corrector" and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  11. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE FOURTH GRADE. A TEACHER GUIDE SEMESTER II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    PROGRAMS FOR FOURTH GRADE ARE DIVIDED INTO FOUR AREAS--ART, MUSIC PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. ART LESSONS INCLUDE THE PAPER CONSTRUCTION OF ROCKETS AND SPACESHIPS, FINGER PUPPETS, SANDPAPER PRINTS AND GLASS ADDITIVE PRINTS. EACH LESSON IS PRESENTED COMPLETE WITH PURPOSES, PROCESS AND MEDIUM, SUBJECT, MATERIALS, PROPOSED SEQUENCE, AND…

  12. The Study of Effective Tier II Reading Interventions for Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox-Hines, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effective reading interventions for primary grade students, utilizing the Response to Intervention (RtI) model. The purpose of RtI is to enhance the quality of education for children, if appropriate levels of academic instruction are present (Hanover Research, 2015). The research questions were posed to…

  13. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme I and Theme II. Student Laboratory Manual. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This ninth grade student manual was developed to be used in conjunction with some of the experimental science activities described in the teacher's guide. It contains laboratory worksheets for: (1) measurement; (2) basic energy concepts; (3) heat energy; (4) light; (5) sound; (6) electricity; and (7) present and future energy resources. Additional…

  14. Human Language, Unit II: Language Curriculum, Level C [Grade Three]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project, the lessons in this second of a two-part unit on the human language intended for grades three and four revolve around the character Sad Sam, who gets lost in the woods and happens to observe four animals (bears, raccoons, geese, and robins). Having been introduced to Sad Sam in lesson 1, the…

  15. Proposed Anthropology Elective-One Semester. Plan I and Plan II. Grade 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, David; And Others

    This curriculum guide offers two approaches to the teaching of tenth grade anthropology. The first approach is a more traditional approach to the subject area presented with the idea of simply giving the teacher something to build on. The second approach follows "History as Culture Change: An Overview" developed by the Anthropology…

  16. Prevention of Drug Use. Prekindergarten-Grade 3. Education for Self-Responsibility II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This Education for Self Responsibility (ESR) curriculum guide is designed to emphasize drug use prevention for prekindergarten-grade 3 students. The program emphasizes good health care practices, safety, personal responsibility, awareness of others, maintaining health, developing positive self-worth, and recognition of roles as family members. The…

  17. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE FIFTH GRADE. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR FIFTH GRADE HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO FIVE AREAS--ART, FOREIGN LANGUAGE, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND SCIENCE. A CALENDAR IS GIVEN TO CORRELATE DATES AND SUBJECT MATTER. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH LESSON IS MADE AVAILABLE, AND FOLLOWUP ACTIVITIES ARE SUGGESTED TO REINFORCE THE LEARNING. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ART…

  18. Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bowtell, David D.; Böhm, Steffen; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Bast, Robert C.; Beral, Valerie; Berek, Jonathan S.; Birrer, Michael J.; Blagden, Sarah; Bookman, Michael A.; Brenton, James; Chiappinelli, Katherine B.; Martins, Filipe Correia; Coukos, George; Drapkin, Ronny; Edmondson, Richard; Fotopoulou, Christina; Gabra, Hani; Galon, Jérôme; Gourley, Charlie; Heong, Valerie; Huntsman, David G.; Iwanicki, Marcin; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kaye, Allyson; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; Lu, Karen H.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Narod, Steve A.; Nelson, Brad H.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Pharoah, Paul; Powell, Daniel J.; Ramos, Pilar; Romero, Iris L.; Scott, Clare L.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for 70-80% of ovarian cancer deaths, and overall survival has not changed significantly for several decades. In this Opinion article, we outline a set of research priorities that we believe will reduce incidence and improve outcomes for women with this disease. This ‘roadmap’ for HGSOC was determined after extensive discussions at an Ovarian Cancer Action meeting in January 2015. PMID:26493647

  19. The use of the decision tree technique and image cytometry to characterize aggressiveness in World Health Organization (WHO) grade II superficial transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Decaestecker, C; van Velthoven, R; Petein, M; Janssen, T; Salmon, I; Pasteels, J L; van Ham, P; Schulman, C; Kiss, R

    1996-03-01

    The aggressiveness of human bladder tumours can be assessed by means of various classification systems, including the one proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the WHO classification, three levels of malignancy are identified as grades I (low), II (intermediate), and III (high). This classification system operates satisfactorily for two of the three grades in forecasting clinical progression, most grade I tumours being associated with good prognoses and most grade III with bad. In contrast, the grade II group is very heterogeneous in terms of their clinical behaviour. The present study used two computer-assisted methods to investigate whether it is possible to sub-classify grade II tumours: computer-assisted microscope analysis (image cytometry) of Feulgen-stained nuclei and the Decision Tree Technique. This latter technique belongs to the Supervised Learning Algorithm and enables an objective assessment to be made of the diagnostic value associated with a given parameter. The combined use of these two methods in a series of 292 superficial transitional cell carcinomas shows that it is possible to identify one subgroup of grade II tumours which behave clinically like grade I tumours and a second subgroup which behaves clinically like grade III tumours. Of the nine ploidy-related parameters computed by means of image cytometry [the DNA index (DI), DNA histogram type (DHT), and the percentages of diploid, hyperdiploid, triploid, hypertriploid, tetraploid, hypertetraploid, and polyploid cell nuclei], it was the percentage of hyperdiploid and hypertetraploid cell nuclei which enabled identification, rather than conventional parameters such as the DI or the DHT.

  20. Differential expression of HLA class II antigens on human fetal and adult lymphocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J A; Jones, D B; Evans, P R; Smith, J L

    1985-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies to monomorphic determinants of the MHC class II subregion locus products: DP, DR and DQ, was used to investigate the expression of these antigens on early lymphocytes and macrophages from human fetal liver (13-20 weeks), placenta (16 weeks and term) and cord blood, in relation to the class II phenotype of cells from adult tonsil and peripheral blood. Fetal liver sections and cell suspensions showed differential expression of class II antigens. DP was expressed at a higher frequency (11.0% of nucleated cells) than DR on lymphoid cells and macrophages from fetal liver, and DQ was either absent or expressed on less than 0.3% of nucleated cells. Consistent with this finding, DP but not DR or DQ antigens were observed on vascular elements and macrophages in the villi of 16-week placenta. At term, all three subregion locus products were expressed. Adult tonsil and peripheral blood B lymphocytes expressed DP, DR and DQ antigens with similar frequency; however, DQ was expressed at a lower frequency than DP and DR on cord blood B lymphocytes. In contrast, 30-50% macrophages from cord blood and adult peripheral blood expressed DP and DR, but fewer (5% and 18%, respectively) expressed DQ. These data suggest that class II antigens are expressed in the sequence DP, DR, DQ on developing lymphocytes. A similar sequence is suggested for macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3894221

  1. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient. PMID:27630505

  2. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  3. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  4. Molecular profile of grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma: is it a type I or type II endometrial carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Teresa; Miller, Ezra; Duska, Linda; Oliva, Esther

    2012-05-01

    Two types of endometrial carcinoma (EC) have been delineated on the basis of clinicopathologic studies. Low-grade endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) is the prototype of type I EC and is characterized by microsatellite instability and PTEN, K-ras, and/or β-catenin gene mutations, whereas type II EC is typically represented by serous and clear cell carcinomas (SCs/CCCs), the former frequently showing p53 mutations and c-erb-2 overexpression; however, the molecular profile of grade 3 EEC has not yet been well characterized. The goal of this study was to define the immunohistochemical and molecular profile of grade 3 EEC. We studied 25 patients with grade 3 EEC ranging in age from 35 to 87 (mean 61) years. At the time of initial diagnosis, 16 patients had stage I tumors, whereas 3, 5, and 1 had stages II, III, and IV tumors, respectively. Only 1 patient with stage IV tumor had disease in the peritoneum because of direct extend of tumor through the uterine wall. Two tissue microarrays were constructed from paraffin-embedded blocks and stained for MLH-1, MSH-2, p16, cyclin D1, C-erb-B2, WT-1, and p53. Loss of MLH-1 and MSH-2 was seen in 3 of 25 and 1 of 24 tumors, respectively; none showed loss of both. Diffuse p16 nuclear expression was found in 7 of 23 cases; diffuse and strong nuclear immunostaining for p53, cyclin D1, and Her-2 was seen in 9 of 24 neoplasms, 9 of 25, and 3 of 25 carcinomas, respectively. WT-1 was negative in all 25 tumors. One of the 3 grade 3 EECs with Her-2 overexpression showed gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. No gene amplification for cyclin D1 was found. Follow-up information was available for all patients. Sixteen had stage I tumors. Of these patients, 11 were alive and well (AW), 3 died of disease (DOD), and 2 died of unrelated causes (DUC), with a mean follow-up time of 56 months (range, 24 to 96 mo); 2 of 3 patients with stage II tumors DOD, and 1 was AW with a mean follow-up time of 81 months (range, 6 to 66 mo

  5. Grade 3C open femur fractures with vascular repair in adults.

    PubMed

    Balci, Halil I; Saglam, Yavuz; Tunali, Onur; Akgul, Turgut; Aksoy, Murat; Dikici, Fatih

    2015-06-01

    Grade 3C open femur fractures are challenging injuries with higher rates of complications. This is a retrospective review of grade 3C open femur fractures with vascular repair between 2002 and 2012. Outcomes included initial MESS score, additional injuries, duration of operation, complications, secondary operations or amputations, and social life implications. Thirty-one of 39 total patients were selected for revascularization and fracture fixation based on soft tissue injury and MESS score. The intra-operative approach included temporary arterial shunt replacement, orthopedic fixation, arterial reconstruction venous and/or nerve repair and routine fasciotomies. An external fixation and reverse saphenous vein graft was used in a majority of the patients (respectively; 93.5%, 90.3%). The mean follow up was 5.4 years (range 2.2-10). The decision to amputate versus salvage should be left up to patients and their care teams after discussing options and future possibilities rather than using a scoring system.

  6. Current and future directions for Phase II trials in high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Brian M; Lee, Eudocia Q; Reardon, David A; Wen, Patrick Y

    2013-04-01

    Despite surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the prognosis for high-grade glioma (HGG) is poor. Our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in gliomagenesis and progression has increased in recent years, leading to the development of novel agents that specifically target these pathways. Results from most single-agent trials have been modest at best, however. Despite the initial success of antiangiogenesis agents in HGG, the clinical benefit is short-lived and most patients eventually progress. Several novel agents, multi-targeted agents and combination therapies are now in clinical trials for HGG and several more strategies are being pursued.

  7. TERT promoter mutations contribute to IDH mutations in predicting differential responses to adjuvant therapies in WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Ding, Xiao-Jie; Qin, Zhi-Yong; Hong, Christopher S; Chen, Ling-Chao; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Fang-Ping; Wang, Yin; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Zhuang, Zhengping; Ng, Ho-Keung; Yan, Hai; Yao, Yu; Mao, Ying

    2015-09-22

    IDH mutations frequently occur in WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas and have favorable prognosis compared to wild-type tumors. However, whether IDH mutations in WHO grade II and II diffuse gliomas predict enhanced sensitivity to adjuvant radiation (RT) or chemotherapy (CHT) is still being debated. Recent studies have identified recurrent mutations in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in gliomas. We previously demonstrated that TERT promoter mutations may be promising biomarkers in glioma survival prognostication when combined with IDH mutations. This study analyzed IDH and TERT promoter mutations in 295 WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas treated with or without adjuvant therapies to explore their impact on the sensitivity of tumors to genotoxic therapies. IDH mutations were found in 216 (73.2%) patients and TERT promoter mutations were found in 112 (38%) patients. In multivariate analysis, IDH mutations (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for PFS and OS in patients receiving genotoxic therapies while TERT promoter mutations were not. In univariate analysis, IDH and TERT promoter mutations were not significant prognostic factors in patients who did not receive genotoxic therapies. Adjuvant RT and CHT were factors independently impacting PFS (RT p = 0.001, CHT p = 0.026) in IDH mutated WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas but not in IDH wild-type group. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated TERT promoter mutations further stratified IDH wild-type WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas into two subgroups with different responses to genotoxic therapies. Adjuvant RT and CHT were significant parameters influencing PFS in the IDH wt/TERT mut subgroup (RT p = 0.015, CHT p = 0.015) but not in the IDH wt/TERT wt subgroup. Our data demonstrated that IDH mutated WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas had better PFS and OS than their IDH wild-type counterparts when genotoxic therapies were administered after surgery

  8. Hunting increases phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II in adult barn owls.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Grant S; DeBello, William M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX), the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is "off" in adults.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of PNEUMOVAX II manufactured by a new process in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mair, Stuart; Fiquet, Anne; Meghlaoui, Gilles; Thomas, Stephane; Ledesma, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    In response to increased demand for the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine PNEUMOVAX II, a new manufacturing process has been implemented that improves the consistency and increases the scale of production. This double-blind, randomized, clinical study compared the immunogenicity and safety profiles of the new-process PNEUMOVAX II (n = 111) formulated with all 23 new process polysaccharides to the former-process PNEUMOVAX II (n = 109) formulation in adults aged > or =50 years. The primary aim of the study was to compare the post-vaccination geometric mean of antibody titres (GMT) to pneumococcal serotypes 3 and 8 in recipients of new- and former-process PNEUMOVAX II. The post-vaccination GMTs for serotypes 3 and 8 elicited by the new-process PNEUMOVAX II [1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.63) and 10.78 (95% CI, 9.10-12.77), respectively] were non-inferior to those elicited by the former-process PNEUMOVAX II [1.24 (95% CI, 1.07-1.43) and 9.72 (95% CI, 8.22-11.50), respectively]. Both PNEUMOVAX II formulations were well tolerated; there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. A total of 74 (66.7%) subjects in the new-process group and 66 (60.6%) in the former-process group had at least one injection-site reaction or vaccine-related systemic event within 14 days following vaccination. There was a trend for higher incidence of two solicited injection-site reactions (erythmea and induration) and three solicited systemic events (asthenia, chills and body aches) with the new- versus former-process PNEUMOVAX II, but these were mainly of mild intensity and short duration. The new-process PNEUMOVAX(R II thus showed similar immunogenicity to the former-process vaccine for pneumococcal serotypes 3 and 8 and both vaccines were well tolerated in older subjects.

  10. Properties of angiotensin II receptors in glial cells from the adult corpus callosum.

    PubMed Central

    Matute, C; Pulakat, L; Río, C; Valcárcel, C; Miledi, R

    1994-01-01

    The existence and the properties of angiotensin II receptors in the adult bovine and human corpus callosum (CC) were investigated by using Xenopus oocytes and primary glial cell cultures. In oocytes injected with CC mRNA, angiotensin II elicited oscillatory Cl- currents due to activation of the inositol phosphate/Ca(2+)-receptor-channel coupling system. The receptors expressed in oocytes and in CC cultures were pharmacologically similar to the AT1 receptor type as assayed by binding. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization studies in sections from CC and in glial cultures revealed that the receptors were molecularly related to the AT1 receptor and that they were present in astrocytes. In these cells, activation of the receptors with angiotensin II increased de novo DNA synthesis, promoted the release of aldosterone, and induced c-Fos expression. These findings indicate that CC astrocytes possess functional AT1 receptors that participate in various physiological processes. Images PMID:8170986

  11. “Reverse Bohlman” technique for the treatment of high grade spondylolisthesis in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Macagno, Angel E.; Hasan, Saqib; Jalai, Cyrus M.; Worley, Nancy; de Moura, Alexandre B.; Spivak, Jeffrey; Bendo, John A.; Passias, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Surgical techniques for effective high-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS) remain controversial. This study aims to evaluate radiographic/clinical outcomes in HGS patients treated using modified “Reverse Bohlman” (RB) technique. Methods Review of consecutive HGS patients undergoing RB at a single university-center from 2006 to 2013. Clinical, surgical, radiographic parameters collected. Results Six patients identified: five with L5-S1 HGS with L4-L5 instability and one had an L4-5 isthmic spondylolisthesis and grade 1 L5-S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis. Two interbody graft failures and one L5-S1 pseudoarthrosis. Postoperative improvement of anterolisthesis (62.3% vs. 49.6%, p = 0.003), slip angle (10 vs. 5°, p = 0.005), and lumbar lordosis (49 vs. 57.5°, p = 0.049). Conclusions RB technique for HGS recommended when addressing adjacent level instability/slip. PMID:26955227

  12. High-Grade Glioma of the Ventrolateral Medulla in an Adult: Case Presentation and Discussion of Surgical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Angela; Le, Viet; Konakondla, Sanjay; Miller, Douglas C.; Hopkins, Tamera; Litofsky, N. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background. High-grade gliomas of the brainstem are rare in adults and are particularly rare in the anterolateral medulla. We describe an illustrative case and discuss the diagnostic and treatment issues associated with a tumor in this location, including differential diagnosis, anatomical considerations for options for surgical management, multimodality treatment, and prognosis. Case Description. A 69-year-old woman presented with a 3-week history of progressive right lower extremity weakness. She underwent an open biopsy via a far lateral approach with partial condylectomy, which revealed a glioblastoma. Concurrent temozolomide and radiation were completed; however, she elected to stop her chemotherapy after 5.5 weeks of treatment. She succumbed to her disease 11 months after diagnosis. Conclusions. Biopsy can be performed relatively safely to provide definitive diagnosis to guide treatment, but long-term prognosis is poor. PMID:27242937

  13. Localization of organ of Corti protein II in the adult and developing gerbil cochlea.

    PubMed

    Yoho, E R; Thomopoulos, G N; Thalmann, I; Thalmann, R; Schulte, B A

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of organ of Corti protein II (OCP-II) was assessed in the developing and mature gerbil cochlea by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. In the adult cochlea, OCP-II was expressed only in certain epithelial cells which included all supporting cells of the organ of Corti, inner and outer sulcus cells and interdental cells. Inner and outer hair cells lacked immunoreactivity. The highest gold particle labeling density was seen overlying intracellular regions devoid of organelles. In the developing inner ear, OCP-II was first detected at 2 days after birth (DAB) with the strongest staining in immature Deiters, inner phalangeal and pillar cells. Immunostaining intensity increased gradually in cells lying laterally and medially to the more centrally located supporting cells and reached adult levels in all reactive cell types around 18 DAB. The results demonstrated conclusively that OCP-II is a cytosolic protein and fail to support its role as a transcription factor postulated on the basis of its homology with p15 or a role in the control of the cycle as suggested by its near-identity with p19Skp1, a cyclin A/CDK2-associated protein. The continued high level of expression in the mature cochlea argues against OCP-II's involvement in regulating the development and differentiation of epithelial cells. The protein's unique distribution and its gradual increase in expression prior to and during the onset and maturation of hearing, however, support its potential function in the recycling of K+ effluxed from hair cells and neurons back to endolymph.

  14. RH-02A PILOT RCT ON THE EFFICACY OF HOME-BASED EXERCISE TO IMPROVE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN GRADE II AND III GLIOMA PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Karin; Stuiver, Martijn; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Taphoorn, Martin; Aaronson, Neil; Sitskoorn, Margriet

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with gliomas suffer from cognitive deficits. Recent findings indicate that physical exercise is effective in ameliorating cognitive decline, in particular in older adults and select neurological patient populations. Studies of exercise interventions in patients with cancer demonstrated to have beneficial effects on various measures of physical and mental well-being. This pilot randomized controlled trial investigates the efficacy of home-based exercise in improving cognitive functioning and self-reported mental well-being in glioma patients. Clinically stable patients with grade II and III glioma will undergo baseline neuropsychological testing, including questionnaires on cognitive symptoms, fatigue, sleep, mood and quality of life; and cardiorespiratory exercise testing (CPET) to determine room for improvement of physical fitness. Sixty patients will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to the intervention group or active control group. Patients in the intervention group exercise 3 times per week for 6 months, during 20 to 45 minutes at an increasing intensity of 55 to 85% of their maximum heart rate. CPET-outcome (VO2peak) is used to tailor an individual, home-based exercise program. Participants wear heart rate monitors and are supervised by a physical therapist via internet and telephone. Patients in the active control group are advised to walk regularly. Neuropsychological test performance, physical fitness, and mental well-being are assessed again after 6 months. In November 2014, 30 patients are expected to be accrued. Six-month follow-up data on neuropsychological performance, physical fitness and self-reported mental well-being of the currently included 15 patients (12 intervention; 3 control group) will be available. Mean age of this group is 48.1 (±9.8) years; median time since surgery is 4.1 (0.7-14.7) years. Most of these participants are female (n = 11), and have a grade II glioma (n = 10). To our knowledge, this is the first study that

  15. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  16. [Characteristic of inflammatory infiltrate of gastric mucosa in patients with grade II-III gastric dysplasia and of stomach cancer].

    PubMed

    Evtushenko, V A; Vusik, M V; Karakeshisheva, M B; Pleshko, R I; Ermolaeva, L A

    2008-01-01

    The study included 85 inpatients and outpatients in whom composition of inflammatory infiltrate from gastric mucosa (GM) was determined at the Oncological Research Institute, Tomsk Research Centre of the Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The patients were allocated to 4 groups depending on nosological form of the disease. Group 1 comprised 21 patients with grade II-III GM epithelial dysplasia, group 2 - 24 patients having stomach cancer (histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma), group 3 - 19 patients with stage II-III mucinous gastric carcinoma, group 4 - 20 allegedly healthy subjects without signs of gastrointestinal pathology. It was shown that dysplastic processes in GM are associated with an increase of neutrophil, eosinophil, macrophage, and mast cell count along with a drop in the number of lymphocytes and plasmocytes. Stroma of invasive stomach cancer underwent intense inflammatory infiltration accompanied by a rise in the number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, and neutrophils. Mucinous gastric carcinoma was characterized by an increase of the number of neutrophils and macrophages. Patients having adenocarcinoma of the stomach showed enhanced plasmocytic infiltration by plasmocytes with a low number of eosinophils and mast cells. It is concluded that characteristics of inflammatory GM infiltrate may be useful for the objective assessment of stomach cancer risk in patients with GM dysplasia, formation of a high oncological risk group, adequate dynamic monitoring and treatment of these patients.

  17. Prognostic significance of IDH mutation in adult low-grade gliomas: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hairui; Yin, Lianhu; Li, Showwei; Han, Song; Song, Guangrong; Liu, Ning; Yan, Changxiang

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have been identified in approximately 65-90 % of low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Various studies examining the relationship between IDH mutation with the clinical outcome in patients with LGGs have yielded inconclusive results. The purpose of the present meta-analysis of literature is to determine this effect. We conducted a meta-analysis of 10 studies (937 patients) that evaluated the correlation between IDH mutation and overall survival (OS). For the quantitative aggregation of the survival results, the IDH mutation effect was measured by hazard ratio (HR). Overall, the pooled HR was 0.585 (95 % CI, 0.376-0.911, p = 0.025, random effect model) for patients with IDH mutation vs patients without IDH mutation. IDH mutation was associated with better overall survival of LGGs. At least this trend was observed in our analysis.

  18. Dissecting DNA repair in adult high grade gliomas for patient stratification in the post-genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Christina; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Grundy, Richard; Auer, Dorothee T.; Walker, David; Lakhani, Ravi; Scott, Ian S.; Chan, Stephen; Ball, Graham; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of multiple DNA repair pathways may contribute to aggressive biology and therapy resistance in gliomas. We evaluated transcript levels of 157 genes involved in DNA repair in an adult glioblastoma Test set (n=191) and validated in ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) cohort (n=508). A DNA repair prognostic index model was generated. Artificial neural network analysis (ANN) was conducted to investigate global gene interactions. Protein expression by immunohistochemistry was conducted in 61 tumours. A fourteen DNA repair gene expression panel was associated with poor survival in Test and TCGA cohorts. A Cox multivariate model revealed APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN as independently associated with poor prognosis. A DNA repair prognostic index incorporating APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN stratified patients in to three prognostic sub-groups with worsening survival. APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN also have predictive significance in patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. ANN analysis of APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN revealed interactions with genes involved in transcription, hypoxia and metabolic regulation. At the protein level, low APE1 and low PTEN remain associated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, multiple DNA repair pathways operate to influence biology and clinical outcomes in adult high grade gliomas. PMID:25026297

  19. Pediatric and Adult High-Grade Glioma Stem Cell Culture Models Are Permissive to Lytic Infection with Parvovirus H-1

    PubMed Central

    Josupeit, Rafael; Bender, Sebastian; Kern, Sonja; Leuchs, Barbara; Hielscher, Thomas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Schlehofer, Jörg R.; Dinsart, Christiane; Witt, Olaf; Rommelaere, Jean; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2016-01-01

    Combining virus-induced cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic effects, oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for high-grade glioma (HGG). A clinical trial has recently provided evidence for the clinical safety of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) in adult glioblastoma relapse patients. The present study assesses the efficacy of H-1PV in eliminating HGG initiating cells. H-1PV was able to enter and to transduce all HGG neurosphere culture models (n = 6), including cultures derived from adult glioblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Cytotoxic effects induced by the virus have been observed in all HGG neurospheres at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) doses of input virus between 1 and 10 plaque forming units per cell. H-1PV infection at this dose range was able to prevent tumorigenicity of NCH421k glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) “stem-like” cells in NOD/SCID mice. Interestingly NCH421R, an isogenic subclone with equal capacity of xenograft formation, but resistant to H-1PV infection could be isolated from the parental NCH421k culture. To reveal changes in gene expression associated with H-1PV resistance we performed a comparative gene expression analysis in these subclones. Several dysregulated genes encoding receptor proteins, endocytosis factors or regulators innate antiviral responses were identified and represent intriguing candidates for to further study molecular mechanisms of H-1PV resistance. PMID:27213425

  20. Pediatric and Adult High-Grade Glioma Stem Cell Culture Models Are Permissive to Lytic Infection with Parvovirus H-1.

    PubMed

    Josupeit, Rafael; Bender, Sebastian; Kern, Sonja; Leuchs, Barbara; Hielscher, Thomas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Dinsart, Christiane; Witt, Olaf; Rommelaere, Jean; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2016-05-19

    Combining virus-induced cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic effects, oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for high-grade glioma (HGG). A clinical trial has recently provided evidence for the clinical safety of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) in adult glioblastoma relapse patients. The present study assesses the efficacy of H-1PV in eliminating HGG initiating cells. H-1PV was able to enter and to transduce all HGG neurosphere culture models (n = 6), including cultures derived from adult glioblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Cytotoxic effects induced by the virus have been observed in all HGG neurospheres at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) doses of input virus between 1 and 10 plaque forming units per cell. H-1PV infection at this dose range was able to prevent tumorigenicity of NCH421k glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) "stem-like" cells in NOD/SCID mice. Interestingly NCH421R, an isogenic subclone with equal capacity of xenograft formation, but resistant to H-1PV infection could be isolated from the parental NCH421k culture. To reveal changes in gene expression associated with H-1PV resistance we performed a comparative gene expression analysis in these subclones. Several dysregulated genes encoding receptor proteins, endocytosis factors or regulators innate antiviral responses were identified and represent intriguing candidates for to further study molecular mechanisms of H-1PV resistance.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II for Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gonder-Frederick, Linda A.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Vajda, Karen A.; Greear, Megan L.; Singh, Harsimran; Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Cox, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To perform the first comprehensive psychometric evaluation of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II (HFS-II), a measure of the behavioral and affective dimensions of fear of hypoglycemia, using modern test-theory methods, including item-response theory (IRT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Surveys completed in four previous studies by 777 adults with type 1 diabetes were aggregated for analysis, with 289 subjects completing both subscales of the HFS-II and 488 subjects completing only the Worry subscale. The aggregated sample (53.3% female, 44.4% using insulin pumps) had a mean age of 41.9 years, diabetes duration of 23.8 years, HbA1c value of 7.7%, and 1.4 severe hypoglycemic episodes in the past year. Data analysis included exploratory factor analysis using polychoric correlations and IRT. Factors were analyzed for fit, trait-level locations, point-measure correlations, and separation values. RESULTS Internal and test-retest reliability was good, as well as convergent validity, as demonstrated by significant correlations with other measures of psychological distress. Scores were significantly higher in subjects who had experienced severe hypoglycemia in the past year. Factor analyses validated the two subscales of the HFS-II. Item analyses showed that 12 of 15 items on the Behavior subscale, and all of the items on the Worry subscale had good-fit statistics. CONCLUSIONS The HFS-II is a reliable and valid measure of the fear of hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes, and factor analyses and IRT support the two separate subscales of the survey. PMID:21346182

  2. Silver Editions II: Advancing the Concept of Library-Centered Humanities Programs for Older Adults. An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, Connie; And Others

    This report is an evaluation of the Silver Edition II Project, a program to offer library-centered humanities programming to older adults. In the program local scholars in seven geographically dispersed library systems led discussion groups made up of 20 to 25 participating older adults. This evaluation focuses on the stated goals of the project:…

  3. Role of King Abdullah II Fitness Award in Improving the Physical Level of the Tenth Grade from the Point of View of Teachers in the Northern Governorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doum, Hamed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the role of King Abdullah II fitness award in improving the physical level to the tenth grade from the point of view of teachers in the of Northern region governates. The researcher used the descriptive survey method for its suitability to the objectives of the study, the researcher built a questionnaire that consisted…

  4. Effects of Structure Strategy Instruction Delivered to Fifth-Grade Children Using the Internet with and without the Aid of Older Adult Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Middlemiss, Wendy; Theodorou, Elena; Brezinski, Kristen L.; McDougall, Janet; Bartlett, Brendan J.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the impact of using the structure strategy as a base for an intergenerational Internet tutoring program in which older adults provided Internet-based tutoring for 5th-grade students. Both tutors and children in the structure strategy group with tutors increased strategy use, total and main idea recall, and self-efficacy. Findings have…

  5. A search for the primary abnormality in adult-onset type II citrullinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Shaheen, Nazma; Saheki, Takeyori ); Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Tanikawa, Kyuichi ); O'Brien, W.E.; Beaudet, A.L. )

    1993-11-01

    Deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) causes citrullinemia in human beings. Type II citrullinemia is found in most patients with adult-onset citrullinemia in Japan, and ASS deficiency is found specifically in the liver. Previous studies have shown that the decrease of hepatic ASS activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme protein with normal kinetic properties and that there were no apparent abnormalities in the amount, translational activity, and gross structure of hepatic ASS mRNA. In the present work, the authors show by sequencing analysis that there was no mutation in the ASS mRNA from two patients with type II citrullinemia. The authors also report RFLP analysis of a consanguineous family with type II citrullinemia, by using three DNA polymorphisms located within the ASS gene locus. In spite of having consanguineous parents, the patient was not a homozygous haplotype for the ASS gene. The RFLP analysis of 16 affected patients from consanguineous parents showed that 5 of 16 patients had the heterozygous pattern for one of the three DNA probes and that the frequency of the heterozygous haplotype was not different from the control frequency. These results suggest that the primary defect of type II citrullinemia is not within the ASS gene locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Proposed therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma based on aggressive tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Ikuta, Soko; Komori, Takashi; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Iseki, Hiroshi; Tamura, Manabu; Saito, Taiichi; Okamoto, Saori; Chernov, Mikhail; Hayashi, Motohiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT There is no standard therapeutic strategy for low-grade glioma (LGG). The authors hypothesized that adjuvant therapy might not be necessary for LGG cases in which total radiological resection was achieved. Accordingly, they established a treatment strategy based on the extent of resection (EOR) and the MIB-1 index: patients with a high EOR and low MIB-1 index were observed without postoperative treatment, whereas those with a low EOR and/or high MIB-1 index received radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy. In the present retrospective study, the authors reviewed clinical data on patients with primarily diagnosed LGGs who had been treated according to the above-mentioned strategy, and they validated the treatment policy. Given their results, they will establish a new treatment strategy for LGGs stratified by EOR, histological subtype, and molecular status. METHODS One hundred fifty-three patients with diagnosed LGG who had undergone resection or biopsy at Tokyo Women's Medical University between January 2000 and August 2010 were analyzed. The patients consisted of 84 men and 69 women, all with ages ≥ 15 years. A total of 146 patients underwent surgical removal of the tumor, and 7 patients underwent biopsy. RESULTS Postoperative RT and nitrosourea-based chemotherapy were administered in 48 and 35 patients, respectively. Extent of resection was significantly associated with both overall survival (OS; p = 0.0096) and progression-free survival (PFS; p = 0.0007) in patients with diffuse astrocytoma but not in those with oligodendroglial subtypes. Chemotherapy significantly prolonged PFS, especially in patients with oligodendroglial subtypes (p = 0.0009). Patients with a mutant IDH1 gene had significantly longer OS (p = 0.034). Multivariate analysis did not identify MIB-1 index or RT as prognostic factors, but it did identify chemotherapy as a prognostic factor for PFS and EOR as a prognostic factor for OS and PFS. CONCLUSIONS The findings demonstrated that EOR was

  7. Immunohistochemistry on IDH 1/2, ATRX, p53 and Ki-67 substitute molecular genetic testing and predict patient prognosis in grade III adult diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Takano, Shingo; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Matsuda, Masahide; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Noguchi, Masayuki; Kato, Yukinari; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The molecular subgrouping of diffuse gliomas was recently found to stratify patients into prognostically distinct groups better than histological classification. Among several molecular parameters, the key molecules for the subtype diagnosis of diffuse gliomas are IDH mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, and ATRX mutation; 1p/19q co-deletion is undetectable by immunohistochemistry, but is mutually exclusive with ATRX and p53 mutation in IDH mutant gliomas. Therefore, we applied ATRX and p53 immunohistochemistry instead of 1p/19q co-deletion analysis. The prognostic value of immunohistochemical diagnosis for Grade III gliomas was subsequently investigated. Then, the same immunohistochmical diagnostic approach was expanded for the evaluation of Grade II and IV diffuse glioma prognosis. The results indicate immunohistochemical analysis including IDH1/2, ATRX, p53, and Ki-67 index is valuable for the classification of diffuse gliomas, which is useful for the evaluation of prognosis, especially Grade III gliomas and lower-grade gliomas (i.e., Grade II and III).

  8. Angiotensin II and aldosterone increase with fasting in breeding adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rudy M; Crocker, Daniel E; Houser, Dorian S; Webb, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) appears to contribute significantly to osmoregulation of fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups; however, RAAS has not been characterized in fasting adult seals. Therefore, this study examined the contribution of RAAS to water turnover rates in fasting adult male northern elephant seals. Blood samples were obtained twice during their breeding fast at an interval of 6.5 wk, and water efflux rate was estimated by isotopic dilution during the same period. Serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-) and osmolality were unaltered between the two sampling periods, indicating ionic and osmotic homeostasis during the fast. Despite the lack of an increase in vasopressin, serum angiotensin II and aldosterone were increased and were significantly and positively correlated. Changes in aldosterone concentration and water efflux rate were significantly and negatively correlated, suggesting that the greater the increase in aldosterone, the smaller the loss of water. Adult male seals maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis similar to that of fasting weaned pups, and this homeostasis appears to be mediated, at least in part, by RAAS, which probably contributes to increased water retention as well. The hormonal mechanisms by which northern elephant seals maintain water and electrolyte balance during fasting conditions appear to be similar regardless of age.

  9. Illinois State Plan: Adult Education and Family Literacy. Under Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document contains Illinois' State Plan for Adult Education and Family Literacy under Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for July 1, 1999, through June 30, 2015. The plan is comprised of the following sections: (1) Eligible agency certifications and assurances; (2) Description of the steps to ensure direct and equitable access;…

  10. End-of-Year 2010-11 Progress Report to the Legislature: Implementation and Impact of the Workforce Investment Act, Title II Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) provides funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act…

  11. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149-2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188-2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300-2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months.

  12. Comparative evaluation of platelet-rich fibrin versus beta-tri-calcium phosphate in the treatment of Grade II mandibular furcation defects using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Zeba Rahman; Jhingran, Rajesh; Bains, Vivek Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Madan, Rohit; Rizvi, Iram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) versus β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) in the treatment of Grade II mandibular furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Forty-five Grade II furcation defect in mandibular molars which were assigned to open flap debridement (OFD) with PRF Group I (n = 15), to OFD with β-TCP Group II (n = 15), and to OFD alone Group III (n = 15) were analyzed for clinical parameters (probing pocket depth [PPD], vertical clinical attachment level [VCAL], horizontal clinical attachment level [HCAL], gingival recession, relative vertical height of furcation [r-VHF], and relative horizontal depth of furcation [r-HDF]) and radiographical parameters (horizontal depth of furcation [H-DOF], vertical height of furcation [V-HOF]) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) at 6 months interval. Results: For clinical parameters, reduction in PPD and gain in VCAL and HCAL were higher in Group II as compared to Group I. Change in r-VHF and r-HDF was greater in Group II as compared to Group I. Mean percentage clinical vertical defect fill was higher in Group II as compared to Group I (58.52% ± 11.68% vs. 53.24% ± 13.22%, respectively). On CBCT, mean change at 6 months for all parameters showed nonsignificant difference between the two experimental groups. Mean change in V-HOF was higher in Group I as compared to Group II, but mean change in H-DOF and furcation width was more in Group II as compared to Group I. Conclusion: For both experimental and control groups, there was statistically significant improvement at 6 months follow-up from baseline values. PMID:28042265

  13. Comparative assessment of marginal accuracy of grade II titanium and Ni–Cr alloy before and after ceramic firing: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Abhijit; Singh, Kishan; Sahoo, Sukant; Suvarna, Suraj; Kumar, Prince; Singh, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study are to assess the marginal accuracy of base metal and titanium alloy casting and to evaluate the effect of repeated ceramic firing on the marginal accuracy of base metal and titanium alloy castings. Materials and Methods: Twenty metal copings were fabricated with each casting material. Specimens were divided into 4 groups of 10 each representing base metal alloys castings without (Group A) and with metal shoulder margin (Group B), titanium castings without (Group C) and with metal shoulder margin (Group D). The measurement of fit of the metal copings was carried out before the ceramic firing at four different points and the same was followed after porcelain build-up. Results: Significant difference was found when Ni–Cr alloy samples were compared with Grade II titanium samples both before and after ceramic firings. The titanium castings with metal shoulder margin showed highest microgap among all the materials tested. Conclusions: Based on the results that were found and within the limitations of the study design, it can be concluded that there is marginal discrepancy in the copings made from Ni–Cr and Grade II titanium. This marginal discrepancy increased after ceramic firing cycles for both Ni–Cr and Grade II titanium. The comparative statistical analysis for copings with metal-collar showed maximum discrepancy for Group D. The comparative statistical analysis for copings without metal-collar showed maximum discrepancy for Group C. PMID:24926205

  14. Recurrence rates and clinical outcome for dogs with grade II mast cell tumours with a low AgNOR count and Ki67 index treated with surgery alone.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Kiupel, M; Farrelly, J; Cohen, R; Olmsted, G; Kirpensteijn, J; Brocks, B; Post, G

    2017-03-01

    Grade II mast cell tumours (MCT) are tumours with variable biologic behaviour. Multiple factors have been associated with outcome, including proliferation markers. The purpose of this study was to determine if extent of surgical excision affects recurrence rate in dogs with grade II MCT with low proliferation activity, determined by Ki67 and argyrophilic nucleolar organising regions (AgNOR). Eighty-six dogs with cutaneous MCT were evaluated. All dogs had surgical excision of their MCT with a low Ki67 index and combined AgNORxKi67 (Ag67) values. Twenty-three (27%) dogs developed local or distant recurrence during the median follow-up time. Of these dogs, six (7%) had local recurrence, one had complete and five had incomplete histologic margins. This difference in recurrence rates between dogs with complete and incomplete histologic margins was not significant. On the basis of this study, ancillary therapy may not be necessary for patients with incompletely excised grade II MCT with low proliferation activity.

  15. Pseudoprogression in children, adolescents and young adults with non-brainstem high grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    PubMed

    Carceller, Fernando; Fowkes, Lucy A; Khabra, Komel; Moreno, Lucas; Saran, Frank; Burford, Anna; Mackay, Alan; Jones, David T W; Hovestadt, Volker; Marshall, Lynley V; Vaidya, Sucheta; Mandeville, Henry; Jerome, Neil; Bridges, Leslie R; Laxton, Ross; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Pfister, Stefan M; Leach, Martin O; Pearson, Andrew D J; Jones, Chris; Koh, Dow-Mu; Zacharoulis, Stergios

    2016-08-01

    Pseudoprogression (PsP) is a treatment-related phenomenon which hinders response interpretation. Its prevalence and clinical impact have not been evaluated in children/adolescents. We assessed the characteristics, risk factors and prognosis of PsP in children/adolescents and young-adults diagnosed with non-brainstem high grade gliomas (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). Patients aged 1-21 years diagnosed with HGG or DIPG between 1995 and 2012 who had completed radiotherapy were eligible. PsP was assessed according to study-specific criteria and correlated with first-line treatment, molecular biomarkers and survival. Ninety-one patients (47 HGG, 44 DIPG) were evaluable. Median age: 10 years (range, 2-20). Eleven episodes of PsP were observed in 10 patients (4 HGG, 6 DIPG). Rates of PsP: 8.5 % (HGG); 13.6 % (DIPG). Two episodes of PsP were based on clinical findings alone; nine episodes had concurrent radiological changes: increased size of lesions (n = 5), new focal enhancement (n = 4). Temozolomide, MGMT methylation or H3F3A mutations were not found to be associated with increased occurrence of PsP. For HGG, 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 41.9 % no-PsP versus 100 % PsP (p = 0.041); differences in 1-year overall survival (OS) were not significant. For DIPG, differences in 1-year PFS and OS were not statistically significant. Hazard ratio (95 %CI) of PsP for OS was 0.551 (0.168-1.803; p = 0.325) in HGG; and 0.308 (0.107-0.882; p = 0.028) in DIPG. PsP occurred in both pediatric HGG and DIPG patients at a comparable rate to adult HGG. PsP was associated with improved 1-yr PFS in HGG patients. PsP had a protective effect upon OS in DIPG patients.

  16. Fenofibrate treatment in two adults with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Serif; Dursun, Mehmet; Canoruç, Fikri; Kidir, Veysel; Beştaş, Remzi

    2006-03-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II is a rare familial disorder of bilirubin conjugation with consecutive life-long unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. In the presence of severe hyperbilirubinemia, a fetus or an adult is at risk for neurological defects in this syndrome. This paper is the first report emphasizing details about this disorder in two patients from Turkey. The diagnosis was made on the basis of history and laboratory findings excluding other causes of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Phenobarbital loading test and C bile analysis also supported the diagnosis. There was a study in the literature in which treatment with chlofibrate had been recommended in this syndrome. Based on the results of that study, we administered fenofibrate treatment to our patients for one month and analyzed serum bilirubin levels before and after this procedure. No improvement in bilirubin levels was observed in either case.

  17. [A case of adult-onset type II citrullinemia in an elderly patient].

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Mayuko; Sakaeda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Mika; Miki, Toshifumi; Saito, Junko; Chikamori, Masayasu; Tomita, Hideharu; Ichikawa, Hiromoto; Yoshimoto, Kaori; Takamatsu, Masahiro; Okada, Mitsuo; Aono, Rei; Enzan, Hideaki; Miyamoto, Takako

    2013-03-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with consciousness disturbance. The results of brain magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid examination were normal, but triphasic waves were noted on electroencephalography. His plasma ammonia level was elevated due to which encephalopathy secondary to hyperammonemia was suspected. However, his liver function was normal, and no evidence of cirrhosis or portal-systemic shunt was noted. The patient's medical history revealed that he had a tendency to excessively consume pulse products since childhood, and an amino acid analysis showed elevation of citrulline and arginine levels. Thus, we diagnosed the patient with an extremely rare case of adult-onset type II citrullinemia, which was triggered by cessation of the intake of pulse foods (soybeans and peanuts) due to dental problems.

  18. Case report: An adult-onset type II citrin deficiency patient in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    TANG, LUJIA; CHEN, LIANG; WANG, HAIRONG; DAI, LIHUA; PAN, SHUMING

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25A13) gene may result in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency and/or adult-onset type II citrullinemia. These conditions are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The current case report describes a 43-year-old man who presented with sudden delirium and upper limb weakness. Upon admission, the patient was fully conscious and alert but later lost consciousness subsequent to a sudden convulsive seizure. Hyperammonemia was detected and analysis of the SLC25A13 gene identified an 851del4 mutation. Thus, the possibility of genetic disease should be considered as a potential cause of the symptoms of patients with altered states of consciousness, such as delirium and loss of consciousness, in cases where the cause of the disturbance is unknown. PMID:27347070

  19. State Content Standards for English Language Arts. Volume II: Instructional Activities for Effective Teaching, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    This book of instructional activities for grades four through six contains Delaware's State Content Standards for English Language Arts. The standards were developed in 1985 by a committee of teachers representing all grade levels. Used as a basis for curriculum planning in school districts throughout Delaware, the standards were designed to guide…

  20. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p < 0.05); significantly lower condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p < 0.05). In the whole sample condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p < 0.01) as well as condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in males than in females. Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population. PMID:23241136

  1. Formation of high-grade ignimbrites Part II. A pyroclastic suspension current model with implications also for low-grade ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundt, Armin

    Analogue experiments in part I led to the conclusion that pyroclastic flows depositing very high-grade ignimbrite move as dilute suspension currents. In the thermo-fluid-dynamical model developed, the degree of cooling of expanded turbulent pyroclastic flows dynamically evolves in response to entrainment of air and mass loss to sedimentation. Initial conditions of the currents are derived from column-collapse modeling for magmas with an initial H2O content of 1-3wt.% erupting through circular vents and caldera ring-fissures. The flows spread either longitudinally or radially from source up to a runout distance that increases with higher mass flux but decreases with higher gas content, temperature, bottom slope and coarser initial grain size. Progressive dilution by entrainment and sedimentation causes pyroclastic currents to transform into buoyant ash plumes at the runout distance. The ash plumes reach stratospheric heights and distribute 30-80% of the erupted material as widespread co-ignimbrite ash. Pyroclastic suspension currents with initial mass fluxes of 107-1012kg/s can spread for tens of kilometers with only limited cooling, although they move as supercritical, strongly entraining currents for the eruption conditions considered here. With increasing eruption mass flux, cooling during passage through the fountain diminishes while cooling during flow transport increases. The net effect is that eruption temperature exerts the prime control on emplacement temperature. Pyroclastic suspension currents can form welded ignimbrite across their entire extent if eruption temperature is To>1.3.Tmw, the minimum welding temperature. High eruption rates, a large fraction of fine ash, and a ring-fissure vent favor the formation of extensive high-grade ignimbrite. For very hot eruptions producing sticky, partially molten pyroclasts, analysis of particle aggregation systematics shows that factors favoring longer runout also favor more efficient aggregation, which reduces

  2. High-Grade Adult Isthmic L5–S1 Spondylolisthesis: A Report of Intraoperative Slip Progression Treated with Surgical Reduction and Posterior Instrumented Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Mikhael, Mark M.; Shapiro, Gary S.; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Adult isthmic spondylolisthesis most commonly occurs at the L5–S1 level of the lumbar spine. Slip progression is relatively rare in adults with this condition and slippage is typically associated with advanced degeneration of the disk below the pars defect. When symptomatic, radiculopathy is the typical complaint in adults with isthmic spondylolisthesis. When considering options for surgical treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis, the surgeon must consider several different options, such as decompression, fusion, instrumentation, reduction, and type of bone graft to be used. All of these decisions must be individualized as deemed appropriate for each particular patient. This report presents a case of intraoperative slip progression of a L5–S1 adult isthmic spondylolisthesis to a high-grade slip, which was treated with complete surgical reduction and posterior instrumented fusion. This case demonstrates the potential instability of this condition in adults and has not been previously reported. The case details and images are reviewed and the intraoperative decisions, treatment options, and patient outcome are discussed. PMID:24353957

  3. Confronting Challenges in Intervention Research with Ethnically Diverse Older Adults: The USC Well Elderly II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Carlson, Mike; Cherry, Barbara; Azen, Stanley; Chou, Chih-Ping; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Forman, Todd; White, Brett; Granger, Douglas; Knight, Bob; Clark, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-dwelling older adults are at risk for declines in physical health, cognition, and psychosocial well-being. However, their enactment of active and health-promoting lifestyles can reduce such declines. Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the USC Well Elderly II study, a randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle program for elders, and document how various methodological challenges were addressed during the course of the trial. Methods In the study, 460 ethnically diverse elders recruited from a variety of sites in the urban Los Angeles area were enrolled in a randomized experiment involving a crossover design component. Within either the first or second six month phase of their study involvement, each elder received a lifestyle intervention designed to improve a variety of aging outcomes. At 4–5 time points over an 18–24 month interval, the research participants were assessed on measures of healthy activity, coping, social support, perceived control, stress-related biomarkers, perceived physical health, psychosocial well-being, and cognitive functioning to test the effectiveness of the intervention and document the process mechanisms responsible for its effects. Results The study protocol was successfully implemented, including the enrollment of study sites, the recruitment of 460 older adults, administration of the intervention, adherence to the plan for assessment, and establishment of a large computerized data base. Limitations Methodological challenges were encountered in the areas of site recruitment, participant recruitment, testing, and intervention delivery. Conclusions The completion of clinical trials involving elders from numerous local sites requires careful oversight and anticipation of threats to the study design that stem from: (a) social situations that are particular to specific study sites; and (b) physical, functional, and social challenges pertaining to the elder

  4. The 10-year course of adult aggression toward others in patients with borderline personality disorder and axis II comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Ivey, Alexandra M; Cohn, Danielle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2017-02-27

    This study had two aims. The first was to assess and compare various types of aggressive behavior toward others reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects over time. The second was to determine the best baseline and time-varying predictors of aggressive behavior in these borderline patients. At baseline, a series of interviews and self-report measures were administered to 290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects. Measures assessing aggression toward others, axis I and II disorders as well as adult adversity were re-administered every two years over the course of ten years. It was found that borderline patients reported significantly higher rates of verbal, emotional, and physical aggression toward others than comparison subjects but the rates of these forms of aggression toward others declined significantly for those in both study groups. Multivariate analyses indicated that the strongest predictors of adult aggression towards others were severity of adult adversity and a substance use disorder. Taken together, these results suggest that borderline patients commonly report aggression toward others but that this aggression declines significantly over time. These results also suggest that this aggression toward others is most strongly associated with adult experiences of adversity and concurrent substance abuse.

  5. Dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital

    PubMed Central

    Malvania, Ekta A.; Sheth, Sona A.; Sharma, Ashish S.; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Sahani, Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic metabolic disorder which affects millions of people. At present, India has the highest incidence of diabetes worldwide. Several oral lesions and conditions are associated with diabetes. However, there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between DM and dental caries. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital in Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and twenty diabetics individuals attending the diabetic Outpatient Department (OPD) and age and sex-matched 120 nondiabetic individuals from general OPD were included in the study. The data were gathered through semi-close-ended questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries was assessed by using the World Health Organization's 2013 proforma. Data was analyzed by applying Student's independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance. Results: Dental caries prevalence among the diabetic group was 73.33% and 33.33% among the nondiabetic group. Dental caries prevalence and mean dental caries was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetic individuals than that among controlled diabetic individuals. Duration of the disease and dental caries prevalence did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence was significantly high among diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic individuals. Close collaboration between the patients, healthcare units, and oral health professionals could be a way of improving diabetic patients' general and oral health. PMID:28217542

  6. Laser-assisted lipolysis for arm contouring in Teimourian grades I and II: a prospective study of 45 patients.

    PubMed

    Leclère, Franck Marie; Alcolea, Justo M; Vogt, Peter; Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Mordon, Serge; Casoli, Vincent; Trelles, Mario A

    2015-04-01

    Upper arm deformities secondary to weight loss or senile elastosis have led to an increased demand for aesthetic contouring procedures. We conducted this study to objectively assess if, in Teimourian low-grade upper arm remodelling, one session of laser-assisted lypolisis (LAL) could result in full patient satisfaction. Between 2011 and 2013, 45 patients were treated for unsightly fat arm Teimourian grade I (15 patients), grade IIa (15 patients) and grade IIb (15 patients) with one session of LAL. The laser used in this study was a 1470-nm diode laser (Alma Lasers, Cesarea, Israel) with the following parameters: continuous mode, 15 W power and transmission through a 600-μm optical fibre. Previous mathematical modelling suggested that 0.1 kJ was required in order to destroy 1 ml of fat. Treatment parameters and adverse effects were recorded.The arm circumference and skin pinch measurements were assessed pre and postoperatively. Patients were asked to file a satisfaction questionnaire. Pain during the anaesthesia and discomfort after the procedure were minimal. Complications included prolonged oedema in 11 patients. The average arm circumference decreased by 4.9 ± 0.4 cm in the right arm (p < 0.01) and 4.7 ± 0.5 cm in the left arm (p < 0.01) in grade I patients, 5.5 ± 0.6 cm in the right arm (p < 0.01) and 5.2 ± 0.5 cm in the left arm (p < 0.01) in grade IIa patients and 5.4 ± 0.5 cm in the right arm (p < 0.01) and 5.3 ± 0.5 cm in the left arm (p < 0.01) in grade IIB patients. The skin tightening effect was confirmed by the reduction of the skin calliper measurements in all three groups. Overall mean opinion of treatment was high for both patients and investigators. Of the 45 patients, all but one would recommend this treatment. A single session of LAL in upper arm remodelling for Teimourian grades I to IIb is a safe and reproducible technique. The procedure allows reduction in the amount of adipose deposits

  7. Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations II: Pilot study of a new system

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, David; Briss, Peter A; Eccles, Martin; Flottorp, Signe; Guyatt, Gordon H; Harbour, Robin T; Hill, Suzanne; Jaeschke, Roman; Liberati, Alessandro; Magrini, Nicola; Mason, James; O'Connell, Dianne; Oxman, Andrew D; Phillips, Bob; Schünemann, Holger; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Vist, Gunn E; Williams, John W

    2005-01-01

    Background Systems that are used by different organisations to grade the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations vary. They have different strengths and weaknesses. The GRADE Working Group has developed an approach that addresses key shortcomings in these systems. The aim of this study was to pilot test and further develop the GRADE approach to grading evidence and recommendations. Methods A GRADE evidence profile consists of two tables: a quality assessment and a summary of findings. Twelve evidence profiles were used in this pilot study. Each evidence profile was made based on information available in a systematic review. Seventeen people were given instructions and independently graded the level of evidence and strength of recommendation for each of the 12 evidence profiles. For each example judgements were collected, summarised and discussed in the group with the aim of improving the proposed grading system. Kappas were calculated as a measure of chance-corrected agreement for the quality of evidence for each outcome for each of the twelve evidence profiles. The seventeen judges were also asked about the ease of understanding and the sensibility of the approach. All of the judgements were recorded and disagreements discussed. Results There was a varied amount of agreement on the quality of evidence for the outcomes relating to each of the twelve questions (kappa coefficients for agreement beyond chance ranged from 0 to 0.82). However, there was fair agreement about the relative importance of each outcome. There was poor agreement about the balance of benefits and harms and recommendations. Most of the disagreements were easily resolved through discussion. In general we found the GRADE approach to be clear, understandable and sensible. Some modifications were made in the approach and it was agreed that more information was needed in the evidence profiles. Conclusion Judgements about evidence and recommendations are complex. Some subjectivity

  8. Dynamics of Clothing II. Curriculum Guide. A Family and Consumer Sciences Education Course of Study for Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Dean-Ellen, Ed.; Hancey, Helen-Louise; Hendrickson, Diane; Hicks, Camille; Munns, Barbara; Price, Barbara

    This document is a nine-unit curriculum guide for a high school (grades 10-12) course in clothing instruction. The units contain one or two lessons on the following topics: (1) psychological aspects of clothing (behavior, image, and dress; self-concept and self-image); (2) wardrobe selections (wardrobe consumerism, wardrobe evaluation and…

  9. Introducing Africa in the Classroom. An Instructional Unit for Seventh Grade Social Studies. Part I. [And] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen S.

    The document presents a seventh grade social studies unit on Africa. The unit is one of a number of products developed by a summer workshop for teachers on African curriculum development. The objective is to help students understand the concept of culture, how cultures develop, and how and why cultures change. The document is divided into two…

  10. Treatment of adult and pediatric high-grade gliomas with Withaferin A: antitumor mechanisms and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Megan M; Shah, Sumedh S; Véliz, Eduardo A; Ivan, Michael E; Graham, Regina M

    2017-01-01

    Resistance mechanisms employed by high-grade gliomas allow them to successfully evade current standard treatment of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Withaferin A (WA), utilized in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, is attracting attention for its antitumor capabilities. Here we review pertinent literature on WA as a high-grade glioma treatment, and discuss the cancerous mechanisms it affects. WA is relatively nontoxic and has shown potential in crossing the blood-brain barrier. WA prevents p53 alterations and inactivates overexpressed MDM2 through ARF and ROS production. Furthermore, WA upregulates Bax, inducing mitochondrial death cascades, inhibits mutated Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways, and inhibits angiogenesis in tumors. Therapy with WA for high-grade gliomas is supported through the literature. Further investigation is warranted and encouraged to fully unearth its abilities against malignant gliomas.

  11. Molecular classification of diffuse cerebral WHO grade II/III gliomas using genome- and transcriptome-wide profiling improves stratification of prognostically distinct patient groups.

    PubMed

    Weller, Michael; Weber, Ruthild G; Willscher, Edith; Riehmer, Vera; Hentschel, Bettina; Kreuz, Markus; Felsberg, Jörg; Beyer, Ulrike; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Kaulich, Kerstin; Steinbach, Joachim P; Hartmann, Christian; Gramatzki, Dorothee; Schramm, Johannes; Westphal, Manfred; Schackert, Gabriele; Simon, Matthias; Martens, Tobias; Boström, Jan; Hagel, Christian; Sabel, Michael; Krex, Dietmar; Tonn, Jörg C; Wick, Wolfgang; Noell, Susan; Schlegel, Uwe; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Pietsch, Torsten; Loeffler, Markus; von Deimling, Andreas; Binder, Hans; Reifenberger, Guido

    2015-05-01

    Cerebral gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II and III represent a major challenge in terms of histological classification and clinical management. Here, we asked whether large-scale genomic and transcriptomic profiling improves the definition of prognostically distinct entities. We performed microarray-based genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses of primary tumor samples from a prospective German Glioma Network cohort of 137 patients with cerebral gliomas, including 61 WHO grade II and 76 WHO grade III tumors. Integrative bioinformatic analyses were employed to define molecular subgroups, which were then related to histology, molecular biomarkers, including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations, and patient outcome. Genomic profiling identified five distinct glioma groups, including three IDH1/2 mutant and two IDH1/2 wild-type groups. Expression profiling revealed evidence for eight transcriptionally different groups (five IDH1/2 mutant, three IDH1/2 wild type), which were only partially linked to the genomic groups. Correlation of DNA-based molecular stratification with clinical outcome allowed to define three major prognostic groups with characteristic genomic aberrations. The best prognosis was found in patients with IDH1/2 mutant and 1p/19q co-deleted tumors. Patients with IDH1/2 wild-type gliomas and glioblastoma-like genomic alterations, including gain on chromosome arm 7q (+7q), loss on chromosome arm 10q (-10q), TERT promoter mutation and oncogene amplification, displayed the worst outcome. Intermediate survival was seen in patients with IDH1/2 mutant, but 1p/19q intact, mostly astrocytic gliomas, and in patients with IDH1/2 wild-type gliomas lacking the +7q/-10q genotype and TERT promoter mutation. This molecular subgrouping stratified patients into prognostically distinct groups better than histological classification. Addition of gene expression

  12. Decreased FOXF2 mRNA expression indicates early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for breast cancer patients with histological grade II tumor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng-Zhou; Yang, Fan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiao-Qing; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor, FOXF2, plays an important role in tissue development, extracellular matrix synthesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, implying that it may be associated with the metastatic capabilities of cancer cells. However, the relationship between FOXF2 expression and breast cancer progression, metastasis, and prognosis, remains to be elucidated. In this study, FOXF2 mRNA levels in 305 primary breast cancer tissues were examined using RT-QPCR. Results showed that FOXF2 mRNA levels in primary breast cancer were negatively associated with tumor progression, including tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and clinical stage. Patients with low FOXF2 mRNA levels had a high risk of relapse and metastasis within three years. Low FOXF2 mRNA levels could predict shorter disease-free survival for those patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer. Taken together, we conclude that decreased FOXF2 expression indicates the early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer.

  13. Evidence for potentials and limitations of brain plasticity using an atlas of functional resectability of WHO grade II gliomas: towards a "minimal common brain".

    PubMed

    Ius, Tamara; Angelini, Elsa; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-06-01

    Despite recent advances in non-invasive brain mapping imaging, the resectability of a given area in a patient harboring a WHO grade II glioma cannot be predicted preoperatively with high reliability, due to mechanisms of functional reorganization. Therefore, intraoperative mapping by direct electrical stimulation remains the gold standard for detection and preservation of eloquent areas during glioma surgery, because it enables to perform on-line anatomo-functional correlations. To study potentials and limitations of brain plasticity, we gathered 58 postoperative MRI of patients operated on for a WHO grade II glioma under direct electrical cortico-subcortical stimulation. Postoperative images were registered on the MNI template to construct an atlas of functional resectability for which each voxel represents the probability to observe residual non-resectable tumor, that is, non-compensable area. The resulting atlas offers a rigorous framework to identify areas with high plastic potential (i.e. with probabilities of residual tumor close to 0), with low compensatory capabilities (i.e. probabilities of residual tumor close to 1) and with intermediate level of resectability (probability around 0.5). The resulting atlas highlights the utmost importance of preserving a core of connectivity through the main associative pathways, namely, it supports the existence of a "minimal common brain" among patients.

  14. Explorations Part II: (Guidelines for Career Development in Adult Education). State Listing of Adult Career Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Fae E.; And Others

    The publication provides a collection of descriptions representing a broad cross section of State adult education programs which have integrated career education into their curricula. Career education in this resource has been defined to include career awareness, orientation, skill development or other career education goals as defined by the…

  15. A Maximal Graded Exercise Test to Accurately Predict VO2max in 18-65-Year-Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, James D.; Bradshaw, Danielle I.; Hyde, Annette; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an age-generalized regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max) based on a maximal treadmill graded exercise test (GXT; George, 1996). Participants (N = 100), ages 18-65 years, reached a maximal level of exertion (mean plus or minus standard deviation [SD]; maximal heart rate [HR sub…

  16. Local injection of the 90Y-labelled peptidic vector DOTATOC to control gliomas of WHO grades II and III: an extended pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, T; Hofer, S; Eichhorn, K; Wasner, M; Zimmerer, S; Freitag, P; Probst, A; Gratzl, O; Reubi, J-C; Maecke, R; Mueller-Brand, J; Merlo, A

    2002-04-01

    We have previously presented preliminary observations on targeting somatostatin receptor-positive malignant gliomas of all grades by local injection of the radiolabelled peptidic vector 90Y-DOTATOC. We now report on our more thorough clinical experience with this novel compound, focussing on low-grade and anaplastic gliomas. Small peptidic vectors have the potential to target invisible infiltrative disease within normal surrounding brain tissue, thereby opening a window of opportunity for early intervention. Five progressive gliomas of WHO grades II and III and five extensively debulked low-grade gliomas were treated with varying fractions of 90Y-DOTATOC. The vectors were locally injected into the resection cavity or into solid tumour. The activity per single injection ranged from 555 to 1,875 MBq, and the cumulative activity from 555 to 7,030 MBq, according to tumour volumes and eloquence of the affected brain area, yielding dose estimates from 76+/-15 to 312+/-62 Gy. Response was assessed by the clinical status, by steroid dependence and, every 4-6 months, by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. In the five progressive gliomas, lasting responses were obtained for at least 13-45 months without the need for steroids. Radiopeptide brachytherapy had been the only modality applied to counter tumour progression. Interestingly, we observed the slow transformation of a solid, primarily inoperable anaplastic astrocytoma into a resectable multi-cystic lesion 2 years after radiopeptide brachytherapy. Based on these observations, we also assessed the feasibility of local radiotherapy following extensive debulking, which was well tolerated. Targeted beta-particle irradiation based on diffusible small peptidic vectors appears to be a promising modality for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  17. Orthodontic Camouflage Treatment in an Adult Patient with a Class II, Division 1 Malocclusion – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Naragond, Appasaheb; Kenganal, Smitha; Sagarkar, Roshan; Sugaradday

    2013-01-01

    Since so many decades, various treatment modalities have been presented for the treatment for the class II, div 1 malocclusions. In recent times, we have seen enormously increasing numbers of young adults who desire the shortest, cost effective and a non surgical correction of Class II malocclusions and they accept dental camouflage as a treatment option to mask the skeletal discrepancy. This case report presents one such case of a 22 year old non-growing female who had a skeletal Class II, division 1 malocclusion with an orthognathic maxilla, a retrognathic mandible, a negative VTO and an overjet of 12mm, who did not want a surgical treatment. We considered the camouflage treatment by extracting the upper first premolars. Following the treatment, a satisfactory result was achieved with an ideal, static and a functional occlusion, facial profile, smile and lip competence and stability of the treatment results. PMID:23543878

  18. Impaired Memory in OT-II Transgenic Mice Is Associated with Decreased Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Possibly Induced by Alteration in Th2 Cytokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Seong Gak; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Hyunju; Choi, Junghyun; Song, Eun Ji; Han, Seung-Yun; Oh, Myung Sook; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jin-il; Moon, Minho

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effects of CD4+ T cell on cognitive function. However, the changes of Th2 cytokines in restricted CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire model and their effects on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether and how the mice with restricted CD4+ repertoire TCR exhibit learning and memory impairment by using OT-II mice. OT-II mice showed decreased adult neurogenesis in hippocampus and short- and long- term memory impairment. Moreover, Th2 cytokines in OT-II mice are significantly increased in peripheral organs and IL-4 is significantly increased in brain. Finally, IL-4 treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of cultured adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells. Taken together, abnormal level of Th2 cytokines can lead memory dysfunction via impaired adult neurogenesis in OT-II transgenic. PMID:27432189

  19. Impaired Memory in OT-II Transgenic Mice Is Associated with Decreased Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Possibly Induced by Alteration in Th2 Cytokine Levels.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seong Gak; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Hyunju; Choi, Junghyun; Song, Eun Ji; Han, Seung-Yun; Oh, Myung Sook; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Il; Moon, Minho

    2016-08-31

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effects of CD4+ T cell on cognitive function. However, the changes of Th2 cytokines in restricted CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire model and their effects on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether and how the mice with restricted CD4+ repertoire TCR exhibit learning and memory impairment by using OT-II mice. OT-II mice showed decreased adult neurogenesis in hippocampus and short- and long- term memory impairment. Moreover, Th2 cytokines in OT-II mice are significantly increased in peripheral organs and IL-4 is significantly increased in brain. Finally, IL-4 treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of cultured adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells. Taken together, abnormal level of Th2 cytokines can lead memory dysfunction via impaired adult neurogenesis in OT-II transgenic.

  20. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  1. The impact of two universal randomized first- and second-grade classroom interventions on young adult suicide ideation and attempt⋆

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Holly C.; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Poduska, Jeanne; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Wang, Wei; Anthony, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This paper reports the impact of two first- and second-grade classroom based universal preventive interventions on the risk of Suicide Ideation (SI) and Suicide Attempts (SA) by young adulthood. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) was directed at socializing children for the student role and reducing aggressive, disruptive behavior. Mastery Learning (ML) was aimed at improving academic achievement. Both were implemented by the teacher. Methods The design was epidemiologically based, with randomization at the school and classroom levels and balancing of children across classrooms. The trial involved a cohort of first-grade children in 19 schools and 41 classrooms with intervention at first and second grades. A replication was implemented with the next cohort of first grade children with the same teachers but with little mentoring or monitoring. Results In the first cohort, there was consistent and robust GBG-associated reduction of risk for suicide ideation by age 19–21 years compared to youths in standard setting (control) classrooms regardless of any type of covariate adjustment. A GBG-associated reduced risk for suicide attempt was found, though in some covariate-adjusted models the effect was not statistically robust. No statistically significant impact on these outcomes was found for ML. The impact of the GBG on suicide ideation and attempts was greatly reduced in the replication trial involving the second cohort. Conclusions A universal preventive intervention directed at socializing children and classroom behavior management to reduce aggressive, disruptive behavior may delay or prevent onset of suicide ideation and attempts. The GBG must be implemented with precision and continuing support of teachers. PMID:18329189

  2. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia: A case-control study among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized.A case-control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted.After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24-2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44-5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5-29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02-3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27-5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27-6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36-5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25-3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43-5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in women.Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in

  3. Adaptation of a previously validated vaccination report card for use in adult vaccine clinical trials to align with the 2007 FDA Toxicity Grading Scale Guidance.

    PubMed

    Norquist, Josephine M; Khawaja, Shazia S; Kurian, Cizely; Mast, T Christopher; Liaw, Kai-Li; Robertson, Michael N; Evans, Barbara; Gutsch, David; Saddier, Patricia

    2012-09-01

    The Adult/Adolescent Vaccination Report Card (VRC) was developed and validated by Merck in 1998 for use in vaccine clinical trials to collect information from trial subjects on complaints for both local and systemic events after vaccination. This short report describes the revision to the original validated VRC in order to align with the guidelines outlined in the 2007 FDA Toxicity Grading Scale for Healthy Adult and Adolescent Volunteers Enrolled in Preventive Vaccine Clinical Trials. Since the VRC elicits trial subjects' self-reports of any adverse experiences (AE) occurring post vaccination, it was important that subsequent modifications of the VRC retained the original user-friendly characteristics while gathering the appropriate information to align with the FDA Guidance. A convenience sample of 15 participants (71% females, 87% white and mean (SD) age 45 (13) years was recruited to obtain feedback in order to revise the Adult/Adolescent VRC. Based on the feedback received, the following were slightly revised: ruler for the measurements of local systemic reactions, severity ratings, and general instructions. The revised VRC is currently being used in Merck vaccine clinical trials.

  4. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  5. Is Collective Efficacy Age Graded? The Development and Evaluation of a New Measure of Collective Efficacy for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Galinsky, Adena M.; Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Community processes are key determinants of older adults' ability to age in place, but existing scales measuring these constructs may not provide accurate, unbiased measurements among older adults because they were designed with the concerns of child-rearing respondents in mind. This study examines the properties of a new theory-based measure of collective efficacy (CE) that accounts for the perspectives of older residents. Methods. Data come from the population-based Chicago Neighborhood Organization, Aging and Health study (N = 1,151), which surveyed adults aged 65 to 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlations, and factor analysis, we explored the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new measure. Results. Principal component analysis indicated that the new scale measures a single latent factor. It had good internal consistency reliability, was highly correlated with the original scale, and was similarly associated with neighborhood exchange and disorder, self-rated health, mobility, and loneliness. The new scale also showed less age-differentiated nonresponse compared to the original scale. Discussion. The older adult CE scale has reliability and validity equivalent to that of the existing measure but benefits from a more developed theoretical grounding and reduced likelihood of age-related differential nonresponse. PMID:22315685

  6. Education for Homeless Adults: Strategies for Implementation. Volume II - Resources and Additional Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This document, the second in a series of guidebooks that were developed for educators of homeless adults in New York, offers strategies and plans for sample lessons in which a holistic approach is used to help homeless adults and families improve their lives through education. The guidebook begins with lists of print and nonprint resources,…

  7. Rethinking Adult Education for Development II. Conference Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 6-9, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetina, Metka, Ed.

    This book contains papers, reports, and opening and closing speeches presented at a worldwide conference of adult education experts. The document begins with the following: an introduction (Jelenc); a reprinted article, "Time to Collectively Rethink Our Field" (Franklin W. Spikes); and opening speeches by various adult education officials (Jelenc,…

  8. The Role of the Public Libraries in Adult Independent Learning. Part II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavor, Anne S.; And Others

    Part two of the final report on the adult independent learning program focuses on the following: (1) discussion of the 11 data collection categories developed to meet the information needs of specific groups--advisors working with adult learners, planners monitoring service performance, library policy decision makers responsible for determining…

  9. Teaching Adolescent/Young Adult Literature: Course Handbook II--Education L535.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry, Comp.; And Others

    This handbook presents two core units for a distance education course that provides an introduction to the genre of texts targeted for adolescent/young adult readers. The first core unit in the handbook discusses the teaching of literary aspects of using adolescent/young adult literature. The second core unit addresses alternative approaches to…

  10. INDIAN EDUCATION WORKSHOPS. PART I - EDUCATION OF INDIAN ADULTS. PART II - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, NICHOLAS, ED.; ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR., ED.

    DURING THE SUMMER OF 1962, THE INDIAN EDUCATION CENTER OF ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY OFFERED TWO COURSES--EDUCATION OF THE INDIAN ADULT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN EDUCATION. PAPERS WRITTEN BY STUDENTS IN THE COURSES AND REPORTS OF GUEST SPEAKERS ARE PRESENTED IN THIS VOLUME. TOPICS COVERED INCLUDE ADULT EDUCATION THROUGH PARENT-TEACHER…

  11. Recommended Trade Books for Adult Literacy Programs: Annotated Bibliography with Teaching Suggestions. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloem, Patricia L., Comp.; Padak, Nancy D., Comp.

    Supplementing a guide published in 1995, this annotated bibliography contains 80 one-page listings of books for adult learners in adult basic education (ABE) and General Educational Development (GED) programs. Arranged in alphabetical order by author, each listing includes the following: title, author's name, illustrator's name, date of…

  12. Radiation-induced World Health Organization grade II meningiomas in young patients following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. Three case reports.

    PubMed

    Oda, Keiko; Sato, Taku; Watanabe, Tadashi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Ito, Eiji; Matsumoto, Yuka; Ando, Hitoshi; Sakuma, Jun; Kikuta, Atsushi; Hojo, Hiroshi; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Current chemotherapeutic regimens have been used to successfully treat many children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but have resulted in an increased risk of late central nervous system tumors, most commonly meningioma, particularly in patients who have received cranial irradiation. We treated 3 young patients with World Health Organization grade II meningiomas who had previously received cranial irradiation for the treatment of childhood ALL: a cerebellopontine angle tumor in a 19-year-old woman, a petroclival tumor in a 28-year-old man, and a frontal parasagittal tumor in a 19-year-old woman. These cases were difficult to treat due to the aggressive and invasive biology of the tumors. Therefore, we recommend systematic cranial imaging and long follow-up periods for leukemia survivors to detect brain tumors before progression.

  13. Surgical re-entry evaluation of regenerative efficacy of bioactive Gengigel® and platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of grade II furcation: A novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurkirat Kaur; Khinda, Paramjit Kaur; Gill, Amarjit Singh; Kalra, Harveen Singh

    2015-01-01

    The furcation area creates situations in which routine periodontal procedures are somewhat limited, and surgical procedures are generally required. The introduction of bioactive agents, such as platelet concentrates, enamel matrix derivatives, bone morphogenic proteins, and matrix macromolecules such as hyaluronic acid has expanded the scope for better outcomes in furcation treatment. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring nonsulfated high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that forms a critical component of the extracellular matrix and contributes significantly to tissue hydrodynamics, cell migration, and proliferation. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is an immune and platelet concentrate containing all the constituents of a blood sample, which are favorable for healing and immunity. The purpose of the present case report was to assess through surgical re-entry, the regenerative capacity of Gengigel® in conjunction with PRF in a patient with grade II furcation defect. It was observed that the combined approach resulted in significant furcation defect fill on re-evaluation at 6 months. PMID:26681869

  14. Acute ascorbic acid ingestion increases skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen consumption via local vasodilation during graded handgrip exercise in older adults.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer C; Crecelius, Anne R; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2015-07-15

    Human aging is associated with reduced skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise, which may be a result of impaired endothelium-dependent dilation and/or attenuated ability to blunt sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction. Intra-arterial infusion of ascorbic acid (AA) increases nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation and forearm blood flow (FBF) during handgrip exercise in older adults, yet it remains unknown whether an acute oral dose can similarly improve FBF or enhance the ability to blunt sympathetic vasoconstriction during exercise. We hypothesized that 1) acute oral AA would improve FBF (Doppler ultrasound) and oxygen consumption (V̇o2) via local vasodilation during graded rhythmic handgrip exercise in older adults (protocol 1), and 2) AA ingestion would not enhance sympatholysis in older adults during handgrip exercise (protocol 2). In protocol 1 (n = 8; 65 ± 3 yr), AA did not influence FBF or V̇o2 during rest or 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) exercise, but increased FBF (199 ± 13 vs. 248 ± 16 ml/min and 343 ± 24 vs. 403 ± 33 ml/min; P < 0.05) and V̇o2 (26 ± 2 vs. 34 ± 3 ml/min and 43 ± 4 vs. 50 ± 5 ml/min; P < 0.05) at both 15 and 25% MVC, respectively. The increased FBF was due to elevations in forearm vascular conductance (FVC). In protocol 2 (n = 10; 63 ± 2 yr), following AA, FBF was similarly elevated during 15% MVC (∼ 20%); however, vasoconstriction to reflex increases in sympathetic activity during -40 mmHg lower-body negative pressure at rest (ΔFVC: -16 ± 3 vs. -16 ± 2%) or during 15% MVC (ΔFVC: -12 ± 2 vs. -11 ± 4%) was unchanged. Our collective results indicate that acute oral ingestion of AA improves muscle blood flow and V̇o2 during exercise in older adults via local vasodilation.

  15. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2003. Volume II: College Students & Adults Ages 19-45, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2004-01-01

    This is the second volume in a two-volume set, presenting findings from the Monitoring the Future study. The first volume presents findings from American secondary students in grades 8, 10, and 12. This second volume contains findings from American college students, their age peers not in college, young adult high school graduates through age 30…

  16. Prognostic value of the extent of resection in supratentorial WHO grade II astrocytomas stratified for IDH1 mutation status: a single-center volumetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jungk, Christine; Scherer, Moritz; Mock, Andreas; Capper, David; Radbruch, Alexander; von Deimling, Andreas; Bendszus, Martin; Herold-Mende, Christel; Unterberg, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Current evidence supports a maximized extent of resection (EOR) in low-grade gliomas (LGG), regardless of different histological subtypes and molecular markers. We therefore evaluated the prognostic impact of extensive, mainly intraoperative (i)MRI-guided surgery in low-grade astrocytomas stratified for IDH1 mutation status. Retrospective assessment of 46 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed supratentorial WHO grade II astrocytomas treated during the last decade was performed. IDH1 mutation status was obtained for all patients. Volumetric analysis of tumor volumes was performed pre-, intra-, early postoperatively and at first follow-up. Survival analysis was conducted with uni-and multivariate regression models implementing clinical parameters and continuous volumetric variables. Median EOR was 90.4 % (range 17.5-100 %) and was increased to 94.9 % (range 34.8-100 %) in iMRI-guided resections (n = 33). A greater EOR was prognostic for increased progression-free survival (HR 0.23, p = 0.031) and time to re-intervention (TTR) (HR 0.23, p = 0.03). In IDH1 mutant patients, smaller residual tumor volumes were associated with increased TTR (HR 1.01, p = 0.03). IDH1 mutation (38/46 cases) was an independent positive prognosticator for overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis (HR 0.09, p = 0.002), while extensive surgery had limited impact upon OS. In a subgroup of patients with ≥40 % EOR (n = 39), however, initial and residual tumor volumes were prognostic for OS (HR 1.03, p = 0.005 and HR 1.08, p = 0.007, respectively), persistent to adjustment for IDH1. No association between EOR and neurologic morbidity was found. In this analysis of low-grade astrocytomas stratified for IDH1, extensive tumor resections were prognostic for progression and TTR and, in patients with ≥40 % EOR, for OS.

  17. Neuropsychological status in children and young adults with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Rakesh . E-mail: rjalali@medscape.com; Goswami, Savita; Sarin, Rajiv; More, Niteen; Siddha, Manish; Kamble, Rashmi

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To present prospective neuropsychological data at baseline and follow-up in children and young adults with benign and low-grade gliomas treated with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients (age 4-25 years) with residual/progressive benign and low-grade brain tumors considered suitable for SCRT underwent detailed and in-depth neuropsychological and cognitive testing at baseline before SCRT. The test battery included measurement of age-adjusted intelligence quotients (IQs) and cognitive parameters of visual, spatial, visuomotor, and attention concentrations. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for patients >16 years old. Patients were treated with high-precision conformal radiotherapy under stereotactic guidance to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All neuropsychological assessments were repeated at 6 and 24 months after SCRT completion and compared with the baseline values. Results: The baseline mean full-scale IQ before starting RT for patients <16 years was 82 (range, 33-105). For those >16 years, the corresponding value was 72 (range, 64-129). Of 20 evaluable patients, 14 (70%) had less than average IQs at baseline, even before starting radiotherapy. The verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ, as well as other cognitive scores, did not change significantly at the 6- and 24-month follow-up assessments for all patients. The memory quotient in older children and young adults was maintained at 6 and 24 months after SCRT, with a mean value of 93 and 100, respectively, compared with a mean baseline value of 81 before RT. The mean anxiety score in children measured by the C1 and C2 components of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was 48 and 40, respectively, which improved significantly to mean values of 30 and 26, respectively, at the 24-month follow-up assessment (p = 0.005). The mean depression score in

  18. In-vitro investigation to evaluate the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Mabrurkar, Vijay; Habbu, Nitin; Hashmi, Sayed Wahhiuddin; Musani, Smita; Joshi, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Background: This in-vitro investigation was designed to compare the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium and evaluate the type of bond failure through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersion X ray Spectrum (EDS). Materials & Methods: Sixty patterns of auto polymerizing resin of dimensions 25.1 mm X 3.1mm X 0.6mm each were fabricated from a stainless steel die. Titanium casting for all the samples was done in a Titanium casting machine. Ten samples were allotted to each of three groups randomly. Ceramic build up was done step by step using the manufacturers' instructions. Flexural Bond strength tests for the samples were performed by using a 3-point bending test on a Universal testing machine in compliance with Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) 13.927 draft. After the tests were completed, three samples, one from each group were selected randomly for the subsequent Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) studies to characterize the type and morphology of the fracture in representative specimens. Results: The maximum load to fracture the porcelain was recorded for each specimen. All the means of the three groups were compared by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and it was found that Group I & Group III had significantly higher bond strength values as compared with the Group II (P< 0.001). All the 10 samples of Group I & III gave bond strength values above the standard values of 25 MPa. There was statistically significant difference in the bond strengths between Group I & Group III (t = 2.76 and P< 0.05), between Group I & II (t = 5.09 and P< 0.001) and between Group II & Group III (t = 13.28 and P< 0.001). SEM studies revealed occurrence of cohesive type fractures in the ceramic body of samples belonging to Groups I & III, while there was adhesive failure at ceramo-metal junction of samples belonging to Group II. EDS Analysis supported the findings of SEM studies

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury among Older Adults at Level I and II Trauma Centers

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Jeffrey P.; Whyte, John; Corrigan, John D.; Faul, Mark; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Individuals 65 years of age and over have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related hospitalizations and deaths, and older adults (defined variably across studies) have particularly poor outcomes after TBI. The factors predicting these outcomes remain poorly understood, and age-specific care guidelines for TBI do not exist. This study provides an overview of TBI in older adults using data from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) gathered between 2007 and 2010, evaluates age group-specific trends in rates of TBI over time using U.S. Census data, and examines whether routinely collected information is able to predict hospital discharge status among older adults with TBI in the NTDB. Results showed a 20–25% increase in trauma center admissions for TBI among the oldest age groups (those >=75 years), relative to the general population, between 2007 and 2010. Older adults (>=65 years) with TBI tended to be white females who have incurred an injury from a fall resulting in a “severe” Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of the head. Older adults had more in-hospital procedures, such as neuroimaging and neurosurgery, tended to experience longer hospital stays, and were more likely to require continued medical care than younger adults. Older age, injury severity, and hypotension increased the odds of in-hospital death. The public health burden of TBI among older adults will likely increase as the Baby Boom generation ages. Improved primary and secondary prevention of TBI in this cohort is needed. PMID:23962046

  20. Selected class I and class II HLA alleles and haplotypes and risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ades, Steven; Koushik, Anita; Duarte-Franco, Eliane; Mansour, Nabil; Arseneau, Jocelyne; Provencher, Diane; Gilbert, Lucy; Gotlieb, Walter; Ferenczy, Alex; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel; Franco, Eduardo L

    2008-06-15

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) present foreign antigens to the immune system and may be important determinants of cervical neoplasia. Previously published associations between HLA and cervical neoplasia exhibit considerable variation in findings. The biomarkers of cervical cancer risk (BCCR) case-control study addressed the role of specific HLA alleles as cofactors in the development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) based on the most consistent evidence from published literature. Cases (N = 381) were women with histologically-confirmed HG-CIN attending colposcopy clinics and controls (N = 884) were women from outpatient clinics with normal cytological screening smears. Subjects were mainly of French-Canadian descent. Cervical specimens were tested for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and HLA genotypes by PGMY L1 consensus primer PCR and a PCR sequence-specific primer method, respectively. Unlike other studies, the DQB1*03 and DRB1*13 allele groups were not associated with risk of HG-CIN. The B7-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype was associated with a 41% overall reduction in HG-CIN risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36-0.96), and an 83% reduction in risk of HG-CIN among HPV 16 or HPV 18-positive subjects (OR = 0.17; 95%CI: 0.05-0.54). Paradoxically, however, the same haplotype was associated with HPV 16/18 infection risk among controls (OR = 8.44, 95%CI: 1.12-63.73). In conclusion, the B7-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype was protective against HG-CIN, especially in individuals infected with oncogenic HPV, but the mechanism of the association seems to involve multiple steps in the natural history of HPV and CIN.

  1. Increased nitric oxide bioavailability in adult GRK2 hemizygous mice protects against angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, María S; Lucas, Elisa; Jurado-Pueyo, María; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Vila-Bedmar, Rocío; Mayor, Federico; Salaices, Mercedes; Briones, Ana M; Murga, Cristina

    2014-02-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase able to phosphorylate and desensitize the active form of several G protein-coupled receptors. Given the lack of selective inhibitors for GRK2, we investigated the effects elicited by GRK2 inhibition in vascular responses using global adult hemizygous mice (GRK2(+/-)). The vasodilator responses to acetylcholine or isoproterenol were increased in aortas and mesenteric resistance arteries from GRK2(+/-) mice compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. After angiotensin II (AngII) infusion, GRK2(+/-) mice were partially protected against hypertension, vascular remodeling, and mechanical alterations, even when resting basal blood pressures were not significantly different. AngII infusion also (1) increased GRK2 levels in WT but not in GRK2(+/-) vessels; (2) increased vasoconstrictor responses to phenylephrine in WT but not in GRK2(+/-) mice; and (3) decreased vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and vascular pAkt and eNOS levels more in WT than in GRK2(+/-) animals. Vascular NO production and the modulation of vasoconstrictor responses by endothelial-derived NO remained enhanced in GRK2(+/-) mice infused with AngII. Thus, GRK2(+/-) mice are resistant to the development of vascular remodeling and mechanical alterations, endothelial dysfunction, increased vasoconstrictor responses, and hypertension induced by AngII at least partially through the preservation of NO bioavailability. In conclusion, our results describe an important role for GRK2 in systemic hypertension and further establish that an inhibition of GRK2 could be a beneficial treatment for this condition.

  2. Manganese(II) chloride alters behavioral and neurochemical parameters in larvae and adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Altenhofen, Stefani; Wiprich, Melissa Talita; Nery, Laura Roesler; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Vianna, Monica Ryff Moreira Roca; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal for organisms, but high levels can cause serious neurological damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MnCl2 exposure on cognition and exploratory behavior in adult and larval zebrafish and correlate these findings with brain accumulation of Mn, overall brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, dopamine (DA) levels, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and cell death markers in the nervous system. Adults exposed to MnCl2 for 4days (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mM) and larvae exposed for 5days (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5mM) displayed decreased exploratory behaviors, such as distance traveled and absolute body turn angle, in addition to reduced movement time and an increased number of immobile episodes in larvae. Adults exposed to MnCl2 for 4days showed impaired aversive long-term memory in the inhibitory avoidance task. The overall brain TH levels were elevated in adults and larvae evaluated at 5 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). Interestingly, the protein level of this enzyme was decreased in larval animals at 10dpf. Furthermore, DOPAC levels were increased in adult animals exposed to MnCl2. Protein analysis showed increased apoptotic markers in both the larvae and adult nervous system. The results demonstrated that prolonged exposure to MnCl2 leads to locomotor deficits that may be associated with damage caused by this metal in the CNS, particularly in the dopaminergic system.

  3. Prediction of adult Sheldon somatotypes I and II from ratings and measurements at childhood ages.

    PubMed

    Walker, R N; Tanner, J M

    1980-01-01

    The photographs of 82 boys from the Harpenden Growth Study were assigned somatotype ratings at ages 5, 8, 11, 14, and 18 years, using both Sheldon's earlier, anthroposcopic method and his revised, objective method (somatotype II). Inter-judge correlations for the anthroposcopic ratings of the 18-year-olds ranged from 0.79 to 0.93 for the three components; correlations for the somatotype II ratings ranged from 0.94 to 0.99. The three components of the somatotype II ratings showed greater independence of one another than did those of the anthroposcopic method, which tended to collapse towards two dimensions. Correlations for corresponding components between the anthroposcopic and somatotype II ratings at the same age were mostly in the low 0.80s. Mean somatotype ratings changed little with age in either method, but the somatotype II ratings were consistently higher in endomorphy and mesomorphy and lower in ectomorphy than the anthroposcopic ratings. Patterns of inter-age correlations were similar within methods: endomorphy showed lower age-to-age correlations than did mesomorphy and ectomorphy. Correlations of anthroposcopic component ratings with ratings at age 18 increased distinctly from age 5 to age 8, less sharply thereafter. Between ages 8 and 18, within observer, they were 0.72, 0.83, and 0.82, for endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. These 8-to-18 correlations for mesomorphy and ectomorphy are similar in magnitude to those for height.

  4. Early Detection of Malignant Transformation in Resected WHO II Low-Grade Glioma Using Diffusion Tensor-Derived Quantitative Measures

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Martin T.; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.; Binczyk, Francisczek; Laun, Frederik B.; Weber, Christian; Bonekamp, David; Tarnawski, Rafal; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Polanska, Joanna; Majchrzak, Henryk; Stieltjes, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Objective Here, we retrospectively investigate the value of voxel-wisely plotted diffusion tensor-derived (DTI) axial, radial and mean diffusivity for the early detection of malignant transformation (MT) in WHO II glioma compared to contrast-enhanced images. Materials and Methods Forty-seven patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging follow-up between 2006–2014 after gross-tumor resection of intra-axial WHO II glioma. Axial/Mean/Radial diffusivity maps (AD/MD/RD) were generated from DTI data. ADmin/MDmin/RDmin values were quantified within tumor regions-of-interest generated by two independent readers including tumor contrast-to-noise (CNR). Sensitivity/specificity and area-under-the-curve (AUC) were calculated using receiver-operating-characteristic analysis. Inter-reader agreement was assessed (Cohen’s kappa). Results Eighteen patients demonstrated malignant transformation (MT) confirmed in 8/18 by histopathology and in 10/18 through imaging follow-up. Twelve of 18 patients (66.6%) with MT showed diffusion restriction timely coincidental with contrast-enhancement (CE). In the remaining six patients (33.3%), the diffusion restriction preceded the CE. The mean gain in detection time using DTI was (0.8±0.5 years, p = 0.028). Compared to MDmin and RDmin, ROC-analysis showed best diagnostic value for ADmin (sensitivity/specificity 94.94%/89.7%, AUC 0.96; p<0.0001) to detect MT. CNR was highest for AD (1.83±0.14), compared to MD (1.31±0.19; p<0.003) and RD (0.90±0.23; p<0.0001). Cohen’s Kappa was 0.77 for ADmin, 0.71 for MDmin and 0.65 for RDmin (p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion MT is detectable at the same time point or earlier compared to T1w-CE by diffusion restriction in diffusion-tensor-derived maps. AD demonstrated highest sensitivity/specificity/tumor-contrast compared to radial or mean diffusivity (= apparent diffusion coefficient) to detect MT. PMID:27741525

  5. Regional expression and androgen regulation of carbonic anhydrase IV and II in the adult rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Kaunisto, K; Fleming, R E; Kneer, J; Sly, W S; Rajaniemi, H

    1999-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is implicated in the acidification of epididymal fluid and thereby in the regulation of sperm maturation and motility. Among the CA isoenzymes, CA IV and II have been shown to be present in the rat epididymal duct epithelium. In the present study, we examined the expression and androgen regulation of CA IV and II mRNAs along the epididymal duct. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of CA II mRNA in all regions of the epididymis with the strongest signal in the corpus region, while CA IV mRNA was expressed predominantly in the corpus epididymidis. Three days after bilateral castration, CA IV and II mRNAs were decreased by 80-90% in the corpus epididymidis. Testosterone (T) replacement maintained the expression of CA mRNAs at 50-60% of the control levels, indicating that circulating androgens alone are not sufficient to recover the CA expression in the corpus region. However, unilateral castration did not affect the mRNA levels of CA IV and II, suggesting that factors in testicular fluid do not play a major role in the regulation of CA expression in the corpus epididymidis. Immunoblot analysis showed that CA IV protein levels decreased 3 days after castration, while T administration maintained the protein expression virtually at the precastration levels. These data demonstrate that mRNAs for CA IV and II are predominantly expressed in the corpus region of the rat epididymis and can be regulated by androgens in that region. The present data suggest that the regulation of CA expression in the corpus epididymidis by androgens contributes to the known androgen effects on epididymal acidification.

  6. Adult Literacy: A Study of Community Based Literacy Programs. Revised and Updated. Volume II: Program Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Community Based Education, Washington, DC.

    This volume accompanies a study of community-based approaches to literacy education for adults. It provides profiles of 26 community-based educational institutions that provided study data. Each profile provides name, address, and telephone number; contact; other project sites; institutional description; mission/purpose; approach; skills…

  7. New Ways in Teaching Adults. New Ways in TESOL Series II: Innovative Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marilyn, Ed.

    The guide offers over 100 classroom activities and techniques for teaching English as a second language to adults, all provided by experienced teachers who have found them useful. They are divided into ten categories: (1) activities using materials or techniques from radio, television, and print news media; (2) exercises for teaching English for…

  8. Community Colleges and Older Adults: A Review of Ideas and Publications. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Douglas

    1981-01-01

    Second of four articles on community college programs for older adults, summarizes the content of seven booklets and monographs published between 1975 and 1980. Discusses works by Lillian Glickman and Benjamin Hersey; Carl Brahce; the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation; Roger DeCrow Holly Jellison; and Loretta Butcher. Includes bibliography. (AYC)

  9. Grade Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's…

  10. Synchrotron X-ray Tests of an L-Shaped Laterally Graded Multilayer Mirror for the Analyzer System of the Ultra-High Resolution IXS Spectrometer at NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Honnicke, M.G.; Takacs, P.; Keister, J.W.; Conley, R.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Coburn, D.S.; Reffi, L.; Cai, Y.Q.

    2011-08-02

    Characterization and testing of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror are presented. This mirror is designed as a two-dimensional collimating optics for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectrometer at National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The characterization includes point-to-point reflectivity measurements, lattice parameter determination and mirror metrology (figure, slope error and roughness). The synchrotron X-ray test of the mirror was carried out reversely as a focusing device. The results show that the L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror is suitable to be used, with high efficiency, for the analyzer system of the IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II.

  11. Ethics in America II: A Video Series for Middle School, High School, and Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg Media, 2007

    2007-01-01

    New, and yet familiar, hypothetical cases are debated and agonized over by eminent leaders from government, business, science and academia. "Ethics in America II" follows its predecessor by exploring gripping ethical dilemmas using the time-honored Socratic Dialogue format. The programs can be used with a discussion guide to help teachers engage…

  12. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  13. California Adult Education End-of-Year Progress Report to the Legislature: Implementation of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title II. Program Year 2008. July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title II, Adult Education and Family Literacy Act provides funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act language…

  14. California Adult Education End-of-Year Progress Report to the Legislature: Implementation of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title II. Program Year 2009. July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title II, Adult Education and Family Literacy Act provides funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act language…

  15. End-of-Year 2009-10 Progress Report to the California Legislature: Implementation and Impact of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) provide funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act…

  16. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of

  17. Congenital combined deficiency of coagulation factors VII and II in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Dasanu, Constantin A; Natale, Frances O; DeSilva, Hema N

    2010-01-01

    We present herein a case of a young female with congenital combined coagulation factor VII (FVII) and factor II (FII) deficiencies. She was completely asymptomatic and found to have a prolonged prothrombin time during a routine preoperative evaluation. Low levels of plasma FVII and FII in the absence of an inhibitor confirmed the diagnosis in our patient. Congenital combined FVII and FIX deficiency as well as combined FVII and FX deficiency have been previously reported. The congenital combined deficiency of FVII and FII in our patient is exceptional and represents the first such instance in the English literature. Furthermore, we hypothesize that she had not shown any bleeding manifestations because of possible compensation for the missing factors II and VII by enhanced activity of some intrinsic coagulation pathway components or depression of fibrinolysis.

  18. Patient-reported outcome following nonsurgical management of type II odontoid process fractures in adults

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Nassir, Rafiq Muhammed; Bhatt, Pragnesh; Kamel, Mahmoud H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transverse (type II) odontoid process fracture is among the most commonly encountered cervical spine fractures. Nonsurgical management through external immobilization is occasionally preferred to surgical management but is criticized for its higher rates of failure and lower patient satisfaction. Our aim is to analyze patient-reported outcomes in patients who underwent nonsurgical treatment for type II odontoid fractures. Methods: We identified patients >18-year-old who underwent external immobilization as a treatment for isolated type II odontoid fracture between 2007 and 2012. We collected demographic parameters, clinical presentation, mode of injury, imaging studies and modality and duration of treatment (soft collar, halo-vest, or both). Patients were contacted by telephone to participate in a 15-min survey addressing their recovery including their subjective rate of return to preinjury level of functioning. Results: Fifteen patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and participated in our survey. Patients were followed up for an average of 19 months after injury. Overall mean age was 61 years. Injury followed a mechanical fall or a road traffic accident in 11 and 4 cases, respectively. External immobilization was achieved by halo vest only in nine patients, soft collar only in two patients (13%), and through a sequential combination in the remaining 4 (27%). This was deployed for a mean of 7.8 months. Radiological studies at the last follow-up showed bony healing (27%), fibrous nonunion (60%), and persistent instability (13%). Patients reported gradual recovery of function throughout the 1st year after injury with levels above 70% of preinjury functioning achieved by 13% of patients at 6 months, 33% at 9 months, and 47% at 12 months. Overall satisfaction with nonsurgical management was 68%. Conclusion: In selected patients with type II odontoid fractures, external immobilization represents a good option with acceptable course of recovery. PMID

  19. Growth hormone treatment in growth hormone-deficient adults. II. Effects on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Cuneo, R C; Salomon, F; Wiles, C M; Hesp, R; Sönksen, P H

    1991-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment in adults with GH deficiency increases lean body mass and thigh muscle cross-sectional area. The functional significance of this was examined by incremental cycle ergometry in 24 GH-deficient adults treated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial with recombinant DNA human GH (rhGH) for 6 mo (0.07 U/kg body wt daily). Compared with placebo, the rhGH group increased mean maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) (+406 +/- 71 vs. +133 +/- 84 ml/min; P = 0.016) and maximal power output (+24.6 +/- 4.3 vs. +9.7 +/- 4.8 W; P = 0.047), without differences in maximal heart rate or ventilation. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, vital capacity, and corrected CO gas transfer were within normal limits and did not change with treatment. Mean predicted VO2max, based on height and age, increased from 78.9 to 96.0% in the rhGH group (compared with 78.5 and 85.0% for placebo; P = 0.036). The anaerobic ventilatory threshold increased in the rhGH group (+159 +/- 39 vs. +1 +/- 51 ml/min; P = 0.02). The improvement in VO2max was noted when expressed per kilogram body weight but not lean body mass or thigh muscle area. We conclude that rhGH treatment in adults with GH deficiency improves and normalizes maximal exercise performance and improves submaximal exercise performance and that these changes are related to increases in lean body mass and muscle mass. Improved cardiac output may also contribute to the effect of rhGH on exercise performance.

  20. Hearing in young adults. Part II: The effects of recreational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Great concern arises from recreational noise exposure, which might lead to noise-induced hearing loss in young adults. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of recreational noise exposure on hearing function in young adults. A questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposures and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). Based on the duration of exposure and self-estimated loudness of various leisure-time activities, the weekly and lifetime equivalent noise exposure were calculated. Subjects were categorized in groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure based on these values. Hearing was evaluated using audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Mean differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant differences in hearing thresholds, TEOAE amplitudes, and DPOAE amplitudes between groups with low, intermediate, or high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, one-third of our subjects exceeded the weekly equivalent noise exposure for all activities of 75 dBA. Further, the highest equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated for the activities visiting nightclubs or pubs, attending concerts or festivals, and playing in a band or orchestra. Moreover, temporary tinnitus after recreational noise exposure was found in 86% of our subjects. There were no significant differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, a long-term assessment of young adults' hearing in relation to recreational noise exposure is needed.

  1. Occupational exposures and uncontrolled adult-onset asthma in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Siroux, Valérie; Radon, Katja; Norback, Dan; Torén, Kjell; Olivieri, Mario; Urrutia, Isabel; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Benke, Geza; Kromhout, Hans; Mirabelli, Maria C; Mehta, Amar J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Blanc, Paul D; Kogevinas, Manolis; Antó, Josep M; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2014-02-01

    Occupational exposure is a well-recognised modifiable risk factor for asthma, but the relationship between occupational exposure and asthma control has not been studied. We aimed to study this association among working-age adults from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Data were available for 7077 participants (mean age 43 years, 45% never-smokers, 5867 without asthma and 1210 with current asthma). Associations between occupational exposure to specific asthmagens and asthma control status (33% with uncontrolled asthma, based on the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines) were evaluated using logistic and multinomial regressions, adjusted for age, sex and smoking status, with study areas included as a random effect. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between uncontrolled adult-onset asthma and both past 12-month and 10-year exposure to any occupational asthmagens (OR (95% CI) 1.6 (1.0-2.40) and 1.7 (1.2-2.5), respectively); high (1.7 (1.0-2.8) and 1.9 (1.3-2.9), respectively) and low (1.6 (1.0-2.7) and 1.8 (1.2-2.7), respectively) molecular weight agents; and cleaning agents (2.0 (1.1-3.6) and 2.3 (1.4-3.6), respectively), with stronger associations for long-term exposures. These associations were mainly explained by the exacerbation domain of asthma control and no associations were observed between asthmagens and partly controlled asthma. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to asthmagens is associated with uncontrolled adult-onset asthma. Occupational risk factors should be quickly identified to prevent uncontrolled asthma.

  2. OPTIMAL POSITION OF THE HEEL FOLLOWING RECONSTRUCTION OF THE STAGE II ADULT ACQUIRED FLATFOOT DEFORMITY

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Matthew S.; Ellis, Scott J.; Chan, Jeremy Y.; Do, Huong T.; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2016-01-01

    Background While previous work has demonstrated a linear relationship between the amount of medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO) and the change in radiographic hindfoot alignment following reconstruction, an ideal postoperative hindfoot alignment has yet to be reported. The aim of this study was to identify an optimal postoperative hindfoot alignment by correlating radiographic alignment with patient outcomes. Methods Fifty-five feet in 55 patients underwent flatfoot reconstruction for stage II AAFD by two fellowship-trained foot and ankle orthopedic surgeons. Hindfoot alignment was determined as previously described by Saltzman and El-Khoury. Changes in pre- and postoperative scores in each FAOS subscale were calculated for patients in postoperative hindfoot valgus (≥0 mm valgus, n=18), mild varus (>0 to 5 mm varus, n=17), and moderate varus (>5 mm varus, n=20). Analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey’s tests were used to compare the change in FAOS scores between these three groups. Results At 22 months or more postoperatively, patients corrected to mild hindfoot varus showed a significantly greater improvement in the FAOS pain subscale compared to patients in valgus (p=0.04) and symptoms subscale compared to patients in moderate varus (p=0.03). Although mild hindfoot varus did not differ significantly from moderate varus or valgus in the other subscales, mild hindfoot varus did not perform worse than these alignments in any FAOS subscale. No statistically significant correlations between intraoperative MCO slide distances and FAOS subscales were found. Conclusions Our study indicates that correction of hindfoot alignment to between 0 and 5 mm of varus on the hindfoot alignment view (clinically a straight heel) following stage II flatfoot reconstruction was associated with the greatest improvement in clinical outcomes following hindfoot reconstruction in stage II AAFD. PMID:25948692

  3. Long-term follow-up of Class II adults treated with orthodontic camouflage: A comparison with orthognathic surgery outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mihalik, Colin A.; Proffit, William R.; Phillips, Ceib

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-one adults who had been treated with orthodontics alone for Class II malocclusions were recalled at least 5 years posttreatment to evaluate cephalometric and occlusal stability and also their satisfaction with treatment outcomes. The data were compared with similar data for long-term outcomes in patients with more severe Class II problems who had surgical correction with mandibular advancement, maxillary impaction, or a combination of those. In the camouflage patients, small mean changes in skeletal landmark positions occurred in the long term, but the changes were generally much smaller than in the surgery patients. The percentages of patients with a long-term increase in overbite were almost identical in the orthodontic and surgery groups, but the surgery patients were nearly twice as likely to have a long-term increase in overjet. The patients’ perceptions of outcomes were highly positive in both the orthodontic and the surgical groups. The orthodontics-only (camouflage) patients reported fewer functional or temporomandibular joint problems than did the surgery patients and had similar reports of overall satisfaction with treatment, but patients who had their mandibles advanced were significantly more positive about their dentofacial images. PMID:12637899

  4. Lead exposure, begun in utero, decreases renin and angiotensin II in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Victery, W.; Vander, A.J.; Markel, H.; Katzman, L.; Shulak, J.M.; Germain, C.

    1982-05-01

    Male rats were exposed continously to Pb in utero and after birth by giving their mothers, during pregnancy and lactation, drinking water containing 0, 5, or 25 ppm Pb (as Pb acetate) and then continuing this regimen after weaning for approximately 5 months. At the time of sacrifice (5 months) the 5- and 25-ppm groups had mean blood Pb concentrations of 5.6 and 18.2 ..mu..g/dl, respectively. No differences in systolic blood pressure occurred between groups. Rats exposed to 25 ppm manifested a significant decrease in basal plasma renin activity (PRA) but a significant increase in PRA during stimulation of renin release by acute volume depletion. In this latter state, the ratio of angiotensin II to PRA was significantly reduced in the 25-ppm group. Groups exposed to 5 and 25 ppm both had significant decreases in renal renin concentration. We conclude that chronic exposure of rats to doses of Pb which produce blood Pb concentrations similar to those generally present in urban human populations does not induce hypertension but does inhibit renin synthesis and release, as well as reducing plasma angiotension II concentration at any given PRA, either by inhibiting conversion of AI to AII or by enhancing AII catabolism.

  5. Hearing in young adults. Part II: The effects of recreational noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Great concern arises from recreational noise exposure, which might lead to noise-induced hearing loss in young adults. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of recreational noise exposure on hearing function in young adults. A questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposures and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). Based on the duration of exposure and self-estimated loudness of various leisure-time activities, the weekly and lifetime equivalent noise exposure were calculated. Subjects were categorized in groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure based on these values. Hearing was evaluated using audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Mean differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant differences in hearing thresholds, TEOAE amplitudes, and DPOAE amplitudes between groups with low, intermediate, or high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, one-third of our subjects exceeded the weekly equivalent noise exposure for all activities of 75 dBA. Further, the highest equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated for the activities visiting nightclubs or pubs, attending concerts or festivals, and playing in a band or orchestra. Moreover, temporary tinnitus after recreational noise exposure was found in 86% of our subjects. There were no significant differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, a long-term assessment of young adults’ hearing in relation to recreational noise exposure is needed. PMID:26356366

  6. Coefficient of Friction at the Fingertips in Type II Diabetics Compared to Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Thames, Beatriz H; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-12-05

    Clinical observations suggests that Type II Diabetes patients are more susceptible to skin changes which may be associated with reduced coefficient of friction at the fingertips. Reduced coefficient of friction may explain recent reports of fine motor dysfunction in diabetic patients. Coefficient of friction was evaluated using slip force evaluation in a cross-sectional cohort of diabetic patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Covariates of tactile sensation, disease duration, glycated hemoglobin, and clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were also assessed. A significant decrease in fingertip coefficient of friction in the diabetic group was found as compared to controls. Health state covariates did not alter the strength of between-group differences in statistical analyses. This finding of between group differences for fingertip frictional properties suggests that causative factors of reported manual motor dysfunction lie in both the distal and proximal portions of the nervous system.

  7. A Psychometric Evaluation of the STAI-Y, BDI-II, and PAI Using Single and Multifactorial Models in Young Adults Seeking Psychoeducational Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Benjamin D.; Musso, Mandi; Jones, Glenn N.; Pella, Russell D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2013-01-01

    A psychometric evaluation on the measurement of self-report anxiety and depression using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Form-Y (STAI-Y), and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was performed using a sample of 534 generally young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation at a university-based clinic.…

  8. The Influence of Gender and Anthropometry on Haemodynamic Status at Rest and in Response to Graded Incremental Head-Up Tilt in Young, Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarafian, Delphine; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    The body's ability to rapidly and appropriately regulate blood pressure in response to changing physiological demand is a key feature of a healthy cardiovascular system. Passively tilting the body, thereby changing central blood volume, is a well-recognized and controlled method of evaluating this ability. However, such studies usually involve single tilt angles, or intermittent tilting separated by supine, resting periods; valuable information concerning the adaptive capacity of the regulatory systems involved is therefore currently lacking. Furthermore, despite increasing recognition that men and women differ in the magnitude of their haemodynamic response to such stimuli, little is known about the degree to which gender differences in body composition and anthropometry influence these regulatory pathways, or indeed if these differences are apparent in response to graded, incremental tilting. In the present study we measured, in 23 young, healthy adults (13 men, 10 women), the continuous beat-to-beat haemodynamic response to graded, incremental tilting (0°, 20°, 40°, 60°, and back to 40°) with each tilt angle lasting 16 min. On average, we observed increases in heart rate (+41%), blood pressure (+10%), and total peripheral resistance (+16%) in response to tilting. However, whilst men showed an immediate decrease in cardiac output upon tilting (−8.9%) cardiac output in women did not change significantly from supine values. Interestingly, the decrease in stroke volume observed in women was significantly less than that observed in men (−22 vs. −36%, p < 0.05); although the present study could not determine if this difference was due to gender per se or due to differences in body size (in particular height) between the two gender groups. Such disparities in the magnitude of autonomic response may indicate (in the case of our gradual incremental tilt procedure) a better buffering capacity to progressive changes in central blood volume in women; which

  9. β-Cell Function Improvements in Grade I/II Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes 1 Month After Biliopancreatic Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira Vasques, Ana Carolina; Pareja, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Maria da Saude; Satake Novaes, Fernanda; Miranda de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Chaim, Élinton A.; Piccinini, Francesca; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) surgery on β-cell function in grade I and II obese patients with type 2 diabetes using oral and intravenous glucose loads. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixty-eight women were divided into the following three groups: 19 lean-control (23.0 ± 2.2 kg/m2) and 18 obese-control (35.0 ± 4.8 kg/m2) subjects with normal glucose tolerance, and 31 obese patients with type 2 diabetes (36.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2). Of the 31 diabetic women, 64% underwent BPD (n = 20, BMI: 36.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2) and were reassessed 1 month after surgery. Oral glucose tolerance tests and hyperglycemic clamps were performed. Mathematical modeling was used to analyze basal and stimulated β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (IS), hepatic extraction (HE) of insulin, and delay time of β-cell response to a specific plasma glucose concentration. RESULTS After BPD, restoration of the basal disposition index (P < 0.001) and improvement of the stimulated disposition indices in oral and intravenous glucose stimulation of the β-cell were observed (P < 0.05). In both dynamic tests, there were no changes in the delay time of β-cell response. IS for oral glucose stimulation (ISoral) and intravenous clamp glucose stimulation (ISclamp) was completely normalized (P < 0.001). ISoral and ISclamp increased approximately 5.0-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.01). The HE of insulin increased in the basal (P < 0.05) and stimulated states (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS β-Cell function, IS, and HE of insulin improved after BPD, which improved glycemic control. PMID:24135388

  10. Association between Serum Ferritin Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Adults: A Population Study from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bin; Yu, Fei; He, Haiyan; Zhang, Qing; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Bao, Xue; Liu, Fangfang; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have become the most important global public health issue. Iron plays an important role in brain function, cognition, and behavior, and its impacts on depressive symptoms may be multifactorial with both positive and negative effects. Previous observational studies focusing on the association between iron status and depressive symptoms showed inconsistent results. Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that can store and release iron and is widely used as a clinical biomarker to evaluate iron status. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between serum ferritin and depressive symptoms among 3,839 subjects who were from the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) cohort. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Chinese version of 20-item self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) with 4 cutoffs (40, 45, 48 and 50) to indicate elevated depressive symptoms (40 was the primary cut-off). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 36.5%, 17.6%, 11.0% and 7.0% for SDS ≥40, ≥45, ≥48 and ≥50, respectively. With the primary cut-off point of 40, multiple potential confounding factors were adjusted and the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having elevated depressive symptoms by quartiles of serum ferritin concentrations were 1.00 (reference), 1.10 (0.91, 1.34), 0.81 (0.66, 1.01) and 1.02 (0.81, 1.28) for the first, second, third and fourth quartile, respectively (P for trend = 0.76). Similar relations were observed with the use of other cut-offs as a definition of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, there is no significant relationship between serum ferritin concentrations and depressive symptoms among Chinese adults. PMID:27611581

  11. Personality and Biography: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the History of Adult Education. Volume II: Biographies of Adult Educators from Five Continents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenthal-Haase, Martha, Ed.

    This volume contains 36 biographies: "I.T.A. Wallace-Johnson and Radical Adult Education (AE) in Sierra Leone in the Years 1938/1939" (Turay); "Frank C. Laubach as the Father of the Adult Literacy Movement in India" (Ghosh); "A Historical Study on the Theory and Practice of Social and AE in Korea" (Lee); "Integrative Adult Educators" (Yaron);…

  12. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children/adolescents and adults. Part II: Differences in obliteration rates, treatment-obliteration intervals, and prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolato, Antonio . E-mail: antonio.nicolato@mail.azosp.vr.it; Lupidi, Francesco; Sandri, Marco F. Dr. Econom.; Foroni, Roberto; Zampieri, Piergiuseppe; Mazza, Carlo; Pasqualin, Alberto; Beltramello, Alberto; Gerosa, Massimo

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare obliteration rates (OBRs) and treatment-obliteration intervals (TOIs) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery in children/adolescents and adults; and to determine factors predicting the OBR and TOI in these two populations. Methods and Materials: This study concerned 62 children/adolescents and 193 adults observed for {>=}3 years. Fisher exact two-tailed and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, multiple logistics, and Cox proportional hazard models were used for statistical analysis. Results: The overall OBR was 85.5% in children/adolescents and 87.6% in adults (p 0.671), but children/adolescents showed higher 36-month actuarial OBRs (69.35%) and shorter median TOIs (25.7 months) than adults (66.84% and 28.2 months; p 0.006 and p = 0.017, respectively). In children/adolescents, lower Spetzler-Martin grades (p = 0.043) and younger age (p = 0.019) correlated significantly with OBRs, and lower Spetzler-Martin grades (p 0.024) and noneloquent cAVM locations (p = 0.046) with TOIs. In adults, low flow through the cAVM and <6.2-cm{sup 3} volume were associated with both OBR and TOI (p 0.012 and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The differences in OBRs within 3 years and TOIs, although slight, seem to show that pediatric cAVMs behave differently from those in adults after Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

  13. Expression of alpha subunit of alpha glucosidase II in adult mouse brain regions and selective organs

    PubMed Central

    Anji, Antje; Miller, Hayley; Raman, Chandrasekar; Phillips, Mathew; Ciment, Gary; Kumari, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Alpha glucosidase II (GII), a resident of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and an important enzyme in folding of nascent glycoproteins, is heterodimeric consisting of alpha (GIIα) and beta (GIIβ) subunits. The catalytic GIIα subunit with the help of mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain of GIIβ sequentially hydrolyzes two α-1-3-linked glucose residues in the 2nd step of N-linked oligosaccharide-mediated protein folding. The soluble GIIα subunit is retained in the ER through its interaction with the HDEL-containing GIIβ subunit. N-glycosylation and correct protein folding is crucial for protein stability, trafficking, and cell surface expression of several proteins in the brain. Alterations in N-glycosylation lead to abnormalities in neuronal migration and mental retardation, various neurodegenerative diseases, and invasion of malignant gliomas. Inhibitors of GII are used to inhibit cell proliferation and migration in a variety of different pathologies such as viral infection, cancer and diabetes. In spite of the widespread usage of GIIα inhibitory drugs and the role of GIIα in brain function little is known about its expression in brain and other tissues. Here, we report generation of a highly specific chicken antibody to GIIα subunit and its characterization by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation using cerebral cortical extracts. Using this antibody we show that the GIIα protein is highly expressed in testis, kidney, and lung, with the least amount in heart. GIIα polypeptide levels in whole brain were comparable to spleen. However, higher expression of GIIα protein was detected in cerebral cortex reflecting its continuous requirement in correct folding of cell surface proteins. PMID:25131991

  14. [A comparison of the grade of laryngeal visualisation;--the McCoy compared with the Macintosh and the Miller blade in adults].

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Konishi, A; Nishiyama, T; Higashizawa, T; Bito, H

    1998-08-01

    Effectiveness in visualization of the vocal cord during orotracheal intubation with McCoy (McC) compared with Macintosh (Min) and Miller (Mil) blades were investigated. After an institutional review board approval, 117 patients for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring tracheal intubation were investigated. Five board certified anesthesiologists tried to visualize the vocal cord of a patient three times with the three different types of laryngoscope. Total of 351 intubation attempts were studied. The view obtained at laryngoscopy with each of the three blades was recorded as follows. Grade 1. If most of the glottis is visible. Grade 2. If only the posterior extremity of the glottis is visible. Grade 3. If no part of the glottis can be seen. Grade 4. If not even the epiglottis can be exposed. Eight-two Grade 1 views were obtained with McC, 72 with Mil and 47 with Min, respectively. Thirty-three Grade 2 views were obtained with McC, 36 with Min and 24 with Mil. Two Grade 3 views with McC, 34 with Min and 14 with Mil were obtained. Seven Grade 4 views were obtained with Mil. The grades of laryngeal visualization with McC were significantly lower than those with Min and Mil.

  15. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics. Intermediate Level (Grades 4-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    This guide contains concept based lessons and activities in economics for use with students in grades 4-6. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the intermediate grade level make more…

  16. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  17. Two Phase II randomized trials on the CRTh2 antagonist AZD1981 in adults with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kuna, Piotr; Bjermer, Leif; Tornling, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 (Th2) cell (CRTh2) receptor antagonists is being investigated for asthma. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the CRTh2 receptor antagonist, AZD1981 (with/without inhaled corticosteroids [ICSs]), on lung function and asthma control. Patients and methods Adults aged 18–60 years were enrolled in two randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials (protocol number: D9830C00003 [study 1, n=209] and protocol number: D9830C00004 [study 2, n=510]). In study 1, patients with stable asthma (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]: 65%−110%) were withdrawn from ICS (<400 µg/d) and randomized to AZD1981 1,000 mg twice daily (bid) or placebo. In study 2, patients with uncontrolled asthma (FEV1: 40%−85%) despite ICS therapy (≥500 µg/d) were randomized to 50 mg, 400 mg, or 1,000 mg bid AZD1981 or placebo. The primary efficacy variable for both trials was the change in morning peak expiratory flow after 4 weeks of treatment. Secondary variables included Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5) scores, FEV1 assessments, safety, and tolerability. In study 2, efficacy was also assessed according to atopic status. Results Following 4 weeks of treatment, there was a nonsignificant increase in morning peak expiratory flow on AZD1981 1,000 mg bid (9.5 L/min vs placebo, P=0.086 [study 1] and 12 L/min vs placebo, P=0.16 [study 2]). In study 2, all doses of AZD1981 provided significant improvements in ACQ-5 scores (0.26–0.3 units vs placebo, P=0.010–0.022); however, there was no dose–response relationship. Improved ACQ-5 scores and FEV1 were observed in the majority of atopic patients treated with AZD1981. AZD1981 was well tolerated across treatment groups. Conclusion Further research may be warranted in atopic patients to fully evaluate the clinical efficacy of AZD1981. PMID:27621597

  18. Adult air pollution exposure and risk of infertility in the Nurses' Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, S.; Hart, J.E; Laden, F.; Farland, L.V.; Hewlett, M.M.; Chavarro, J.; Aschengrau, A.; Missmer, S.A

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is there an association between air pollution exposures and incident infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Increased exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Exposures to air pollution have been associated with lower conception and fertility rates. However, the impact of pollution on infertility incidence is unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Prospective cohort study using data collected from 116 430 female nurses from September 1989 to December 2003 as part of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Infertility was defined by report of attempted conception for ≥12 months without success. Participants were able to report if evaluation was sought and if so, offer multiple clinical indications for infertility. After exclusion, 36 294 members were included in the analysis. Proximity to major roadways and ambient exposures to particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10), between 2.5 and 10 microns (PM2.5–10), and less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) were determined for residential addresses for the 36 294 members between the years of 1993 and 2003. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying covariates. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Over 213 416 person-years, there were 2508 incident reports of infertility. Results for overall infertility were inconsistent across exposure types. We observed a small increased risk for those living closer to compared to farther from a major road, multivariable adjusted HR = 1.11 (CI: 1.02–1.20). This was consistent for those reporting primary or secondary infertility. For women living closer to compared to farther from a major road, for primary infertility HR = 1.05 (CI: 0.94–1.17), while for secondary infertility HR = 1.21 (CI: 1.07–1.36). In addition, the HR for every 10 µg/m3 increase in cumulative PM2.5–10

  19. Serum total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratios in US white and black adults by selected demographic and socioeconomic variables (HANES II).

    PubMed Central

    Linn, S; Fulwood, R; Carroll, M; Brook, J G; Johnson, C; Kalsbeek, W D; Rifkind, B M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Framingham Study findings suggest that total cholesterol (TC):High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is a useful summary of the joint contribution of TC and HDL-C to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Information on the distribution of TC:HDL-C in the US population is limited to selected populations and the relationship of the ratio distribution and its correlates has received little attention. METHOD: TC/HDL-C ratios were examined in a representative sample of the United States adult population ages 20 to 74 years, between February 1976 and February 1980 during NHANES II, using stratification and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Age-adjusted mean ratios were higher in men compared with women and were higher in Whites compared with Blacks. White men had the highest TC/HDL-C mean ratios. These relationships remained after stratification by age, education, body mass index, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical activity. Using multivariate analyses, the ratios were positively related to BMI, age, and smoking; and negatively related to female sex, alcohol use, being Black, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Using a ratio reference point of greater than or equal to 4.5 from the Framingham study, at least an estimated 44 million persons ages 25 to 74 years in the US were found to be at higher risk of developing coronary heart disease. PMID:1853996

  20. Phase II Evaluation of Gefitinib in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Grade 4 Astrocytoma: Mayo/North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study N0074

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Joon H.; Ballman, Karla V.; Wu Wenting; Giannini, Caterina; Krauss, J.C.; Buckner, Jan C.; James, C.D.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Behrens, Robert J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Dakhill, Shaker R.; Jaeckle, Kurt A.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represents one of the most frequent gene alterations in glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, we evaluated gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, in the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed GBM. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight patients (96 evaluable) were accrued between May 18, 2001, and August 2, 2002. All were newly diagnosed GBM patients who were clinically and radiographically stable/improved after radiation treatment (enrollment within 5 weeks of radiation completion). No prior chemotherapy was permitted. EGFR amplification/mutation, as assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, was not required for treatment with gefitinib but was studied when tissues were available. Gefitinib was administered at 500 mg each day; for patients receiving dexamethasone or enzyme-inducing (CYP3A4) agents, dose was escalated to a maximum of 1,000 mg QD. Treatment cycles were repeated at 4-week intervals with brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-week intervals. Results: Overall survival (OS; calculated from time of initial surgery) at 1 year (primary end point) with gefitinib was 54.2%, which was not statistically different compared with that of historical control population (48.9%, data from three previous Phase III North Central Cancer Treatment Group studies of newly diagnosed GBM patients). Progression-free survival (PFS) at 1 year post-RT (16.7%) was also not significantly different to that of historical controls (30.3%). Clinical outcome was not affected by EGFR status (amplification or vIII mutation). Fatigue (41%), rash (62%), and loose stools (58%) constituted the most frequent adverse events, the majority of these being limited to Grade 1/2. Of note, the occurrence of drug-related adverse effects, such as loose stools was associated with improved OS. Conclusions: In our evaluation of nearly 100 patients with newly diagnosed GBM, treatment with adjuvant

  1. I Invite You To Know the Earth II. 5th to 8th Grade of Preparatory School Teacher's Guide [and] 5th to 8th Grade of Preparatory School Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    The student textbook is designed for grades 5-8 and explores various earth science topics. A cartoon character named Tommy Tsumi explores earth facts and concepts throughout the text. Activities, materials, and learning objectives for each unit in the textbook are presented in the teacher's guide. Units in both books include: (1) "The Outside…

  2. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender.

    PubMed

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B) were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2) and from group B (groups 3 and 4). In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII) (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv) infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P < 0.05). The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P < 0.05). MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P < 0.05). These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult) that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

  3. A comparative evaluation of freeze-dried bone allograft with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deept; Deepa, Dhruvakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Furcation defects represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges for periodontal therapy. Various treatment modalities have been tried with different success rates. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with bilateral Grade II furcation defects were selected for the study. After phase I therapy, subjects were divided into two arms and treated in a split-mouth design. Ten defects were treated with FDBA alone in the control arm. Ten defects were treated with FDBA in conjunction with bioabsorbable GTR membrane Healiguide® in test arm. Clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, vertical probing depth, horizontal probing depth, and relative attachment level (RAL) were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At 6 months, clinical improvement was seen in both the arms with mean pocket depth reduction of 1.2 ± 1.032 mm and 1.7 ± 0.948 mm and mean horizontal probing depth reduction being 2.1 ± 1.969 mm and 1.6 ± 1.264 mm in control and test arm, respectively. Both surgical procedures resulted in a statistically significant reduction in vertical and horizontal probing depths. Conclusion: Both the arms demonstrated a significant improvement in the probing depth, horizontal furcation depth, and RAL at 6 months postsurgery in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. However, on the intergroup comparison, there was no statistically significant difference in the results achieved between two arms. PMID:26941515

  4. Management of localized advance loss of periodontal support associated Grade II furcation and intrabony defect in chronic periodontitis patient through amalgamation of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules

    PubMed Central

    Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Ghuman, Simrat Kaur; Kumar, Saurabh; Sharma, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is infectious, complex, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disease of supporting periodontal tissues that not only alters the bone morphology but also leads to the reduction in bone height. Different types of bony deformities such as horizontal, vertical, craters, and furcation result from periodontal disease, but vertical and Grade II furcation defects are more amenable to regenerative periodontal therapy. The present case report describes the current concept of periodontal diagnosis and the clinical radiographical efficiency of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules graft combination in the management of localized advance osseous defects with respect to tooth number 36 in chronic periodontitis patient at 1 year postoperatively. PMID:27630511

  5. Long-term stabilization by radiosurgery of a secondary focal anaplastic transformation in a surgically treated WHO grade II oligodendroglioma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Y N; Rodriguez-Arribas, M-A; Duffau, H

    2015-02-01

    We report on a young woman with a left temporal diffuse low-grade glioma treated initially by a subtotal resection. A focal anaplastic area appeared 5years later and was treated by radiosurgery. A long-time stabilization was therefore obtained and lasted even after pregnancy, which is a known factor of faster tumour progression. This report shows that radiosurgery could be an option in the multimodal treatment of a selected group of patients with focal malignant transformation of diffuse low-grade glioma. It could permit long-term stabilization of the tumour without any other adjuvant treatment and without compromising the quality of life.

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of Fluzone(®) intradermal and high-dose influenza vaccines in older adults ≥65 years of age: a randomized, controlled, phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Peter; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Strout, Cynthia B; Sperling, Malcolm; Greenberg, David P; Ozol-Godfrey, Ayca; DiazGranados, Carlos; Landolfi, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    We conducted a randomized, controlled, multicenter, phase II study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational intradermal (ID) trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and a high-dose (HD) intramuscular (IM) TIV in older adults (≥65 years of age). Older adult subjects were immunized with ID vaccine containing either 15μg hemagglutinin (HA)/strain (n=636) or 21μg HA/strain (n=634), with HD IM vaccine containing 60μg HA/strain (n=320), or with standard-dose (SD) IM vaccine (Fluzone(®); 15μg HA/strain; n=319). For comparison, younger adults (18-49 years of age) were immunized with SD IM vaccine. In older adults, post-vaccination geometric mean titers induced by the ID vaccines were superior to those induced by the SD IM vaccine for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains and non-inferior for the B strain. Seroconversion rates induced by the ID vaccines were superior to those induced by the SD IM vaccine in older adults for the A/H1N1 and B strains and non-inferior for the A/H3N2 strain. Results did not differ significantly for the two ID vaccine dosages. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers, seroconversion rates, and most seroprotection rates were significantly higher in HD vaccine recipients than in older adult recipients of the SD IM or ID vaccines and, for most measures, were comparable to those of younger adult SD IM vaccine recipients. Injection-site reactions, but not systemic reactions or unsolicited adverse events, were more common with the ID vaccines than with the IM vaccines. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. This study demonstrated that: (1) the ID and HD vaccines were well-tolerated and more immunogenic than the SD IM vaccine in older adults; (2) the HD vaccine was more immunogenic than the ID vaccines in older adults; and (3) the HD vaccine in older adults and the SD IM vaccine in younger adults elicited comparable antibody responses (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no.: NCT00551031).

  7. P17.41CLINICAL MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOME OF HISTOLOGICALLY VERIFIED ADULT BRAINSTEM GLIOMAS IN SWITZERLAND: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF 21 PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hundsberger, T.; Tonder, M.; Andreas, H.; Brügge, D.; Roelcke, U.; Putora, P.M.; Stupp, R.; Weller, M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of low incidence, mixed study populations and paucity of clinical and histological data, the management of adult brainstem gliomas remains non-standardized. We here describe characteristics, treatment and outcome of patients with exclusively histologically confirmed adult brainstem gliomas. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of adults (>age 18 years) was conducted. Brainstem glioma was defined as a glial tumor located in the midbrain, pons or medulla. Characteristics, management and outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: 21 patients (17 males; median age 41 years) were diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 by biopsy (n = 15), partial (n = 4) or complete resection (n = 2). Diagnoses were glioblastoma (WHO grade IV, n = 6), anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III, n = 7), diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II, n = 6) and pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I, n = 2). Diffuse gliomas were mainly located in the pons and frequently showed MRI contrast enhancement. Endophytic growth was common (16 versus 5). Postoperative therapy in low-grade (WHO grade I/II) and high-grade gliomas (WHO grade III/IV) consisted of radiotherapy alone (3 in each group), radiochemotherapy (2 versus 6), chemotherapy alone (0 versus 2) or no postoperative therapy (3 versus 1). Median PFS (24.1 versus 5.8 months; log-rank, p = 0.009) and mOS (30.5 versus 11.5 months; log-rank, p = 0.028) was significantly better in WHO grade II than in WHO grade III/IV tumors. Second-line therapy considerably varied. CONCLUSIONS: Histologically verification of adult brainstem glioma is feasible and has an impact on postoperative treatment. Low-grade gliomas can simple be followed or treated with radiotherapy alone. Radiochemotherapy with temozolomide can safely be prescribed for high-grade gliomas without additional CNS toxicities.

  8. A mid-term follow-up of Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy in adult-acquired flatfoot stage II and “early stage III”

    PubMed Central

    Arvinius, Camilla; Manrique, Elena; Urda, Antonio; Cardoso, Zulema; Galeote, Jose Enrique; Marco, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy has been widely described to treat adult-acquired flatfoot. However, few articles describe its midterm follow-up. Our aim was to study clinical and radiological outcomes at least one year after surgery and to analyze whether a combined procedure on the medial soft tissue affected these outcomes. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 30 feet of patients who underwent a Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy due to adult-acquired flatfoot stage II and “early stage III”: a stage III acquired flatfoot without any important structural deformities. The parameters studied were additional medial soft tissue procedures, clinical outcome through the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle and midfoot score as well as complications and radiological measurements. Results: Sixteen cases were “early stage III” and 14 stage II. Thirteen patients underwent an associated posterior tibial tendon (PTT) revision: in three cases an end-to-end suture was possible, seven cases needed a FDL transposition, and three underwent synovectomy. Statistically significant improvement was found in the AOFAS score although no significant changes were seen radiologically. No additional benefit was found with the revision of the posterior tibial tendon. As to clinical and radiological results, no differences were found between stage II and “early stage III”. Five cases presented a mild dysesthesia but only one patient needed neurolysis. Conclusions: We consider the Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy to be a safe and effective procedure to reduce pain in patients with stage II and “early stage III” adult-acquired flatfoot. PMID:28304274

  9. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume II. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in agricultural mechanics designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are arc welding; oxy-acetylene welding; soldering; electricity; tractor maintenance, operation, and safety; small engines; farm structures; and cold…

  10. Women in Science and Technology: The Institutional Ecology Approach. Volume II: Statistical Annex: Sex Differentiation of Grade 12 Enrollments and of Higher Education Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Eileen M.

    This volume is to be used in conjunction with volume I (Final Research Report) of the Women in Science and Technology in Australia (WISTA) research project. This document contains the main statistical tables of grade 12 and higher education enrollments used as the basis for the statistical element of the WISTA research report. The document is…

  11. Fairview German Bilingual School: A Successful Model for Elementary-School, Second-Language Learning, Part II. Laying the Foundation: German in the First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Marianne

    The first grade program of the Fairview German Bilingual School, the elementary (K-5) segment of the Cincinnati public school system's German bilingual alternative program, is described. The school provides intensive second-language instruction in German for monolingual English-speaking children with bilingualism as the objective. The school is…

  12. National Indian Education Study. Part II: The Educational Experiences of Fourth- and Eighth-Grade American Indian and Alaska Native Students. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-454

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancavage, Frances B.; Mitchell, Julia H.; de Mello, Victor Bandeira; Gaertner, Freya E.; Spain, Angeline K.; Rahal, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents results from a national survey, conducted in 2005, that examined the educational experiences of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in grades 4 and 8, with particular emphasis on the integration of native language and culture into school and classroom activities. Students, teachers, and school principals all…

  13. Creating a Sacred Place To Support Young American Indian and Other Learners in Grades K-3. Volume I. 2nd Edition [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sandra J.

    This two-volume guide presents ingredients for developing a culturally relevant curriculum for American Indian students in the primary grades. A survey of Indian literature for young children yielded eight topic areas included here. The suggested approach to curriculum development is the integration of reading, language arts, math, and science…

  14. The Basic Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag I and Ag II (9th and 10th Grades). Volume I. Bulletin 1690-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is the first volume of a state curriculum guide on vocational agriculture for use in the 9th and 10th grades in Louisiana. Three instructional areas are profiled in this volume: orientation to vocational agriculture, agricultural leadership, and soil science. The three units of the orientation area cover introducing beginning…

  15. The Basic Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag I and Ag II (9th and 10th Grades). Volume III. Bulletin 1690-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide, the third volume of the series, outlines the basic program of vocational agriculture for Louisiana students in the ninth and tenth grades. Covered in the five units on plant science are growth processes of plants, cultural practices for plants, insects affecting plants, seed and plant selection, and diseases that affect…

  16. Comprehensive, Integrative Genomic Analysis of Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas. METHODS We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes. RESULTS Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma. CONCLUSIONS The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q

  17. Rituximab and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-08-11

    Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  18. Design, Development, and Evaluation of Career Education Materials for Adult Farmworkers. Final Report, Volume II - Curriculum Guide and Career Education Manual, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    This document contains the last nine monographs of a career education manual developed to assist the instructor in presenting a career-awareness course to adult, limited-English-speaking farmworkers. (A companion document, CE 024 589, contains the first seven monographs and a curriculum guide.) These career monographs are written at the 5th-grade…

  19. A prospective Phase II clinical trial of 5-aminolevulinic acid to assess the correlation of intraoperative fluorescence intensity and degree of histologic cellularity during resection of high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Lau, Darryl; Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Chang, Susan; Molinaro, Annette M; McDermott, Michael W; Phillips, Joanna J; Berger, Mitchel S

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT There is evidence that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) facilitates greater extent of resection and improves 6-month progression-free survival in patients with high-grade gliomas. But there remains a paucity of studies that have examined whether the intensity of ALA fluorescence correlates with tumor cellularity. Therefore, a Phase II clinical trial was undertaken to examine the correlation of intensity of ALA fluorescence with the degree of tumor cellularity. METHODS A single-center, prospective, single-arm, open-label Phase II clinical trial of ALA fluorescence-guided resection of high-grade gliomas (Grade III and IV) was held over a 43-month period (August 2010 to February 2014). ALA was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Intraoperative biopsies from resection cavities were collected. The biopsies were graded on a 4-point scale (0 to 3) based on ALA fluorescence intensity by the surgeon and independently based on tumor cellularity by a neuropathologist. The primary outcome of interest was the correlation of ALA fluorescence intensity to tumor cellularity. The secondary outcome of interest was ALA adverse events. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. RESULTS A total of 211 biopsies from 59 patients were included. Mean age was 53.3 years and 59.5% were male. The majority of biopsies were glioblastoma (GBM) (79.7%). Slightly more than half (52.5%) of all tumors were recurrent. ALA intensity of 3 correlated with presence of tumor 97.4% (PPV) of the time. However, absence of ALA fluorescence (intensity 0) correlated with the absence of tumor only 37.7% (NPV) of the time. For all tumor types, GBM, Grade III gliomas, and recurrent tumors, ALA intensity 3 correlated strongly with cellularity Grade 3; Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were 0.65, 0.66, 0.65, and 0.62, respectively. The specificity and PPV of ALA intensity 3 correlating

  20. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  1. Lateral column lengthening for acquired adult flatfoot deformity caused by posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage II: a retrospective comparison of calcaneus osteotomy with calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Haeseker, Guus A; Mureau, Marc A; Faber, Frank W M

    2010-01-01

    In this study, clinical and radiological results after lateral column lengthening by calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis and calcaneus osteotomy were compared. Thirty-three patients (35 feet) treated with lateral column lengthening by distraction arthrodesis (14 patients, 16 feet; group I) or by calcaneus osteotomy (19 patients, 19 feet; group II) for adult-acquired flatfoot deformity caused by stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were compared retrospectively. Mean follow-up was 42.4 months (range, 6-78 months) for group I and 15.8 months (range, 6-32 months) for group II (P < .001). The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was determined, 4 variables were measured on preoperative and postoperative weight-bearing radiographs, and a number of independent and outcome variables, including patient satisfaction, were recorded. Group 2 had a significantly higher American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society score compared with group I (mean, 85 vs. 72, respectively; P < .02) at time of last follow-up, and there were no dissatisfied patients in group I, whereas 2 patients in group II were dissatisfied with the result of the operation. All radiological results were significantly better at time of follow-up in both groups (except for talocalcaneal angle in group I), although no significant differences were noted in the amount of change in radiographic measurements between the groups. No significant correlation was found between follow-up time and radiographic improvement, indicating stable radiographic measurements over time. In group II, 13 mild calcaneocuboid subluxations were observed. In both groups, 1 nonunion and 1 wound complication occurred. Based on our experience with the patients described in this report, we recommend lateral column lengthening by means of calcaneus osteotomy rather than distraction arthrodesis of the calcaneocuboid joint, for correction of stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.

  2. [Self-estimation of the quality of life in adult patients after surgical correction of atrial septal defect type II (ASD II)].

    PubMed

    Konstanty, J; Guzik, B; Maleta, P; Korpanty, G; Pfitzner, R

    2001-01-01

    Health estimation was performed in 134 patients (where 67% were women), aged 17-70, mean 42 years, 2-3 years after surgical correction of atrial septal defect type II (ASD II). The study consists of clinical examination and self-estimation of the quality of life with help of a mall questionnaire, with return ratio of 90%. The improvement of health status was declared by 80% of patients, where 23% stated considerable improvement. While 15% did not confirm any significant changes and 5% noticed worsening quality of life status (mainly connected with postoperative pain). The physical condition improved similarly, with range of tolerable physical effort doubled. The frequency of dyspnea, chest pain and palpitation decreased from 72%, 67% and 87% to 47%, 43% and 47%, respectively, as well as their intensity. More over, the frequency of anxiety decreased from 70% to 62% with reduction of its intensity. Both, before and after surgery, the environmental estimation and self-estimation was very good (77% versus 78%, 78% versus 89%) respectively, and predominant were optimistic attitudes. Post-operative improvement of the quality of life correlating to the clinical state, confirms the suitableness of surgical correction of ASD II, independent of age.

  3. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  5. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  6. Lenalidomide and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Stage II Grade 1 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

  7. miR-21 and 221 upregulation and miR-181b downregulation in human grade II-IV astrocytic tumors.

    PubMed

    Conti, Alfredo; Aguennouz, M'Hammed; La Torre, Domenico; Tomasello, Chiara; Cardali, Salvatore; Angileri, Filippo F; Maio, Francesca; Cama, Annamaria; Germanò, Antonino; Vita, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that reduce stability and/or translation of fully or partially sequence-complementary target mRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that miRNAs can function both as tumor suppressors and as oncogenes. It has been demonstrated that in glioblastoma multiforme miR-21 and 221 are upregulated whereas miR-128 and 181 are downregulated. Expression of miR-21, 221, 128a, 128b, 128c, 181a, 181b, 181c was studied using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and northern blotting for human astrocytic tumors with different grade of malignancy. miR-21 and 221 were overexpressed in glioma samples, whereas miRNA 181b was downregulated compared with normal brain tissue. miRNA-21 was hyperexpressed in all tumor samples whereas higher levels of miRNA-221 were found in high-grade gliomas. This study is the first analysis of miRNAs in astrocytic tumor at different stages of malignancy. The different expression pattern observed in tumors at different stages of malignancy is probably dependent on the cell-specific repertoire of target genes of tumors sharing different molecular pathways activity and suggests miRNAs may have also a place in diagnosis and staging of brain tumors.

  8. Graded and all-or-none electrogenesis in arthropod muscle. II. The effects of alkali-earth and onium ions on lobster muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    WERMAN, R; GRUNDFEST, H

    1961-05-01

    Conversion of graded responsiveness of lobster muscle fibers to all-or-none activity by alkali-earth and tetraethylammonium (TEA) ions appears to be due to a combination of effects. The membrane is hyperpolarized, its resistance is increased, and its sensitivity to external K(+) is diminished, all effects which indicate diminished K(+) conductance. While the spikes are prolonged, the conductance is higher throughout the response than it is in the resting membrane. Repetitive activity becomes prominent. These effects indicate maintained high conductance for an ion which causes depolarization. This is normally Na(+), since its presence in low concentrations potentiates the effects of Ba(++), but the alkali-earth ions and TEA can also carry inward charge. Ba(++), Sr(++), and TEA appear to be more effective than is Ca(++) in its normal role, which is probably to depress K(+) conductance and Na inactivation. Thus, conversion of graded to all-or-none responsiveness appears to occur because of the relative increase of depolarizing inward ion flux and decrease of repolarizing outward flux.

  9. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    PubMed

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood.

  10. Quantitative pteridine fluorescence analysis: A possible age-grading technique for the adult stages of the blow fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Victoria; Hannig, Laura; Kinast, Ronja; Verhoff, Marcel A; Rothweiler, Florian; Zehner, Richard; Amendt, Jens

    2017-03-04

    Age estimation of adult flies could extend the possible window of time for calculating the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin) by means of entomological methods. Currently, this is done by estimating the time required by necrophagous Diptera to reach certain juvenile developmental landmarks, and the method only works until the end of metamorphosis and emergence of the adult fly. Particularly at indoor crime scenes, being able to estimate the age of trapped adult flies would be an important tool with which to extend the calculable PMI beyond the developmental period. Recently, several promising age-dependent morphological and physiological characteristics of adult insects have been investigated in medical and forensic entomology, but the results are still preliminary and restricted to a few species. We examined adults of the forensically relevant blow fly species Calliphora vicina and investigated the fluorescence levels of pteridine, a group of metabolites that accumulates in the eyes during aging. From Day 1 to Day 25 post-emergence, flies were kept at three different temperature regimes (20°C, 25°C, and fluctuating temperatures in the context of a field study) and 12:12 L:D. From Day 1 until Day 7, the fluorescence of pteridine was determined on a daily basis, and thereafter, every three days. The achieved fly age was multiplied with the relevant temperature and converted into accumulated degree-days (ADD). The fluorescence level of pteridine increased linear with increasing ADD (females: R(2)=0.777; males: R(2)=0.802). The difference between sexes was significant (p<0.001). Neither head weight nor temperature had an effect on pteridine fluorescence. Because the variation in pteridine fluorescence increased with increasing ADD, it seems favorable to combine several aging methods for more precise results. In context, we emphasize that different body parts of the same specimen can be used to analyze cuticular hydrocarbons (legs), pteridine fluorescence (head

  11. Animals of the Seas and Wetlands. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series II. Alaska Sea Grant Report 85-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Belle

    This curriculum guide is the second (Series II) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. This second book in the series lends itself to the first-grade level but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Nine units contain 30 activities with worksheets that cover the following…

  12. Fludarabine, mitoxantrone and dexamethasone as front-line therapy in elderly patients affected by newly-diagnosed, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with unfavorable prognostic factors: results of a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Bordonaro, Roberto; Petralia, Giuseppina; Restuccia, Nunzio; Todaro, Anna Maria; Serraino, Diego; Giuffrida, Dario; Cordio, Stefano; Giannitto-Giorgio, Carmelo; Salice, Placida; Ursino, Maria; Novello, Giuseppe; Marletta, Francesco; Manusia, Mario

    2004-01-01

    About one-third of the cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas occur in patients aged 60 years or more. Nevertheless, there are very few data in the literature regarding the optimal therapeutic approach for both aggressive and indolent histologies. Fludarabine-based combination regimens are an effective choice for younger patients affected by low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, but there is a lack of information about their tolerability and efficacy in older patients. We performed a phase II study to test the efficacy and safety of the combination of Fludarabine, Mitoxantrone and Dexamethasone (FND) in newly-diagnosed, chemo-naive elderly patients affected by low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with unfavorable prognostic factors. From March 1999 to March 2002, 18 patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were evaluated for toxicity and response. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia have been registered as the main toxicities. Thirteen (72%) patients experienced a complete response and 4 (22%) a partial response: the overall response rate was 94%. At a median follow-up of 19 months, the median time for progression-free-survival and the median survival time were not reached yet. The 2-years projected progression-free-survival and overall-survival are 52% and 67% respectively. When administered as first-line treatment to a population of elderly patients affected by high-risk, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, FND showed a high efficacy and a good toxicity profile. Our data compare favorably to those reported for the same schedule administered both as first- or second-line therapy in younger patients.

  13. ECOG Phase II trial of graded-dose peginterferon α-2b in patients with metastatic melanoma over-expressing basic fibroblast growth factor (E2602)

    PubMed Central

    Go, Ronald S.; Lee, Sandra J.; Shin, Donghoon; Callister, Steven M.; Jobe, Dean A.; Conry, Robert M.; Tarhini, Ahmad A.; Kirkwood, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated use of graded-dose peginterferon α-2b (Peg-IFN) in patients with stage IV melanoma overexpressing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The primary objective was suppression of plasma FGF-2 to within normal range (≤7.5 pg/mL). Experimental Design Plasma FGF-2 was measured at baseline (Step 1), and patients with concentrations ≥15 pg/mL were eligible for study treatment (Step 2). Peg-IFN was given weekly at starting dose of 0.5 μg/kg/wk with increment every 3 weeks based on serial FGF-2 concentrations. Results Two hundred seven patients entered Step 1; 45 (22%) overexpressed FGF-2 (median=22 pg/dL). Twenty-nine eligible patients entered Step 2 and received treatment. Patients’ median age was 64 years (range, 29–84 years). Most had >2 prior therapies. FGF-2 decreased in 28 (97%) patients, with suppression to normal range in 10 (35%). Median time to FGF-2 suppression was 30 days. The best clinical responses were partial response (7%) and stable disease (17%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 2.0 and 9.7 months, respectively. Patients who achieved FGF-2 suppression were more likely than those who did not to have a response or stable disease (P = 0.03). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations decreased in 27 patients (93%) during treatment and paralleled those of FGF-2 over time. We found no compensatory rise in VEGF among those with FGF-2 suppression. Conclusions Graded-dose Peg-IFN suppresses FGF-2 in patients with metastatic melanoma who overexpress FGF-2. Over a third of patients had complete suppression of plasma FGF-2, which correlated with clinical response to this therapy. PMID:24122792

  14. Foods and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Junior High, Secondary, and Adult Vocational Home Economics Programs. Bulletin 1595.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This comprehensive curriculum guide for junior high through adult levels presents foods and nutrition as they relate to quality living, career orientation, and occupational training. The first section is a conceptual outline of core material in foods and nutrition. Five instructional levels are I (grades 7-9), II (9-10), III (10-11), IV (11-12),…

  15. Small Business Management. Volume II: Business Analysis. Entrepreneurship Education for Adults--Program Development and Implementation. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    A practice problem in year-end business analysis is presented to provide experience with a system of single-entry bookkeeping as part of a small business management adult education program. The problem simulates an entire business year and includes transactions involving general business revenues and expenses pertaining to most small retailing…

  16. HLA Class II Alleles Susceptibility Markers of Type 1 Diabetes Fail to Specify Phenotypes of Ketosis-Prone Diabetes in Adult Tunisian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Laadhar, Lilia; Harzallah, Fatma; Zitouni, Mondher; Kallel-Sellami, Maryam; Fekih, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Slimane, Hádia; Makni, Sondès

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the different subgroups of ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) in a sample of Tunisian patients using the Aβ scheme based on the presence or absence of β-cell autoantibodies (A+ or A−) and β-cell functional reserve (β+ or β−) and we investigated whether HLA class II alleles could contribute to distinct KPD phenotypes. We enrolled 43 adult patients with a first episode of ketosis. For all patients we evaluated clinical parameters, β-cell autoimmunity, β-cell function and HLA class II alleles. Frequency distribution of the 4 subgroups was 23.3% A+β−, 23.3% A−β−, 11.6% A+β+ and 41.9% A−β+. Patients from the group A+β− were significantly younger than those from the group A−β− (P = .002). HLA susceptibility markers were significantly more frequent in patients with autoantibodies (P = .003). These patients also had resistance alleles but they were more frequent in A+β+ than A+β− patients (P = .04). Insulin requirement was not associated to the presence or the absence of HLA susceptibility markers. HLA class II alleles associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes have not allowed us to further define Tunisian KPD groups. However, high prevalence of HLA resistance alleles in our patients may reflect a particular genetic background of Tunisian KPD population. PMID:21461382

  17. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis distinguishes biotypes of Streptococcus bovis: Streptococcus bovis Biotype II/2 is a separate genospecies and the predominant clinical isolate in adult males.

    PubMed

    Clarridge, J E; Attorri, S M; Zhang, Q; Bartell, J

    2001-04-01

    We characterized 22 human clinical strains of Streptococcus bovis by genotypic (16S rRNA gene sequence analysis [MicroSeq]; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) and phenotypic (API 20 Strep and Rapid ID32 Strep systems (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelton, Mo.) methods. The strains, isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine, formed two distinct 16S ribosomal DNA sequence clusters. Three strains which were associated with endocarditis urinary tract infection (UTI), and sepsis clustered with the S. bovis type strain ATCC 33317 (cluster 1); other closely related type strains were S. equinus and S. infantarius. Nineteen strains clustered at a distance of about 2.5% dissimilarity to the S. bovis type strain (cluster 2) and were associated with central nervous system (CNS) disease in addition to endocarditis, UTI, and sepsis. All strains were distinct from S. gallolyticus. Within cluster 2, a single strain grouped with ATCC strain 43143 (cluster 2a) and may be phenotypically distinct. All the other strains formed a second subgroup (cluster 2b) that was biochemically similar to S. bovis biotype II/2 (mannitol negative and beta galactosidase, alpha galactosidase, beta glucuronidase, and trehalose positive). The API 20 Strep system identified isolates of cluster 2b as S. bovis biotype II/2, those of cluster 1 as S. bovis biotype II/1, and that of cluster 2a as S. bovis biotype I. There was an excellent correlation of biotype and genotype: S. bovis biotype II/2 isolates form a separate genospecies distinct from the S. bovis, S. gallolyticus, and S. infantarius type strains and are the most common isolates in adult males.

  18. Genetically Engineered Lymphocyte Therapy After Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk, Intermediate-Grade, B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-10

    Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  19. The prognostic value of cN-II and cN-III enzymes in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Galmarini, Carlos María; Cros, Emeline; Thomas, Xavier; Jordheim, Lars; Dumontet, Charles

    2005-12-01

    We analyzed the expression of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), UMP/CMP-kinase (UMP/CMP-K), nucleotide diphosphokinase (NDPK-B) and 5'-nucleotidases cN-II, cN-III, cdN and mdN by quantitative polymerase chain reaction at diagnosis in leukemic blasts from 96 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with ara-C. Our results show that high mRNA levels of cN-II and low mRNA levels of cN-III are correlated with a worse clinical outcome and suggest that these enzymes may have a role in sensitivity to ara-C in AML patients.

  20. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2) To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients. Methods Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG) and retropalatal (RP) compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom. Results The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3) compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3). The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP) length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency. PMID:26901313

  1. Automated Grading of Gliomas using Deep Learning in Digital Pathology Images: A modular approach with ensemble of convolutional neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Ertosun, Mehmet Günhan; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Brain glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with different pathologic subtypes: Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade II, Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade III, and Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Grade IV. The survival and treatment options are highly dependent of this glioma grade. We propose a deep learning-based, modular classification pipeline for automated grading of gliomas using digital pathology images. Whole tissue digitized images of pathology slides obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to train our deep learning modules. Our modular pipeline provides diagnostic quality statistics, such as precision, sensitivity and specificity, of the individual deep learning modules, and (1) facilitates training given the limited data in this domain, (2) enables exploration of different deep learning structures for each module, (3) leads to developing less complex modules that are simpler to analyze, and (4) provides flexibility, permitting use of single modules within the framework or use of other modeling or machine learning applications, such as probabilistic graphical models or support vector machines. Our modular approach helps us meet the requirements of minimum accuracy levels that are demanded by the context of different decision points within a multi-class classification scheme. Convolutional Neural Networks are trained for each module for each sub-task with more than 90% classification accuracies on validation data set, and achieved classification accuracy of 96% for the task of GBM vs LGG classification, 71% for further identifying the grade of LGG into Grade II or Grade III on independent data set coming from new patients from the multi-institutional repository. PMID:26958289

  2. Automated Grading of Gliomas using Deep Learning in Digital Pathology Images: A modular approach with ensemble of convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Ertosun, Mehmet Günhan; Rubin, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Brain glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with different pathologic subtypes: Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade II, Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade III, and Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Grade IV. The survival and treatment options are highly dependent of this glioma grade. We propose a deep learning-based, modular classification pipeline for automated grading of gliomas using digital pathology images. Whole tissue digitized images of pathology slides obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to train our deep learning modules. Our modular pipeline provides diagnostic quality statistics, such as precision, sensitivity and specificity, of the individual deep learning modules, and (1) facilitates training given the limited data in this domain, (2) enables exploration of different deep learning structures for each module, (3) leads to developing less complex modules that are simpler to analyze, and (4) provides flexibility, permitting use of single modules within the framework or use of other modeling or machine learning applications, such as probabilistic graphical models or support vector machines. Our modular approach helps us meet the requirements of minimum accuracy levels that are demanded by the context of different decision points within a multi-class classification scheme. Convolutional Neural Networks are trained for each module for each sub-task with more than 90% classification accuracies on validation data set, and achieved classification accuracy of 96% for the task of GBM vs LGG classification, 71% for further identifying the grade of LGG into Grade II or Grade III on independent data set coming from new patients from the multi-institutional repository.

  3. Population Pharmacokinetics of Selumetinib and Its Metabolite N-desmethyl-selumetinib in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors and Children With Low-Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y T; Daryani, V M; Patel, P; Zhou, D; Fangusaro, J; Carlile, D J; Martin, P D; Aarons, L; Stewart, C F

    2017-03-22

    Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886), a mitogen activated protein kinases (MEK1 and 2) inhibitor, has been granted orphan drug designation for differentiated thyroid cancer. The primary aim of this analysis was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of selumetinib and its active metabolite N-desmethyl-selumetinib in patients with cancer. Concentration-time data from adult and pediatric clinical trials were pooled to develop a population pharmacokinetic model using a sequential approach where selumetinib and N-desmethyl-selumetinib data were modeled separately. A sequential zero- and first-order absorption with lag time with a two-compartment model for selumetinib and a two-compartment model for N-desmethyl-selumetinib best described the concentration-time data. Intrapatient variability in absorption was higher than interpatient variability. The apparent drug clearance (CL/F) from the central compartment was 13.5 L/hr (RSE 4.9%). Significant covariates for CL/F were age, alanine aminotransferase, and body surface area. This study confirms that flat dosing is appropriate in adults, whereas body-surface area based dosing should be used in pediatric patients.

  4. IDH mutant diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas have similar age at presentation and little difference in survival: a grading problem for WHO.

    PubMed

    Reuss, David E; Mamatjan, Yasin; Schrimpf, Daniel; Capper, David; Hovestadt, Volker; Kratz, Annekathrin; Sahm, Felix; Koelsche, Christian; Korshunov, Andrey; Olar, Adriana; Hartmann, Christian; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Wesseling, Pieter; Unterberg, Andreas; Platten, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang; Herold-Mende, Christel; Aldape, Kenneth; von Deimling, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The WHO 2007 classification of tumors of the CNS distinguishes between diffuse astrocytoma WHO grade II (A II(WHO2007)) and anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III (AA III(WHO2007)). Patients with A II(WHO2007) are significantly younger and survive significantly longer than those with AA III(WHO2007). So far, classification and grading relies on morphological grounds only and does not yet take into account IDH status, a molecular marker of prognostic relevance. We here demonstrate that WHO 2007 grading performs poorly in predicting prognosis when applied to astrocytoma carrying IDH mutations. Three independent series including a total of 1360 adult diffuse astrocytic gliomas with IDH mutation containing 683 A II(IDHmut), 562 AA III(IDHmut) and 115 GBM(IDHmut) have been examined for age distribution and survival. In all three series patients with A II(IDHmut )and AA III(IDHmut) were of identical age at presentation of disease (36-37 years) and the difference in survival between grades was much less (10.9 years for A II(IDHmut), 9.3 years for AA III(IDHmut)) than that reported for A II(WHO2007) versus AA III(WHO2007). Our analyses imply that the differences in age and survival between A II(WHO2007) and AA III(WHO2007) predominantly depend on the fraction of IDH-non-mutant astrocytomas in the cohort. This data poses a substantial challenge for the current practice of astrocytoma grading and risk stratification and is likely to have far-reaching consequences on the management of patients with IDH-mutant astrocytoma.

  5. 7 CFR 36.2 - Initiating action on grade standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... grade standards. Interested parties include growers, producers, processors, shippers, distributors... the need for new or revised standards; (ii) Collect technical, marketing, or other appropriate...

  6. Long-term stability of implant-anchored orthodontics in an adult patient with a Class II Division 2 malocclusion and a unilateral molar scissors-bite.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yoshihito; Kuroda, Shingo; Sugawara, Yasuyo; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    This article reports the successful treatment using miniscrew anchorage of an adult patient with a severe deep overbite and a unilateral scissors-bite. A 23-year-old woman had chief complaints of maxillary incisal crowding and difficulty chewing. She was diagnosed with a severe Class II Division 2 malocclusion with anterior crowding and a unilateral scissors-bite caused by buccal elongation of the maxillary left second molar. The maxillary first premolars were extracted, and 3 miniscrews were implanted as skeletal anchorage to resolve the functional and esthetic problems. The total active treatment period was 41 months. As a result of the implant-anchored orthodontic treatment, both the patient's facial profile and occlusion significantly improved. The asymmetric movements of the incisor paths and bilateral condyles during lateral excursions disappeared. The satisfactory facial profile and resultant occlusion were maintained throughout a 49-month retention period. The patient was satisfied with the treatment results.

  7. Camouflage of a high-angle skeletal Class II open-bite malocclusion in an adult after mini-implant failure during treatment.

    PubMed

    Franzotti Sant'Anna, Eduardo; Carneiro da Cunha, Amanda; Paludo Brunetto, Daniel; Franzotti Sant'Anna, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of skeletal anterior open-bite malocclusion requires complex orthodontic planning that considers its multifactorial etiology, treatment limitations, and high relapse rates. This case report illustrates a successful treatment approach for a skeletal high-angle Class II malocclusion in an adult with a severe open bite. The treatment consisted of a high-pull headgear therapy after mini-implants failure during fixed orthodontic therapy. Adequate esthetics and function were achieved. Despite its low probability, the unexpected event of mini-implant loosening during complex treatments should be considered. Therefore, classic orthodontic mechanics should be established, especially when treating patients for whom invasive procedures such as miniplates or orthognathic surgery are not available options.

  8. Program ACTIVE II: Design and Methods for a Multi-Center Community-Based Depression Treatment for Rural and Urban Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Shubrook, Jay; Schwartz, Frank; Hornsby, W. Guyton; Pillay, Yegan; Saha, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression affects one in four adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is associated with worsened diabetes complications, increased health care costs and early mortality. Rural and low-income urban areas, including the Appalachian region, represent an epicenter of the T2DM epidemic. Program ACTIVE II is a comparative effectiveness treatment trial designed to test whether a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and community-based exercise (EXER) will offer greater improvements in diabetes and depression outcomes compared to individual treatment approaches and usual care (UC). The secondary aims are to assess changes in cardiovascular risk factors across groups and to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of predicted incidence of cardiovascular complications across groups. Methods The study is a 2-by-2 factorial randomized controlled trial consisting of 4 treatment groups: CBT alone, EXER alone, combination of CBT and EXER, and UC. Adults with T2DM for > 1 year and who meet DSM-IVTR criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are eligible to participate at two rural Appalachian sites (southeastern Ohio and West Virginia) and one urban site (Indianapolis). This type II behavioral translation study uses a community-engaged research (CEnR) approach by incorporating community fitness centers and mental health practices as interventionists. Conclusions This is the first study to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of combined CBT and exercise in the treatment of depression using community-based intervention delivery. This approach may serve as a national model for expanding depression treatment for patients with T2DM. PMID:27500279

  9. Effective Literacy Instruction for Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities: Implications for Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy adults in India: A randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anand Prakash; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Narayan, Arun; Ganguly, Satyabrata; Wartel, T Anh; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Menezes, Josemund

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic in India. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Indian adults. In this observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase II study, adults aged 18-45 years were randomized 2:1 to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6 and 12 months in sub-cutaneous administration. Immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) at baseline and 28 days after each study injection. 189 participants were enrolled (CYD-TDV [n = 128]; placebo, [n = 61]). At baseline, seropositivity rates for dengue serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 ranged from 77.0% to 86.9%. Seropositivity rates for each serotype increased after each CYD-TDV injection with a more pronounced increase after the first injection. In the CYD-TDV group, geometric mean titres (GMTs) were 2.38 to 6.11-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline but remained similar to baseline in the placebo group. In the CYD-TDV group, the GMTs were 1.66 to 4.95-fold higher and 9.23 to 24.6-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline in those who were dengue seropositive and dengue seronegative, respectively. Pain was the most commonly reported solicited injection site reaction after the first injection in both the CYD-TDV (6.3%) and placebo groups (4.9%), but occurred less frequently after subsequent injections. No serious adverse events were vaccine-related, no immediate unsolicited adverse events, and no virologically-confirmed cases of dengue, were reported during the study. The immunogenicity and safety of CYD-TDV was satisfactory in both dengue seropositive and seronegative Indian adults.

  11. 2014 Leonard Goldner Award Winner: Correlation of Postoperative Midfoot Position with Patient Outcomes Following Reconstruction of the Stage II Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Matthew S.; Chan, Jeremy Y.; Do, Huong T.; Ellis, Scott J.; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2016-01-01

    Background No studies investigating the effect of midfoot (talonavicular joint) position on clinical outcomes following flatfoot reconstruction have been performed. The purpose of our study was to determine whether a postoperative abducted or adducted forefoot alignment, as determined from AP radiographs, was associated with a difference in outcomes using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). Methods Midfoot abduction was defined on postoperative AP radiographs, evaluated at a mean of 1.9 years in 55 patients from the authors’ institution that underwent flatfoot reconstruction for stage II adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD), as a lateral incongruency angle greater than 5 degrees, a talonavicular uncoverage angle greater than 8 degrees, and a talo-first metatarsal angle greater than 8 degrees based on previously reported measurements. Patients with two or more measurements in the abduction category were classified as the abduction group (n=30); those with one or fewer measurements in the abduction category were placed in the adduction group (n=25). Preoperative FAOS and postoperative FAOS with a mean follow-up of 3.1 years were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Results Patients corrected to a position of adduction showed a significantly lower improvement in the FAOS daily activities (p=0.012) and quality of life subscales (p=0.046). Mean improvement in subscale score for the adducted group was lower for pain (p=0.052) and sports activities (p=0.085) but did not reach statistical significance. No significant difference in the FAOS symptoms subscale (p=0.372) between groups was found. Conclusions Correction of the talonavicular joint to a position of adduction following stage II AAFD is associated with decreased patient outcomes in daily activities and quality of life compared with an abducted position. These results suggest that overcorrection to a position of midfoot adduction leads to a lesser amount of individual patient improvement in the

  12. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  13. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  14. Books for Adult New Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Roberta Luther, Comp.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of recommended print materials for English-speaking adults reading at the seventh grade level or below. (Sixty percent of the titles are at fifth grade level or below). The titles were selected for their broad appeal to the average adult new reader. In the selection, special consideration was given to…

  15. Molecular neuropathology of low-grade gliomas and its clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Riemenschneider, M J; Reifenberger, G

    2010-01-01

    The term "low-grade glioma" refers to a heterogeneous group of slowly growing glial tumors corresponding histologically to World Health Organization (WHO) grade I or II. This group includes astrocytic, oligodendroglial, oligoastrocytic and ependymal tumor entities, most of which preferentially manifest in children and young adults. Depending on histological type and WHO grade, growth patterns of low-grade gliomas are quite variable, with some tumors diffusely infiltrating the surrounding central nervous system tissue and others showing well demarcated growth. Furthermore, some entities tend to recur and show spontaneous malignant progression while others remain stable for many years. This review provides a condensed overview concerning the molecular genetics of different glioma entities subsumed under the umbrella of low-grade glioma. For a better understanding the cardinal epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical features of each entity are shortly outlined. Multiple cytogenetic, chromosomal and genetic alterations have been identified in low-grade gliomas to date, with distinct genetic patterns being associated with the individual tumor subtypes. Some of these molecular alterations may serve as a diagnostic adjunct for tumor classification in cases with ambiguous histological features. However, to date only few molecular changes have been associated with clinical outcome, such as the combined losses of chromosome arms 1p and 19q as a favorable prognostic marker in patients with oligodendroglial tumors.

  16. Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples.

    PubMed

    Watson, D; Clark, L A; Weber, K; Assenheimer, J S; Strauss, M E; McCormick, R A

    1995-02-01

    L. A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model of depression and anxiety that divides symptoms into 3 groups: symptoms of general distress that are largely nonspecific, manifestations of anhedonia and low positive affect that are specific to depression, and symptoms of somatic arousal that are relatively unique to anxiety. This model was tested by conducting separate factor analyses of the 90 items in the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (D. Watson & L. A. Clark, 1991) in 5 samples (3 student, 1 adult, 1 patient). The same 3 factors (General Distress, Anhedonia vs. Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety) emerged in each data set, suggesting that the symptom structure in this domain is highly convergent across diverse samples. Moreover, these factors broadly corresponded to the symptom groups proposed by the tripartite model. Inspection of the individual item loadings suggested some refinements to the model.

  17. Scalp hair length. II. Estimating the percentages of adults in the USA and larger populations by hair length.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Clarence; Robbins, Marjorie Gene

    2003-01-01

    Scalp hair length assessments by anatomical site, previously made in Florida theme parks on adults, are related to anatomical measurements to obtain estimates of free-hanging hair lengths in centimeters. A plot of the natural logarithm of the percent population versus these hair lengths provides a straight line and an equation that permits the estimation of the numbers of persons in the USA and larger populations with hair lengths up to 183 cm (just beyond ankle-length). Data were also collected via a literature search for even longer hair lengths (ankle-length or longer) to provide an equation to estimate the numbers of persons with exceptionally long hair. A comparative plot of these two equations suggests that "normal" anagen periods may be considerably longer than current estimates in the literature.

  18. Decreased angiotensin II binding affinity and binding capacity in the anterior pituitary gland of adult spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gutkind, J.S.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG) binding sites were quantified in single pituitary glands from 4-week-old and 14-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched male normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats after incubation with /sup 125/I-(Sar/sup 1/)-ANG, autoradiography with computerized densitometry, and comparison to /sup 125/I-standards. The maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) decreased while the dissociation constant (K/sub d/) for ANG increased in 14-week-old SHR when compared to age-matched WKY control rats. Conversely, no difference between rat strains was found in 4-week-old animals. Our results suggest that pituitary ANG binding sites may play a role in the pathophysiology of established genetic hypertension.

  19. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: II. Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Flores, Guillermo; Hilje, Luko; Mora, Gerardo A; Carballo, Manuel

    2008-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages), fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether) and 0.5% (water and water: methanol), with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions.

  20. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and alcohol consumption in US white and black adults: data from NHANES II.

    PubMed Central

    Linn, S; Carroll, M; Johnson, C; Fulwood, R; Kalsbeek, W; Briefel, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known to be positively related to moderate alcohol consumption from studies in selected populations. This study describes the association in a representative sample of the US adult population. METHODS. Stratification and multivariate regression analyses were used to examine HDL cholesterol levels and alcohol consumption. RESULTS. Fewer women than men reported consumption of alcohol at any frequency. Similar percentages of Whites and Blacks reported alcohol consumption. Age-adjusted mean HDL cholesterol levels were higher among alcohol drinkers than among nondrinkers in all sex-race strata. Mean HDL cholesterol levels of Whites and Blacks of both sexes increased consistently with increased frequency of consumption of beer, wine, and liquor. With age, education, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity controlled for, there were higher age-adjusted HDL cholesterol levels with increasing reported quantities of alcohol consumed. Daily or weekly use of alcohol led to an increase of 5.1 mg/dL in mean HDL cholesterol level, whereas consumption of 1 g of alcohol led to an increase of 0.87 mg/dL. CONCLUSION. Even if there is a causal association between alcohol consumption and higher HDL cholesterol levels, it is suggested that efforts to reduce coronary heart disease risks concentrate on the cessation of smoking and weight control. PMID:8498617

  1. Unaccompanied Evacuation and Adult Mortality: Evaluating the Finnish Policy of Evacuating Children to Foster Care During World War II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I examined associations between evacuation of Finnish children to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II and all-cause mortality between ages 38 and 78 years. Methods. I used a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate mortality risk according to whether the individual was evacuated during childhood or not. I used within-sibling analysis to control for all unobserved socioeconomic and genetic characteristics shared among siblings. Individual-level data for Finnish cohorts born in 1933 to 1944 were derived from wartime government records, Finnish census data from 1950 and 1970, and death cause registry from 1971 to 2011. Results. I found no statistically significant association between evacuation and all-cause mortality when all exposed individuals were included in the analysis. However, subgroup analysis showed that men evacuated before age 4 years had a 1.31 higher mortality risk (95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.69) than their nonevacuated counterparts. Conclusions. In the aggregate, individuals do not have elevated mortality risk as a consequence of foster care during early childhood owing to the onset of sudden external shocks (e.g., wars). PMID:25033125

  2. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same as for Seedless Raisins (See § 52.1846...

  3. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same as for Seedless Raisins (See § 52.1846...

  4. Expression of α-subunit of α-glucosidase II in adult mouse brain regions and selected organs.

    PubMed

    Anji, Antje; Miller, Hayley; Raman, Chandrasekar; Phillips, Mathew; Ciment, Gary; Kumari, Meena

    2015-01-01

    α-Glucosidase II (GII), a resident of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and an important enzyme in the folding of nascent glycoproteins, is heterodimeric, consisting of α (GIIα) and β (GIIβ) subunits. The catalytic GIIα subunit, with the help of mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology domain of GIIβ, sequentially hydrolyzes two α1-3-linked glucose residues in the second step of N-linked oligosaccharide-mediated protein folding. The soluble GIIα subunit is retained in the ER through its interaction with the HDEL-containing GIIβ subunit. N-glycosylation and correct protein folding are crucial for protein stability and trafficking and cell surface expression of several proteins in the brain. Alterations in N-glycosylation lead to abnormalities in neuronal migration and mental retardation, various neurodegenerative diseases, and invasion of malignant gliomas. Inhibitors of GII are used to inhibit cell proliferation and migration in a variety of different pathologies, such as viral infection, cancer, and diabetes. Despite the widespread use of GIIα inhibitory drugs and the role of GIIα in brain function, little is known about its expression in brain and other tissues. Here, we report generation of a highly specific chicken antibody to the GIIα subunit and its characterization by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation using cerebral cortical extracts. By using this antibody, we showed that the GIIα protein is highly expressed in testis, kidney, and lung, with the lowest amount in heart. GIIα polypeptide levels in whole brain were comparable to those in spleen. However, a higher expression of GIIα protein was detected in the cerebral cortex, reflecting its continuous requirement in correct folding of cell surface proteins.

  5. Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study to Investigate the Immunogenicity and Safety of a West Nile Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbender, Rex; Bevilacqua, Joan; Gregg, Anne M.; Watson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Background. ChimeriVax-WN02 is a live, attenuated chimeric vaccine for protection against West Nile virus. This Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo–controlled, multicenter study assessed the immunogenicity, viremia, and safety of the ChimeriVax-WN02 vaccine. Methods. The 2-part study included adults in general good health. In part 1, subjects aged 18–40 years were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment groups: ChimeriVax–WN02 3.7- × -105 plaque-forming units (PFU), 3.7 × 104 PFU, 3.7 × 103 PFU, or placebo. In part 2, subjects aged 41–64 and ≥65 years were randomized to receive ChimeriVax-WN02 3.7 × 105 PFU or placebo. Results. In both part 1 and part 2, seroconversion was achieved at day 28 by >96% of subjects in active treatment groups. In part 1, neutralizing antibody titers at day 28 were higher and viremia levels lower with the highest dose, whereas the adverse event profile was similar between the dose groups. In part 2, antibody titers and viremia levels were higher in subjects aged ≥65 years, and more subjects in the 41–64 years cohort experienced adverse events. Conclusions. The ChimeriVax-WN02 vaccine was highly immunogenic in younger adults and the elderly, and it was well tolerated at all dose levels and in all age groups investigated. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT00442169. PMID:21148499

  6. Short-term pharyngeal airway changes after mandibular advancement surgery in adult Class II-Patients--a three-dimensional retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kochel, Janka; Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Sickel, Franka; Lindorf, Helmut; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate volume changes in posterior airway space (PAS) after bilateral mandibular advancement surgery. Measurements were taken based on three-dimensional (3D) records available for a large and homogeneous cohort of patients. Pre- and postoperative CBCT scans of 102 adult patients with Class II dysgnathia were visualized and analyzed using 3D software (Mimics® Innovation Suite 14.1; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The PAS was divided into three segments by three planes parallel and one plane perpendicular to the Frankfort horizontal plane. Total volume, partial volumes, and cross-sectional areas were calculated from the pre- and postoperative scans. Dahlberg coefficients were obtained to verify each parameter for the measurements' reliability. The statistical significance of the changes observed was analyzed by Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. Highly significant (p=0.000) increases in total posterior airway volume (+32.0%) were noted as an effect of mandibular advancement surgery, amounting to 45.6% in the lower PAS third compared to 38.8% in the middle and 12.5% in the upper PAS third. We also obtained highly significant (p=0.000) increases in all the cross-sectional areas investigated, amounting to 48.5% on the soft-palate level compared to 21.6% on the level of the epiglottis tip, and 14.6% on the hard-palate level. These results demonstrate that bilateral mandibular advancement surgery in Class II-Patients leads to significant increases in PAS volume and significant widening of the narrower sites inside the pharynx.

  7. Making the Grade: Understanding Learning and Grade Orientations of First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    First-year undergraduate students enter college with varying expectations, motivations, and goals and are being bombarded with messages about the importance of grades, sometimes to the detriment of learning. This descriptive, cross-sectional study employs LOGO II to describe the learning and grade orientations of first-year students and identify…

  8. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  9. Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-27

    Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

  10. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma or Recurrent or Progressive Meningioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-09

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  11. A Phase II, Randomized, Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of a Re-Derived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adults Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Kristen; Esquilin, Ines O.; Cornier, Alberto Santiago; Thomas, Stephen J.; Quintero del Rio, Ana I.; Bertran-Pasarell, Jorge; Morales Ramirez, Javier O.; Diaz, Clemente; Carlo, Simon; Eckels, Kenneth H.; Tournay, Elodie; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; De La Barrera, Rafael; Fernandez, Stefan; Lyons, Arthur; Sun, Wellington; Innis, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial, two dose study of re-derived, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine (two formulations) or placebo in subjects 1–50 years of age. Among the 636 subjects enrolled, 331 (52%) were primed, that is, baseline seropositive to at least one dengue virus (DENV) type. Baseline seropositivity prevalence increased with age (10% [< 2 years], 26% [2–4 years], 60% [5–20 years], and 93% [21–50 years]). Safety profiles of TDEN vaccines were similar to placebo regardless of priming status. No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. Among unprimed subjects, immunogenicity (geometric mean antibody titers [GMT] and seropositivity rates) for each DENV increased substantially in both TDEN vaccine groups with at least 74.6% seropositive for four DENV types. The TDEN vaccine candidate showed an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in children and adults ranging from 1 to 50 years of age, regardless of priming status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00468858. PMID:26175027

  12. A Phase II, Randomized, Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of a Re-Derived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adults Living in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kristen; Esquilin, Ines O; Cornier, Alberto Santiago; Thomas, Stephen J; Quintero Del Rio, Ana I; Bertran-Pasarell, Jorge; Morales Ramirez, Javier O; Diaz, Clemente; Carlo, Simon; Eckels, Kenneth H; Tournay, Elodie; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; De La Barrera, Rafael; Fernandez, Stefan; Lyons, Arthur; Sun, Wellington; Innis, Bruce L

    2015-09-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial, two dose study of re-derived, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine (two formulations) or placebo in subjects 1-50 years of age. Among the 636 subjects enrolled, 331 (52%) were primed, that is, baseline seropositive to at least one dengue virus (DENV) type. Baseline seropositivity prevalence increased with age (10% [< 2 years], 26% [2-4 years], 60% [5-20 years], and 93% [21-50 years]). Safety profiles of TDEN vaccines were similar to placebo regardless of priming status. No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. Among unprimed subjects, immunogenicity (geometric mean antibody titers [GMT] and seropositivity rates) for each DENV increased substantially in both TDEN vaccine groups with at least 74.6% seropositive for four DENV types. The TDEN vaccine candidate showed an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in children and adults ranging from 1 to 50 years of age, regardless of priming status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00468858.

  13. Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1

    PubMed Central

    Ramkissoon, Lori A.; Horowitz, Peleg M.; Craig, Justin M.; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Rich, Benjamin E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; McKenna, Aaron; Lawrence, Michael S.; Bergthold, Guillaume; Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Tabak, Barbara; Ducar, Matthew D.; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E.; Pouissant-Young, Tina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Bowers, Daniel C.; Margraf, Linda; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Packer, Roger J.; Hill, D. Ashley; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Dunn, Ian F.; Goumnerova, Liliana; Getz, Gad; Chan, Jennifer A.; Santagata, Sandro; Hahn, William C.; Stiles, Charles D.; Ligon, Azra H.; Kieran, Mark W.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Ligon, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas. PMID:23633565

  14. O8.04TEMOZOLOMIDE AFTER RADIOTHERAPY IN RECURRENT “LOW-GRADE” DIFFUSE BRAINSTEM GLIOMA IN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Botero, G.; Laigle-Donadey, F.; Mokhtari, K.; Martin-Duverneuil, N.; Delattre, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Diffuse brainstem glioma is a rare disease in adults. Radiotherapy (RT) is frequently used as initial treatment. However, only limited data is available concerning chemotherapy efficacy at relapse after RT. Temozolomide (TMZ) is frequently used in progressive supratentorial gliomas after RT, but its efficacy in diffuse brainstem gliomas in adults has not been reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis including patients from our database with non-enhancing diffuse brainstem glioma (histological or MRI criteria compatible with low-grade glioma) who received TMZ at relapse after RT. Tumors localized in the pons, medulla oblongata or midbrain were analyzed excluding supratentorial or infratentorial tumors secondary infiltrating the brainstem. Clinical and radiological responses were assessed and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) time were estimated. RESULTS: In total, 15 adult patients (median age 34 years) were selected. Histological analysis was available in 5 cases showing grade II oligodendroglioma (2 cases), grade II oligoastrocytoma (2 cases), grade II astrocytoma (1 case). Ten patients were selected by MRI criteria only. All patients received RT as initial treatment obtaining a median PFS of 34.2 months (95% CI 24.1-44.2). Median KPS at the time of relapse after RT was 80. TMZ was administered orally at 150-200mg/m2 for 5 days every 28 days at progression disease after RT. Clinical improvement after TMZ was observed in 9 cases (60%) whereas radiological assessment detected 6 partial responses. Estimated median PFS after TMZ was 9.5 months (95% CI 7.9-11) and median OS was 14.4 months (95% CI 10.5-18.2). Grade 3 thrombocytopenia was observed in 26% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: TMZ could be useful in adult patients with progressive diffuse low-grade brainstem glioma after RT failure. Further studies are warranted to detect clinical and biological markers of response to TMZ.

  15. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Second Grade Reading Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Amanda Jill

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine if low SES students respond differently to Tier I and Tier II interventions than Non-Low SES students. The study also seeks to determine the effect Tier I and Tier II interventions have on a group of second grade students. Forty-four Tier I and Tier II Caucasian second grade students from a rural Ohio…

  16. Wet and Wild: A Multidisciplinary Marine Education Teacher Guide, Grades K-6. Unit II. Ocean Management: Who Owns the Sea? =Humedo y Salvaje. Segund Unidad. El Manejo de los Oceanos: Quien Es el Dueno de los Mares?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Richard C.

    Topics and activities related to ocean management are the focus of this multidisciplinary, marine education teaching guide for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into four sections (labeled A through D). The first three sections consist of various kinds of activities, with the appropriate grade levels (K-6, K-3, or 4-6)…

  17. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  18. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of azilsartan with that of candesartan cilexetil in Japanese patients with grade I–II essential hypertension: a randomized, double-blind clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Azilsartan is a novel angiotensin receptor blocker being developed for hypertension treatment. This 16-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study compared the efficacy and safety of azilsartan (20–40 mg once daily by forced titration) and its ability to provide 24-h blood pressure (BP) control, with that of candesartan cilexetil (candesartan; 8–12 mg once daily by forced titration) in 622 Japanese patients with grade I–II essential hypertension. Efficacy was evaluated by clinic-measured sitting BP, and by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) at week 14. Participants (mean age: 57 years, 61% males) had a mean baseline sitting BP of 159.8/100.4 mm Hg. The mean change from baseline in sitting diastolic BP at week 16 (primary endpoint) was −12.4 mm Hg in the azilsartan group and −9.8 mm Hg in the candesartan group, demonstrating a statistically significant greater reduction with azilsartan vs. candesartan (difference: −2.6 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval (CI): −4.08 to −1.22 mm Hg, P=0.0003). The week 16 (secondary endpoint) mean change from baseline in sitting systolic BP was −21.8 mm Hg and −17.5 mm Hg, respectively, a significant decrease with azilsartan vs. candesartan (difference: −4.4 mm Hg, 95% CI: −6.53 to −2.20 mm Hg, P<0.0001). On ABPM, the week 14 mean changes from baseline in diastolic and systolic BP were also significantly greater with azilsartan over a 24-h period, and during the daytime, night-time and early morning. Safety and tolerability were similar among the two groups. These data demonstrate that once-daily azilsartan provides a more potent 24-h sustained antihypertensive effect than that of candesartan but with equivalent safety. PMID:22278628

  19. Proposal of a new grading system for malignant fibrous histiocytomas.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Ulrich; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Stachura, Jerzy; Bortkiewicz, Pawel; Fischer, Gösta; Korabiowska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    The proposed grading system for malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) comprises 3 grades of malignancy. Analogous to other grading systems, the system includes the factors of mitotic rate and necrosis. In addition to these two factors, the concept of cellularity was included. The prognostic relevance of the grading systems published by Costa, Coindre, van Unnik, Pezzi and Tsujimoto as well as the grading system proposed by the present study was tested on 161 MFH. The results showed that all grading systems tested produced clearly significant differences (p < 0.01) with regard to the survival estimated for patients with various grades of malignancy. These results revealed the superiority of systems that use 3 grades of malignancy over a 2-grade classification. The proposed grading system yielded a lower percentage of grade II tumours (37%) than the grading systems of Coindre (60%) and van Unnik (70%). In the multivariate analysis of all grading systems, the proposed grading system was the only one to show prognostic relevance (p < 0. 05).

  20. Oblimersen Sodium and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-10-11

    Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

  1. Grading for Understanding--Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I…

  2. Convergent Validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnostic Adult (ASD-DA) with the Pervasive Developmental Disorder/Autism Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belva, Brian C.; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Kozlowski, Allison M.; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    The "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnosis for Adults" ("ASD-DA") is a standardized assessment used to measure autistic symptomatology in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In order to further establish the validity of this measure, convergent validity of the "ASD-DA" was established by comparing…

  3. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication No. 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), now in its 35th year, has become one of the nation's most relied-upon sources of information on changes taking place in licit and illicit psychoactive drug use among American adolescents, college students, young adults, and more recently, middle-aged adults. During the last three and a half decades, the study has…

  4. Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Young Bin; Oh, Seung Jae; Kang, Seok-Gu; Heo, Jung; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Yuna; Song, Seungri; Son, Hye Young; Kim, Se Hoon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Haam, Seung Joo; Huh, Yong Min; Chang, Jong Hee; Joo, Chulmin; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2016-10-01

    Gross total resection (GTR) of glioma is critical for improving the survival rate of glioma patients. One of the greatest challenges for achieving GTR is the difficulty in discriminating low grade tumor or peritumor regions that have an intact blood brain barrier (BBB) from normal brain tissues and delineating glioma margins during surgery. Here we present a highly sensitive, label-free terahertz reflectometry imaging (TRI) that overcomes current key limitations for intraoperative detection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), and grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas. We demonstrate that TRI provides tumor discrimination and delineation of tumor margins in brain tissues with high sensitivity on the basis of Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained image. TRI may help neurosurgeons to remove gliomas completely by providing visualization of tumor margins in WHO grade II, III, and IV gliomas without contrast agents, and hence, improve patient outcomes.

  5. Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Young Bin; Oh, Seung Jae; Kang, Seok-Gu; Heo, Jung; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Yuna; Song, Seungri; Son, Hye Young; Kim, Se Hoon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Haam, Seung Joo; Huh, Yong Min; Chang, Jong Hee; Joo, Chulmin; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Gross total resection (GTR) of glioma is critical for improving the survival rate of glioma patients. One of the greatest challenges for achieving GTR is the difficulty in discriminating low grade tumor or peritumor regions that have an intact blood brain barrier (BBB) from normal brain tissues and delineating glioma margins during surgery. Here we present a highly sensitive, label-free terahertz reflectometry imaging (TRI) that overcomes current key limitations for intraoperative detection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), and grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas. We demonstrate that TRI provides tumor discrimination and delineation of tumor margins in brain tissues with high sensitivity on the basis of Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained image. TRI may help neurosurgeons to remove gliomas completely by providing visualization of tumor margins in WHO grade II, III, and IV gliomas without contrast agents, and hence, improve patient outcomes. PMID:27782153

  6. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an…

  7. Conversations about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine; Gullen, James; Erickson-Guy, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Grades often are determined by the unspoken values and beliefs of an autonomous teacher, but technology is making grading practices more transparent to parents, students, and educators. The ability to view the grade books of teachers who are teaching the same course in the same district is increasingly raising questions and challenges to what were…

  8. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system.

  9. The Meaning of Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Serna E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that students see grades as an indicator of effort unconnected to the content of the course while teachers regard grades as a measure of achievement within a discipline. Discusses some of the current controversies and approaches concerning grades and how they relate to school reform. (MJP)

  10. Combination Chemo, Rituximab, and Bevacizumab in Older Patients With Stage II-IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-06

    Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

  11. Assessment: How Do I "Grade" without Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Susan Mandel

    1993-01-01

    Examines the A through F system of letter grades used in most schools, suggesting reasons why this framework is inadequate. Proposes a new assessment model which has children demonstrate that they can accomplish a given task on their own. (MDM)

  12. Intense interval training in healthy older adults increases skeletal muscle [(3)H]ouabain-binding site content and elevates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α2 isoform abundance in Type II fibers.

    PubMed

    Wyckelsma, Victoria L; Levinger, Itamar; Murphy, Robyn M; Petersen, Aaron C; Perry, Ben D; Hedges, Christopher P; Anderson, Mitchell J; McKenna, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Young adults typically adapt to intense exercise training with an increased skeletal muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) content, concomitant with reduced extracellular potassium concentration [K(+)] during exercise and enhanced exercise performance. Whether these changes with longitudinal training occur in older adults is unknown and was investigated here. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, mean ± SD) were randomized to either 12 weeks of intense interval training (4 × 4 min at 90-95% peak heart rate), 3 days/week (IIT, n = 8); or no exercise controls (n = 7). Before and after training, participants completed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test until a rating of perceived exertion of 17 (very hard) on a 20-point scale was attained, with measures of antecubital venous [K(+)]v Participants underwent a resting muscle biopsy prior to and at 48-72 h following the final training session. After IIT, the peak exercise work rate (25%), oxygen uptake (16%) and heart rate (6%) were increased (P < 0.05). After IIT, the peak exercise plasma [K(+)]v tended to rise (P = 0.07), while the rise in plasma [K(+)]v relative to work performed (nmol.L(-1)J(-1)) was unchanged. Muscle NKA content increased by 11% after IIT (P < 0.05). Single fiber measurements, increased in NKA α2 isoform in Type II fibers after IIT (30%, P < 0.05), with no changes to the other isoforms in single fibers or homogenate. Thus, intense exercise training in older adults induced an upregulation of muscle NKA, with a fiber-specific increase in NKA α2 abundance in Type II fibers, coincident with increased muscle NKA content and enhanced exercise performance.

  13. Expression in Escherichia coli of the flavin-containing monooxygenase D (form II) from adult human liver: determination of a distinct tertiary amine substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Lomri, N; Yang, Z; Cashman, J R

    1993-01-01

    The cDNA for a major component of the family of flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) present in adult human liver (i.e., HLFMO-D) has been cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Escherichia coli strain NM522 was transformed with pTrcHLFMO-D, and the HLFMO-D cDNA was expressed under the control of the Trc promoter. A variety of tertiary amine substrates [i.e., chlorpromazine and 10-[(N,N-dimethylamino)alkyl]- 2-(trifluoromethyl)phenothiazines] were efficiently oxygenated by HLFMO-D cDNA expressed in E. coli or by adult human liver microsomes. Approximate dimensions of the substrate binding channel for both adult human liver microsomal FMO and cDNA-expressed HLFMO-D were apparent from an examination of the N-oxygenation of a series of 10-[(N,N-dimethylamino)alkyl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenothiazines. The substrate regioselectivity studies suggest that adult human liver FMO form D possesses a distinct substrate specificity compared with form A FMO from animal hepatic sources. It is likely that the substrate specificity observed for cDNA-expressed adult human liver FMO-D may have consequences for the metabolism and distribution of tertiary amines and phosphorus- and sulfur-containing drugs in humans and may provide insight into the physiologic substrate(s) for adult human liver FMO.

  14. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  15. National Indian Education Study--Part II: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Grades 4 and 8. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2010-463

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, N.; Grigg, W.; Moran, R.; Kuang, M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, the National Indian Education Study (NIES) has provided educators, policymakers, and the public with information about the background and academic performance of fourth- and eighth-grade American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in the United States. This report, the second in a two-part series based on the 2009 NIES survey,…

  16. National Indian Education Study, 2007. Part II: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Grades 4 and 8. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-458

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, R.; Rampey, B.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents information about the educational, home, and community experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) fourth- and eighth-grade students that was collected during the National Indian Education Study (NIES) of 2007. AI/AN students represent about 1 percent of the student population in the United States. Approximately…

  17. Living in Space. Book II. Levels D, E, F for Grades 4, 5, 6. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students which deal with space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 4 to 6 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  18. The Practice SSAT-II. [and] Test Administration Manual for the Practice SSAT-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Student Assessment Section.

    The Florida Statewide Assessment Program provides "The Practice SSAT-II," for students who will be taking the State Student Assessment Test, Part II (SSAT-II). This practice test may be administered to tenth grade students taking the test for the first time and to eleventh and twelfth graders if they have previously failed the SSAT-II.…

  19. Problematic substance use in Hispanic adolescents and young adults: Implications for prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Timothy J.; Forster, Myriam; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected between 2005–2012 from a longitudinal study of acculturation patterns and substance use among Hispanic youth in Southern California (N = 2,722), we fit multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of type and frequency of drug use, friend and parent drug use, cultural orientation (measured by the ARSMA-II), and psychological distress (CES-D score) in 10th grade with problematic substance use (measured with the RAPI) in (i) 11th grade and (ii) young adulthood. We conclude that future intervention efforts with Hispanic adolescents and young adults should target polysubstance and problem users and emphasize inter-individual, structural and cultural processes as they relate to problematic substance use. PMID:24779502

  20. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  1. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  2. Ohio's Career Continuum: Family Life, Motivation, Orientation, Exploration, Vocational or Pre-Professional Training, Adult, Technical and Collegiate Training. Career Exploration Program. Grades 9-10. Career Development Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    This curriculum guide on career exploration for ninth and tenth grade teachers is designed as an experimental curriculum to facilitate the interfacing of career education concepts with the instructional program goals in individual school situations. This guide begins with several short sections discussing the career education continuum, Ohio's…

  3. Language and Reading Skills in Undereducated Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Barbara A.; Liebermann, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Measures of syntactic knowledge and reading achievement were obtained for 41 students in an adult basic education center. Adults reading at or below fourth-grade level showed significantly less knowledge of syntax than adults at higher levels, even though the language test involved neither reading nor writing. (Author/CT)

  4. A Reading Profile of Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Bette H.; Russell, Sheldon Noel

    In order to identify the reading behavior and instructional needs of functionally illiterate adults reading below fourth grade level, 50 adults were identified and diagnosed on the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty test and the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to Oklahoma City…

  5. Report on Employment and Training Programs for Adult Offenders in Washington State. Volume II: Resources Directory and Program Descriptions. Washington State Employment and Training Council Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowdey, Christine E.; Turnbull, George C., Jr.

    This second of two volumes reporting a study of employment and training programs for adult felony offenders is divided into two sections: (1) an inventory of employment and training resources and (2) program descriptions. Section 1, Inventory of Employment and Training Assistance Resources, is an annotated list of resources and organizations in…

  6. Making Sense of Federal Employment and Training Policy for Youth and Adults. Volume II: Expert Recommendations To Create a Comprehensive and Unified System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristina M., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 27 essays and 5 policy statements regarding creation of a comprehensive and unified federal employment and training policy for youth and adults. The following essays are included: "In Search of the American Way" (Wills); "Rethink the Demand Side" (Smith); "The Federal Government as a Change Agent" (Nathan); "Making Sense of…

  7. Low-grade serous ovarian cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Kaldawy, Anis; Segev, Yakir; Lavie, Ofer; Auslender, Ron; Sopik, Victoria; Narod, Steven A

    2016-11-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancers can be divided into the more common, aggressive type II cancers and the less common, slow-growing type I cancers. Under this model, serous ovarian carcinomas can be subdivided into high-grade (type II) and low-grade (type I) tumours. The two-tier system for grading serous ovarian carcinomas is superior to more detailed grading systems in terms of predicting survival. Low-grade serous carcinomas typically present in young women and have a relatively good prognosis, despite being resistant to chemotherapy. Low-grade serous cancers have a high prevalence of KRAS and BRAF mutations, but a low prevalence of TP53 mutations (which are characteristic of high-grade serous cancers). Among women with low-grade serous ovarian cancer, the presence of a KRAS/BRAF mutation is a favorable prognostic factor. Studies of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor in low-grade serous ovarian cancer suggest that identifying MAPK mutations might eventually be useful in guiding treatment.

  8. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  9. What Is Fifth Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C.; Wallach, Christine

    2006-01-01

    One of the most consistent regularities observers would see in schools is the grouping of children by grade. The authors' work with schoolchildren causes them to ask, what is a grade beyond a group of children at a particular age? In this article, the authors share a glimpse of an activity involving inference and logical necessity that they…

  10. Controlling Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  11. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  12. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the middle grades. They focus on Logo activities to sharpen visualization skills, use of spreadsheets, various uses of Apple microcomputer paddles, and writing a program from program output. All activities may be adapted for lower or higher grade levels. (JN)

  13. Growing beyond Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perchemlides, Natalia; Coutant, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Once students are asked to assess their own writing progress, they will begin to do their best for writing great prose instead of just great grades. Teachers will have to create a grade-free zone, allow students to set their own writing goals, provide a common language such as the Six Traits Model, and provide evaluation and instructional models…

  14. Teaching Middle Grades Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science…

  15. Making Grades More Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochbein, Craig; Pollio, Marty

    2016-01-01

    To expand and improve evidence of grading practices, we seized an opportunity presented by the implementation of standards-based grading practices at 11 high schools in Jefferson County Public Schools in Louisville, Ky. These high-needs schools faced substantial sanctions outlined by recently revised federal and state policies unless they made…

  16. Earth Science, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Public Schools, NY.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 7. SUBJECT MATTER: Earth science. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material suggests a time schedule for the major units and gives details of the reference materials referred to in the text. The main text is presented in four columns: topical outline, basic understandings, suggested activities and…

  17. Grades out, Badges in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

  18. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  19. Upper Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-oriented teaching activities for the upper grades. They focus on the use of databases in history classes, checking taxes, examining aspects of the joystick button on Atari microcomputers, printing control using Logo, and a Logo program that draws whirling squares. All activities can be adapted for lower grades. (JN)

  20. Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluorine F 18 EF5 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Meningeal Melanocytoma

  1. Vorinostat, Rituximab, and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-08

    Stage II Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

  2. Risk-scoring models for individualized prediction of overall survival in low-grade and high-grade endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    AlHilli, Mariam M.; Mariani, Andrea; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Peethambaram, Preema P.; Keeney, Gary L.; Cliby, William A.; Podratz, Karl C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Overall survival (OS) in endometrial cancer (EC) is dependent on patient-, disease-, and treatment-specific risk factors. Comprehensive risk-scoring models were developed to estimate OS in low-grade and high-grade EC. Methods Patients undergoing primary surgery for EC from 1999 through 2008 were stratified histologically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) as either (i) low grade: grades 1 and 2 endometrioid EC or (ii) high grade: grade 3, including non-endometrioid EC. Associations between patient-, pathological-, and treatment-specific risk factors and OS starting on postoperative day 30 were assessed using multivariable Cox regression models. Factors independently associated with OS were used to construct nomograms and risk-scoring models. Results Eligible patients (N= 1281) included 925 low-grade and 356 high-grade patients; estimated 5-year OSs were 87.0% and 51.5%, respectively. Among patients alive at last follow-up, median follow-up was 5.0 (low grade) and 4.6 years (high grade), respectively. In low-grade patients, independent factors predictive of compromised OS included age, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary dysfunction, stage, tumor diameter, pelvic lymph node status, and grade 2 or higher 30-day postoperative complications. Among high-grade patients, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, stage, lymphovascular space invasion, adjuvant therapy, para-aortic nodal status, and cervical stromal invasion were independent predictors of compromised OS. The two risk-scoring models/nomograms had excellent calibration and discrimination (unbiased c-indices = 0.803 and 0.759). Conclusion Patients with low-grade and high-grade EC can be counseled regarding their predicted OS using the proposed risk-scoring models. This may facilitate institution of personalized treatment algorithms, surveillance strategies, and lifestyle interventions. PMID:24690476

  3. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  4. View of Highway 120 at Priest Grade. Old Priest Grade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 120 at Priest Grade. Old Priest Grade seen at left distance. New Priest Grade at center and right distance. Looking west - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  5. A Phase II Trial on the Effect of Low-Dose versus High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mass in Adults with Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    There are very few studies of the effects of vitamin D on bone in younger adults without chronic disease , but the available data support the...represent the extreme end of a spectrum of generalized bone disease . Konishi et al. (1991) described a typical case of osteomalacia in an NF1 patient...and marked increase in osteoid on bone biopsy. In some instances, increased renal phosphate loss with hypophosphatemia or severe vitamin D deficiency

  6. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  7. Indices using external measurements for assessing fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takuya; Uno, Taiki; Fujioka, Yoshiyuki; Hayama, Shin-Ichi

    2012-02-01

    We examined the use of external measurements and relative fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) to develop relative indices of body fat deposition in post-growth feral raccoons. From March 2006 to March 2010, 288 adult raccoon carcasses (110 males, 178 females) collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, which were determined to be 24 months old, were subjected to external measurements of body weight (BW), girth measurement (GM), and body mass index (BMI). To assess relative body fat deposition, we visually classified abdominal subcutaneous fat into three grades (Visible Fat Index [VFI]: I-III). Significant differences in the means of BW (both sexes:P<0.01), GM (females: P<0.05, males: P<0.01), and BMI (both sexes: P<0.01) were detected between seasons. Notably, the means of BW, GM, and BMI (all, both sexes: P<0.01) differed significantly between VFI grades. However, by discriminant analysis with BW, GM, and BMI as independent variables, we obtained a significant discriminant function (both sexes: P<0.01) for distinguishing VFI I from higher VFI grades, but no significant equation was obtained for distinguishing between VFI II and VFI III. Based on the obtained structure matrix of discriminant analysis, BMI was the most valuable component for the discrimination of VFI grades. Thus, we conclude that BMI is a suitable complementary index for assessing relative body fat deposition of adult feral raccoons in Kanagawa Prefecture and may be generalizable to populations in other areas.

  8. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  9. Potentially Traumatic Event Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Axis I and II Comorbidity in a Population Based Study of Norwegian Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Aggen, Steven H.; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic research on traumatic stress is limited in Norway. Prevalence and correlates of exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and patterns of comorbidity with DSM-IV Axis I and II disorders were examined in an epidemiologic sample. Methods Demographics, PTEs, and resulting PTSD, and comorbid DSM-IV diagnoses were assessed in 2,794 members of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel. The sample was 37% male, with an average age of 28.2 years (SD=3.9). Results Approximately one-quarter of participants had lifetime PTE exposure; most PTEs were more common in men than in women. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 2.6%, and was significantly more common in women than men. Being female and type of PTE (both interpersonal and accidental traumatic events) were associated with increased PTSD symptoms, whereas higher education was associated with lower symptoms. PTSD was related to increased odds of most Axis I and II conditions. Conclusions PTE exposure and PTSD prevalence were lower than in the US, but comparable to other European countries. Sex differences replicated previous research. The relationship between PTSD and Borderline Personality Disorder was significantly stronger than the relationship between PTSD and any other Axis II conditions. PMID:22782308

  10. Grading for Understanding - Standards-Based Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I have used SBG in an introductory physics course for the past five years and worked with several physics faculty members to implement SBG in the first and second semester of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses at a primarily undergraduate comprehensive public university with class sizes of 48 students. In this article I will discuss methods for implementing SBG in a physics class.

  11. A multi-center, randomized, clinical trial comparing adhesive polyurethane foam dressing and adhesive hydrocolloid dressing in patients with grade II pressure ulcers in primary care and nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are ischemic wounds in the skin and underlying tissues caused by long-standing pressure force over an external bone or cartilaginous surface. PrUs are an important challenge for the overall health system because can prolong patient hospitalization and reduce quality of life. Moreover, 95% of PrUs are avoidable, suggesting they are caused by poor quality care assistance. PrUs are also costly, increasing national costs. For example, they represent about 5% of overall annual health expenses in Spain. Stages I and II PrUs have a combined prevalence of 65%. According main clinical guidelines, stage II PrUs (PrU-IIs) are usually treated by applying special dressings (polyurethane or hydrocolloid). However, little scientific evidence regarding their efficacy has been identified in scientific literature. Our aim is to assess the comparative efficacy of adhesive polyurethane foam and hydrocolloid dressings in the treatment of PrU-IIs in terms of healed ulcer after 8 weeks of follow-up. Methods/design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a randomized clinical trial of two parallel treatment arms. A total of 820 patients with at least 1 PrU-II will be recruited from primary health care and home care centers. All patients will receive standardized healing procedures and preventive measures (e.g. positional changes and pressure-relieving support surfaces), following standardized procedures. The main outcome will be the percentage of wounds healed after 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes will include cost-effectiveness, as evaluated by cost per healed ulcer and cost per treated patient and safety evaluated by adverse events. Discussion This trial will address the hypothesis that hydrocolloid dressings will heal at least 10% more stage II PrUs and be more cost-effective than polyurethane foam dressings after 8 weeks. Trial registration This trial has been registered with controlled-trials number ISCRCTN57842461 and Eudra

  12. Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pikala, Małgorzata; Bielecki, Wojciech; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Rębowska, Ewa; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Pająk, Andrzej; Piwoński, Jerzy; Tykarski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA) patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland. Methods The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20–74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003–2005; n = 14572) and WOBASZ II (2013–2014; n = 5694). In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey). Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity. Results Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001). The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003–2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men); 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%). In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01). No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01). Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001). About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey. Conclusions The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance. PMID:27272130

  13. Phase II Trial in Adults of Concurrent or Sequential 2009 Pandemic H1N1 and 2009-2010 Seasonal Trivalent Influenza Vaccinations

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Sharon E.; Bernstein, David I.; Brady, Rebecca C.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Sahly, Hana El; Rouphael, Nadine Georges; Mulligan, Mark J.; Atmar, Robert L.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Patel, Shital M.; Dickey, Michelle; Graham, Irene; Anderson, Edwin L.; Noah, Diana L.; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark; Belshe, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic both seasonal and 2009 pandemic vaccines were recommended. We conducted a randomized trial of monovalent 2009-H1N1 vaccine and seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) given sequentially or concurrently to adults. Methods Adults randomized to 4 study groups and stratified by age (18-64 and ≥65 years) received 1 dose of seasonal IIV3 or placebo and 2 doses of 2009-H1N1 vaccine or placebo in one of 4 combinations, i.e., H1N1+Placebo/H1N1+Placebo/IIV3 (HP/HP/V3), H1N1+ IIV3/H1N1+Placebo/Placebo (HV3/HP/P), H1N1+Placebo/H1N1+ IIV3/Placebo (HP/HV3/P), and IIV3+Placebo/H1N1+Placebo/H1N1 (V3P/HP/H). Intramuscular injections were given three times at 21 day intervals. Sera for antibody assays were obtained prior to and 21 days after each vaccination. Reactogenicity and adverse events were monitored. Results Eight hundred-five (805) adults were enrolled. All combinations of vaccines were safe and well tolerated. In general, one dose of 2009-H1N1 and one dose of IIV3, regardless of sequence or concurrency of administration, were immunogenic in adults. There were no significant differences in geometric mean titers (GMT) or the proportions of subjects with ≥4-fold rise in antibody responses and titers ≥40 for any vaccine group or between age strata for 2009-H1N1 after the first or second dose, although the vaccine sequence affected the titers to the IIV3 antigens. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody (HAI) GMTs against 2009-H1N1 for the combined age strata 21 days after the first 2009-H1N1 dose were 190.4, 182.1, 232.9 and 157.5 for HP/HP/V3, HV3/HP/P, HP/HV3/P and V3P/HP/H, respectively. While IIV3 GMTs were adequate they were generally lower than the 2009-H1N1 GMTs. In a subset of subjects, there was good correlation between HAI and microneutralization (MN) titers (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.92). Conclusions All vaccine combinations were generally well tolerated. Immune responses to one dose of 2009

  14. Assigning Grades More Fairly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshier, Stephen R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a simplified method for converting raw scores to standard scores and transforming them to "T-scores" for easy comparison of performance. Obtaining letter grades from T-scores is discussed. A reading list is included. (GH)

  15. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Prostatic Neoplasia. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ... nih.gov/pubmed/26956509 . Pierorazio PM, Walsh PC, Partin AW, Epstein JI. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data ...

  16. Markedly improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment with a pediatric protocol: a phase II study by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, F; Sakura, T; Yujiri, T; Kondo, E; Fujimaki, K; Sasaki, O; Miyatake, J; Handa, H; Ueda, Y; Aoyama, Y; Takada, S; Tanaka, Y; Usui, N; Miyawaki, S; Suenobu, S; Horibe, K; Kiyoi, H; Ohnishi, K; Miyazaki, Y; Ohtake, S; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuo, K; Naoe, T

    2014-10-17

    The superiority of the pediatric protocol for adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has already been demonstrated, however, its efficacy in young adults remains unclear. The ALL202-U protocol was conducted to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a pediatric protocol in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with BCR-ABL-negative ALL. Patients aged 15-24 years (n=139) were treated with the same protocol used for pediatric B-ALL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the disease-free survival (DFS) rate and its secondary aims were to assess toxicity, the complete remission (CR) rate and the overall survival (OS) rate. The CR rate was 94%. The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 67% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58-75%) and 73% (95% CI 64-80%), respectively. Severe adverse events were observed at a frequency that was similar to or lower than that in children treated with the same protocol. Only insufficient maintenance therapy significantly worsened the DFS (hazard ratio 5.60, P<0.001). These results indicate that this protocol may be a feasible and highly effective treatment for AYA with BCR-ABL-negative ALL.

  17. Study of lipid profile in adult women with acne

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Batista, Anna Luiza Fonseca; Macedo, Marzia Silva; Machado Filho, Carlos D’Aparecida Santos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the lipid profile of female patients with acne in the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic in order to observe the prevalence of dyslipidemia in those patients. Methods This is a retrospective transversal study that evaluated the medical records of 416 patients who attended at the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic, at the Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2012. Relevant data included age and clinical classification of acne. The lipid profile was analyzed according to the results of laboratory tests ordered during outpatient visits, which included total and fractionated cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Results The epidemiological study sample was of 219 patients, with ages ranging from 21 to 61 years (mean of 32.23 years). The predominant clinical grade was papule-pustule acne (grade II) with 156 patients (71%). Regarding the lipid profile of the patients, there was a high increase in total cholesterol levels in 17.35% of the cases. High-density lipoprotein levels were low in 11.42% of the patients, with normal prevalence in 194 subjects. Low-density lipoprotein levels were normal in most patients (60.27%). Very-low-density lipoprotein values were normal in almost all patients (94.06%) and increased in only 13 patients (5.94%). Only 18 patients presented high levels of triglycerides (8.22%). Conclusion The conclusion was that patients with grades II and III acne are more likely to have total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein altered. A correct and early diagnosis can be an important measure for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in these patients. PMID:26316790

  18. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  19. Phase IA/II, multicentre, open-label study of the CD40 antagonistic monoclonal antibody lucatumumab in adult patients with advanced non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Fanale, Michelle; Assouline, Sarit; Kuruvilla, John; Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Heo, Dae S; Verhoef, Gregor; Corradini, Paolo; Abramson, Jeremy S; Offner, Fritz; Engert, Andreas; Dyer, Martin J S; Carreon, Daniel; Ewald, Brett; Baeck, Johan; Younes, Anas; Freedman, Arnold S

    2014-01-01

    Despite advancements in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), patients continue to relapse and thus a need for new targeted therapies remains. The CD40 receptor is highly expressed on neoplastic B cells and activation leads to enhanced proliferation and survival. Lucatumumab (HCD122) is a fully human antagonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody. A phase IA/II study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and activity of lucatumumab in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. Determination of the MTD was the primary objective of the phase IA dose escalation portion and clinical response was the primary objective of the phase II dose expansion portion. Patients received escalating doses of lucatumumab administered intravenously once weekly for 4 weeks of an 8-week cycle. MTD was determined at 4 mg/kg of lucatumumab. A total of 111 patients with NHL (n = 74) and HL (n = 37) were enrolled. Responses were observed across various lymphoma subtypes. The overall response rate by computed tomography among patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MZL/MALT) was 33·3% and 42·9%, respectively. Lucatumumab demonstrates modest activity in relapsed/refractory patients with advanced lymphoma, suggesting that targeting of CD40 warrants further investigation.

  20. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed.

  1. How Consistent Are Course Grades? An Examination of Differential Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberg, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Differential grading occurs when students in courses with the same content and curriculum receive inconsistent grades across teachers, schools, or districts. It may be due to many factors, including differences in teacher grading standards, district grading policies, student behavior, teacher stereotypes, teacher quality, and curriculum adherence.…

  2. [18F]-fluoro-l-thymidine PET and advanced MRI for preoperative grading of gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Collet, S.; Valable, S.; Constans, J.M.; Lechapt-Zalcman, E.; Roussel, S.; Delcroix, N.; Abbas, A.; Ibazizene, M.; Bernaudin, M.; Barré, L.; Derlon, J.M.; Guillamo, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conventional MRI based on contrast enhancement is often not sufficient in differentiating grade II from grade III and grade III from grade IV diffuse gliomas. We assessed advanced MRI, MR spectroscopy and [18F]-fluoro-l-thymidine ([18F]-FLT) PET as tools to overcome these limitations. Methods In this prospective study, thirty-nine patients with diffuse gliomas of grades II, III or IV underwent conventional MRI, perfusion, diffusion, proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and [18F]-FLT-PET imaging before surgery. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, Cho/NAA and FLT-SUV were compared between grades. Results Cho/Cr showed significant differences between grade II and grade III gliomas (p = 0.03). To discriminate grade II from grade IV and grade III from grade IV gliomas, the most relevant parameter was the maximum value of [18F]-FLT uptake FLTmax (respectively, p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001). The parameter showing the best correlation with the grade was the mean value of [18F]-FLT uptake FLTmean (R2 = 0.36, p < 0.0001) and FLTmax (R2 = 0.5, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Whereas advanced MRI parameters give indications for the grading of gliomas, the addition of [18F]-FLT-PET could be of interest for the accurate preoperative classification of diffuse gliomas, particularly for identification of doubtful grade III and IV gliomas. PMID:26106569

  3. [Studies on the immunodiagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis II. Immunoaffinity purification of whole worm antigen and characterization of egg, metacercaria and adult antigens of Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok Ran; Chung, Pyung Rim; Nam, Hae Seon

    1988-06-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of crude and affinity-purified antigens of Clonorchis sinensis obtained from the infected rabbits were studied. Stage-specific antigenic proteins from the eggs, metacercariae and adult worms were characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) The results were as follows: The antibody-binding antigen (ABA) purified from whole worm crude antigen (WWA) by CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography made 4 specific bands against rabbit anti-sera on Ouchterlony gel diffusion plate, while WWA made 7 bands. Major WWA protein bands by SDS-PAGE were found at 16,300-18,500 and 28,000-29,000 daltons, while major ABA protein bands were at 18,000-21,000 and 29,000-31,000 daltons. The reactivity of ABA with rabbit anti-sera in ELISA was remarkably less sensitive than that of WWA. Molecular weights of egg antigen (EGA), metacercarial antigen (MEA) and adult worm antigen (WWA) of C. sinensis ranged from 15,000-200,000 daltons, 15,000-100,000 daltons and 11,000-80,000 daltons, respectively. Major WWA proteins consisted mainly of polypeptide bands of low molecular weight, less than 31,000 daltons, while those of EGA and MEA consisted of higher molecular weights than 30,000 daltons. The ELISA reactivities of WWA to rabbit anti-sera were remarkably greater than those of MEA. EGA showed negative reaction throughout the experiments. WWA showed higher optical density (O.D.) than 1.0, when reacted with rabbit anti-sera obtained at 4-6 weeks after the infection. In the rabbit anti-sera later than 12 weeks after the infection, the O.D. reacting with WWA showed a plateau without variation. MEA showed relatively low O.D. values (<0.6), when reacted with anti-sera from lightly infected groups throughout the experiments, although there were some weak positive cases (O.D.>0.6) in heavily infected groups. MEA reacted with rabbit anti-sera showed negative results on Ouchterlony gel diffusion

  4. Children's and Adults' Judgments of the Controllability of Cognitive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-grade children's and adults' judgments related to the controllability of cognitive activities, including object recognition, inferential reasoning, counting, and pretending. In Experiment 1, fifth-grade children and adults rated transitive inference and interpretation of ambiguous pictures as more…

  5. Books for Adult New Readers. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Roberta Luther, Comp.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of recommended print materials for English-speaking adults reading at the seventh-grade level or below. (Sixty percent of the titles are at fifth-grade level or below.) More than 95 percent of the titles are paperbacks. The titles were selected for their broad appeal to the average adult new reader.…

  6. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  7. Investigation of the osteometry of the skull of the one-humped camels. Part II: sex dimorphism and geographical variations in adults.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Ahmed; Olopade, James O; Kwari, Hyelduku D; Wiam, Ibrahim M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the skull of different species has been of importance in archaeological, forensic and anatomical studies; also, a variation in phenotypic and genetic traits across geographic space is a recurring phenomenon in biological species. This study investigated 10 adult camels from each of three geographical locations in northern Nigeria, for sex- and location-based variations in the skulls. In one location, male skulls had greater absolute osteometric values but there were no significance differences in relative proportions between sexes. Moreover, all index values (skull, cranial and facial) indicate no sexual dimorphism in all locations. There were some variations in the osteometry of the frontal region, and neurocranial volume between the locations. In addition it was observed that the skull index of Nigerian camels was similar to the Malha type documented in literature but wide variations exist in many other craniometric dimensions of the skull. This suggests a definite difference in phenotype and probable origin.

  8. Relevance of Simpson grading system and recurrence-free survival after surgery for World Health Organization Grade I meningioma.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Konar, Subhas K; Missios, Symeon; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The clinical significance of the Simpson system for grading the extent of meningioma resection and its role as a predictor of the recurrence of World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I meningiomas have been questioned in the past, echoing changes in meningioma surgery over the years. The authors reviewed their experience in resecting WHO Grade I meningiomas and assessed the association between extent of resection, as evaluated using the Simpson classification, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients after meningioma surgery. METHODS Clinical and radiological information for patients with WHO Grade I meningiomas who had undergone resective surgery over the past 20 years was retrospectively reviewed. Simpson and Shinshu grading scales were used to evaluate the extent of resection. Statistical analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression. RESULTS Four hundred fifty-eight patients were eligible for analysis. Overall tumor recurrence rates for Simpson resection Grades I, II, III, and IV were 5%, 22%, 31%, and 35%, respectively. After Cox regression analysis, Simpson Grade I (extensive resection) was revealed as a significant predictor of RFS (p = 0.003). Patients undergoing Simpson Grade I and II resections showed significant improvement in RFS compared with patients undergoing Grade III and IV resections (p = 0.005). Extent of resection had a significant effect on recurrence rates for both skull base (p = 0.047) and convexity (p = 0.012) meningiomas. Female sex and a Karnofsky Performance Scale score > 70 were also identified as independent predictors of RFS after resection of WHO Grade I meningioma. CONCLUSIONS In this patient cohort, a significant association was noted between extent of resection and rates of tumor recurrence. In the authors' experience the Simpson grading system maintains its relevance and prognostic value and can serve an important role for patient education. Even though complete tumor

  9. A weekly regimen with dose escalation of doxorubicin for patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of a phase II study of the Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA).

    PubMed

    Fermé, Christophe; Brice, Pauline; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Lederlin, Pierre; Diviné, Marine; Casasnovas, Olivier; Devidas, Alain; Anglaret, Bruno; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Mounier, Nicolas

    2007-04-01

    This multicenter phase II study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of a weekly chemotherapy regimen with a moderately escalated dose of doxorubicin administered over 16 weeks, followed by radiation therapy (RT) to bulky sites. From July 1996 to February 1998, 44 untreated patients with stage IIIB-IV Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), and 0 - 2 risk factors described by the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, were treated. Chemotherapy was a combination of increased-dose doxorubicin with conventional doses of cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, prednisone, vindesine, bleomycin, and etoposide. Patients received four cycles of the weekly regimen for 16 weeks. Forty-one patients received the planned four cycles of chemotherapy, and RT was delivered to 36 patients. The incidence of WHO grade 3 - 4 neutropenia was 90%. A total of 39 patients achieved a complete remission (88.6%). The median follow-up was 95 months. The 7-years freedom from treatment failure and overall survival estimates were 57% (95% confidence interval (CI), 41% - 70%), and 93% (95% CI, 80 - 98%), respectively. The relapse rate was related to the short duration of chemotherapy, and the failure to prevent relapses with consolidation RT. In this study population the 16-week regimen and RT to bulky sites were not sufficient for disease control.

  10. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  11. Teachers' Experiences of Unfair Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Fredrik; Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    Grading is often perceived as one of a teacher's most difficult tasks. Despite most teachers endeavoring to grade their students as objectively as possible, many students feel that they are subject to unfair grading. The aim of this study is to describe what it is about a teacher's grading that contributes to the perception of unfairness. This…

  12. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  13. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  14. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  15. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  16. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  17. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  19. Serving Grades Over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James K.

    This paper demonstrates a grade server that allows college students to access their grades over the Internet from the instructor's home page. Using a CGI (common gateway interface) program written in Visual Basic, the grades are read directly from an Excel spreadsheet and presented to the requester after he/she enters a password. The grade for…

  20. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  1. Photodynamic therapy of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) high grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Belotto, Renata; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-02-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer and associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors. PDT is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in target cells that will generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species upon illumination, inducing the death of abnormal tissue and PDT with less damaging to normal tissues than surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy and seems to be a promising alternative procedure for CIN treatment. The CIN high grades (II and III) presents potential indications for PDT due the success of PDT for CIN low grade treatment. The patients with CIN high grade that were treated with new clinic protocol shows lesion regression to CIN low grade 60 days after the treatment. The new clinical protocol using for treatment of CIN high grade shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  2. Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Robert

    The Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS) aims to reach eight and a half million adults between ages 25 and 44 and teach them reading and math skills they can use at home and on the job. ALPS proposes to reach those who have never finished high school but do have at least a sixth-grade reading level. They could use their new skills to prepare for…

  3. [The impact of viruses in lower respiratory tract infections of the adult. Part II: acute bronchitis, acute exacerbated COPD, pneumonia, and influenza].

    PubMed

    Ott, S R; Rohde, G; Lepper, P M; Hauptmeier, B; Bals, R; Pletz, M W R; Schumann, C; Steininger, C; Kleines, M; Geerdes-Fenge, H

    2010-01-01

    In industrialized countries respiratory tract infections are one of the most common reasons for medical consultations. It is assumed that almost one third of these infections affect the lower respiratory tract (LRTI), e. g. acute bronchitis, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), community- or hospital-acquired pneumonia and influenza. Due to a lack of sufficient and valid investigations on the epidemiology of respiratory viruses, their impact on the pathogenesis of LRTI has probably been underestimated for a long time. Therefore, there might have been many cases of needless antibiotic treatment, particularly in cases of acute bronchitis or acute exacerbations of COPD, because of an assumed bacteriological aetiology. Following the introduction of diagnostic procedures with increased sensitivity, such as polymerase chain reaction, it is possible to reliably detect respiratory viruses and to illuminate their role in the pathogenesis of LRTI of the adult. We have reviewed the current literature to elucidate the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of LRTI. The first part of this series described frequent viral pathogens, pathogenesis of viral LRTI, and diagnostic procedures. In this 2 (nd) part the aetiological role of viruses in the most frequent forms of LRTI will be highlighted, and the third and last part will provide an overview of therapeutic and preventive options.

  4. CPG 7909, an immunostimulatory TLR9 agonist oligodeoxynucleotide, as adjuvant to Engerix-B HBV vaccine in healthy adults: a double-blind phase I/II study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C L; Davis, H L; Morris, M L; Efler, S M; Adhami, M Al; Krieg, A M; Cameron, D W; Heathcote, J

    2004-11-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN) act as potent Th1-like immune enhancers with many antigens in animal models. We have extended these observations to the first clinical evaluation of the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of CPG 7909 when added to a commercial HBV vaccine. In a randomized, double-blind phase I dose escalation study, healthy volunteers aged 18-35 years were vaccinated at 0, 4 and 24 weeks by intramuscular injection with Engerix-B (GlaxoSmithKline). The regular adult dose of 20 microg recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) adsorbed to alum was administered mixed with saline (control) or with CPG 7909 at one of three doses (0.125, 0.5 or 1.0 mg). HBsAg-specific antibody responses (anti-HBs) appeared significantly sooner and were significantly higher at all timepoints up to and including 24 weeks in CPG 7909 recipients compared to control subjects (p< or = 0.001). Strikingly, most CpG 7909-vaccinated subjects developed protective levels of anti-HBs IgG within just two weeks of the priming vaccine dose. A trend towards higher rates of positive cytotoxic T cell lymphocyte responses was noted in the two higher dose groups of CPG 7909 compared to controls. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection site reactions, flu-like symptoms and headache. While these were more frequent in CPG 7909 groups than in the control group (p<0.0001), most were reported to be of mild to moderate intensity regardless of group. In summary, CPG 7909 as an adjuvant to Engerix-B was well-tolerated and enhanced vaccine immunogenicity. CPG 7909 may allow the development of a two-dose prophylactic HBV vaccine.

  5. Ki-67 immunostaining in astrocytomas: Association with histopathological grade – A South Indian study

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprasad, Nandish Vastrad; Satish, Suchitha; Ravishankar, Sunila; Vimalambike, Manjunath Gubbi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Astrocytomas are the most common primary tumor of the central nervous system. The distinction between different tumor grades can be tested despite criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO). Ki-67 is a potent biological marker used in grading of astrocytomas, which estimates growth of the neoplasm quantitatively and will help in predicting prognosis accurately. Objectives: The aim of this was to study the proliferative activity using Ki-67 immunostaining and to assess the relationship of Ki-67 staining with the histopathological grading of astrocytomas. Patients and Methods: Thirty cases of histologically proven astrocytomas were studied. The histopathological grade was assessed using the 2007 WHO criteria. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 was done on paraffin-embedded wax sections. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty cases of astrocytomas studied showed a male preponderance (M:F = 1.72:1) with a mean age of 48.1 years. Of these, Grade I, (n = 1, 3.33%), Grade II, (n = 7, 23.3%), Grade III (n = 6, 20%), and Grade IV (n = 16, 53.3%) astrocytomas were analyzed. The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) in Grades I, II, III, and IV was 0.02, 0.81, 9.14, and 17.81, respectively. Statistically significant difference was seen in the Ki-67 LI of low-grade (Grade II) and high-grade astrocytomas (Grades III and IV). There was concordance between histopathological grading and Ki-67 LI in 27 (90%) and discordance in 3 (10%) cases. Conclusion: Ki-67 LI varies considerably in different grades of astrocytomas and considerable overlaps can be observed between them. It can be of great help in situations where there is a lack of correlation between clinical parameters and histopathological diagnosis. Determination of Ki-67 LI should constitute a part of routine investigations in patients with astrocytomas. PMID:27695229

  6. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  7. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  8. Purpose-Driven Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  9. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  10. Career Education, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse City School District, NY.

    Part of the Syracuse (New York) city school district's guided occupational orientation program, the student workbook consists of information and question sheets suitable for grade 6 career education studies on topics in the labor field, including labor laws, wages, and unions; job applications and interviews; on-the-job training; and social…

  11. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  12. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the early grades. They include creating musical tones using Atari PILOT, a simulation of traffic lights, teacher-friendly password protection, drawing the alphabet using Logo, and using the Commodore 64's special character graphics. (JN)

  13. Elementary Science: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 2 science curriculum guide contains three activity units: (1) insects; (2) measuring; and (3) sink or float. Each unit contains a rationale, teacher background material, lesson plans, and lists of resources including books, audiovisual materials, resource persons, and science activity modules. The lesson plans list the science processes…

  14. Career Awareness: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

  15. Health, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the third in a series of health primers for elementary education in Vietnam. It is written for Vietnamese children at the third grade level. The fifty-three lessons are integrated into one story. Each lesson is illustrated and briefly summarized. The eight chapters are: (1) Hygiene, at home, in school and in public places; (2) Food and…

  16. Reader. Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

    This textbook is the fourth in the official reading series developed by the Ministry of Education in Saigon and used in all public schools in Vietnam. The books in this series have been reprinted in their entirety from the original editions for use in elementary schools in the United States which have Vietnamese students. This grade 4 reader…

  17. EIGHTH GRADE ENGLISH CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TEACHING EIGHTH-GRADE ENGLISH WAS DEVELOPED IN 1965 AT UNIVERSITY CITY, MISSOURI. FOUR UNITS ARE PRESENTED IN DETAILED OUTLINE FORM--"PAST THROUGH PROLOGUE,""GROWING UP,""WHAT IS HUMOR," AND "HEROES, REAL AND UNREAL." THREE OTHER UNITS ARE SUGGESTED BUT NOT OUTLINED--"VALUE AND…

  18. Graded SPSS Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary J.

    The attached materials have been developed for use on the CSU CYBER Computer's Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSONL). The assignments are graded in difficulty and gradually introduce new commands and require the practice of previously learned commands. The handouts begin with basic instructions for logging on; then XEDIT is taught…

  19. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents computer-oriented teaching suggestions suitable for early grades. They include creating houses and stained glass ornaments using Logo, recording class activities with a database management program, making mazes with graphics programs, making drawings with a KoalaPad, and using a program to introduce computers to non-English speaking…

  20. Career Awareness: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade six, performance…

  1. Multiple Option Grade Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible, point contract system is described which maximizes the advantages of a criterion-referenced contract system while eliminating some of the disadvantages of standard grade contracts. This model has been used by the author in a variety of high school and college courses. (Author/SJL)

  2. Health, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the fifth and last of the Vietnamese series of elementary health textbooks. This one was designed for fifth grade students in Vietnam. The thirty-five lessons are presented in the form of short stories with illustrations and a short summary. The four chapters cover the ordinary symptoms of illness, elementary notions of microbes and…

  3. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  4. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  5. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  6. Do different measures of early life socioeconomic circumstances predict adult mortality? Evidence from the British Whitehall II and French GAZEL studies

    PubMed Central

    Stringhini, Silvia; Dugravot, Aline; Kivimaki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J.; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Background Father’s occupational position, education and height have all been used to examine the effects of adverse early life socioeconomic circumstances on health, but it remains unknown whether they predict mortality equally well. Methods We used pooled data on 18393 men and 7060 women from the Whitehall-II and GAZEL cohorts to examine associations between early life socioeconomic circumstances and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results During the 20-year follow-up period, 1487 participants died. Education had a monotonic association with all mortality outcomes, the age, sex and cohort adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) for the lowest versus the highest educational group was 1.45 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.24,1.69) for all-cause mortality. There was evidence of a U-shaped association between height and all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality, robust to adjustment for the other indicators (HR=1.41; 95% CI: 1.03,1.93 for those shorter-than-average and HR=1.36; 95% CI: 0.98,1.88 for those taller-than-average for cardiovascular (CVD) mortality). Greater all-cause and cancer mortality was observed in participants whose father’s occupational position was manual rather than non-manual (HR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.00,1.23 for all-cause mortality), but the risks were attenuated after adjusting for education and height. Conclusions The association between early life socioeconomic circumstances and mortality depends on the socioeconomic indicator used and the cause of death examined. Height is not a straightforward measure of early life socioeconomic circumstances as taller people do not have a health advantage for all mortality outcomes. PMID:20675701

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a phase II, open-label, uncontrolled trial in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsurudome, Yukari; Kimachi, Kazuhiko; Okada, Yusuke; Matsuura, Kenta; Ooyama, Yusuke; Ibaragi, Kayo; Kino, Yoichiro; Ueda, Kohji

    2015-10-01

    Two antigenically distinct B strain lineages of influenza virus have co-circulated since the mid-1980s; however, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines contain only one B lineage. The mismatch between the circulating and vaccine lineages has been a worldwide issue. In this study, an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) candidate containing two B lineages was manufactured and its immunogenicity and safety evaluated in an open-label, uncontrolled trial. In this phase II trial, 50 subjects aged 20-64 years received two doses of QIV s.c. 1 to 4 weeks apart. Sera were collected pre- and post-vaccination and safety assessed from the first vaccination to 21 ± 7 days after the second vaccination. After the first vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition titers against each strain increased markedly; the seroconversion rate, geometric mean titer ratio and seroprotection rate being 94.0%, 24.93, and 100.0%, respectively, for the A/H1N1pdm09 strain; 94.0%, 12.47, and 98.0%, respectively, for the A/H3N2 strain; 54.0%, 4.99, and 66.0%, respectively, for B/Yamagata strain, and 72.0%, 6.23 and 80.0%, respectively, for the B/Victoria strain, thus fulfilling the criteria of the European Medical Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. Also, the QIV induced sufficient single radial hemolysis and neutralizing antibodies against all four vaccine strains. No noteworthy adverse events were noted. The results of this trial demonstrate that QIV is well tolerated and immunogenic for each strain, suggesting that QIV potentially improves protection against influenza B by resolving the issue of B lineage mismatch.

  8. Amount, type, and timing of recreational physical activity in relation to colon and rectal cancer in older adults: the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ann; Connell, Cari J; Jacobs, Eric J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Patel, Alpa V; Calle, Eugenia E; Cokkinides, Vilma E; Thun, Michael J

    2004-12-01

    Physical activity has consistently been associated with lower risk of colon cancer, but information is limited on the amount, type, and timing of activities. The relationship between physical activity and rectal cancer is unclear. We examined characteristics of recreational physical activity in relation to colon and rectal cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort of 70,403 men and 80,771 women (median age, 63 years); 940 colon and 390 rectal cancers were identified from enrollment in 1992 to 1993 through August 1999. The multivariate-adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with any recreational physical activity compared with none were 0.87 (0.71-1.06) for colon cancer and 0.70 (0.53-0.93) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk decreased significantly with increasing total hours (P for trend without reference group = 0.007) and metabolic equivalent hours (P for trend = 0.006) per week of activities. No clear decrease in rectal cancer risk was seen with increasing hours per week of physical activity. Rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.72 (0.52-0.98) for <2 hours, 0.68 (0.47-0.97) for 2 to 3 hours, 0.59 (0.41-0.83) for 4 to 6 hours, and 0.83 (0.59-1.16) for >/=7 hours per week of physical activity compared with none. Past exercise, as reported in 1982, was not associated with risk of either colon or rectal cancer. We conclude that increasing amounts of time spent at recreational physical activity are associated with substantially lower risk of colon cancer and that recreational physical activity is associated with lower risk of rectal cancer in older men and women.

  9. Adult and Family Living. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide for teachers is designed for use with 11th- and 12th-grade students who have had no more than 1 year of vocational home economics. It focuses on providing young adults with the knowledge and skills they need for healthy and positive adult and family lives. It includes 27 units in 8 sections as follows: (1) personal…

  10. Early evaluation of tumour metabolic response using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography:a pilot study following the phase II chemotherapy schedule for temozolomide in recurrent high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Brock, C S; Young, H; O'Reilly, S M; Matthews, J; Osman, S; Evans, H; Newlands, E S; Price, P M

    2000-01-01

    Quantitation of metabolic changes in tumours may provide an objective measure of clinical and subclinical response to anticancer therapy. This pilot study assesses the value of quantitation of metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlu) measured in mmol min−1ml−1to assess early subclinical response to therapy in a relatively non-responsive tumour. Nine patients receiving the CRC Phase II study schedule of temozolomide were assessed with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans prior to and 14 days after treatment with temozolomide given as 750–1000 mg m−2over 5 days every 28 days. Tumour MRGlu was calculated and compared with objective response at 8 weeks. Pretreatment MRGlu was higher in responders than non-responders. The responding patient group had a greater than 25% reduction in MRGlu in regions of high focal tumour uptake (HFU). Whole tumour changes in MRGlu did not correlate with response. Percentage change in HFU standardized uptake value (SUV) did discriminate the responding from the non-responding patients, but not as well as with MRGlu. Large differences also occurred in the normal brain SUV following treatment. Thus, MRGlu appeared to be a more sensitive discriminator of response than the simplified static SUV analysis. Changes in MRGlu may reflect the degree of cell kill following chemotherapy and so may provide an objective, quantitative subclinical measure of response to therapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682673

  11. Biology II Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    In 1986, the Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education requested that an advanced course in Biology II be developed. The resulting curriculum guide contains grade appropriate goals, skills, and competencies; suggested activities; suggested materials of instruction; and minimum time allotments for instruction. Biology II is a…

  12. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

    2013-11-01

    The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population.

  13. Comparison of drug and cell-based delivery: engineered adult mesenchymal stem cells expressing soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II prevent arthritis in mouse and rat animal models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linda N; Wang, Gang; Hendricks, Kyle; Lee, Keunmyoung; Bohnlein, Ernst; Junker, Uwe; Mosca, Joseph D

    2013-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology where tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) plays a critical role. Etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (hsTNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, is used to treat RA based on the rationale that sTNFR binds TNFα and blocks TNFα-mediated inflammation. We compared hsTNFR protein delivery from genetically engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with etanercept. Blocking TNFα-dependent intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on transduced hMSCs and inhibition of nitric oxide production from TNFα-treated bovine chondrocytes by conditioned culture media from transduced hMSCs demonstrated the functionality of the hsTNFR construction. Implanted hsTNFR-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced mouse serum circulating TNFα generated from either implanted TNFα-expressing cells or lipopolysaccharide induction more effectively than etanercept (TNFα, 100%; interleukin [IL]-1α, 90%; and IL-6, 60% within 6 hours), suggesting faster clearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-TNFα complex from the animals. In vivo efficacy of sTNFR-transduced MSCs was illustrated in two (immune-deficient and immune-competent) arthritic rodent models. In the antibody-induced arthritis BalbC/SCID mouse model, intramuscular injection of hsTNFR-transduced hMSCs reduced joint inflammation by 90% compared with untransduced hMSCs; in the collagen-induced arthritis Fischer rat model, both sTNFR-transduced rat MSCs and etanercept inhibited joint inflammation by 30%. In vitro chondrogenesis assays showed the ability of TNFα and IL1α, but not interferon γ, to inhibit hMSC differentiation to chondrocytes, illustrating an additional negative role for inflammatory cytokines in joint repair. The data support the utility of hMSCs as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles and their potential to be used in alleviating inflammation

  14. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Stage II-IV T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-13

    Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  15. Does Grade Inflation Decrease the Reliability of Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Royce, Jr.; Smith, Eliot R.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of grade inflation on the reliability of undergraduate grade point averages at a university was examined. It was shown that there has been some decline in reliability, but this is ameliorated by the use of plus and minus attachments to grades. (JKS)

  16. The N400 and the Fourth Grade Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2015-01-01

    While behavioral and educational data characterize a fourth grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented…

  17. Teaching Gifted Students Literature in Grades Seven through Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Barbara L.

    Prepared for use by teachers of mentally gifted students in grades 7 through 9, the booklet offers a curriculum design for the teaching of literature. Considered is the difficult developmental stage in late childhood and early adolescence when children begin to assert their roles as individuals and often have no adult model other than the friendly…

  18. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth Grade Students STIR City Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a campaign called STIR: Stop Tobacco in Restaurants, that was started by fourth and fifth grade students. The goal was to end smoking in public places, including restaurants, bowling alleys, sports bars, and pool halls. For two years they motivated their peers, coordinated an information campaign to urge kids and adults to…

  19. Heavy Equipment Operation Curriculum for Grades 11-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins Associates, Hadlyme, CT.

    This curriculum for the training of students in grades 11 and 12 is intended to provide a program of instruction in the operation and maintenance of heavy equipment for construction work and farms. It is also suitable for the training of adult learners interested in upgrading their skills or improving their opportunities to enter this labor…

  20. Facilitating Grade Acceleration: Revisiting the Wisdom of John Feldhusen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culross, Rita R.; Jolly, Jennifer L.; Winkler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article revisits the 1986 Feldhusen, Proctor, and Black recommendations on grade skipping. These recommendations originally appeared as 12 guidelines. In this article, the guidelines are grouped into three general categories: how to screen accelerant candidates, how to engage with the adults in the acceleration process (e.g., teachers,…

  1. A national perspective of adult gangliogliomas.

    PubMed

    Varshneya, Kunal; Sarmiento, J Manuel; Nuño, Miriam; Lagman, Carlito; Mukherjee, Debraj; Nuño, Karla; Babu, Harish; Patil, Chirag G

    2016-08-01

    Gangliogliomas (GG) are rare tumors of the nervous system. Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes of low and high-grade GG have been difficult to elucidate in the adult population. This study aims to further elaborate on GG treatment and overall survival utilizing a larger cohort than previously published. The USA National Cancer Database was utilized to evaluate adult (age 18years and older) patients diagnosed with GG between 2004 and 2006. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier overall survival estimates were provided. A total of 198 adult GG patients were diagnosed between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 181 (91.4%) were low-grade and 17 (8.6%) high-grade GG. Overall, the median age was 36years; approximately 50% of patients were female, and 86.5% Caucasian. Most patients (59%) had near/gross total resection. Radiation and chemotherapy were prescribed in 18 (9.1%) and 11 (5.7%) patients, respectively. Radiation (64.7% versus 3.9%, p<.0001) and chemotherapy (47.1% versus 1.7%, p<.0001) were more frequently given to patients with high-grade tumors than low-grade. The median overall survival of high-grade GG was 44.4months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.5-92.5) while the corresponding estimate for low-grade tumors was not reached. Older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.72, 95% CI: 1.26-2.34) and high tumor grade (HR 3.91, 95% CI: 1.43-10.8) were found to be associated with poor survival. Adult GG have a temporal lobe predilection and overall gross total resection rate of 59%. Older patients with high-grade tumors had an increased hazard of mortality. High-grade GG were significantly more likely to be treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  2. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  3. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  4. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  5. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  6. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  7. OVARIAN LOW-GRADE AND HIGH-GRADE SEROUS CARCINOMA: Pathogenesis, Clinicopathologic and Molecular Biologic Features, and Diagnostic Problems

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian serous carcinomas have been graded using various systems. Recently, a 2-tier system in which tumors are subdivided into low-grade and high-grade has been proposed. This approach is simplistic, reproducible, and based on biologic evidence indicating that both tumors develop via different pathways. Low-grade serous carcinomas exhibit low-grade nuclei with infrequent mitotic figures. They evolve from adenofibromas or borderline tumors, have frequent mutations of the KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2 genes, and lack TP53 mutations (Type I pathway). The progression to invasive carcinoma is a slow step-wise process. Low-grade tumors are indolent and have better outcome than high-grade tumors. In contrast, high-grade serous carcinomas have high-grade nuclei and numerous mitotic figures. Identification of a precursor lesion in the ovary has been elusive and therefore the origin of ovarian carcinoma has been described as de novo. More recently, studies have suggested that a proportion appear to originate from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube. The development of these tumors is rapid (Type II pathway). The vast majority are characterized by TP53 mutations and lack mutations of KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2. Although both types of serous carcinomas evolve along different pathways, rare high-grade serous carcinomas seem to arise through the Type I pathway. Immunohistochemical stains for p53, p16, and Ki-67 for distinction of low- from high-grade tumors are of limited value but can be helpful in selected instances. This review provides an update on the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic features of these two types of serous carcinomas and addresses some of the diagnostic problems that are encountered in routine practice. PMID:19700937

  8. Graded Causation and Defaults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    in philosophy and the law in part because of its connection with issues of moral and legal responsibility (see for example, Moore [2009] for a...viewpoints in the flower-watering example described in the introduction: (a) Beebee [2004] and Moore [2009], for example, argue against the existence...relevant sense) of his death. Moore [2009] uses this type of case to argue that our ordinary notion of actual causation is graded, rather than all-or

  9. Cooperative Learning Tasks in a Grade 6 Intensive ESL Class: Role of Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Nathalie; Parks, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Although a number of studies have investigated classroom-based peer interaction with adults and high school students, research pertaining to children in the elementary grades is scant. Drawing on sociocultural theory, the present study investigated how children in an intensive elementary level Grade 6 class for English as a second language (ESL)…

  10. Favorite Newbery Books of Sixth Grade Students, Teachers, and Library Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Ramona N.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies Newbery books most frequently chosen as favorites by 2,211 sixth-grade students, sixth-grade teachers, and school library media specialists. FInds that boys chose "Maniac Magee" (Jerry Spinelli), girls chose "Number the Stars" (Lois Lowry), and adults chose "The Giver" (Lois Lowry). (RS)

  11. Making the Grade: A Report on Standards in Work-Based Learning for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria

    The reasons for the deterioration of the inspection grades awarded for work-based learning (WBL) provision in England were examined. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) a statistical analysis of the Training Standards Council (TSC) and Adult Learning Inspectorate (ALI) inspection grades in 1998-2001; (2) a qualitative review…

  12. Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Meningiomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-01

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Neurofibromatosis Type 1; Neurofibromatosis Type 2; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  13. The Unbearable Importance of Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parini, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Grading is one of the primary venues of teaching. In this article, the author shares his experience of grading papers. He alleges that the hardest papers to grade are those where nothing is really "wrong" with the prose or the argument, where everything is "sort of" correct but nothing is vivid, nothing quite original. Students must learn in time…

  14. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  15. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  16. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  17. Field grading in capacitor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, T. E.; Sarjeant, W. J.; Nunnally, W. C.

    1981-06-01

    Some of the results of modeling electric fields in the margin of a bogey plastic film liquid impregnant capacitor are presented where effects of foil edge shape, different impregnants, and grading wires are examined. It is concluded that placement tolerance and connection problems make grading wires impractical and that folded foil edges are still the best solution to field grading.

  18. Komvux-Proven i Engelska VT 1989: Jamforelser mellan Komvux och Gymnasieskolan i Fraga om Provresultat och Betyg. Rapport nr 1990:06. (National Standardized Tests in English in Adult Education 1989: Comparison between Adult and Upper Secondary Students Test Results and School Leaving Grades. Report No. 1990:06).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscarson, Mats

    This report describes the results of adult education students and upper secondary school students on two recently introduced standardized English tests in Sweden. Comparisons of the results are made between these two categories of students because they are entitled to compete, on an equal basis, for admission into restricted intake programs of…

  19. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF VIEW OF GRADING OPERATIONS BELOW P STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF VIEW OF GRADING OPERATIONS BELOW P STREET BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM SOUTHBOUND P STREET PARKWAY ACCESS, FROM 1940 REPORT ON PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY, SECTION II (ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY FILE, HISTORY DEPARTMENT ARCHIVES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, WASHINGTON, DC). - Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Twentieth Century United States History. Grades 11 and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinkievich, Noel; Beard, David

    This course outline for grades 11 and 12 presents a topical approach to history instruction with emphasis on the post-World War II era. A statement of general objectives is given and these 22 relevant topics are suggested for study: 1) Radicalism in America, 2) Antiwar Movements, 3) Civil Liberties, 4) Politics of Religion, 5) Black Nationalism,…

  1. Mathematics and Metacognition in Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie

    2009-01-01

    A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…

  2. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  3. Differential proteomics analysis of low- and high-grade of astrocytoma using iTRAQ quantification

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tong; Lin, Shide; Wang, Zhongfeng; Shang, Aijia

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytoma is one of the most common types of brain tumor, which is histologically and clinically classified into four grades (I–IV): I (pilocytic astrocytoma), II (diffuse astrocytoma), III (anaplastic astrocytoma), and IV (glioblastoma multiforme). A higher grade astrocytoma represents a worse prognosis and is more aggressive. In this study, we compared the differential proteome profile of astrocytoma from grades I to IV. The protein samples from clinical specimens of grades I, II, III, and IV astrocytoma were analyzed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and quantification. A total of 2,190 proteins were identified. Compared to grade I astrocytoma, 173 (12.4%), 304 (14%), and 462 (21.2%) proteins were aberrantly expressed in grades II, III, and IV, respectively. By bioinformatics analysis, the cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis-related pathways increase from low- to high-grade of astrocytoma. Five differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot. Within them, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 were upregulated in glioblastoma multiforme group; whereas fibulin-2 and -5 were downregulated in grade II/III/IV astrocytoma, and the negative expression was significantly associated with advanced clinical stage. Functional analysis showed that both fibulin-2 and -5 may exert an antitumor effect by inhibiting cell proliferation, in vitro migration/invasion in glioma cells. New molecular biomarkers are likely to be used for accurate classification of astrocytoma and likely to be the target for drug development. PMID:27713642

  4. THE PREDICTION OF GRADES IN COLLEGE ALGEBRA--A CONTINUATION AND EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GELSO, CHARLES J.; WILSON, RAY

    HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA GRADES OF 157 STUDENTS WERE BETTER PREDICTORS OF THEIR PERFORMANCE IN COLLEGE ALGEBRA (MATH 101) THAN EITHER THEIR SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST-MATHEMATICS PORTION OR THEIR SEQUENTIAL TESTS OF EDUCATION PROGRESS-MATHEMATICS SUBTEST SCORES. THE AVERAGE OF THE STUDENTS' ALGEBRA I AND II GRADES SHOWED A CORRELATION WITH THEIR MATH 101…

  5. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  6. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  7. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  8. Grade inflation: a problem in nursing?

    PubMed

    King-Jones, Malena; Mitchell, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This article examines grade inflation in higher education and in nursing education. The factors related to grade inflation and consequences of grade inflation are explored. Actions that address grade inflation and recommendations for future research in nursing education are provided.

  9. Grading the teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Clifford E.

    2000-04-01

    Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency — competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State, prospective teachers must take tests in both pedagogy and subject material. That seems reasonable. There ought to be some minimum standards, so I thought that I would try my hand at setting up such requirements.

  10. Modeling of functionally graded piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Wilfredo Montealegre; Buiochi, Flávio; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Silva, Emílio Carlos Nelli

    2009-05-01

    The application of functionally graded material (FGM) concept to piezoelectric transducers allows the design of composite transducers without interfaces, due to the continuous change of property values. Thus, large improvements can be achieved, as reduction of stress concentration, increasing of bonding strength, and bandwidth. This work proposes to design and to model FGM piezoelectric transducers and to compare their performance with non-FGM ones. Analytical and finite element (FE) modeling of FGM piezoelectric transducers radiating a plane pressure wave in fluid medium are developed and their results are compared. The ANSYS software is used for the FE modeling. The analytical model is based on FGM-equivalent acoustic transmission-line model, which is implemented using MATLAB software. Two cases are considered: (i) the transducer emits a pressure wave in water and it is composed of a graded piezoceramic disk, and backing and matching layers made of homogeneous materials; (ii) the transducer has no backing and matching layer; in this case, no external load is simulated. Time and frequency pressure responses are obtained through a transient analysis. The material properties are graded along thickness direction. Linear and exponential gradation functions are implemented to illustrate the influence of gradation on the transducer pressure response, electrical impedance, and resonance frequencies.

  11. Administration of Adult Human Bone Marrow-Derived, Cultured, Pooled, Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Critical Limb Ischemia Due to Buerger's Disease: Phase II Study Report Suggests Clinical Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pawan K; Krishna, Murali; Chullikana, Anoop; Desai, Sanjay; Murugesan, Rajkumar; Dutta, Santanu; Sarkar, Uday; Raju, Radhakrishnan; Dhar, Anita; Parakh, Rajiv; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Viswanathan, Pachaiyappan; Vellotare, Prasanth Kulapurathu; Seetharam, Raviraja N; Thej, Charan; Rengasamy, Mathiyazhagan; Balasubramanian, Sudha; Majumdar, Anish S

    2017-03-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to Buerger's disease is a major unmet medical need with a high incidence of morbidity. This phase II, prospective, nonrandomized, open-label, multicentric, dose-ranging study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of i.m. injection of adult human bone marrow-derived, cultured, pooled, allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSC) in CLI due to Buerger's disease. Patients were allocated to three groups: 1 and 2 million cells/kg body weight (36 patients each) and standard of care (SOC) (18 patients). BMMSCs were administered as 40-60 injections in the calf muscle and locally, around the ulcer. Most patients were young (age range, 38-42 years) and ex-smokers, and all patients had at least one ulcer. Both the primary endpoints-reduction in rest pain (0.3 units per month [SE, 0.13]) and healing of ulcers (11% decrease in size per month [SE, 0.05])-were significantly better in the group receiving 2 million cells/kg body weight than in the SOC arm. Improvement in secondary endpoints, such as ankle brachial pressure index (0.03 [SE, 0.01] unit increase per month) and total walking distance (1.03 [SE, 0.02] times higher per month), were also significant in the group receiving 2 million cells/kg as compared with the SOC arm. Adverse events reported were remotely related or unrelated to BMMSCs. In conclusion, i.m. administration of BMMSC at a dose of 2 million cells/kg showed clinical benefit and may be the best regimen in patients with CLI due to Buerger's disease. However, further randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the most appropriate dose. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:689-699.

  12. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Mattson, Earl D.; Sisson, James B.

    1998-01-01

    A tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: i) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and ii) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus.

  13. Polymyositis - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  14. The evolving Gleason grading system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ni; Zhou, Qiao

    2016-02-01

    The Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma has evolved from its original scheme established in the 1960s-1970s, to a significantly modified system after two major consensus meetings conducted by the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) in 2005 and 2014, respectively. The Gleason grading system has been incorporated into the WHO classification of prostate cancer, the AJCC/UICC staging system, and the NCCN guidelines as one of the key factors in treatment decision. Both pathologists and clinicians need to fully understand the principles and practice of this grading system. We here briefly review the historical aspects of the original scheme and the recent developments of Gleason grading system, focusing on major changes over the years that resulted in the modern Gleason grading system, which has led to a new "Grade Group" system proposed by the 2014 ISUP consensus, and adopted by the 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the prostate.

  15. Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

  16. Teaching about World War II in Sixth Grade World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Janet K.

    1995-01-01

    Recommends using "Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl: A Teacher Response Unit." Lists examples of activities contained in the unit, including timeliness, simulations, and writing assignments. Highlights specific activities concerning propaganda, discrimination, and prejudice. (MJP)

  17. Assessing Diagnostic Tests II: Grading on a Curve.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    In this Investigators' Corner, I continue discussing how to introduce and assess new diagnostic tests to replace older tests that are considered gold standards. Specifically, I talk about how to assess a "family" of diagnostics, and how to choose an optimal "family member."

  18. Prediction of Grade of Dropout from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and test achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of third graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts. In each sample, age in the third grade, course marks, and standardized achievement scores were found to be significantly related to the grade in which…

  19. Grade 10 to Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This annotated bibliography identifies English language resources endorsed by all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing The Common Curriculum Framework for K-12 Mathematics Grade 10 to Grade 12. Resources in this annotated bibliography were selected through a collaborative review process based on their high level of fidelity…

  20. Language Interaction in Nahuatl Discourse: The Influence of Spanish in Child and Adult Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Norbert; Gomez, Pablo Rogelio Navarrete

    2003-01-01

    This study on code-mixing focuses on the influence of Spanish in Nahuatl discourse as revealed in narratives produced by adults and children. Results indicate differences in frequency of content word embedded language (Spanish), lexical items across grade level (for children), grade level attained (for adults), and correlations (for children)…

  1. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  2. Learning-Centered Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Conni

    2012-01-01

    The research on grading practice over two decades is clear: grading practices are firmly held beliefs that are near and dear to the teaching professional. At a time when government, business and industry, and the general public are calling for an accountability of student knowledge and abilities, classroom assessment practices could be…

  3. Grading Exceptional and Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…

  4. Science: Grade 3. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  5. Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

  6. Health Curriculum Guide. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syosset Central School District 2, NY.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade five. SUBJECT MATTER: Health education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide is illustrated with drawings and bound in a spiral binder. It is divided into five "strands" or topics and a bibliography. The five strands are as follows: Physical Health; Sociological Health Problems; Mental Health; Environmental and…

  7. Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  8. Science: Grade 8. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  9. Science: Grade 5. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  10. Science: Grade 6. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  11. Science Grade 7, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

  12. Science: Grade 9. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  13. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, A. S.; Zambon, M.

    2009-02-02

    The main result extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result.

  14. Starting the Conversation about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

  15. Group Grades Miss the Mark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Spencer

    1995-01-01

    Some teachers justify group grading for cooperative projects using specious arguments that invoke real-world comparison, employment skills, motivation, teacher workload, and credit for teamwork. This article argues that group grades are blatantly unfair, invalidate report cards, undermine motivation, convey the wrong message, violate individual…

  16. Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

  17. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  18. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  19. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  20. Science: Grade 2. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  1. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  2. Grading System and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Several papers have proposed that the grading system affects students' incentives to exert effort. In particular, the previous literature has compared student effort under relative and absolute grading systems, but the results are mixed and the implications of the models have not been empirically tested. In this paper, I build a model where…

  3. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  4. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  5. Alternatives to Grading Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchudi, Stephen, Ed.

    The result of an investigation into the grading writing by the National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Alternatives to Grading Student Writing, this collection of essays offers the writing teacher several innovative and interesting options. Following an introduction by the editor (chair of the Committee), in which he delineates the…

  6. First Grade Pre-Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Pre-Screening is designed to be used at the start of the first grade school year so that teachers can obtain information about their incoming students. This information is intended to give teachers insight about what math and reading skills a student may or may not have at the beginning of the year. The information can aid teachers…

  7. Science: Grade 1. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  8. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, phase II trial to assess the safety and efficacy of ceftolozane-tazobactam plus metronidazole compared with meropenem in adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Lucasti, Christopher; Hershberger, Ellie; Miller, Benjamin; Yankelev, Sara; Steenbergen, Judith; Friedland, Ian; Solomkin, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Ceftolozane-tazobactam (TOL-TAZ) is a novel antibacterial with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other common Gram-negative pathogens, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, that are associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). This prospective, double-blind, randomized, multicenter, phase II trial assessed patient clinical and microbiological responses to and the safety of TOL-TAZ plus metronidazole compared with those of meropenem. Hospitalized adults with cIAIs that required surgical intervention were randomized (2:1) to receive intravenous (i.v.) TOL-TAZ (1.5 g [containing 1,000 mg TOL and 500 mg TAZ] every 8 h [q8h]) with or without i.v. metronidazole (500 mg q8h) or i.v. meropenem (1 g q8h) for 4 to 7 days. The primary endpoint was the clinical response at the test-of-cure visit in the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat (mMITT) and microbiologically evaluable (ME) populations. Secondary measures included the patients' microbiological response and safety. In total, 82 patients received TOL-TAZ (90.2% with metronidazole), and 39 received meropenem. For the mMITT population, clinical cure was seen in 83.6% of the patients (51/61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9 to 91.8) who received TOL-TAZ and 96.0% of the patients (24/25; 95% CI, 79.6 to 99.9) who received meropenem (difference, -12.4%; 95% CI, -34.9% to 11.1%); in the ME population, clinical cure was seen in 88.7% and 95.8% of the patients (difference, -7.1%; 95% CI, -30.7% to 16.9%) who received TOL-TAZ and meropenem, respectively. TOL-TAZ demonstrated microbiological success against Escherichia coli (89.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (100%), and P. aeruginosa (100%). The adverse event rates were similar in the groups (50.0% with TOL-TAZ and 48.8% with meropenem). TOL-TAZ in combination with metronidazole was well tolerated and resulted in clinical and microbiological success rates supportive of further clinical development in

  9. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  10. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  11. Grading a Large Organic Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Marjorie

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problems of grading an organic laboratory course. Proposes that the grade should be based as: products--30 percent of the grade; notebooks--30 percent of the grade; exams and final report--40 percent of the grade. Gives an exception policy for special considerations. (MVL)

  12. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have.... Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more than eight cherries per sample...

  13. [GRADE: Methodology for formulating and grading recommendations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care.

  14. Cooperation Between Educational Institutions and Business and Industry in Adult Education and Training. Volume II of Final Report of Facilitating Cooperation with Business and Industry Project. Research Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Harold W.; And Others

    A study examined the dynamics of cooperation between public school adult education programs and business and industry. On-site interviews of nine public school adult education (PSAE) directors and ten representatives from the training and development sector of business and industry were conducted, and a survey and two followup surveys were…

  15. Historical Characteristics of Adult Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyasaka, Kosaku

    In its modern sense, adult education in Japan began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Until 1945, adult education functioned as an agent to indoctrinate the nationalistic and military ideology. Since World War II, Japan has adopted the democratic social system and has become a capitalist society like the West. In Japan, social education is the…

  16. NEW DIRECTIONS IN ADULT JEWISH EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, SAMUEL I.

    TRADITIONALLY ADULT JEWISH EDUCATION WAS SYNAGOGUE OR INSTITUTION SPONSORED AND ORIENTED. SINCE THE WORLD WAR II, A NUMBER OF NATIONAL JEWISH MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATIONS HAVE EMERGED AS MAJOR SPONSORS OF ADULT JEWISH EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THIS SPONSORSHIP REPRESENTS A NEW DIMENSION IN JEWISH EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE. THIS STUDY EVALUATED THE…

  17. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  18. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  19. Clinical management of grade III oligodendroglioma

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, G; Gaviani, P; Botturi, A; Innocenti, A; Lamperti, E; Silvani, A

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas represent the third most common type of glioma, comprising 4%–15% of all gliomas and can be classified by degree of malignancy into grade II and grade III, according to WHO classification. Only 30% of oligodendroglial tumors have anaplastic characteristics. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) is often localized as a single lesion in the white matter and in the cortex, rarely in brainstem or spinal cord. The management of AO is deeply changed in the recent years. Maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT) was considered as the standard of care since paramount findings regarding molecular aspects, in particular co-deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19, revealed that these subsets of AO, benefit in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), from the addition of chemotherapy to RT. Allelic losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q occur in 50%–70% of both low-grade and anaplastic tumors, representing a strong prognostic factor and a powerful predictor of prolonged survival. Several other molecular markers have potential clinical significance as IDH1 mutations, confirming the strong prognostic role for OS. Malignant brain tumors negatively impacts on patients’ quality of life. Seizures, visual impairment, headache, and cognitive disorders can be present. Moreover, chemotherapy and RT have important side effects. For these reasons, “health-related quality of life” is becoming a topic of growing interest, investigating on physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. Understanding the impact of medical treatment on health-related quality of life will probably have a growing effect both on health care strategies and on patients. PMID:26251628

  20. The WHO/ISUP 1998 and WHO 1999 systems for malignancy grading of bladder cancer. Scientific foundation and translation to one another and previous systems.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christer; Algaba, Ferran

    2002-08-01

    Recently, two new classification systems for grading of urothelial neoplasms have been published. The objective of both was to avoid the overdiagnosis of cancer and to create better criteria for the grades. The WHO/ISUP classification of 1998 distinguishes papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), low and high grade carcinomas, whereas the WHO 1999 system subdivides the high grade into grades II and III, and is otherwise identical. This note summarizes studies supporting the rationale of the two new systems, describes pattern recognition criteria for the grades, and highlights the homology between them.

  1. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  2. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  3. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  4. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  5. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  6. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  7. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  8. Effects of Guided Inquiry versus Lecture Instruction on Final Grade Distribution in a One-Semester Organic and Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Colleen J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive guided-inquiry approach was used in a combined organic and biochemistry course for prenursing and predietetics students rather than lecture. To assess its effectiveness, exam grades and final course grades of students in three instructional techniques were compared. The three groups were the following: (i) lecture only, (ii)…

  9. Basic Programming II: Course Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This guide is designed to provide teachers with guidelines and suggested activities for teaching a one-semester advanced programming course--BASIC Programming II--for the ninth through twelfth grades. Although primarily oriented toward mathematics, the guide does offer sample applications in business that also address the needs of students with a…

  10. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  11. Fiber, Fabric and Fashion. Environment II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    A competency-based instructional guide for grades 7-14, this volume is one of three parts, each of which focuses on a different environment (psychomotor, cognitive, or affective), and each of which includes competencies and learning activities for each of three instructional levels. The topics for this volume (Environment II--cognitive) are…

  12. Books for Adult New Readers. Third Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursell, Frances Josephson

    This book is an annotated bibliography of recommended print materials for English-speaking adults (18 years of age and over) reading at the seventh-grade level or below. More than 95 percent of the titles are paperbacks; hardbacks are indicated in the annotations. The titles are selected for their broad appeal to the general adult new reader. (All…

  13. Adult Basic Education Outreach Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Vocational Centre, Edmonton.

    The Alberta Vocational Center (AVC) developed a portable competency-based learning system for use in non-institutional adult basic education community programs. The system addresses needs identified by the 1971 census which found 28% of Alberta's residents (over fifteen and out of school) had less than a ninth grade education. Administered through…

  14. Challenging Perspectives on Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value young adult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…

  15. Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

  16. Adult Education Guided Design and Student Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharakis-Jutz, Jeff

    In traditional education, the teacher is responsible for the students' learning. The teacher lectures to the students who take notes and then regurgitate the material for examinations to earn grades and diplomas. This type of learning situation may not be appropriate in a community college, where many students are adults who bring life skills and…

  17. X-ROS signalling is enhanced and graded by cyclic cardiomyocyte stretch

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Benjamin L.; Ward, Christopher W.; Lederer, W. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aims A sustained, single stretch of a cardiomyocyte activates a transient production of reactive oxygen species by membrane-located NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2). This NoX2-dependent ROS (X-ROS) tunes cardiac Ca2+ signalling by reversibly sensitizing sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels. In contrast to static length changes, working heart cells are cyclically stretched and shortened in the living animal. Additionally, this stretch cycle is constantly varied by changes in the pre-load and heart rate. Thus, the objective of this study was (i) to characterize X-ROS signalling during stretch-shortening cycles and (ii) to evaluate how the amplitude (pre-load) and frequency (heart rate) of cell stretch affects X-ROS and Ca2+ signalling. Methods and results Single adult rat cardiomyocytes were attached to MyoTak™-coated micro-rods and stretched, while ROS production and Ca2+ signals were monitored optically. Although a sustained stretch led to only a transient burst of ROS, cyclic stretch-shortening cycles led to a steady-state elevation of ROS production. Importantly, this new redox state was graded by both the amplitude of stretch (3–15%) and cycle frequency (1–4 Hz). Elevated ROS production enhanced Ca2+ signalling sensitivity as measured by the Ca2+ spark rate. Conclusion The steady-state level of ROS production in a cardiomyocyte is graded by the amplitude and frequency of cell stretch. Thus, mechanical changes that depend on the pre-load and heart rate regulate a dynamic redox balance that tunes cellular Ca2+ signalling. PMID:23524301

  18. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

  19. A Book, a Place, a Time: Using Young Adult Novels in a Reading Workshop (Young Adult Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Harold M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes Patti Cleary, an eighth-grade teacher, and her students. Discusses their perceptions of young adult literature and the reading workshop. Lists and describes new young adult titles that may appeal to fans of romances, S. E. Hinton, short books, and sports novels. (TB)

  20. Louisiana Adult Performance Level Pilot Study: A Comparative Analysis of APL Competency-Based Instructional Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.

    Adults enrolled in local adult basic education programs at six sites in Louisiana were used to compare the credibility of Adult Performance Level (APL) competency-based instructional programs (experimental group) with traditional adult education instructional activities (control group). Focus was on determining the correlation between grade level…